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Editor in Chief


Editor in Chief


Supplementary Volumes











(Editor in Chief )




(Associate Editors)



(Department of Systematic Theology)


(Department of Minor Denominations)


(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders)


(Department of the Old Testament)


(Department of the New Testament)


(Department of Church History)


(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)












(EDrroa xN CHIEF. )

Professor of Church History, New York University.



Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on ";The New Inter  New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer

national Encyclopedia,"; New York. on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.



(Department of Systematic Theology.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, #01deago Theological



(Department of Minor Denominations.)

One of the Corresponding Secretaries of the Board of Foreign

Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York.


(Department of Liturgies and RdtpG)us Orders.)

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.


(Office Editor.)

Formerly of the Editorial Staff of the ";Encyclopeedh Britan­

nice"; Company, New York City.



(Department or the Old Teutament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.


(Department or the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Ter

tamemt, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.


(Department of Church Bistorw.)

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Waco, Tex.


(Department of Pronunciation and TypoprnphF.)

AMX$atB Editor Of tale STANDARD DICTIONARY, etc,

New York City.




Professor of Practical Theology, Universtty.of Marburg.


Late Pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church. Hartford, Conn.


Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty.

University of Breslau.


Professor of Church History. Reformed Theological Academy,

Debrexztn. Hungary.


Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, school of Theology,



Gymnastal Professor in Leipsic.


Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association of New York.


Pastor Emeritus in Cbristiania. Norway.


Professor of Church History, University of %Snigeberg.


t#ER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Formerly Prlvatdocent In Old Testament Theology, University of Berlin, Member of the Executive Committee of the

German Society for the Exploration of Palestine, Jerusalem.


Late Librarlsn 6o the Faculty of Protestant Theology, Paris.


Professor in Berlin.


President of the Society for Inhere Mission. and Pastor of

St. Michael's Church. Hamburg.


Late Professor of Theology, University of Halls.



Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity.





Professor of Church History, University of GStttngen.


Extraordinary Professor of Theology, University of Grettswald.


Pastor Emeritus, Stuttgart.


BRIEQER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipstc.



Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.



Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.


Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Munich.


Professor of Practical Theology, Pedsgogica, and Didactics, and

University Preacher, University of Erlangen.


Pastor in Geneva, Switzerland.


Condstorw Councilor, Llfeld. Hanover.


Instructor in English, college of the city of New York.


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Lelpsic,

and President of the German Evangelical Archeo­

logical Institute, Jerusalem.


Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.


Supreme Consistorlal Councilor, City Superintendent,' and Pas­

tor of the Kreuzktrehe, Dresden.


President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.


Recording Secretary of the American Bible Society. Coeditor

of the "; Encyclopedia of Missions."; New York.


Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.


Late Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Breslau.


Late Professor of Theology, University of Strasburg.


Pastor at COsseln, near Halle.


OorTeaponding Secretary of the American Bible Society, New



Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public. and German Law, University

of Leipsic.


President of the ConaieWry, Strasburg.


Formerly Lecturer on comparative Religion, Bangor Theoiog.

lest Seminary, Associate Editor of the SCHAPr­



Pastor at siebeneichen, near LSwenberg, Prussia.


Honorary Professor of Geography, Technische Hocbschule, and

Professor, Military Academy. Munich.


Th.D., D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.


Pastor in Strasburg.


Extraordinary Professor of Church History and of the New

Testament, University of Heidelberg.



Pastor at MOrz, near Belzdg, Prussia.


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipaic.


Professor of Church History, University of Berlin, and General

Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipatc, Editor in­



Professor and Director of the University Library, Giessen.


Professor of the New Testament, University of Greifswald.


Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.


Pastor at Bethelu; Hanover.


Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halle.


Dean, Neustadt an derAisch, Bavaria, Editor of Stnna,,



Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen,



Late Professor of Church History, University of TBbingen.


Former Editor of the Eroangelisehea miasinnx Magazin and

President of the Publishing society at Calw, W Iirttemberg.


Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin.



Pastor of the Nikolatkirche, Letpxia. Editor of the Allgematne

Evangelixch Luthdrixche Kircherizeftunp and of

the Theologischcs Ltcraturblatt.


KARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.


Pastor of the Lutherklrche, Lelpsic.


Prufessor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, Univer­

sity of Halls.


Professor of'Old Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.


Consistorial Councilor, Professor of Practical Theology, and

University Preacher, University of Breslau.


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipeia.


KOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.


Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.


Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University of



Lekkerkerk. Holland.


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.


Superintendent of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart.


Professor of Slavonic Languages, University of Leipsic.


Professor of Church History, University of Halle.


Professor of Church History, Royal University of Upsala,




Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.


Supreme Consiatorlal Councilor and Member of the Royal

Consistory, Hanover.


Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.



Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.


Councilor for Schools, Leipsic.


Pastor in Eberedorf, Reuss.


Extraordinary Professor of Christian Archeology, University of




Professor in the Theological Seminary at mautbronn, Wtirttem­



Professor of the History of Art, University of Kiel.


Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary (Bay,

lor university), Waco, Tex.


Supreme Consistorial Councilor in Speyer, Bavaria.



Late Bishop of Aalborg, Denmark.


Late Professor of Theology, University of Kiel.



Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of Religion,

University of Basel.


Inspeetrees General of the Martindst Order for America.


Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris.


Pastor of the First German Evangelical Lutheran Church,

Newark, N. J.


Pastor of the Garfleld Memorial Church, Washington, D. C.


Formerly Instructor in French, Yale College and Sheffield Scien­

tific School, New Haven, Conn.


Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Halle.


Professor of Practical Theology and University Preacher, Unt­

verslty of Leipsic.


Professor of German Law, University of Tfibingen.


Late Professor of History, University of Amsterdam.


University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology in the

Evangellcal Theological Faculty, University of Bonn.


Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary,

Allegheny, Pa.


Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary,

New York, Founder of the SCHAPF HzaZOo ENCYCLOP&DI•.


Pastor at Oberholzheim, Wfrttemberg.



Professor of Jurisprudence and Civil and Criminal Procedure.

University of Freiburg.


Pastor at Neckar Steinach. Hesse


Late Librarian and Professor of Theology, University of Stutt­




Professor of German FocleslaWiCat Law and of the HUtory of

Law, Unlverdty o Boun.


professor of Church History and Christian Arebeology, Unfver­

alty of Grelfawald.


GpmnasiW Professor at Steplttz, near Berlin.


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.

OTTO Sera, MD.,

Educator in Leipsic, Germany.

SEI~THOLD $EE810W, Thm.,

Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Berlin.


Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law. University of



Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, Univer­

atY of Bonn.


Professor of German Language and Literature, University of



Late Pastor in Frankfort on tbe Main.


Astor Library, New York.



Extraordinary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic

Languages, University of Berlin.



of Church History, Univeretty of GaWcen.


Late conefetorial Councilor. Hanover.


Professor of Blew Testament Exegesis and Orttlaism, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.

WILHELE< VOGT (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis. University of Hos­



AssistantEdftor of The Baptist MtastortaryXap=tne. Boston.


D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Didactic and Polemical Theology; Princeton The&

logical Seminary.


Pastor Prlmarius, GubM Prussia.


Pastor of the Bethlehem Congregational Church. Cleveland. 0.


Professor of Engiifiih. University of leipsic,


Titular Professor in Dresden.


Professor of New Testamput Exegesis and Introduction, Uni­

versity of Erlangen.


Professor of Celtic Philology, University of Berlin.

OTTO ZOECSLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History. University of Greilswald.


The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles

contained in volumes I and 1I, and brings the literature down to November, 1908. In this list each

title entry is printed in capital letters.

ABRAHAM: F. Wilke, War Abraham sine histarische Peraonlichkeit I Leipsic, 1907.

ABULFARAJ: Bar Hebraeus, Buch der Strahlen. Die groasere Grammatik des Barhebraeus. Ueber­aetzung nach einem krdiach berichtigen Texts mit textkritischem Apparat and einem An­hang: Zur Termino1oqie, by A. Moberg. Ein^ leitung and vol. ii., Leipsic, 1907 (the first part has not yet appeared).

AFRICA: J. D. Mullens, The Wonderful Story of Uganda, London, 1908.

A. H. Baynes, South Africa, London, 1908.

R. H. Milligan, The Jungle Folk of Afrmea, New York, 1908.

AGNosneisnr: HX. Sheldon, Unbelief in the Nine­teenth Century, New York, 1907.

AORAPHA: C. R. Gregory, Das Freer Logion, Leip­sic, 1908 (on the Logia fragments possessed by C. L. Freer, of Detroit).

B. Pick, Parali Remains of Gospels and

Sayings of Christ o, 1908.

ALEXANDER IV.. F. Tenekhoff, Papet Alexander IV., Paderborn, 1907.

ALEXANDER OF HALES: K. Heim, Das Wesen der Gnade and ihr Verhdltnis zu den naturlichen Funktionen des Menschen bei Alexander Halesius, Leipsic, 1907.

ALTAR: R. Kittel, Studien zur hebrtiiachen Arrhdol­ogle, i.118 158, Leipsic, 1908.

MOROSE, SAINT, OF MILAN: J. E. Niederhuber, Die Eschatologie des heiligen •Ambrvatus, Paderborn, 1907.

P. de Labriolle, S. Ambroise, Paris, 1908.

ANGELS: R. W. Britton, Angels, their Nature and Service, London, 1908.

APOCRYPHA: L. Couard, Die religiosen and sittlichen

Anachauungen der alltestamentlichen Apok­

ryphen and Pa phen, Giiteraloh, 1907.

A. Fuchs, Te = UntersuAungen zum

hebrhiachen Ekklesiadikus, Freiburg, 1907

R. Smend, Grrieehiseh ayrisch hebraiseher Index zur Weisheit des Jesus Sirach, Berlin, 1907.

F. Steinmetzer, Neue Untemuchungen fiber die Gesehichtlichkeit der JuditherzdMung, Leipsic, 1907.

J. Miiller, Beitr*e zur Erkldrung and Kra& des Buches Tobit, Giessen, 1908.

AroLoGETies: W. H. Turton, The Truth of Chris. tianity: a Manual of Christian Evidences, Londont1908.

E. F. Scot, The Apologetic of the New Testa­ment, New York, 1908.

H. Egerton, The Liberal Theology and the Ground of Faith; being Essays towards a con. aerroative Restatement of Apologetic, London, 1908.

APosTowc CONBTmOTIONs: F. X. Funk, Didascalia et constitutiones apostolorum 1.11., Paderborn, 1906.

ARABIA: R. Dusdsud, Les Arabes en Syrie avant l'Islam, Paris, 1907.

ARCHEOLOGY, BIBLICAL: I. Benzinger, Hebrdische Archdologie, Tiibingen, 1907.

ARCHITECTURE. A. K. Porter, Medieval Architec­ture, New York, 1908.

ARIANISM: 8. Rogals, Die Anfdnge des arianischen Streites, Paderborn, 1907.

ART: S. F. H. Robinson, Celtic Illuminative Art in the Gospel Books of Durrow, Lindisfarne and Kills, London, 1908.

J. R. Allen Celtic Art in Pagan and Christian Times, Philadelphia, 1908.

Margaret E. Tabor, The Saints in Art, New York, 1908.

Asezxicism: Bibliotheca Franciscans ascetics medii aim,, vol. iv., Quarrachi, 1907.

AsRERAH: F. Lund n, Die Benvtzung der P n• zenwelt in der sltteatamentlichen Rely, Giessen , 1908.

ASIA MINOR: F. Stahelin, Geschichte der kleiri­

atiatischen Galater, 2d ed., Leipsic, 1907.

AssYRIA: A. T. Olmstead, Western. Asia in the Days

of Sargon of Assyria, B.C. 7,1',_ 706, New York,


AuGsBuia, Btsaormc or: A. Steichele, Dos Bist­hum Augaburg , hiatofisch and atatistisch beschrieben, vol. vii., Augsburg, 1906 sqq

AUGSBURG CONFESSION AND ITS APOLOGY: Ada comiciarum Augudae ex litteria Philippc Jonae et allorum ad M. Luther, ed. G. Berbig, Leip. sic, 1907.

AUGUSTINE, SAINT, of HIPPO: B. Dombart, Zur Taxtoeschichte der Civitas Dei Augustine seit dim 1ntatehen der. ersten .Drucke, Lexpsie,1907.

O. Blank, Die Lehre des heiligen Augustinus vom Sakramente der Eucharistie, Paderborn, 1906.

F. X. Eggersdorfer, Der heiZige Augustinus ale Pddagoge and seine Bedeutung fur die Ge­schichte dEr Bildung, Freiburg, 1907.

P. Friedrich, Die Mariologie des heiligen Augus• tinus, Cologne, 1907.

O. Zknker, Der Primat ass WiZlena roor dim Intellect bei Augustin, Giitersloh, 1907.

Scripts contra Donatistas, part i., ed. Petschenig, Lelpsic, 1908.

Saint Augustine of Hippo, with Introduction by the Bishop of .Southampton (The Library of the Soul), London, 1908

H. Seeker Augustin. Studien zu seiner peis. Elud%Lei

~~AVGV sCkpluus E 3.

Augustini, vol. iii., Papiae (Rome), 1907.


BABYLONIA: M. Jastrow, Die Religion Babylonien8 and Assyriens, Giessen, 1907.

Early Sumerian Psalms; Texts in Translitera­tion with Transl., Critical Commentary and Introduction Lei Bile, 1908.

O. A. Toffteen, Researches in Assyrian and Babylonian Geograph ; part 1, Chicago, 1908.

H. Radau, Bel, the Gnat of Ancient Times, Chicago, 1908.

BACH, J. S.: H. Perry , Life of Johann Sebastian Bach, New York, 1908.

BAMBERG, BISHOPRIC OF: H. T. von Kohlhagen, Daa Domkapitel des alien Bisthums Bamberg and seine Canoniker, Bamberg, 1907.

J. Kiirber, Lose Blotter au8 meines Bruders Leben and SkriPten. Ein Snick Bamberger Geschichte als ScherjWn zum 9. Biathume­centenar, Bamberg, 1907.

J. Looshorn, Die Geschichte des Bisthums Bam.­berg. Nach den Quillen bearbeitet, vol vii., Daa Bisthum Bamberg 1729 1808, Bamberg, 1907 sqq

BANKS, L. A.. Sermons which have Won Souls, New York, 1908.

BAPTIsm: J. T. Christian, The Form o Baptism in SC7d ture and Art, Louisville, K , 1907

J. M. Lpupton, De baptismo, Cambri4e, 1908.

BAPTISTS: J. S. Flory, Literary Ad~vdy of the German Baptist Brethren in the Eighteenth Century, Elgin, Ill., 1908.

E. Y. Mullens, The Axioms of Reli~iorz; a New Interpretation of the Baptist Fauh, Philadel­phia, 1908.

BARLAAM AND JOBOPHAT: Gui von Cambrai and Josophas, nach dem Handschriften von Paris and Monte Cassino, ed. Carl Appel, Halle, 1907.

BARNABAB: "; Epistle,"; ed. Jos. Vizzini, Rome, 1907.

BEECHER, H. W.: S. M. Griswold, Sixty Years with Plymouth Church, New York, 1907.

BEECHER, W. J.: The Dated Events of the Old Tes­tament: being a Presentation of Old Testa­ment Chronology, Philadelphia, 1908.

BEET, J. A.: The Church, the Churches, and the

Sacraments, London, 1907.

A Shorter Manual of Theology, London, 1908

BEHAISM: Les Lefons de Saint Jean d'Acre d'Ad­Oul Bgha; recueillQs par Laura Clifford Barney, traduit du persan par Hippolyte Drei 4% Paris, 1908.


B ha. Some answered Questions: Col­lected and Translated from the Persian by Laura Cliford, Philadelphia, 1908.

BENEDICT OF NuRSIA: L. Delisle, Le Livre de Jean de Stavelot our S. Benoit, Paris, 1908.

Studien and Mitteilungen au8 derv Benedidiner­und dem Cidercienser Order, 28 Jahrgang, Raigen, 1907.

Die Regel dea. heiligen Benedidus erklart in ihrem geschickflichen Zusammenhang and mit besonderer Rucksicht auf das geistliche Leben, Freiburg 1907.

G. Meier, Der heal%ge Benedikt and aein Order, Regensburg, 1907

BENEDICTION: W. H. Dolbeer, The Benediction, Philadelphia, 1908.

BENNETT, W. H.: The Religion of the Post Exilic Prophets, Edinburgh, 1907.

The Life of Christ according to St. Mark, Lon­don, 1907.

BENTLEY, RICHARD: A. T. Bartholomew, Richard B1908entley, a Bibliography of his Works, London,

BERKELEY, G.: The Principle of Human Knowledge, new ed., London, 1907.

The Querist; containing Several Queries pro. posed to the Consideration of the Public, parts 1 3, Dublin, 1735 37, reprinted Baltimore, 1908.

BERNARD, SAINT, OFCLAIRVAUX: On Consideration. Translated by George Lewis, London, 1908.

BEBANT, A.: London Lectures of 1907, London, 1907.

BEZA, T.: A Tragedie of Abraham's Sacrifice, trans]. b Arthur Golding, ed. M. W . Wallace, Toronto, 1906.

BIBLE SOCIETIES: J. Fox, Round the World for the American .Bible Society, New York, 1908.

BIBLE VERSIONS, A, III.: F. C. Burkitt, Early

Eastern Christianity, lest. 2, New York, 1904.

The Four Gospels from the Codex Corbeienais


BIBLE VERSIONS, B, IV.: A. F. Gasquet The Old English Bible, and Other Essays, Rew York, 1908.

M. B. Riddle The Story of the Revised New Testament, Philadelphia, 1908.

J. I. Mombert, Handbook, 2d ed. London, 1907.

M. W. Jacobus, ed., Roman Catholic and Protes­tant Bibles Compared: the Gould Prize Essays, 2d ed., New York, 1908.

F. Vi&ouroux, Didwnnaire de la Bible, fasc. xxvlll. cols. 1549 51, Paris, 1906.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: J. R. Cohn, The Old Testament in the Light of Modern Research, London, 1908.

BIBLICAL INTRODUCT7oN: A. Schulz, Biblische

Studien, ed. O. Bardenhewer, vol, xii., part 1,

Doppemerichte im Pentateuch. Ein Heitrag

zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament, Frel­

burg, 1908.,

C. Rbsch, Die heiligen Schriften des Alien Tes­taments; ausfiihrliche Inhalt&ubemicht mit kurzgefaaster ,spezieller Einleitung, Munster, 1908.

F. Barth Einleitung in das New Testament, GiiteWoh 1908

C. F. G. Ifeinrici, Der litterariache Charakter der neutestamentlichen Schrzjten Le Ipsic,1908.

BIBLICAL' HEOLOGY: R. S. Fran&s, ~he New Testa­ment Doctrines of Man, Sin, and Salvation, London 1908.

BLACK, H.: Gi'hriat's Service of Love [Communion sermons and meditations), New York, 1907.

BLAVATSKY, H. V.: F. S. Hoffman, The Sphere of Relxgwn, New York, 1908.

BLISS, E. M.: The Missionary Enterprise, New York, 1908.

BOEHME, J.: The Supersensual Life or the Life which is above Sense, Eng. traQ. by W. Law, new ed., London, 1907.

BoETHivs: In 1sagogee Porph i comments, ed.

S. Brandt, Vienna and 1~ psic, 1906.

BONET MAURY, G.: France, chridianisme et civi­lization, Paris, 1907.

BOOTH, W.: The Seven Spirits: or, What 1 teach


, mfficers, Nunt%atur~von Giovanni Fran­

cesco Bonhomini 1579 1581. Documents vol.

i., Die Nuntiaturberichte Bonhominis and seine

Carrespondenz mit Carlo Borromeo au8 dem

Jahre 1579, Solothurn, 1906.

BOSTON, T.: A General Account of my Life, ed. G. D. Low, London, 1908.

BOUSSET, W.: What is Religion? London, 1907.

BOYD, A. K. H.: Sermons and Stray Pa era.. With Biographical Sketch by Rev. W. W. Tulloch, London, 1907.


BRAHMANISM: J. C. Oman, The Brahmins, Theists, and Muslims of India, London, 1907.

L. D. Barnett, Brahma Knowledge, an Outline of the Philosophy of the Vedanta, set forth by the Upanishads and by Sankara, London, 1907.

M. Bloomfield, The Religion of the Veda, the Ancient Religion of Index, New York, 1908.

BRENT, C. H.: Leadership: The William Belden oble Lectures . . . at . . . Harvard, New York, 1908.

BRESLAU, BISHOPRIC OF: Geschichte des Breslauer Domes and Seine Wiederherstellung, Breslau, 1907.

Verofentlichungen aus dem fiirstbischofichen DxozesanrArchiv zu Breslau, Breslau, 1905

BREVIARY: A. Schulte, Die Psalmen des Breviers nebst den Cantica zum praktischen Gebrauche, Paderborn, 1907.

BRIDGET, SAINT, OF KILDARE: J. A. Knowles, St. Brigid, Patroness of Ireland, London, 1907.

BRIDGET SAINT, OF SWEDEN: K. rogh Tonning, Die heilige Birgitta in Schweden, Kempten, 1907.

BROOKE, S. A.: The Sea Charm of Venice, London, 1907.

Studies in Poetry, London, 1907.

BROWN, A. J.: The Forein Missionary, An Incarna­tion of a World Movement, New York, 1907.

BROWNE,  R.: C. Burrage, The ";.Retractation "; of Robert Browne, Father of Congregationalism, London, 1907.

BROWNE, SIR THOMAS: Works, ed. C. Sayle, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1907.

BUDDHISM: Jataka, by E. B. Cowell, Vol. vi., New York, 1907.

P. L. Narasu, The Essence of Buddhism, Lon­don, 1907.

D. T. Suzuki, Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism, London, 1907 (Japanese).

Soyen Shaku, Sermons of a Buddhist Abbot, London, 1907.

Taba Kanai, The Praises of Amida. Seven Buddhist Sermons. Translated from the Japanese by Rev. A. Lloyd, London, 1907.

H. F. Hall, The Inward Light, 2d impression, London, 1908 (Buddhism in Burmah).

K. won Hase, New Testament Parallels in Bud­dhi8tic Literature, New York, 1908.

BULLINGER, H.: Bullingers Korrespondenz mit den Graubfndern, part iii., Oct., 1566 June, 1575, ed. T. Schiess, Basel, 1906.

BURNET, G.: T. E. S. Clarke and (Miss) H. C. Fos­croft, Life of Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salis­bury; with Bibliographical Appendizes; and an Introduction by C. H. Firth, London and New York, 1908.

CABALA: Kabbala denudata. The Kabbalah Unr veiled: containing the following books from the Zohar: the Book of Concealed Mystery, the Greater Holy Assembly, the Lesser Holy Assembly, translated into English, New York, 1908 (republication of edition of 1887).

CAJETAN, T.: P. Kalkoff, Cardinal Cayetan auf derv Augsburger ReichsEaqa won 1518, Rome, 1907.

CALVIN, J.: A. Dide, Michel Servet et Calvin, Paris, 1907.

CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS: E. A. George, The Seven­teenth Century Men of Latitude; the Fore­runners of the New Theology, London, 1908.

CAMPBELL, R. J.: Christianity and the Social Order, London, 1W8.

Thursday Mornings at the City Temple, London, 1908.

CANON of SCRIPTURE: J. Leipoldt, Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanona, 2 parts, Leipsic, 1907 08.

CANONESSES: K. H. Schafer, Die Kanonissenstif ter im

deutschen Mittelalter. Ihre Entwicklung and

innere Einrichtung im Zusammenhang mxt dem

altchristl. Sanktimonialentum, Stuttgart, 1907.

CAPITo, W.: P. Kalkoff, W. Canto im Dienste Erzbischof Albrechts won Mainz, Berlin, 1907.

CAPUCHINS: Veroffentlichungen aus dem Archiv der rhein westfdlxschen Kapuzinerordensprovinz, Mainz, 1907.

CARLSTADT, A. R. B. VON: K. Miiller, Luther and Karlstadt. Stiicke aus ihrem gegenseitigen Verhdltnis untersucht, Tiibingen, 1907.

CARMELITES: Monumenta historica Carmelitana, Vol. i., Lirin, 1905 07.

CARTHAGE, SYNODS or: A. AIcais, Figures et recits de Carthage chr9tienne, Paris, 1907.

CATECHISMS: F. Cohrs, Die evangelischen Katechis­musversuche vor Luthers Enchiridion, Berlin, 1907.

CATHARINE OF SIENNA: The Dialogue, tranal. by Algar Thorold, new and abridged ed., Lon­don, 1907.


[Abbreviations in common use or self evident are not included here. For additional information con­cerning the works listed, see vol. i., pp. viii. ax., and theappropriate articles is the body of the work.]

Am ....


ADB . . . . . . I `Illge'^eine deutsche Biographic, Leipaie'

1875 aqq., vol. 53, 1907

Ado adroersua, against

AJP . . . . . . . . . ~ American Journal of Philology, Balti­

more, 1880 sqq.

AJT. . . . . ~ American Journal of Theology, Chicago,

1897 sqq.

AKR Archiro ftir kathdiuhss Rirdenrscht,

Innsbruck, 1857 81, Mains, 1872 sqq.

Archis fitr Littaratur  and Kirchonpo 

ALKG . achichte do Mstfelaltsn, Freiburg,

1885 eqq.

AAW,~andluaspen der MUnchena• Akadern'se,

Munich, 1783 sqq.

'Ante Nicene Fathers American edition

ANF . ~ by A. Cleveland doze, 8 vola. and in­

dex, Buffalo. 1887; vol. ix., ed. Allan

Menzies, New York, 1897

Apoc . Apocrypha, apocryphal

Apd . Apolopia, Apology

Arab Arabic

Aram . . . . . . . . . . Aramaic


...$chmalkaid Articles

Ads sanctorum, ad. J. Bolland and others,

. . . .: . .. . . . ~ Antwerp, 1843eq q

ASM Acta Mnerum ordtnia S. Benadicti, ed.

J. Mabillon, 9 vole., Marie, 1888 1701


A. T... . . . . . . . ...Altee Testament, "; Old Testament ";

Augs. Con . Augsburg Confession

A. V .. .. ... Authorized Version (of the English Bible)

AZ . AUpemeine Zeitunp, Augsburg, Tubingen,

Stuttgart, and ZnUbihgen, 1798 sqq.


Dictionary ... ~ J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, 3 vole. to 4, New York, 1901 05

Benzinger, ~ I. Bensinger, Hebrdiache Archaolopie,

Archtsotapie... 7d ad.. Freiburg, 1907

Bertholdt, ~ L• BerthoIdt, Historiach Rritiache E%n 

Einleitung .... ng • . den Alters and Neuen Tts

laments, 8 vole., Erlangen, 18I2 19

..British and Foreign Bible Society

. ~ J. Bingham, Oripinea ecrlesaaa

vats., London, 1708  22; new ed.,

Oxford 1855

M. Bouquet, Ruueil den hiaforiena des

cued Gauia et de la Prance, continued by

various hands, 23 vole., Paris, 1738 78

Archibald Bower, History of the Popes

. to 1768, continued by $. H. Cox,

3 viols. Phihuiel his, 1845 47

BQR . .. . . . . . . . . I BapM t   ~~";t°' Phi]adelphis,

1887 sqq.

BRG... ... . . .. ...See JsffB

Cant . Canticlea, Song of Solomon

cap . caput, chapter '

erAuteun~ R. Ceillier, His3oire den autcura sacra et

. , tiquea, 18 vole. in 17, Paris,

1858 69

Chron . CAronicon,"; Chronicle ";

I Chron . I Chronicles

II Chron . II Chronicles

C1G . .. .. . Col '~ ~ m Grm• Berlin,

CIL . . . Corpus ~'~pt'°num Latinarum, Berlin,

CIS . . ... . C°'~ ";'";criptionum 3emiticarum, Paris. 1881 sqq.

cod codex

cod. D ............ coder Bercr

cod. Theod codez TAmdoaianua

Col . Epiatle to the Colossians

cal cols column. columns

Conf. . . . . . . . Confesaiones. "; Confessions •.

I Car . . . 1•'irvt Epistle to the Corinthians

art ............

Art. $chmal....


BFBS .........


Oripines .....

Bouquet, Re

Bower, Popes...

II Cor . $econd Epistle to the Corinthians

COT . $ee 8ohradw

CQR . . . . . . . . . . ~ T~ Church Quarterly Resieto, London, 1875 sqq.

C refarmatarum, begun at Halls,

CR . .. . 1&34, vol. laaaiz., Berlin and Leipeie,

1905 BE Craig ton. A History of the Papacy

Creighton, from the Great Schism to the Sack of

Papacy Rome, new ed., B vole., New. York and

London, 1897

CSEL .... . . . . . . fC°pu° neriptorum ecclesioaticaum Lak­noram, Vienna, 1887 eqq.

CSHB... . . .. . . . ~ Corpus scriptorum historic; Byzantina•., 49 vats., Bonn, 1828 78

Carrier, Religious ~ C. W. Carrier, History of Religious Orders,

Orders . . . New York, 1898

D . Deuteronomiet

DACL . . . ~ F• Csbrol, Dictiannaise d'orchioiopie chr6­

tienae d de liturgic, Paris, 1903 sqq.

Dan Daniel

j J. Hsati~ Dictionary of the Bible, 4

DB . vole. and extra vol., Edinburgh and

New York, 1898 1904

W. Smith and $. Cheatham, Dictionary

DCA . . ... . . . . . . ~ of Christian Antiquities, 2 vole.. London,

1875 80

W. Smith and H. Wane, Dictionary of

DCB: . Christian Biography, 4 vole., Boston,

1877 87

J. Hastings, J. A. 9elbie, and J. C. Lam 

DCG. . . . . . . . . .bent, A Dictionary of Christ and the Gor

pela,Fdinburgh and New York, 1906 sqq.

Dent . . . . . . . . . . . .. Deuteronomy

De t•ir, ill .... . . ...De rosria illuatn2ue

De Wette  ~ W. M. L. de Watts, Lekrbuch der hir

Schrader, Bin_ toriack kritiachen Einleitunp in die

leitunp . . Bilxl, ed. E. Schrader, Berlin, 1889

DGQ . .See Wattenbach

L. Stephen and $. Lee, Dictionary

DNB National Biopraphg, 83 vole. a

supplement 3 vole., London, 1885 1901

Driver, lnboduc ~ $' R. Driver, Introduction to the Literature

of the Old Teatanuat, 5th ad., New

tion ~ 'York, 1894

E . Ebhiet

T. K. Ch ey~ and J. $. Black, EneyeTo 

EB . podia Biblica, 4 vats London and

Nedr York. 1899 1903

Eccl. , . . . . . . . Eeclesia. ' Ch usah : ticaa, •. ee­


Eccles . . . . . . . . Ecclesiastes

Ecclus . Ecclesisaticua

ed . edition: edictst, ` edited by ";

Eph . .. ... Epistle to the E heasne

Epist . . . . . . : . .Epiatola, Epistald, ' Epistle,"; "; E tetlea ";

Etsch and Gru ` J. $. Ereeh end J. G. Gruber, Alms

bar, Encyklo j Encvklop6die der Wisserurhaften and

ygdie . .. . Renate, Leipeie. 1818 eq

E.V .. .. .. ... English versions (of the Bite)

Ex Exodus

Ezek Ezekiel

fasc faacicutua

Friedrich, KD.. .~ J• Friedrich, Kirchenpeschiehte Deutach­

landa, 2 vole., Bamberg, 1867 89

Fritasche, Exe  `O• F. Fritasc6e and C. L. W. Grimm,

petisdua Hand  jl Kurzoafaaaka ischea Handbuch

buck zu den Apoeryphen den AZten Tesfa­

";"; meats, 8 parts Zurich, 1851 60

Gal ..... E iatle to the Galatians

Gee and Hardy, ~ ~ Z woe w'Ettpl%ahHardy, reh History,

Docamenta .. .. London, 1898

Gen . Geneaia

Germ . . German

GCA, J t";'Uingiache yelehrte Anzeipen, Gottingen,

11824 sqq.

Gibbon. Decline ~ E' Gibbon, History of the Decline and and Fall . . . . . . Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. J. B.

Bury, 7 vole. London, 1898 1900

Gk : Greek, Greciaec~

Gre Z, ~ C. R. Gregory, TeztL,•ilik des Neuen Testa­~stik .. ... merle, 2 vole., Leipaic 1901 02

C. Gross, The Sources and Literature of

Gross, Sources.. ~ English History'. . . to 1/,86, London,


Hab . Habakkuk

Haddanand A. W. Haddon and W. Stubbs, Councils

Stubbs, Coup  and Ecckswaticat Documents Relating

. , • . , k Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vole.,

Oxford, 1889 78

Refers to patristic works on heresies or

Haw ....... . . . . . heretics, Tertullian a Do pr aacriptione,

the Pros hairssema of Irens;us, the

Panarion of Epiphaniue, etc.

Hag Hegg si

HarduinCon  ~ J. Aarduin, Concfliorum collectio repia

cilia '. . . . . . maxima, 12 vole., Paris, 1715

A. Harnack, History of Dogma . from

Harnaek, Dogma ~ the 3d Germdn edition, 7 vole., Boston,

1895 1900

A. Harnack, Guchichk der alkhriah

Eroehen Latteratur bia Euaebius, 2 vole.

in 3, Leipeic 1893 1904

A. Hauck, fCirchenputhichk Deukch­

landa, vol. i., Leipeic, 1904; vol. ii.,

1900; vol. iii., 1908; vol. iv., 1903

'Realencyklopddie far 1roketantiache The­

' olopie and Kirtht, founded by~ J. J.

Herzog, 3d pd. by A. Hauck, Leipaic,


Heb . . . E 1898 eqq.

pistle to the Hebrews

Hebr . Hebrew

Hefele,Concilien  G• J.. von Hefele, Concilienpeachichk, con 

gchichte* tinued by J. Hergenr6ther, 9 vols.,

so Freiburg, 1883 93

Heimbucher, Or  M. Heimbuoher, Die Order and Konpre 

den and Kon  pationen der kathol%achen Kirche, 2

prepationen . vole. Psderborn 1896 97

Helyot, Ordru P. Helyot, Hiatoire du ordrea monae­

tiques, relipieux et militai> u, 8 vole.,

Paris, 1714 19; new ed., 1839 42

Henderson, Doe ~ E. F. Henderson, Select Historical Docu­umenta . . . . . . . merle of the Middle Ages, London, 1892

Hiet . Hietory, sstoire, hiatoria

Hid. eul. j Hiatoria eccksiaetica, eakaio:. "; Church

1 History'

Hon .... . . . .. . ...HomiZia, homsliai. .. homily, homilies ";

Has Hoses

lea Isaiah

Ital Italian

J Jahviet (Yahwiet)

JA ... Journal Aaiatiqua, Paris, 1822 eqq.

Jaffd, BRG. . . . ~ P' Jaffd' Bibliotheca rerun Germani 

carum, 8 vole., Berlin, 1884 73

(P. Jaff6, Regeata pontificum Romanorum

Jaff6, Repeats ... . ad annum 1188. Berlin, 1851;

2d ed., Leipsic, 1881 88

JAOS . . . . . . . . . { Journal of the American Oriental Society,

New Haven, 1849 eqq.

Journal of Biblical Literature and Eupe­

sia, first appeared as Journal of the

JBL . Society of Bsblscal Literature end Eax­

puia, Middletown, 1882 88; then Bos­

ton, 1890 eqq.

JE . . . . . . ~ The Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 vole., New

York, 1901 08

JE . ........ ..~ The combined narrative of the Jahciet

(Yahwiet) and Elohiat

Jer . Jeremiah

Joesphus,Ant...~Flavrus Joeephue, ";Antiquities of the

Jews ";

Joeephuq, APion.. .Flaviue Joeephua, "; Against Apion ";

Josephue. Lsfe,....Life of Flaviw, Joeephua

Joeephue, War .....Flsvius Josephus, The Jewish War";

Josh Joshua


Hauck, KD .....

Hauck Herzog,

RE ......

JQR . ,


Julian, Hym 



~ Jahrbttchw fur prokstantische Thedopie,

Leipeic. 1875 eqq.

The Jewish Quarterly Review, London,

Journal o7• Theological Studies, London,

1898 eqq. t

J. r vied ~tionnary don, o~90H7~r

Jaarboakan your weknaehpyalijka Theo­

~op,~ Utrecht, 1845 eqq .

. See~chrader

KB . l3ee Schrader

%D . See Friedrioh, HSU R.ettberg

We' and Welfe'a Kirehenkxikos, 2d

KL . ed., by J. Hergenrbther end F.13sulen,

12 vo~, Freibura, 1882 1903

G. 73rUger, Hya~y of Early Christian

HrOgs4 History Likralun in •fhe lt'irat Three Csnlurlu,

New York, 1897


Krumbacher, ~ g' ~b~her, Guchichk der byzan­Geschichk ..... bnLitteratur. 2d ed., Munich. 1897

'P. Lsbbe, Sacrorum concliorum nova Labbe, Conciiia j et ampliaaima collectio, 31 vole., Flor 

ence and Venice, 1759 98

Lam Lamentations

Lanigan, Ecc1. ~ J. Lanigan, Ecclesiastical History of

Hut Ireland W the 13th Century, 4 vole.,

Dublin, 1829

Lat . Latin, Latinized

LLeg ev . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Leviticus


Lichtenberger, F' Lichtenberger, Encyclop6die du aci 

ESR . . . . . . . .ences raligieuaea' 13 vole., Paris, 1877 


G. Lorenz, Deukchdanda Guchichkquch

Lorena. DGQ . . . i kn in Mittelalkr, 3d. ed., Berlin, 1887

LXX . The Septuagint

I Mace I Maccabees

II Mace II Maccabees

Mai, Nova cot  I A. Msi, Scriptorum roeterum nose coY lcctio. , , , , . . . . lectio, 10 vole., Rome, .182rYr38

Mai . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Mslachi

Mann, Popes.. , , ~ RCMann, Lieu of the Pope* in the

EMiddle Ages, London, 1902 eqq.

G:t; Msnsi, Sanctorum conciliorum

Manei, Concilia coiledio nova, 31 vole., Florence and

Venice, 1728

Matt Matthew y

McClintock and M ~ub~ir~oc~ Theological, Strong, ~clo Epcclesi 

$trong, Cyc(o  adicl Vie, 10 vole. and eupple 

Podm • • • ' meat 2 vole., New York, 1889 87

Monuments Germanic: hiatorica, ed. G. H.

Portz and others, Hanover and Ber­

lin, 1828 eqq. The following abbrevia­

tions are used for the sections and sub­

sections of this work: Ant., Ai_

take, Antiquities ; Aud. ant., uc

tore antiguiaaimi, "; Oldest Writers ";;

Chron. min., Chronica minors, Lesser

Chronicles'; Dip., Diplomala, Di­

plomaei Documents ; Epiet., Epia­

khe, Letters; Goof. port. Rom.,

Geata pontificum Romanorum, ' Deeds

of the Popes of Rome ";• ~., Lepu,

Laws";; Lib. de tile, Lice i de tile

inter re Qnum et sacer

xi et zam conecrtpti, Books concerning

the Strife between the Civil and Eccle 

siastical Authorities in the Eleventh

and Twelfth Centuries Nee., Ne­

~i crokpia Oetmanim, 14e :of

Germany";; Poi. Let. drri Car.,

Poeto: Latirti aryl Carolini, "; Latin

Poets of the Caroline Time";; Poet.

Let, med. anti, Poetd Latini medii dvi,

Latin Poets of the Middle Aaee ";;

Script.. Scrsptoru, Writers '• Sortpt:

rer. war";, Scriptoru rerun tiermani­

carum, . ' Writers on German Sub­

jects ";; Scrfipt. rer. Lanpob„ Scriptoru

rarum Lange bardicarum et ltalrocarum,

"; Writers on Lombard sad Italian

Subjects ";; Script. rer. Mom. Scrip.

toree rerum Merovinpicarum. ' Writers

on Merovingian Subjects'


H. H. Milmsn History of Latin Chria 

Milman, Zs tin ~ tianity, Including dud of the Popes' to

Christianity . iliclwlas ~., 8 • vole London,

C. Mirbt, Quaikn our Guchichk du Paprt­

Mirbt, Qusllen: tuns xnd des rthnssa'Kathdieiemxe,

Ttlbingen, 1901

Mueller, Chris  W. Mueller, History of the Christian

lion Church Church, 3 vole., London, 1892 1900

MP(i . J. P. Migne, Patrokpiaa cursua compktva,

arise urea, 182 vole., Paris, 18578

MPL . J. P. Migne~ Patrolopioe curaue eompktus,

aeries Latino, 221 vole., Paris, 1844 84

M$ MSS . Msnuacript. Manuscripts

Muratori, Scrip  L. A. MuWrit Rerun ltaiicarum scrip.

tore . . tore, 28 vole. 1723 51

~Nauu ArcAiv is; Geadlachaft W Alters

NAdeutsche GescAichtskxnds. Hanover,

1878 eqq.

Nah Nahum

n.d no data of publication

Neander, Chris  ~ A• Nesnder. General History of the Chris­tian Church. . . ~n Religion and Church, B vole. sad

index, Boston, 1872 81

Neh . . . . . Nehemirh

N i eerun , MR. P. Nioeron, MEmoipour. s.srni.r1'histoirs des hommsa luatrea 43


moi vole Paris 1729 45

~Naua kirc~ Zeikchrift. Leipaic,• 1890

NKZ . 11 sqq_

MGH ........

Mic ...........


Nowaek, Archtt ~W. Nowaek. Lehrbuch der hebrt'•.iachen

ologie . . . ArehBolopie, 2 vole Freiburg, 1894

n.p no place of publication

The Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, Ices

NPNF .. . . . . . . . aeries, 14 vole., New York, 1887 92; 2d

aeries, 14 vole., New York, 1890 1900

N. T. . . . . . . . . . , ~ New Testament, Novum Teatamentum,

Nouveau Testament, Neuee Testament

Num . . . . . . . . Numbers

Ob . Obadiah

(J. Wordsworth, H. J. White and others.

OLBT . . . . . Old Latin Biblical Texts, baford, 1883


O. $. B . . . . . . . ~ O";d° .°ancti Benedicti• "; Order of $t.

Benedict ";

O. T Old Testament

OTJC . See Smith

P Prieatly document

L. Pastor, The History of the Popes from

pastor, Popes.. . ~ the Close of the Middle Ages, 8 vole.,

London, 1891 1902

PEA . . . . . . . I Palree ., Anglieanw' ed. J. A. Giles,

34 vole., London, 1&38 48

PEF .. ......... Palestine Exploration Fund

I Pet . First Epistle of Peter

II Pet . $econd Epistle of Peter

Pliny, Hiat. nat..Plin . Hietoris naluraZia

Potthast, ' 1Veg ~ A' ~otthaat, Bibliotheca histories medii

a:vi. Wegoedaer lurch die Geechichta­

uxiaer . we,.keBerlin, 1898

Prov Proverbs

Ps Psalms

PSBA. . . . .. . . . .) Proceedings of the Society of Biblical

f Archeology, London. 1880 egg.

W.V., qq.v. . . . quod (puss) vide, ' which see

R . Redactor Ranks, Popes. . . ~ L' von Ranks, History o/ the Popes,

3 vole., London, 1898

RDM . Revue dace deuz mondea, Paris, 1831 sqq.

RE See Hauck Herzog

Reich, Docu  ) F. Reich SeleclDocumands Illustrating Me­mento .. . . . ... . I diteval and Modern Hiatory, London, 1905

REJ . Revue rise 6tudee Juives, Paris, 1880 sqq.

RettbOrg, KD... 1 F' W. Rettberg, Kirchenpeachichte Dcutaclr

1 lands, 2 vole., Gottingen, 1848 48

Rev ........ Book of Revelation

RHR . . . . . ~ Revue do l hiatoire dace religions, Paris,

1880 Net

Richter, Kirchen ~ A' L. Richter, Lehrbuch dace kaflaoliachen

recht . urn evattge7iachen Kirchenrechta, 8th

ed. by W. Kohl, Leipaic, 1888

Robinson, R e  ( E. Robineon. Biblical Re searches in searches, and J Palestine, Boston, 1841, and Later Later Re  Il Biblical Researches in Palestine, 3d ed. searches.. . . . .. of the whole, 3 vole.. 1887

Robinson, Euro  J. H. Robinson, Readings in European peon History.. ~ History, 2 vols, Boston, 1904  08

Rom . ... ....... Epistle to the Romans

RSE .. . . . . . . . . . ~ R  des sciences ecellsiaatiquea, Arias, 1860 74, Amiena, 1875 sqq.

RTP. . . . . . . . . . . ~ Revue de th&logia ,. et de philoeophie,

Lausanne, 1873­

8. V Revieed Version (of the English Bible)

sac . eacuLum, ' century ";

I Sam . .I Samuel

II Sam . ........... II Samuel

SBA Sitaungaberichte der Berliner Akadtmie;

F1882 eqq.


. Ilias IHOller and others The Sacred

i Books of the East, Oxford, 1879 eqq.,

vol. xlviii., 1904

Sacred Books o/ ribs Old Testament ("; Rain­bow Bible ), Leipaic, London, and Baltimore, 1894 eq '

P. Schaff, History of ~ Christian Church, vole. i. iv., vi., vii., New York 1882 92, Vol. v., art 1, by D. $. $chajk, 1907

iP. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vole. New York, 1877 84

E. Schrader, Cuneiform Inecriytions and the Old Testament, 2 vole., London, 188b 88

Schrader, KAT . ~ E• Schrader, Die Kealinachriften and dace Alts Testament, 2 vole., Berlin, 1902 03

; E. Schrader, KeilinsckrijUiche BibGioh,

Schrader, KB. .. 8 vole., Berlin, 1889 1901

~E. $chflrer, Geachichte dace jiidiachen

S ll Y olkes im ZeitalterJeau Christi, 3 vole.,

Ghte Leipaie, 1898 1901; Eng. tranal., 5

vole„ New York, 1891

Script . Scr_iptoree, ters . .

$orivener, F. H. A. $criivwriener, Introduction !o Ness Tea­

Introductian , . ~ lament Criticism, 4th ed., 1.ondou,1894

Sam . 3enkntid Sentences

$. J. . . . . . . . .Societaa leeu, Society of Jesus ";

Theologiaehe 3tudien and Rritiken. Ham­

SK . burg, 1828 sqq.

BMA : Sitzu~to der Mqnchensr Aka­

demch, 1880 sqq.

$BE ..........

AYBOT ..........

Schaff Chris&# Church .......

Schaff, Creeds...

Schrader, COT. .

Smith, KinehiP.. ~ W Early Smitabh, labia Kinshipondand Marriage in

Smith, OTJC. . . ~ W' R. Smith, The Old Testament in the

Jewish Church, London, 1892

Smith, Prophets W. R. Smith, Prophets of Israel . . to

the Eighth Centurp, London, 1895

Smith, Rel. of W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites,

Sem . 1 London. 1894

$. P. C. Ii. . , . , , ( $°eiety for the Promotion of Christian


$. P. G. . . . . . , , , ~ Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

in Foreign Parts

sq., eqq and following

Strom . . . . . . . . . . ..Stromata, Miscellanies ";

e.v aub voce, or sub verbo

Swete, Indroduc )H. B. Swats, Introduction to the Old Tea 

tion .. . . . torment in Greek, London, 1900

Syr . $yriac

TB9. . . . .Trinitarian Bible Society

Thatcheaand oMcN,S~ O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal, A

Source Book for  Mediaeval History.

Book New York, 1905

I Thesa . Firat Epistle to the Thessalonians

II These . 8econd Epistle to the Thessalonians

ThT . . . . . , , , , , Theolpgiddu Tijdachrift, Amsterdam and

Leyden, 1887 sqq.

Tillemont, M6 ~ L'. $• le Nain de Tillemont, Menwarea ecclearaatiquea dace six premiers m°q'~s";";";"; aikclea, 18 vole., Paris, 1693 1712

I Tim ......... First Epistle to Timothy

II Tim . . . . . . . ... . Second Epistle to Timothy

Theologiecher Jahreabericht, Leipaic, 1882 

TJB ... ... . . .. . 1587. Freiburg, 1888. Brunswick, 1889 

1897, Berlin, 1898 sqq.

TLB 77 °Z°gi°ch"; Lirblatt, Bonn. 1888

TLZ l q Litteratu'Teitu'g• Leipeio,

Tob . . . . . . . . . . . Tobit

TQ .. . ~ Th°°logiacha Quarta7achrift, TBbingen,

1819 sqq.

TS. . . .. .. . . . „ , J. A. Robinson, Texts and Studies,

Cambridge, 1891 sq q~

TSBA . Transactions of the Societg of Biblical

Arrhceologlt London, 1872 eqq

TSK .. . . . . . . . ~ The°s Studien und Xratiken, Ham­

burg, 1828 sqq.

(Texts and Unteraurhungen cur Geachichtt

TU . ........ . de'' altchnathchert Ls:kratur, ed. O. von

Gebhardt and A. Harnack, Leipsic,.

( 1882 sqq.

TZT. . . . ~ Tabi°'ger Zeitaehrift /fir Theolopie, Tii­

bingen 1838 40

Ugolin'i, Thesau ~ B. Ugolinus, Thesaurus anlaquitatum

rue aacrarum, 34 voleVieux Venice, 1744 89

V. T VetuaTeatamentum, Teetamant. 'Old

Testament '

Wattenbach, W• Wattenbaeh, Deutachlanda Geaehichta­

. _ , llen, 5th ed., 2 vole., Berlin, 1885; gue

ed., 1893 94

Wellhausen, ) J. Wellhausen, Rests arabiachen Heidett 

Heidentum .... f lama Berlin, 1887

Wellhausen, J• R'ell6ueen, Prolegomena our Geachichte

Prolegomena... ~ I";r°els8th ed., Berlin, 1905, Eng.

tranal.; Edinburgh, 1885

Ztitaehrift iir Aasyriologie, LeipeiR.

ZA . . . . . . . . . . . .; 1886 88 lierlin 1889 sqq.

Zahn, Einlei  ~ T. Zahn, hinleitung in dace New Teata 

tunp . . . . . . 3d ed., Leipaic, 1907

( T. Za~nl~ Geaehichte dace neututamenb

lichen liariOnd 2 vole., Leipeie, 1888=92

ZATiV . ~Znft far die aitteatamenUiche Wia­

aenachaft, Giessen. 1881 sqq.

ZDAL. . . . . . . . . ~ Zeitechritt ftir deutachea Alterthum and daub

scheLUemtw Berlin, 1878eqq

ZDMG ... . .. .. . ~ Zift rice deutachen morgenLSndischen

Geaellacha LeiPaie, 1847 sqq.

Zeitarhri/t far deutsche Phildopie, Halle.

1889 sqq.

Zeitachrift dace deuterhsn Paltktina Var 

eina, Leipaic, 1878 eqq .

... Zephaniah

i Zeitachrift far die hiatoriache Theologie,

published successively at Leipai0.

Hamburg and Goths 1832 75

iZeitaehrift jw' Kircherpeechichfe, Goths,

1878 eqq.

i Zeitechrijt igr Xirchenrxht, Berlin, Ta 

bingen Freiburg, 1881eq q.

Zeitachrift fvr katkoliaehs Thaologie, Inns 

bruck, 1877 sqq.

i Zeitadvrift fAr kirchliche Wieaenechajt and

kirchliehea Le6en. Leipeie. 1880 89 .

Zeitaehrif! for Proteatantiamue and Kirche,

Erlangen, 1838 78

i Zeitachntt~r uiassruchaf

Jena, 18$8 80, Halle, 1881 87, Leipai0. 1868 eqq.

Zahn, Kanon .

ZDP .........

ZDPV....... Zech.......... Zeph.......... ZHT.........








The following system of transliteration hoe been need for Hebrew:

~ _ ' or omitted at the 1= z p = .

beginning of a word. n=4 B=p

2=b d=1 D=phorp

3=bhorb `=y


'=g ~_>< P=V

t=ghorg ~=khork 1=r

~=a 5=1 m  _'S

~=dhord n=m

;~=h 1=n P1 =t

j=w p=s n=thort

The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, n, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Aug* and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek is written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being use&


When the pronunciation is self evident the titles are not respelled; when by mere division and atxen­tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, sad the anted

syllables indicated.

a as in sofa a VA m not in an in duration

N rr arm a tr rr nor e =k rt tr cat

a a sr at a if a fall s eh "; rt Aurch

rt u fan fl if a X18 eW  qu as in queen

e u sr phi Q a tr but dh (9h) a tt As

16 rr tr fate Q "; tt burn f « tt'a1W

i a N tin yt a pi"; 1 B (hard) rt tt •90

u rt machine au a is put g u tt look (h)

st re obey ei if n oil hw (u]<) a rt why

er a no IQ Is rr f1w, i u .r haw

3 >'n accented syllables only: in unaccented ey ILibles it sppcorimatee the eoumd of a in over. The letter n, with a dot

beneath i mdicstee the Bound of a r in iok. Nasal n (ae in ~oh words) a rendered n,

~ In ~ and F=V names a approximates the wand d u in dune:



BASILICA: 1. Legal codes. Since the great

codification of the Roman law by Justinian, the

Corpus juria civilia, was written in Latin, it could

not meet the needs of the East, and required Greek

translations. To do away with the uncertainty

which had arisen from such versions, in $78 the

emperor Basil the Macedonian had a handbook

put together, covering forty titles, and put out a

revision in 885. A further revision and codifica­

tion of the. older laws, edited once more under Leo

the Wine (888), bears the Greek name of to hasilika.

It is in sixty books, based on Justinian's compila­

tion from the older versions and commentaries,

with extracts from his later constitutions known

as the Novella, and from Basil's handbook men­

tioned above. (E. FHIEI)HERti:)

2. Early form of Christian churches. See Aacax­xrcrua.>e, Ecc~lesTlcal..

Bxszsoaasrar: C. E. Zachsris, Historic juris (1rmva Romani daiineoMo. PP 35 aa. Heidelberg, 1839; Mortxeuil. His­biro du droit Bysanbin, part ii, pp. 1 B9Q.. Dart iii. PD. 230 mm., Pans. 1843 48; Srumtaaher, Oeachirhts. pp. 171, 257 258. 806, 607. 808, 610, 977.

BA6ILIDEB, bas i lai'dfz, AND THE BASILID­

IAlIS: Basilidea, a famous Gnostic, was a pupil

of as alleged interpreter of St. Peter, Glsucisa by

name, and taught at Alexandria during the reign of

Hadrian (117 138). He may have been previously

a disciple of Menander at Antioch, together with

Saturnilna. The Acts Archelai state that for a time

he taught among the Persians. He composed

twenty four books on the Gospel, which, according

to Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, iv, 12), were

entitled "; Exegetice."; Fragments of xiii and xxiii,

preserved by Clement and in the Acta Archelai,

supplement the knowledge of Basilides furnished

by his opponents. Origen is certainly wrong in

ascribing to him a Gospel. The oldest

Basilidea. refutation of the teachings of Basili­des, by Agrippa Castor (q.v.), is lost, and we are dependent upon the later accounts of Irenseus, Clement of Alexandria, and Hippolytus. The latter, in his Phidosophu»xena, gives a presen­tation entirely different from the other sources. It either rests on corrupt accounts, or, more prob­ably, on those of a later, post Basilidian phase of the system. Hippolytus describes a monistic system, in which Hellenic, or rather Stoic, concep­tions stand in the foreground, whereas the genuine. IL i

Basilides is an Oriental through and through, who stands in closer relationship to Zoroaster than to Aristotle.

The fundamental theme of the Basilidian specu­lation is the question concerning the origin of evil and how to overcome it. The answer. is given entirely in the forma of Oriental gnosis, evidently influenced by Paraeeiem. There are two principles, untreated and self existent, light and darkness, originally separated and without knowledge of tech other. At the head of the"; kingdom of light

stands "; the untreated, unnamable His System. God."; From him divine life unfolds in successive steps. Seven such reve­lations form the first ogdoad, from which issued the rent of the spirit world, till three hundred and aixty­five spirit realms had originated. These are com­prised under the mystic name Abraeaa (q.v.), whose numerical value answers to the number of the heavens and days. Being seized with a longing for light, darkness now interferes. A etruggIp of the principles commences, in which originated our system of the world as copy of the last stage of the spirit world, having an archon and angel at its head. The earthly life is only a moment of the general purification process which now takes place to deliver the world of light from darkness. Hence everything which is bad and evil in this system of the world becomes intelligible when regarded in its proper relations. Gradually the rays of light find their way through the mineral kingdom, vegetable kingdom, and animal kingdom. Man has two souls in his breast, of which the rational soul trite to master the material or animal. For the consummation of the process an intervention from above is necessary, however. The Christian idea of the manifestation of God in Jesus Christ is the historical fact which Basilides subjects to his general thoughts. God's "; mind "; (Gk. noun) descended upon Jesus as dove at the Jordan, sad he proclaimed salvation to the Jews, the chosen people of the archon. The suffering of Jesus, Basilides admitted as a historical fact, but he did not. under­stand how to utilize it religiously. The Spirit of God is the redeemer, not the crucified one. Jesus suffered as man, whose light nature was also con­taminated through the matter of evil. But the belief in the redemption which came from above lifts man beyond himself to a higher degree of exist 

Assuage Bathing


ante. How far the individual can attain it depends on the degree of pure entanglement in former degrees of the spirit world. In the per­fected spirit world the place will be assigned to each which belongs to him according to the degree of his faith.

Among the Basilidians, Basilidea' son, Isidore, occupies a prominent place. Of his writings ("; On the Excrescent Soul,"; "; Exegetics,"; "; Ethics ";) some fragments are extant. The sect does not seem to have spread beyond Lower Egypt.

The Basi  In opposition to the rigid ethics of lidittna. their master, the Basilidiana seem often to have advocated libertinism. According to Clement of Alexandria they cele­brated the sixth or the tenth of January as the day of the 'baptism of Jesus. On the importance of this fact for the origin of the ecclesiastical festival of the Epiphany, cf. H. Uaener, Rcligionageschicht­lithe Untersuchungen, i (Bonn, 1889).

G. KRfT()ER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The fragments of Basilidea ere collected in

J. E. Grabs, Spicikyium $S. Palram, ii, 35 43, Oxford,

1890; in A. 8tieren's edition of Irenerus, i, 901 903, 907­

909, Leipeic, 1853; and in A. Hilgenfeld, Ketaerpaschichte

dw Urchriatentums, pp., 207 217, Leipeic, 1884. The

sources are Irenmua (Her., I, zxiv, 1; cf. ii, 18et passim),

Clement of Alexandria (Strom., ii, 8; iii, 1; iv, 12, 24, 28;

v, 1), Origen (Ham. i on Luke; oom. on Roinans, v), Eu­

eebiua (Chron., an. 133; Hist. ecc1.. IV, vii, 7), the Acta

Arehelai (lv), Epiphanius (HaT., xxiii, 1; xaiv; aaxii, 3),

and Hippolytus (PAiloaophumena, vii, 2 1b). Consult A.

Neander, Oenetiechs EnMaieklunp der oornehmaten pnoeti­

schen Systems, Berlin, 1818 (the moat exhaustive treat­

ment); F. C. Baur, Die christliche (#noeie, Ttibingen, 1835;

J. L. Jacobi, Basilidia philoeophi prwetici aeatentias ex Hip­

polyti Zibri, Berlin, 1852 (valuable); G. Uhlhorn. Doe

bariiidianseehe System, GtSttingen, 1855: H. L. Maneel,

Gnostic Heresies, London, 1875 (has able lecture on Bss­

itidea); Hart, in DCB, i, 288 281 (very thorough);

A. Hilgenfeld, in ZWT, axi (1878), 228 250; idem, Die

Ketzergeachichte des UrchrietenCuma, pp. 207 218. Leipsic,

1884; G. Salmon, The Cross references in the PhilosoPhou­

mesa, in Herniathena, xi (I885), 389 102; H. Stiihalin, Die

pnoatiachan QueZlen Hippolyta, in TU, vi, 3, Leipaic, 1890;

Schaff, Christian Church, ii, 488 472; Harnsek. Lit­

teratur, i, 157 181; ii, 1, 289 297 KriSger, History, pp.

70 71; Moeller, Christian Church, i, 141 144; J. Kennedy, in

the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1902, pp. 377 415.

BASRAGE, ba";nezh': The name of a family of Normandy which has produced several men prom­inent in the history of French Protestantism.

1. Benjamin Bssnage was for fifty one years pastor at Saints MEre ?;glue, near Carentan (27 m. s.e. of Cherbourg), where he was born in 1580 and died in 1852. During the religious ware he was repeatedly chosen by his coreligioniats, on account of the constancy of his character and his great learning, to represent them in political and ecclesiastical assemblies. He was president of the general synod at Alenqon in 1637 and as deputy at Charenton in 1644 he did much to defend the rights of the Protestants and to reconcile the theo­logians. In the year of his death he was ennobled by the government of Louis XIV. Of the many polemical tractatea which he wrote, the beat known is De l'dat viafble et invisible de l1glise et de la parfaits satisfaction de JEsus Christ, contra la fable du purgatoire (La Rochelle, 1812).

2. Hen~i Basnage, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Saints MEre tgliee Oct. 16, 1815; d.

at Rouen Oct. 20, 1895. He was one of the most eloquent advocates in the parliament of Rouen and one of the moat famous jurists of his time. He defended the cause of the Reformed Church courageously, and his reputation was such that after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he was almost the only Protestant who could follow the profession of law in Rouen.

3. Samuel Basnage, son of Antoine, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Bayeux 1838; d. at Ziitphen 1721. He was first pastor at Vauxcellea, then at Bayeux till 1885. He went with his father to the Netherlands and became pastor there of the Walloon congregation at Zutphen. Of his theo­logical writings the moat important are: Morale tUologique et politique our lea vertus et lee vices des hommea (2 vole., Amsterdam, 1703); and Annales politico ecclesiastici (3 vole., Rotterdam, 170G).

4. Jacques Basnage (de Besuval), son of Henri, was born at Rouen Aug. 8, 1653; d. at The Hague Dec. 22, 1723. He first studied the classical lan­guages at Saumur under Tanneguy, father of the famous Mme. Dacier; afterward theology at Geneva under Turretin and Tronchin, finally at Sedan under Jurieu. In 1678 he was chosen pastor at Rouen; after the suppression of the church at Rouen in 1685, Louis XIV granted him permission to retire to Holland. In 1691 he was made pastor of the Walloon congregation at Rotterdam, and in 1709 of the French congregation at The Hague. The prime minister Heinsius respected him highly and employed him in different diplomatic missions. The fame of his diplomatic ability reached the court at Versailles, and when, in 1718, the Abby Dubois was sent to The Hague by the Duke of Orleans, then regent, in behalf of the triple alliance, he was instructed to associate with Basnage. When an insurrection of the Camisarda in the CEvennes was feared, the regent applied to Basnage. He supported energetically the zealous Antoine Court, . then twenty years old, in restoring the Protestant Church in Southern France, but, partial to the principles of passive obedience, as preached by Calvin, he severely condemned the insurrection of the Camisarda and even blamed the first preachers in the Desert. About this time the States General of the Netherlands appointed him historiographer. His numerous works are partly dogmatic or polemic, partly historical. The former include especially his writings against ~ Bosauet: Examen des methodes propoae,es par Messieurs de L'assemblt:e du clergE de France, en 168, pour la rEunion des Protestants a l1glise romaine (Cologne, 1882); R~qoonse h M. l'&4que de Meaux sur la lettre pastorale (1686). His historical works are: Histoire de la religion des  0glises r9f ormEes (2 vole., Rotterdam, 1690; 1725); Xistoire de l'9glise depuia Jesus Christ jusqu'd present (1699); Histoires du Vieux et du Nouveau Testament, reproerttees par des figures grav6ea en taalle dotit:e par R. de Hooge (Amsterdam, 1704); Histoire des Juifa depths J&ua Christ jttaqu'h present (1708). G. BONET MAURY.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Aymon, Tom Us synods& nationaux des ' Wises rE(ormBea, The H ue, 1710; P. Bayle, Diction 

naire hisWrique et eritiqu ,materdam, 1740: D. Houard,

Dietionnaire de la coutu..e do Normandis, Rouen, 1780;

Lamory, >tloys do Basnape, in Bulletin d'hisfoirs du prow


9ssnage Bathing

tantieme franfaia, vol. x, p. 42; aiii, pp. 41 48; E. and )4. Hang, La France proteatante, 2d ed. by M. Bordier, 5 vols., Paris, 1877 88; F. Puaux, Les Prbcuraeura /ranfaia de la td6rance, ib. 1881; J. Bianquia. La R6eocation de l'bdit do Nantes, Rouen, 1885.

BASSERMANIP, HEINRICH GUSTAV: German Lutheran; b. at Frankfort on the Main July 12, 1849. He was educated at the universities of Jena, Zurich, and Heidelberg in 1868 73, but served in the campaign of 1870 71 in the First Baden Dra­goons. He was assistant pastor at ArolBen, Wal­deck, from 1873 to 1876, when he became privat­docent of New Testament exegesis at the University of Jena. In the same year he was appointed asso­ciate professor of practical theology at Heidelberg, and full professor and university preacher in 1880. He wrote: Dreisaig chriatliche Prediglen (Leipaic, 1875); De loco Mtetthcei v, 17 ,t'D (Jena, 1876); Handbuch der geisdichen Beredsamkeit (Stuttgart, 1885); Akodemische Predigten (1886); System der Liturgik (1888); Geschichte der bttdiachen Gottea­dienstordnung (1891); Sine ire et studio (Tiibingen, 1894); Der badische Katechismus erkldrt (1896 97); Richard Rothe als praktiseher Theolog (1899); Zur Frage des Unionskatecltismua (1901); Ueber Reform des Abendmahls (1904); Wie studiert man evareye­lisehe Theologief (Stuttgart, 1905); and Gott: Fiinf Predigtert (G&ttingen, 1905). From 1879 he edited the Zeitschrift fur praktische Theologie in collabora­tion with Rudolf Ehlers. Died in Samaden (70 m. B.B.e. of St. Gall), Switzerland, Aug. 30, 1909.

BASTHOLM, CHRISTIAN: Danish court preach­er, and an influential representative of the prev­alent rationalism of his time; b. at Copenhagen Nov. 2, 1740; d. there Jan. 25, 1819. He had a varied education, and was specially attracted to philosophy and natural science, but was persuaded by his father to embrace a clerical career without any real love for Christian doctrine or the Church. He was preacher to the German congregation at Smyrna from 1768 to 1771. His renown as a great orator won him in 1778 the position of court preacher, to which other court offices were Subse­quently added. Full of the ideas of the "; Enlight­enment,"; he felt called upon to be a missionary in their cause to his countrymen, and published a number of works in popular religious philosophy and history which have long since fallen into obliv­ion. His greatest success was his text book of sacred oratory (1775), which so impressed Joseph II that he introduced it into all the higher educational institutions of the empire, though its recommenda­tions seem laughable to day. He published a history of the Jews (1777 82 ), attempting to "; rationalize "; it after Michaelis, and a translation of the New Testament with notes (1780). A small treatise on improvements in the liturgy (1785) aroused a storm of controversy; his idea was to make the

service "; interesting and diversified,"; after the

model of belle and concerto; to exclude from hymnody not only everything dogmatic but all that was not joyous; and to eliminate from the sacramental rites whatever wag contrary to sound reason. In the days of the French Revolution, he offered so many concessions to the antireligioue spirit that he made himself ridiculous even in the

eyes of freethinkers; and his book on "; Wisdom

and Happiness"; (1794) taught a Stoicism only

colored by Christianity. In 1795 he lost his library

by fire, and with the new century withdrew from

public life and authorship to live quietly with his

eon, a pastor at.Slagelse, absorbed in the study of

philosophy and science. (F. NIEIBEN.)

BATES, WILLIAM: English Presbyterian; b. at

London Nov., 1625; d. at Hackney July 14, 1899.

He was graduated at Cambridge 1647, and was

vicar of St. Dunstan'e in the West, London, until

1662, when he lost the benefice for non conformity;

he was one of the commissioners to the Savoy Con­

ference (q.v.) in 1661 and represented the non­

conformists on other occasions in negotiations

with the Churchmen; was chaplain to Charles II

and had influence in high places both under Charles

and his successors. He is said to have been a

polished preacher and a sound scholar. Perhaps

the beat known of his works is The Harmony of

the Divine Attributes in the Contrivance and Accom­

plishment o f Man's Redemption (2d ed., London,

1675). A collected edition of his works, with

memoir by W. Farmer, was published in four vol­

umes at London in 1815.

BATHING: The bath in the East, because of the heat and the duet, is constantly necessary for the preservation of health, and to prevent Bkin­diseases. The bathing of the newly born is men­tioned in Ezek. xvi, 4; bathing as part of the toilet in Ruth iii, 3; Ih Sam. xii, 20; Ezek. xxiii, 40, and elsewhere. As the Law attached great. religious value to the purity of the body, it pre­scribed bathing and ablutions for cases in which it was apparently impaired (Bee DEFILEMENT AND PURIFICATION, CEREMONIAL). Ablution was re­quired when one approached the deity (cf. Gen.. xxxv, 2; Exod. xix, 10; Lev. xvi, 4, for the high priest on the Day of .Atonement). Bathing in "; living"; (i.e., running) water was regarded as most effective in every respect (Exod. ii, 5; II Kings v, 10; Lev. xv, 13). More accessible and convenient were the baths arranged in the houses. To a well­furniBhed house belonged a courtyard, in which was: a bath according to II Sam. xi, 2, an open basin. Susannah (verges 15 eqq.) bathes in a hedged garden and uses oil and some kind of soap; the Hebrew women aged bran in the bath, or to dIy themselves, (Mishnah Pestthim ii, 7). The feet, being pro­tected by sandals only, were exposed to dust and dirt, and no attentive host omitted to give to his. guests water for their feet before he entertained them (Gen. xviii, 4; xix, 2; I Sam. xxv, 41; cf. Luke vii, 44; John xiii, I 10). The washing of hands before meals was customary for obvious. reasons; but it is not expressly attested before New Testament time, and then as a religious enact­inent which the Pharisees rigidly observed (.Matt. xv, 2; Luke xi, 38); so in general with reference to washings and bathingB the punctilious were at that time more exacting. The efficacy of warm springs wag recognized at a very early period (cf. Gen. xxxvi, 24, R. V., and the name Hammath, Josh. xix, 35; xxi, 32). They were found near Tiberias (JoeephuB, War, II, xd, 6; Ant.,

Bath 801


XVIII, ii, 3; Life, avi; Puny, v, 15), Gadara, the capital of Persea, and Callirrho8, east of the Dead Sea (Josephus, War, I, xxxiii, 5; Pliny, v, 16). Public baths are mentioned in Josephus, Ant., X1X, vii, 5, but their existence in Palestine can not be proved before the Grew Roman time.

C. VON OaErii.

Abuses connects with the public baths in early Christian times called forth protests from many of the heathen and led some of the emperors to attempt restrictive precautions. The Church Fathers also raised their voices, but it is noteworthy that though therewsepubliccensure (e.g., of women, particularly of virgins who were immodest in the bath), there was no formal, ecclesiastical prohibition of the public baths. The use of the bath was re­mitted during public calamities, penance, Lent, and for the first wok after baptism. From the time of Constantine it was usual to build baths near the basilicas, partly for the use of the clergy, and partly for other ecclesiastical purposes.

Brsr.roossray: For J3ebr. custom consult DB, i, 257 258. On the Christian. DCA, i, 182 183: the article ";Baden"; in %L, i, 1843 48, covers both subjects.

BATH gOL: Literally"; daughter of the voice,";

an expression which signifies in itself nothing

more than a call or echo, for which it is also

used. When the term is applied to a divine

manifestation, i6 implies that it was audible to the

human hearing without a personal theophauy.

In the Old Testament the notion is found in Dan.

iv, 28 (A. V. 31), "; a voice fell from heaven."; In

the New Testament similar ideas are the heavenly

voice at the baptism of Jesus (Matt. iii, 17; Mark

i, 11; Luke iii, 22), at his transfiguration (Matt.

xvii, 5; Mark ix, 7; Luke ix, 35), before his passion

(John xii, 28), and the voices from heaven heard

by Paul and Peter (Acts ix, 4; cf. axii, 7 and xxvi,

14; x, 13, 15). A voice from the sanctuary is

mentioned by Josephus (Ant., XIII, x, 3; cf. Bab.

Sotah 33a; Jeras. Sotah 24b), and was called bath kol

by the rabbis, who were of opinion that such heav­

enly voices were heard during all the time of Israel's

history, even in their own time. According to

Bab. .Sotah 48b; Yomah 9a, this ";voice"; was the

only divine means of revelation after the extinction

of prophecy. They narrate legendary stories of

such divine voices which settled religious difficulties.

Different from the bath kol proper is the idea that

natural sounds or words heard by accident

are significant heavenly voices. This superstition

was not uncommon, as Jerus. Shabbat 8c shows.

Rabbi Joshua was of the opinion that such things

must not influence any legal decision (Bab.

Paba Meti'a 59b; Berakot 51b). Rabbi Johanan

lays down as general rule that that which was

heard in the city must be the voice of a man, in the

desert that of a woman, and that either s twofold

";Yea"; or twofold ";Nay"; is heard (Bab. lkfegillah

32a). (G. DAL ";.)

Brsrroassrar: F. Weber. 8ysirw der alltynapapaka palbeh­»ixAer Theotoyie. PR 187,194, Lei~ 1880: W. Bate. AOada der TanraiEsn, i, 88. note 3. 9traebaB,1884: ice. Ayada der pal";dmoa0e, i, 351, note 3, ii, 24, ib. 1892r98: 8. Loins, Ancisnt Trades' of 3~parnoterai Yoion: Bath %oi, in T3Bd, ix, 18; .7E, ii, bBB 592.


BATIFFOL, PIERRE HENRI: French Roman Catholic; b. at Toulouse Jan. 27, 1861. He was educated at the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris (1878 82), and the University of Paris (1882 86; Docteur & lettres, 1892), and since 1898 has been rector of the Institut Catholique at Toulouse. He was created a domestic prelate to the Pope in 1899, and in theology is an orthodox Roman Catholic, inclining toward the critical school in matters of history. Since 1896 he has been the editor of the Biblioth6que de l'enseignement de t'his­toire ecdksiastique, founded by him in that year, and since 1899 has also edited the monthly Bulletin de littkrature ecclsidstique. He has written L'Ab­baye de Romano, contribution a L'histoire de la Vati­eane (Paris, 1892); Histoire du breai,6re romain (1893); Six lel'ons sur lea .9varegiles (1897); Trac­tatus is in lnros sartarum scripttrarum (1900)~des d'histoire et de thtologie positive (1902); sad L'Enaeignement de J&us (1905).

BATTER, LORING WOART: Protestant Epis­

copalian; b. in Gloucester County N. J., Nov.

12, 1859. He was educated at Harvard Uni­

versity, the Philadelphia Divinity School, and

the University of Pennsylvania. He was ordered

deacon in 1886 and ordained priest in the following

year, and was instructor and professor of the Old

Testament in the Philadelphia Divinity School from

1888 to 1$99, when he became rector of St. Mark's,

New York City. He is also lecturer on the Old

Testament in the General Theological Seminary,

New York City. In addition to numerous briefer

studies, he has written The 01d Testament from

the Modern Point o f View (New York, 1889) and

The Hebrew Prophet (London, 1905).

BATTERSOlY, HERMON GRISWOLD: Prot­estant Episcopalian; b. ax Marbledale, Conn., May 27, 1827; d. in New York City Mar. 9, 1903. He was educated privately, was rector at San Antonio, Texas, 1860 61, and at Wabasha, DS'mn.,1862 66. In 1866 he removed to Philadelphia and was rector of St. Clement's Church there 1869­1872, of the Church of the Annunciation 1880 89; became rector of the Church of the Redeemer, New York, 1891, but soon retired. He published The Missionary Tune Book (Philadelphia, 1867); The Churchmans Hymn Book (1870); A Sketch Book of the American Episcopate (1878; 3d ed., enlarged, 1891); Christmas Carols and Other Verses (1877); Gregorian Music, a manual of plait, song for the offices of tile American Church (New York, 1884; 7th ed., 1890); Vesper Bells and Other Yeraes (i895).


German Protestant; b. at Sophieahof, near Kiel, Germany, Sept. 26, 1847. He was educated at the universities of Erlangen, Berlin, Leipeic (Ph.D., 1870), and Kiel from 1866 to 1872, and was privat­dooeat at Leipsic in 1874 76, when he accepted s call to the University of Strasburg as associate professor of theology. Four years later he mss promoted to full professor, but is the following year meat to Marburg as professor of Old Testament exegesis. He remained at Marburg, where he



was rector in 1893 94, until 1900, when he went to Berlin as professor of Old Testament exegesis, a chair which he still holds. In theology he is an adherent of the historical school of investigation, and seeks to elucidate the religion of the Old Testa­ment by other Semitic faiths. He has written: Translatitmis trntiquw arabicte dt'(rri Jobi qua: suPer­surtt nustc primum edits (Leipsie, 1870); Eulogies and Alvar, sin Abschniti spaniseher Kirehenge­schichte aus tier Ze6t der Maurenherrschaft (1872); Jtlhve et Moloch, sine de rtrtiane inter ileum Israeli­tarum et Moloehum intercedente (1874); Studien zur semitischen Religitmsgeschichte (2 vole., 1876­1878); Die Geschichte ties alltestamentlichen Priester­thums utttersucht (1889); August Dillmtmn (1895); Eirtleitung in die Bueher ilea Allen Testaments (1901); and Eamun Asklepios (Giessen, 1906).

BAU'ER, BRUNO: A modern Biblical critic, of the most extreme radicalism; b. at Eisenberg (35 m. s. of Halls), in the duchy of Altenburg, Sept. 8, 1809; d. at Rixdorf, near Berlin, Apr. 15, 1882. He was educated in Berlin precisely in Hegel's most brilliant period. He took his place at first in the conservative wing of the Hegelian school, of which his teacher Marheineke was the leader, and reviewed the Leben Jesu of David Friedrich Strauss, who had been his fellow student, unfavor­ably, accusing Strauss of "; entire ignorance of what criticism means."; He undertook also to defend Marheineke's position by issuing (1836 38) the Zcitschrift fur sPeku7atiroe Theologie. In 1838 he published the Kritik tier Geschichte der Off ert­barung (2 vole., Berlin). A year later Altenstein, minister of public worship and instruction, ap­pointed him to a position is the University of Bonn, and his prospects seemed promising. But he was already in a fair way to break with his past, as shortly appeared in his Krilik der evangelischen Gesehichte des Johannes (Bremen, 1840) and Kritik der evtrngetischen Geschichte der Syno;Otiker (3 vole., Leip­aie,1841), which went beyond Strauss, and, adopting the theory of Wilke that Mark is the original gos­pel, derived the whole story, not, with Strauss, from the imagination of the primitive Christian community, but from that of a single mind. This extreme carrying out of Hegelian principles nat­urally aroused wide spread excitement. Eichhorn, who had succeeded Altenstein as minister, put the question to the Prussian universities whether the holder of such views could be allowed to teach. The answers were not unanimous; but Bauer injured his own cause by a still more amazing and reckless onslaught on traditional theology (Theologiache Schamlosigkeiten, in the flallische Jti)trbucher fur deutsche Wissenschaft, Nov., 1841), and was de­prived of his academic post in March, 1842. His literary activity continued incessant. Living on his small estate at Rixdorf, he poured forth a succession of volumes on the history of the eight­eenth and nineteenth centuries between 1843 and 1849. In 1850 he came back to his old field, and in the neat three years had renewed his attack on the gospels and included the Acts and the Pauline epistles, considering even the four admitted by the Tilbingen school as second century Western prod 

ucts. In the place of Christ and Paul, to him Philo, Seneca, and the Gnostics appeared the real creative forces in the evolution of Christian concep­tions. He continued his attempts to prove the connection between Greco Roman philosophy and Christianity in Christus and die Casaren (Berlin, 1877). Here he places the genesis of the Christian religion practically as late as the reign of Marcus Aurelius, sad the original gospel in that of Hadrian, after which "; clever men "; were busy for some forty years in the composition of the Pauline epistles. Only the framework of the new religion was Jewish; its spirit came from further west; Christianity is really "; Stoicism becoming dominant in a Jewish metamorphosis."; Bauer left practically no fol­lowers in Germany for such remarkable theories. His fantastic hypercriticism found a home for a time in Holland with Allard Pierson, Naber, and Loman; and still later it made some attempts to gain a foothold in Switzerland with Steck's assault upon Galatians. (J. HAU88LErrEx.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Holtamann, in Protutantiachs Kirdunzeit­unp, 1882, pp. b40 545; F. C. Baur, Rirehengeachichte ilea neunsehnten Jahrhunderta, Leipsie, 1882; O. PBeiderer, Die Entwiddung der proteatantiachen TheoTopit in Deutachiand sere Karat, pp. 295 297, Freiburg, 1891. On the teaching of Bauer and the Opposition it around consult E. Bauer, Bruno Bauer and seine Gegrur, Berlin, 1842; O. F. Gruppe, Bruno Bauer and die akademiache Lehr/rsihsit, ib. 1842.

BAUER, WALTER FELIX: German Protestant; b. at Kiinigsberg Aug. 8, 1877. From 1895 to 1900 he studied at the universities of Marburg, Berlin, and Strasburg, and since 1903 has been privat docent for church history at the University of Marburg. He has written Mundige and Unmiin­dige bei dem A;OOatel Paulus (Marburg, 1902) and Der Aloostolos der Syrer in der Zeit von der Mitts des roierten JttJtrhunderta bis zur Spaltung der syri,­schen Kirche (Giessen, 1903).

BAUM, baum, HENRY MASON: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at East Schuyler, N. Y., Feb. 24, 1848. He was educated at the Hudson River Institute, Claverack, N. Y., but did not attend a college. He received his theological training at De Lancet' Divinity School, Geneva, N. Y., and was ordained to the priesthood in 1870. He was successively rector of St. Peter's Church, East Bloomfield, N. Y. (I870 71), missionary to Allen's Hill, Victor, Lima, and Honeoye Falls, N. Y. (1871­1872), rector of St. Matthew's Church, Laramie City, Wyo. (1872 73), in charge of St. James's Church, Paulaborough, N. J. (1873 74), rector of St. Mat­thew's Church, Lambertville, N. J. (187rr76), and rector of Trinity Church, Easton, Pa. (1876 80). From 1880 to 1892 he was editor of The Church Review, and in 1901 founded the Records of the Past, which he edited until 1905. He has taken a keen interest in the preservation of the antiquities of the United States, and was the author of the act passed by the Senate in 1904 for the protection of these archeological remains. In that year he also founded the Institute of Historical Research at Washington, and has since been its president. In theology he is a firm believer in the historical accuracy of the Bible. He has written Rights arid Duties of Rectors, Church Wardens, arid Vestrymert ire



the American Church (Philadelphia, 1879) and The Law o f the Church in the United States (New York, 1886).

BAUM, JOHANN WILHELM: Protestant Ger­man theologian; b. at Flonheim (17 m. s.s.w. of Mainz) Dec. 7, 1809; d. at Strasburg Nov. 28, 1878. When he was thirteen years of age, he was sent to Strasburg to the house of his uncle, where he prepared himself for the ministry. Havingcom­pleted his studies, he was made teacher at, the theo­logical seminary at Strasburg in 1835. his posi­tion he resigned in 1844 and accepted the position of vicar of St. Thomas's in that city, whose first preacher he became in 1847. At the close of the Franco Prussian war, the German government appointed him professor in the University of Stras­burg. He belonged to the liberal Protestant party of his country, and made himself known by his writings on the history of the Reformation, as well as that of his own time, including Franz Lambent von Avignon (Strasburg and Paris, 1840); Theodor Beza nach handschriftlichen Quellen darge­stellt (2 vole., Leipaic, 1843 45); Johann Georg Stuber, den Vorganger Oberlins im Steinthale and VorkBmpfer einer neuen Zeit in Strassburg (Stras­burg, 1846); Die Memoiren d'Aubigne's des Huge­notten von ahem Schrott and Tforn (Leipsic, 1854); Capito and Butzer, Strassburgs Reformatoren (Elber­feld, 1860), being the third part of Leben and ausgewdhlte SchrifRen den VBter and Begriinder den reformirten Kirche. Besides these works written in German,_ he published in French Lea tglisco rEformees de rance soul la, croix (Strasburg, 1869); Les MEmoires de P. Carriers lit Corteia (Strasburg, 1871); Le Proeea de Baudichon de la. Maisori Neuve (Geneva, 1873). For a number of years Baum assisted his colleagues Reuss and Cunitz in the edition of Calvin's works published in the Corpus reformatorum.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zur Erinnerunp an J. W. Baum, Roden,. Strasburg, 1878; M. Baum, J. W. Baum, sin proteatanlisches Clmakterbild aua den Blows, Bremen, 1880.


gian and active promoter of free church life;

b. at Haseldorf, near Hamburg, Mar. 25, 1812;

d. at Rostock July 21, 1889. He was educated at

Altona, Kiel, and Berlin, becoming in the last Iialned

place an outspoken adherent of Hengstenberg.

But the study of Dorner during a period of seven

years (18396) spent at Kiel as a teacher con­

vinced him that the traditional orthodox view

of the person of Christ was inadequate to explain

the mystery of redemption; be passed from Heng­

stenberg to Schleiermaoher, with his principle that

Christianity is not a doctrine but a life, and then to

Hofmann, in whose Weissagung and Erfiillung

he saw a theology that could lead him further on

his road. In his treatise Lzturgie and Predigt

(Kiel, 1843) he lays down his programme, to which

as an old man he was still proud of having adhered.

Here he classes as stumbling blocks in the Church's

way a variety of ancient institutions, laws, and

customs, viz.: the misleading notion of a ";•Chris­

tian State";; the use of compulsion in the Church

(as in the case of baptism); the power of civil


rulers within the Church, in allowing which the

Reformers had brought back a Byzantine system;

the diversity of teaching among Protestants; and

the failure to recognize the menace of the Roman

errors. About the same time (1843 44) appeared

his commentary on the Pentateuch, to which

Delitzsch appealed when in 1850 he recommended

his friend to succeed him in the Rostock professor­

ship, but which none the less he sharply criticized

in some points. In the eventful years 1846 50

he was pastor of St. Michael's church at Sleswick,

and was one of the leaders of the clergy of Sleswick­

Holstein in their struggle for the German right

to the duchies. After the battle of Idstedt, he

was obliged to escape from Sleswick with his

family to Holstein, where his call to Rostock found

him. Here he was expected to take part in 'the

upbuilding of the Church of the duchy, which was

under Kliefoth's leadership; but two men more

diametrically opposed in their whole way of looking

at things could scarcely have been found. Baum­

garten frankly expressed his own view of the earliest

history of the Church in his Apostelgeschichte (2

viols., Halls, 1852), and of its modern needs in his

Nachtgesichte Sacharjas (Brunswick, 1854). It

was not difficult to make a collection of heretical

propositions from the writings of a man who cared

so little to express himself in time honored formulas,

and who was wrestling with such modern problems;

and the attempt was soon made. The Grand Duke

dismissed him from the theological commission in

1856; the consistory examined his works, it must

be admitted without strict adherence to constitu­

tional rules or to the principles of fairness, found

a whole series of departures from the received

doctrine, and deprived him of his position. He

declined au invitation to go to India as a missionary,

preferring to remain and carry on the struggle for

a complete reconstruction of the Evangelical Church

in Germany. With this aim he was for thirteen

years a zealous member of the Protestant Union

from 1863 to 1876, but left it when it showed

intolerance in the Heidelberg case. His life grew

more and more lonely, though he could always count

on a few faithful friends, like Studt, Ziegler, and

Pestalozzi. He was a member of the Reichstag

from 1874 to 1881, in which he showed himself a

determined opponent of Stocker and of the Jesuits,

and stood for his principles of religious liberty

and complete separation of Church and State.

He was a man of great natural endowment, fitted

for useful constructive work in theology, if the un­

fortunate circumstances in his career had not forced

him to expend his energy in the combat to which

most of his numerous later writings have reference.


BIBLIOGRAPHY  His autobiography was edited and pub­lished posthumously by K. H. 6tudt, 2 vole., Kiel, 1891.

BAUMGARTEN, OTTO: German Protestant; b. at Munich Jan. 29, 1858. He was educated at the universities of Strasburg, Gottingen, Zurich, and Heidelberg, and from 1882 to 1887 was pastor at Baden Baden and Waldkirch, while from 1888 to 1890 he was chaplain to the orphan asylum at Berlin Rummeleburg. In 1890 he became privet



docent at the University of Berlin, and in the same

year was called to Jena as associate professor of

practical theology, where he remained until 1894,

when he went to Kiel as full professor of the same

subject. He is also university preacher and chap­

lain of the academic sanitarium at the same institu­

tion of learning. He has written: Yolksschule and

Kirche (Leipsie, 1890); Der Seedsorger unserer

Tags (1891); Predigten aus der Gegenwart (Tii­

bingen (1902); Neue Bahnen : Der Religions Unter­

richt vom Standpunkte der modernen Theologie aus

(1903); Predigt Probleme, HauPtfragen der moder­

nen Evangeliuma Verkiindigungen (1903); and Die

Yoraussetzungslosigkeit der protestantischen Theo­

logic (Kiel, 1903).


theologian; b. at Wollxnirsti3dt (8 m. n. of Magde­

burg), Saxony, Mar. 14, 1706; d. at Halls July

4, 1757. He studied at the Halls Orphan Asylum,

of which his father had been first inspector, and

at the University of Halls. He became inspector

of the Halls Latin School in 1726, assistant preacher

to the younger G. A. Franks in 1728, associate on

the theological faculty in 1730, and ordinary pro­

fessor in 1743. He was a good teacher and his

lectures were usually attended by from 300 to 400

hearers. His learning was vast and he was an

industrious writer, publishing voluminous works

on exegesis, hermeneutics, morals, dogmatics, and

history, such as Auszug der Kirchengeschichte (4

vole., Halls, 1743 62); Evangelisehe Glaubenslehre

(3 vole., 1759 60); Geschichte der Religionsparteaen

(1760); Noehricht von merkwurdigen Biichern (12

vole., 1752 57); and the first sixteen volumes in

the Allgemeine Welthistarie (1744 sqq.). By adopt­

ing the formal scheme of the philosophy of Wolff

and applying it to the theological ideas in which

he was educated, Baumgarten came to form a

transition from the Pietism of Spener and Francke

to the modern rationalism. His enthusiastic dis­

ciple, J. S. Semler, who was called from Altdorf

to Halls on his recommendation, edited many of

his works and wrote his biography (Halls, 1758).

(F. B089E.)


RICH OTTO: German theologian; b. at Merseburg

(56 m. s.s.e. of Magdeburg), Prussian Saxony,

July 31, 1788; d. at Jena May 31, 1843. He studied

theology and philology at Leipaic and became i

university preacher there in 1810; in 1812 extraor­

dinary professor of theology at Jena, ordinary

professor, 1817. He gave lectures on all branches

of so called theoretic theology except church his­

tory, especially New Testament exegesis, Biblical

theology, dogmatics, ethics, and history of doctrine.

Gentle and sympathetic, and shrinking from

theological strife, he was misunderstood in his time.

His exegesis was painstaking, free from prejudice,

and acute; as historian of dogma he understood

the origin and development of religious ideas and

doctrines as few others have done; and as system­

atic theologian he was profound and truly evangel­

ical. His principal works were: Einleitung in das

Stadium der Dogmatik (Leipeie, 1820); Lehrbuch

der christlichen Dogmengeschichte (Jena, 1832);

Compendium der christlichen DogmengeschichEe (Leip­

sic, 1840), completed by K. A. Hale (1846); Theolo­

gische Auslegung der johanneiachen Schri ften (2 vole.,

Jena, 1843 45). (F. Bosar.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. C. A. Eichatildt, Memoria L. F. O. Baum 

partanii Crueaii, Jena, 1843; K. A. Haw's preface to his completion of the Kompendium der Dogmanpeachichk, Leipeia, 1846; ADB, ii, 181 aqq.



I. The Period of the History of Dogma. Baur's Early Life sad Activity (§ 1). Baur's Relation to 9chleiermacher and Hegel (§ 2). II. The Period of Biblical Criticism. Hiatorico Critical Study of the New Testament (§ 1). Applied to the Writings of Paul (§ 2). The Fundamental Assumption of the School (¢ 3). Applied to the Gospels U 4). Developed by Schwegler (§ b). III. The Period of Church History. Political Complications (¢ 1). Baur's Works on Church History (§ 2). His Theories and Conclusions (¢ 3). Their Weakness and Decline (¢ 4).

The treatment of both Ferdinand Christian Baur and the Later Tiibingen School in the same article is justified by the fact that the period of distinctive theological and philosophical views which characterized the school in its palmy days really ceased with the death of its founder, or at least lost the former local identification. Con­sidering the Tiibingen School in this strictly limited sense, its history, together with that of Baur him­self, may be divided into three periods that of preparation, or of the history of dogma, before 1835; that of prosperity, or of Biblical criticism, 1835­1848; and that of disintegration, or of church his­tory, after the latter date 

I. The Period of the History of Dogma: Baur was born at Schmiden, near Cannstatt (4 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), June 21, 1792; he died at T(ibingen Dec. 2, 1860. He was the son of a Wurttemberg pastor and was educated first at Blaubeuren and then (1809 14) at Tiibingen. Here, besides fol­lowing the usual thorough course in philology, he was strongly attracted by the study of philosophy. Fichte and Schelling were then at the height of their influence; but that it did not draw the young student away from the standpoint of the older Tiibingen School (q.v.), in which he had been brought up, may be seen from his first published writing, a review of Kaiser's Bibliache Theologie in 1817, which condemned rationalistic

r. Baur's caprice in the treatment of the Early Life Old Testament. After a short em 

end Ac  ployment as tutor in the Tiibingen tivity. seminary during the same year, he was named professor in the lower seminary which had grown out of his old school at Blaubeuren. The nine years of his stay here were active and happy ones. Though his work was mainly philological and historical, he showed his interest in the philosophical and theological movements of the time. The doctrines of Schleiermacher received his attention, and found an echo in his three volume work Symbolik and Mythologic (Stutt­gart, 1824 25). In this book, remarkable for its time, he indicated his future course in the phrase,


« Without philosophy, history seems to me dumb and dead."; The attention it attracted won Baur a place in the theological faculty of TUbingen on its reorganization (1826) after the death of his old teacher Bengal. His impressive and inspiring personality at once drew the young men to him, and his influence in tho faculty was contested only by Dr. Steudel, the solo survivor of the old school body.

The fact that in the course of his further intel­lectual development Baur gradually came into conflict with the theology of Schleier 

s. Baut's masher may be partly explained by

Relation to the difference in the mental conatitu 

$chleier  tions of the two men. There was

masher and no trace in Baur's method of the fusion Hegel. of sentiment and reason which char­acterized the other; only the intel­lectual aide was allowed to be heard. His strong point was his faculty of conceiving historical phenomena objectively, amid the sur­roundings and from the standpoint of  their age. His relation to the philosophy of Hegel is somewhat difficult to determine exactly; but it may be safely asserted that his fundamental views on the essence of religion and the course of history were taken from the Hegelian system. The transi­tion from Schleiermacher to Hegel was a gradual process which took place between 1826 and 1835, in the nine years which have been called the period of preparation. It is probable that at first Baur was unconscious of its extent, and it was sot until he applied the Hegelian principles to the canon that they brought him into sharp conflict with traditional orthodoxy. His Symbodik was logically followed by his works on Manicheaniam and Gnosticism (Tubingen, 1831 and 1832) phe­nomena lying on the border between theology and philosophy, between Christianity and paganism. In his tractate on the opposition between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, in answer to Mishler (Ttibingen, 1834), Hegelian terminology begins to appear distinctly, though the foundation still rests on Schlefermacher. The influence of the Hegelian system on Baur was a very fructi' Ang one. No department of history had suffered more from the leveling tendency of rationalism than the history of dogma. Since Hegel had taught the application of the iron rote of development to the phenomena of the intellectual life ass well as to other phenomena, he pointed the way to a profounder understanding of the beliefs which appeared frequently so hap­hazard and so arbitrary, to a knowledge of laws which prevailed over individual will. Thus, when Baur went on from the philosophy of religion to Christian dogma, and in that to the moat important parts (the Atonement, Tttbingen, 1838, the Trinity and the Incarnation, 1841 43), he became a pioneer of the history of dogma in the modern sense. Even though the Hegelian categories proved a bed of Pro­crustes for Christian dogmas, and though the under­standing of these suffered from the defects of the Hegelian conception of religion, the impulse had none the less been given to a profounder study. More recent historians of dogma have felt them­selves entitled to correct Baur's views, as set forth

in the above mentioned works, in almost every point; but these views had won him, by the end of this first period, a prominent place in the ranks of those who were trying to strike out new lines in the study of Christian history; and when Schleier­mscher's chair at Berlin  was vacant in 1834, the Prussian minister Altenstein thought for a time of appointing $aur to it.

II. The Period of Biblical Criticism: The second period, however, is the one which comes to mind when the Tubingen School is mentioned. Though certain books already named are of later date, the period may be properly begun with 1835, in which year Strauss's Lebm Jesu drew general attention to the questions to which Baur was already inclined to turn. The application to the canon of Scripture of the Hegelian laws of historical development was peculiarly appropriate to the place in which Baur carried on his work, since the distinguishing mark of the older Tubingen School had been a Biblical supernaturalism, for which dogma was nothing more than the teachings of Scripture, arrived at by means of exegesis. He felt himself driven to a consideration of this question by the need of a settlement with the school from which he had sprung and with his own past; by his studies in the history of dogma, since the source of dogma, in the last resort, unless it is a mere collection of irresponsible opinions, is the Bible; and by his investigation of Gnosticism, which could not fail to raise the question of the canon.

In 1835 appeared (at St ~~',gart and TVbingen) Baur'a work on the Pastoral Epistles. According to his own account of this and of his article on the Corinthian parties (TZT,1831), it was his lectures on the Epistle to the Corinthians which first opened up the vista of more far reaching hiatorico critical investigation into the controversies of the apostolic age, and led him to follow out, by means of New Testament and patriotic studies, his independent conception of the plash of heterogeneous elements in the apostolic and aubapoatolic days, their parties and tendencies, their conflicts and com­promises  to demonstrate the growth of a catholic Church as nothing but the result of a previous historical process. Dealing with Schleiermacher'a treatment of I Timothy, he considered z. Historicw the three pastoral epistles from the

Critical same historical standpoint, and defined Study of the the task of New Testament criticism Now Tests  by asserting that the origin of such

meat. writings (as to the authenticity of

which more evidence was needed

than We accepted name of an author on their face

and a vague, uncertain, and late tradition) could

only be explained by a complete view of the whole

range of historical circumstances in which, accord­

ing to definite data, they were to be placed. With

this character of historic objectivity, the new

criticism, which naturally could not but seem

merely negative and destructive in contrast with

the unfounded assumptions that it controverted,

intended to meet the arbitrary subjectivity of the

hypotheses which had, up to that time, played

so large a part in New Testament criticism. The

above statement, substantially in Baur's own


words, expresses fully the guiding principle of the Tubingen School. In the name of fidelity to fact, Baur was conducting a regular siege of the forti­fications which, had been thrown up by his own predecessors around the Christian doctrines, when Strauss's assault upon the central bastion attracted general attention. It was not without value to him as a diversion, under cover of which 'he was able to pursue undisturbed for a while longer hits critical work. During the next decade the Tubingen School acquired an importance which seemed to threaten the foundations of dogma from a new quarter, relentlessly contrasting the accepted image of Christ, as drawn according to the subjective Christian mind by Schleiermacher, with the results of objective historical criticism. The main part of the task seemed to be left to Baur himself; be was not so fortunate as the leaders of the old Tubingen School, who had their allies in the other theological chairs. On the other hand, he had with him a large number of young and enthusiastic disciples, such as the tal­ented Eduard Zeller, later his son in law, the still bolder and braver Schwegler, Kbstlin and Planck, Ritechl and Hilgenfeld, the last two the most prom­inent allies who came from outside of Wurttemberg.

Baur had begun his critical work with Paul, sad the same apostle engaged the attention of the school in its later publications. Searching inves­tigations of the Epistle to the Romans appeared in the T ZT in 1836, and aroused alarm and opposition.

These, together with considerable ms­s. Applied to terial which he had published in the the Writings Theologische Jahrbiicher, begun in 1842

of Paul by Zeller and edited from 1847 to

1887 by himself and Zeller jointly, which became the organ of the new school, he put together in 1845 (Stuttgart) into a monograph on Paul. The result reached by this part of his work was the denial of the authenticity of all the letters passing under the apostle's name, except Galatians, I and II Corinthians, and Romans, of which last also the two concluding chapters were questioned. Finally, in agreement with Schneckenburger but still more radically, the poatapostolic origin of the Acts was asserted. It was not difficult to conjec­ture what would happen to the Gospels when they were thrown into the same crucible.

The theory of the "; objective criticism,"; as it developed, was that the older apostles, with their original body of disciples, were differentiated from the other Jews only by their belief that the cruci­fied Jesus was the Messiah. All the elements of a new religion contained in his life and teaching were

forgotten, or lay undeveloped in the 3. The Fun  apostles' memory, though a Stephen

damental attempted to enforce them and sealed Assumption his testimony by his death. When

of the Paul, by a wonderful divination, by School. a train of reasoning from the cross

and the resurrection, rediscovered these elements of universality and freedom, the Church stood suspiciously aloof. The older apos­tles, indeed, with a liberality difficult to under­stand in the premises, accepted Paul as an equal fellow laborer and admitted his right to the mission to the Gentiles. But a section of the Church re 

mained obstinately hostile. Paul appears, there­fore, constantly prepared for combat, and when an epistle presents him in any other mood, it is ipso facto unauthentic. In view of these facts, it became all the more necessary for the neat age to emphasize the unity of the Church; when, accordingly, there is perceived a conciliatory tone in an epistle, when it speaks much of the Church and its unity of belief, no further mark of a poatapoatolic origin is needed. The school believed itself able to prove from the Apocalypse, considered as a product not merely of Judaic narrowness but of positive opposition to Paulinism, and still more from the pseudo Clem­entine homilies, that no accommodation took place in the apostles' lifetime.

These views, for all their possible usefulness as against an exaggerated notion in the opposite direc­tion, still left one question unanswered  what really was the Christianity of Christ ? This led inevitably to the question, burning since Strauss, of the status of the Gospels; but it was nearly ten years before Baur brought his disciples to that. In the Jahrbuch for 1844 he attempted to use his critical principles to disprove the authenticity of the Gospel of John. This treatment he supple­mented by further investigations on the canonical gospels, and published the whole result in sub­stantive form in 184? (Tubingen). q. Applied In a certain sense it was favorable

to the to the traditional view. The order

Gospels, of the canon was approximately

that of their composition. Matthew,

in whom the Judaic tendency is strongest, would

then be nearest to the source; Mark would show a

tendency to accommodation and minimizing of

differences; and this would show all the chore

clearly the Pauline tendency of Luke. The fourth

Gospel, finally, was supposed to display in every

feature the tendency to sink these differences in a

higher unity, and to take a stand for the conflicts

of the second century, Gnosticism, Montanism,

and the nascent Trinitarian controversy. This

work of Baur'a marks the close of the great period

of the school. His disciples were now ready to

come to his aid. Schwegler's book on Montanism

(Tubingen, 1$41), Ritschl's on Luke and the Gospel

of Marcion (Tubingen, 1846) and on the origin of

the primitive catholic Church (Bonn, 1850),

Kdatlin's on the Johannine system (Berlin, 1843),

were all important; but the moat significant was

Schwegler's on the subapoatolic age (Tubingen,

1846), which attempted constructive reasoning,

using the writings which had been declared unau­

thentic as memorials of the development of Judaism

and Pauliniam into what came later.

According to Schwegler, Judaism had no need of further development; the impulse came from Paulin­iem, in such a way that the Judaic party

g. Devel  decided, in order to preserve the unity

oped by of the Church (Gk. monarchia), to make

Schwegler. some concessions, requiring things of

similar import with those demanded by

the pae2edadelphoi of the New Testament, but

more easily fulfilled by the Gentiles. If circum­

cision had to be abandoned, so much the more

weight was laid upon baptism as the Christian


equivalent; if the works of the Law were dropped, works were still required; Israel's pri­macy vanished, but a general aristocratic tend­ency could be maintained in the episcopate; Paul could not be cast out, but he could be sub­ordinated to Peter. Schwegler then watches this development and compromise in two places, Rome and Asia Minor. In Rome he traces the succession of writings of Judaistic origin thus: first the ,Shepherd of Herman and Hegesippua; then Justin, the Clementine Homilies, and the Apostolic Con­stitutions; then James, the Second Epistle of Clem­ent, Mark, the Clementine Recognitions, and II Peter. On the Pauline aide he finds the concilia­tory writings to begin under Trajan with I Peter; then follow Luke and Acts; then the Pastoral Epistles and the letters of Ignatius. Montanism being in his view only an offshoot of Judaism, the Pauline victory falls in the pontificate of Victor (189 199), under whom Montaniem was condemned at Rome. The Pauline party, indeed, had already made no alight concessions, in order to ward off Gnosticism though the Gnostics and especially the Marcionitea ultimately were of great service to Paul­iniam in securing the universality of Christianity.

He sees the process as somewhat different in Asia Minor, where the opponents of Paul rallied, not as in Rome around Peter, but around John; here the solution was the formation, of a body of Christian dogma, while in Rome it had been a unity of organization with a Roman primacy. While at Rome the supposed Ebionite works are more numerous than the Pauline, it is the contrary in Asia Minor; the Apocalypse is here the single Ebionite memorial, while on the other aide Gala­tiana, Colossians, Ephesiana, and the Johannine Gospel form an imposing aeries of steps in the development. Bold, however, and fascinating as are the combinations set forth in this work, and brilliant as is its execution, it may be pointed out (though apace does not permit of illustration) that there is scarcely a theologian to day who is disposed to accept this train of reasoning as even an approxi­mately satisfactory solution of the problems sug­gested. And even in those days, the starting point of the whole process of development still remained to be discussed. It was already obvious that with­out tracing it back to the person and teaching of Christ, the question of how the primitive catholic Church came into existence was insoluble. At­tempts in the direction of establishing the entire critical position by showing a genetic development of the earliest organization and dogma out of the gospel of Christ himself marked a third period in the history of the Tubingen School.

III. The Period of Church History: The political upheaval of 1848 had its influence on the future of the school. The attempts made here and there to introduce its conclusions, under cover of the polit­ical movements of the time, into the general life of the Church could not fail to bring up the question whether ecclesiastical activity was possible for adherents of the school. It was answered in the negative not only by opponents; some of Baur's own disciples felt that they must either modify the scientific conclusions they had learned from

him, or seek a secular calling, as M#rklin, whose life was written by Strauss, had done in 1840. It was not surprising, then, that the

:. Political German governments thought twice be­Complica  fore appointing to academic positions dons. men whose influence was so disturb­ing, and that the younger generation hesitated to follow Baur further, after his most important disciple, Zeller, was obliged in 1849 to exchange a theological chair for that of philosophy at Marburg. Baur felt the isolation in which he thus began to find himself; but his temperament allowed him to hold fast longer than others to the illusion of the identity of church teaching and Hegelian speculation. He relaxed nothing of his zeal for the solution of the important problem which still remained, the establishment on a critical foundation of a positive story of the development of Christianity from its origin down through the centuries.

In 1852 Baur published a book (Leipaic), on the epochs of church history as a preliminary, con­taining brilliant and frequently sharp criticism of earlier historians. His own efforts in this direc­tion began with the work Daa Chriatenthum ured die christliche Kirche der drew eratera

s. Baur's Jahrhunderte (Leipaic, 1853), and was Works on continued in Die christliche Kirchc Church vom Anfang den 4. his Ausgang den 6.

History. Jahrhunderta (Leipsic, 1859). After

his death appeared (Leipaic, 1862 )

the third part, completed by himself, Die christ­

liche Kirche den Mittelaltera in den Hduptmmnenten

ihrer Entwicklung ; and two further volumes were

published from his carefully prepared lecture­

notes Kirchengeachichte den 19. Jahrhuriderta, ed­

ited by Zeller (Leipaic, 1862), and Kirchenge­

achichte der neueran Zeit von der Reformation bin

zum Ends den 18. Jahrhunderta, edited by his son

Ferdinand (Leipsic, 1863), thus completing the

entire survey.

If there is sought in these books an answer to the question as to the real primitive Christianity which lay back of Paul and back of Ebionitiam, as to the person of Christ himself, it may be put, once more substantially in Baur's own words (from the im­portant controversial pamphlet against Uhlhorn, Die Ttlbinger Schu7e and %hre Stellung zur Gegen­wnrt, Leipaic, 1859), as follows: The real inward­ness of Christianity, its essential center point, may be found in what belongs to the strictly ethical content of the teaching of Jesus, in the Sermon on the Mount, the parables, and similar utterances; in his doctrine of the Kingdom of God and the con­ditions of membership in it, designed to place men in the right ethical relation to 3. His Theo  God. This is the really divine, the

ries and universally human element in it, the

Conclusions. part of its content which is eternal and

absolute. What raises Christianity

above all other religions is nothing but the purely

ethical character of its seta, teachings, and require­

ments. If this is the essential content of the con­

sciousness of Jesus, it is one of the two factors which

compose his personality; it moat have a corro­

sponding form, in order to enter, in the way of

historical development, into the general conscious­ness of humanity; and this form is the Jewish conception of the Messiah, the point of contact between the mind of Jesus and the world that was to believe in him, the basis on which alone a relig­ious community destined to broaden into a Church could be built. We can, therefore, have no clear and definite conception of the personality of Jesus if we do not distinguish these two aides of it and consider them, so to speak, under the aspect of an antinomy, of a process which develops itself grad­ually.

If we try to get at the heart of Baur's whole view of the subject, stripping his presentation of its somewhat pathetic enthusiasm, it will appear not so very different from Kant's expression, that the faith of pure reason came in with Christ, indeed, but was so overlaid in the subsequent history that if the question were asked which was the best period in the entire course of church history, it might be unhesitatingly answered by the choice of the pres­ent, in which a nearer approach than ever before is made to pure religious doctrine. As long as Baur had gone no further into the really primitive essen­tial import of Christianity than to cohsider the Pauline dogmatics as representing it, the develop­ment of the Church could perfectly well seem to him to have proceeded in a wholly rational manner. The dogmatic and ecclesiastical decisions of the early ages could, in their context, appear "; reason­able,"; and Baur himself, in contrast Their with a writer like Gottfried Arnold

Weakness or with the unhistoric rationalism,

and Decline. almost an orthodox historian, always

in harmony with the course of events

as it proceeded. Not only Athanasius and Augus­

tine, but Gregory VII and Innocent III had full

justice at his hands. But this involved an equally

tolerant acknowledgment of the claims of the nine­

teenth century. If the humanitarianism of Goethe

and Schiller seemed better adapted to the needs of

educated men in this age than the Church in its

older form, here also the living must take prece­

dence; and suddenly the place of the old Church

was taken by a broad "; communion "; in which all

the heroes of the intellect, even the most modern,

took their place as saints. But when the question

came to be asked what this prevalent humanism

had in common with ancient Christianity, it became

apparent that the whole long process of devel­

opment was really a totally unnecessary detour,

whose purpose it was difficult to discover. It

could scarcely be denied that a historical method

which saw the essence of Christianity in ethics

exclusively, which knew nothing of the need of

redemption, and which was unable to give any

positive account of the person of Christ, was one

in which the Hegelian conception of development

practically disappeared. Yet the distinguishing

mark of the school of Baur had been the application

of this very conception to Christian history, espe­

cially that of the primitive age the attempt to

show the course oLhiatory as rational and necessary;

and thus, in the person of its head, the Tiibingen

School deserted the fundamental principle which

is its palmy days it had sought to enforce. It


was, then, not surprising that uncertainty showed itself among the members of the school on the question of the Gospels. The less a definite tend­ency could be proved in the synoptica, the more they were shown to offer at least a substratum of purely historical matter, so much the more pressing became the question how the school's view of his­, tory could be reconciled with the actual course of events. When the attempt to construct the latter a priori, failed, an advantage was given to the "; literary historical "; method with which Hilgen­feld undertook to replace the criticism of tendency. In his Historiscltrkritische Einleitung in das neue Testament (Leipsic, 1875) the Tiibingen views were modified in a large number of points. Thus the results supposed to have been attained by the `° objective criticism "; of Baur were called in ques­tion by his own fellow workers; and when he died, it is hardly too much to say that his school, at least in the narrower sense, died with him.

(J. Iieusar.El'rM. )

Bisrroassret:: Two of Ferdinand Christian Baur's books are accessible in English translation: Paul, the Apostle of Jeaue Christ, 2 vole., London, 1873 75; The Church History o/ the First Three Centuries, 2 vole., ib. 1878 79. Consult: A. B. Bruce, F. C. Baur and his Theory of the Origin of Christianity, New York, 1888; Worte der Erinneru»p a» Ferdinand Christian Baur, Tiibingen, 1881; H. Beekh, Die Tabinper historiache Bchuie, kritisch be­leuehtet, in ZPK, zlviii (1884),1 87, 89 95; C. WeiasBeker, Ferdinand Christian von Baur. Reds our akademischen Feier seines 100. Geburtatapee, Stuttgart, 1892; O. Pfieiderer, Zu F. C. Baur'a GedBchtniaa, in Protestantiache Kirchen­seitunp, 1892, No. 25; R, W. Mackay, The Tubingen School, and its Antecedents, London, 1863; s. Berger, F. C. Baur, Lea Originea de l'ecols de Tubingue et sea pri»cipea, Strasburg, 1887: C. H. Toy, The Tubingen Historical 3ehool, in BQR, iii (1889), 210 aqq. Works on N. T. In­troduction usually discuss the Ti7bingen School, as do those on the church history of the nineteenth century.

BAUR, GUSTAV ADOLF LUDWIG: Lutheran; b. at Hammelbach (17 m. n.e. of Heidelberg), in the Odenwald, June 14, 1816; d. at Leipsic May 22, 1889. He studied at Giessen, where he became docent in 1841, professor extraordinary, 1847, ordinary, 1849; he became pastor at Hamburg, 1861, and professor of practical theology at Leipsic, 1870. He was a member of the commission for revising Luther's translation of the Bible. Besides numerous sermons he issued Erkl(Lrung des ProPheten Amos (Giessen, 1847); Crundxiige der Horniletik (1848); Geschichte der alttestartterttlichert Weissagung (first part, 1861); Boetitcs and Dame (Leipsie, 1874); Grundziige der Erziehungslehre (4th ed., Giessen, 1887); he wrote the greater part of the first volume of Schmid's Geschichte der Erziehung (Stuttgart, 1884), and Die christlic)ae Erziehung in ihrem Verhaltnisse zttm Judenthurrt and zur antiken Welt (2 vole., 1892).

BIHLIOaEAPH7: G. A. Bsur, Trauerftier bei dam BeprUbraiea G. A. L. Baws, Leipeie, 1889.

BAUSLIN, DAVID HENRY: Lutheran; b. at Winchester, Va., Jan. 21, 1854. He studied at Wittenberg College (B.A., 1876) and Theological Seminary, Springfield, O. (1878), and held pastor­ates at Tippecanoe City, O. (1878 81), Bucyrus, O. (1881 88), Second Lutheran Church, Spring­field, O. (I888 93), and Trinity Church, Canton,

O. (1893 96). In 1896 he was appointed professor


of historical and practical theology is the Witten­berg Theological Seminary. He has been for several years a member of the "; common service "; com­mittee for the General Synod of the Lutheran. Church, and was president of the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States 190:r 07. He has written Is the Ministry an Attractive Vocation? (Philadelphia, 1901), and has been editor of The Lutheran World since 1901.

BAUSMAN, BENJAMIN: Reformed (German); b. at Lancaster, Pa., Jan. 28, 1824. He was edu­cated at Marshall College (B.A., 1851) and the Theological Seminary, Mercersburg, Pa. (1852). He was ordained to the Reformed ministry in 1853, and held successive pastorates at Lewisburg, Pa. (1853 61), Ghambersburg, Pa. (1861 G3), First Reformed Church, Reading, Pa, (1863 73), and St. Paul's Reformed Church, Reading, which he founded in 1873. He was president of the General Synod of the Reformed Church at Baltimore in 1884. He was editor of The Reformed Messenger in 1858 and of The Guardian from 1867 to 1882. In the year 1867 he founded Der reformierte Hausfreund, of which he is still the editor. He has written Sinai and Zion (Philadelphia, 1860); Wayside Gleanings in Europe (Reading, 1878); Bible Characters (1893); and Precept and Practice (Philadelphia, 1901); in addition to editing Har­baugh's Harfe, a collection of poems in Pennsyl­vania Dutch (Reading, 1870).

BAUSSET, bo";se;', LOUIS FRANCOIS DE: Car­dinal; b. at Pondicherry Dec. 'l4, 1748; d. at Paris June 21, 1824. He studied in the Seminary of St. Sulpice; was appointed Bishop of Alais, 1784; emigrated in 1791, but returned in 1792 to Paris, and supported himself, after a short imprisonment, by literary labor. In 1806 he was made canon of St. Denys, and in 1815, after the second return of Louis XVIII, director of the council of the University of Paris, peer of France, and cardinal 1817. He wrote the Hiatoire de FEnelon (3 vole., Paris, 1808) and Histoire de Bosaver (4 vole., Versailles,. 1814).

BAUTAII(, b8";tan', LOUIS EUGENE MARIE: French philosopher; b. at Paris Feb. 17, 1796; d. at Virofiay, near Versailles, Oct. Ib, 1867. He became professor of philosophy at Strasburg in 1819. He was a pupil of Cousin and a student of German philosophy, and, his teaching not being acceptable to the church authorities, he was sus­pended in 1822. He modified his views and took holy orders in 1828, and resumed teaching. In 1834 he again fell into difficulty with the Bishop of Strasburg because of his teachings concerning the' relation of reason and faith; is 1838 he went to Rome and sought in vain to have his views approved there. In 1840 he submitted, became vicar general of Paris in 1849, and professor at the Sorbonne in 1853. He held that the human reason can not prove such facts as the existence of God and the immortality of the soul, and that the truths of religion are communicated purely by divine revelation. His most important works

were: Philosophic du Christianiame (2 vole., Stras­burg, 1835); Psyc7wlogie experimeretale (2 vole., 1839; new ed., with title Esprit humairt et see faeultda, Paris, 1859); Philosophic morale (2 vole., Paris, 1842); La morale de l'A'roangile rvmpar(e aux divers sysfPmeade morale (1855). He had much repute as an orator and published an etude sur fart de parley en public (1856; Eng. tranal., The Art o f Extempore Speaking, London, 1858).

BIBLIOGRAPHY. E, de Rdgny. L'AbU Bautain, Paris, 1884.

BAUTZ, JOSEF: Roman Catholic; b. at Keeken (near Clever) Nov. 11, 1843. He was educated at Miiuster, where he became privet docent of apolo­getics and dogmatics in 1877, being promoted to the rank of associate professor in 1892. He has written Die Lehre vom Auferatehungsleibe (Pader­born, 1877); Der Himmel, spekulotiro dargestellt (Mains, 1881); Die H6Uz, im Anaehluss an die Scliolasta'Tc (I882); Des. Fegfeuer. I'm Anschlusa an. die Scholastik (1883); Weltgericht ured Weltende. Im Areachluss an die Seholastik (1886); Grundzuge der christliehen Apologetik (1887); and Grundzuge der katholisehen Dogmatik (4 vole., 1888 93).

BAVARIA: A kingdom in the southern part of the German Empire, and, next to Prussia, the largest of the states of the Empire; area, 29,282 square miles; population (1900), 6,176,057, of whom 4,357,133 (70.5 per cent.) are Roman Catholics; 1,749,206 (28.3 per cent.) Protestants; 5,430 Old Catholics; 3,170 Mennonites; 54,928 (.9 per cent.) Jews; and 4,142 of various faiths.

The division of the chief confessions is based in great part on the historic conditions prevailing in 1624 and 1648, although the development of the cities has been the cause of many changes, the proportion of Protestants having increased in Munich and that of the Roman Catholics in Nurem­berg. The old Bavarian circles of Upper and Lower Bavaria, as well as the Upper Palatinate,

have always been essentially Roman Protestant  Catholic. Upper Bavaria received its ism is first Protestant citizens in the early

Bavaria. part of the nineteenth century, but

in consequence of the rapid growth of Munich in recent years the Protestants of that city alone numbered 78,000 in 1900. Six pastor­ates and six immovable vicariatea are also contained in the district, and seven small churches have been built in market towns and villages. Since the six­teenth century Lower Bavaria has posed the Protestant enclave of Ortenburg with certain neighboring places, while more recently commu­nities have been established in the larger cities, especially Passau. The Upper Palatinate was not completely converted to Roman Catholicism in 1622 28, since the duchy of Sulzbach and the im­perial city of Regensburg retained congregations of both confessions„who used the same churches; but with the increase in population the proportion of Protestants steadily declined. The district now has four desaenea with forty eight pastorates. In the three old Bavarian districts provision is made for the Protestant Diaspora by itinerant preachers, four of whom work in Upper Bavaria



and two in Lower Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate combined. Since 1805 Swabia has belonged in great part to Bavaria. It consisted originally of a group of territories belonging to free cities, the clergy, and knights of the empire. Only the first category was predominantly Protestant, and even here Roman Catholicism has gained steadily. Swabia contains the following Protestant dean­eries: Augsburg, Ebermergen, Kempten (including Lindau and Kaufbeuren), Leipheim, Memmingen, Ntirdlingen, and Oettingen.

Frankish North Bavaria is composed, on the one hand, of the episcopal territories of the bishoprics of Eichstatt, Bamberg, Wiirzburg, and a portion of the electorate of Mainz, and, on the other, of the Protestant principalities of Ansbach and Bai­reuth, Nuremberg, Rothenburg, and other free cities, and enclaves of the orders. This entire region is strongly Roman Catholic, although Lower Fran­coma has a considerable number of Protestant communities (116 pastorates, exclusive of Wurz­burg, Schweinfurt, and Aschaffenburg). In the larger section of Bavaria the historical divisions between Protestant and Roman Catholic, at least in the smaller towns, are still maintained, but in the minor portion, the Rhine Palatinate, there are few political communities which do not have a considerable minority of adherents of one or the other creed. In Speyer the proportions are almost equal, Roman Catholics numbering about 9,000 and the Protestants 8,000.

The legal position of the Protestant Church in Bavaria is regulated by an edict of Sept. 8,1809, while its foreign relations are governed by the constitution of 1818. Both Protestantism and Roman Catholi­cism are officially recognized, and controversies seldom arise between the two, except in regard to the creed in which children shall be brought up, methods of conversion, particularly in the Evan­gelical Diaspora, and the use of burial grounds in Roman Catholic communities. In 1824 the official designation of the Protestants was declared to be "; Protestant Church.";

The Reformed Ch arch in the Palatinate first regained official recognition together with the Lutherans at the general consistory at Worms in 1815, and the Bavarian government created a con­sistory at Speyer on Dec. 15,1818, for the ";Prot­estant Churches of the Palatinate,"; a presbyterial and synodical constitution being introduced at the same time. In 1848 the Protestant Church of the Palatinate and the consistory of Speyer were placed directly under the jurisdiction of the ministry of state. The attempt to create a more definite confessional statue led, in the sixth decade of the last century, to a victorious agitation on the part of the liberal element. Since 1879 the presbyteries have had the right to propose candidates for vacant pastorates. In Bavaria proper diocesan synods are held annually, and general synods every four years.

There are few Protestants in Bavaria, except those who belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, nor are the professed adherents of sects numerous. A distinct organization was granted the Reformed in Bavaria proper in 1853, although

they are still under the control of the Supreme Consistory. The Greek .Church was recognized in 1826, but the Anglican Church is officially ignored like the Mennonites. The last named have six communities in the Palatinate and four in Bavaria proper. Until 1887 the Old Catholics were reckoned as Roman Catholics, but are now declared to be a separate body, though full recognition has.not bin granted them.

The Roman Catholic Church is Bavaria is highly organized and extremely active, while its wealth and political influence are constantly

Romaa increasing. The kingdom is divided Catholicism into two archdioceses with eight

in Bavaria. dioceses. The archdiocese of Munich­

Freising comprises the sufl'ragan dio­

ceses of Augsburg, Passau, and Regensburg; and

the archdiocese of Bamberg includes the dioceses

of EichstAtt, Wurzburg, and Speyer. The educa­

tion of the clergy, in agreement with the concordat

of 1817, is entrusted to the bishops. The develop­

ment of orders has been very rapid, especially in

the sisterhoods for the education and the care of

the sick. The number of cloisters has also increased

rapidly, with a corresponding gain in real estate,

and this development is aided by the generous

gifts and foundations of the Roman Catholic popu­

lation, the property of the 8,600 institutions being

valued at more than 150,000,000 marks; while

that of the 1,800 Protestant institutions is worth

only 19,600,000 marks. The Roman Catholic

clergy in Bavaria number some 4,900, or a pro­

portion of one to 816 of the laity, while the Protes­

tants have but about 1,300 clergymen, or one to

1,200 laymen. Wrr.xxrat Go=.

BssuoaaeraT: v. A. Winter, aeuh:abts der Sthickwle der tuangdisrhen Lehre in and dmhBayern, 2 vole., Munich, 1809 10: E. F, li. Medicos, hseErlangen. 1883; J. M. Mayer, Qeechichfa Bayeraa, Rat•ebon, 1874; J. Hergen­r8ther, Handbwh der Kirchen®uehiclate, 3 vole., Freiburg, 1878 BV (literature of the subject is given, iii. 183); 8. Riesler, Geschichte Baycma, 4 vole., Goths, 1878 99; Wand, Handbwh der Ver/assunp and Vep der yro­testant%ach^ev. ehrietlichen Kirche der PAU, 1880: Bei­trSpe zur 3tatietik des Kbnipreicks Bayern, Munich, 1892; Statiatischt MiUeidunpen sue den deutechen toangetiachcn Landeakirchen, Stuttgart, 1880 98.

BAVARIANS, CONVERSION OF THE: The origin of the race later known as the Bavarians is uncertain. The older hypothesis that they came of Celtic stock is now generally abandoned. For a time it was thought that they were a conglomerate of the remains of several tribes belonging to the Gothic family; but the view put forward by Zeuss (Die Herkunft der Bayern, Munich, 1857) that they are to be identified with the Marcomanni is now almost universally accepted, and has strong sup­port in the facts.

The Marco•np.*,*,i are first mentioned by Caesar (Bel. Gal., i, 51). In his time they lived on the upper Main. Tacitus knows of them as inhabiting what is now Bohemia (Germ., xlii; cf. gnnal., ii, 26 eqq.). Here they maintained their position for centuries, and here they took the name of Baiowarii or Baioarii. During this period, Chris­tianity found an entrance among them. Paulinus, in his life of Ambrose (xxxvi), tells of a queen

Bavarians Baxter


of the Marcomanni named Fritigil who was con­verted by a wandering Italian Christian, and asked

Ambrose for written instructions in First Ac  the faith, which he gave in modem quaintance catechisms. The account goes on to with Chris  say that she thereupon came to Milan,

tianity. but found the bishop dead. As Am­

broae died Apr. 4, 397, she must

have crossed the Alps in the summer of that year.

If the queen was a Christian, it is hardly likely

that her religion would have been unknown to her

people. That Arianism also reached the Marco­

manni through Gothic influences is not improbable.

However that may be, the bulls of the people were

pagan when they settled in 488 on the strip of

territory granted them by the Romans between

the Lech and the Enna.

The name of Bavarians is first applied in the Frankish list of tribes belonging to the first quarter of the sixth century. The territory which they occupied was no desolate wilderness. In the val­leys and around the lakes there was a thin agri­cultural population which held to the Latin tongue and doubtless also to the Christian faith. Not all the cities were destroyed; Juvavum and Lau­riacum lay in ruins; but neither Castra Batava nor Castra Regina was without inhabitants, and here also Christianity undoubtedly held its own with the Romanic population. Christians and heathens thus living as neighbors, a starting point was afforded for missionary efforts. The ecclesias­tical organization had, it is true, been broken up; only in southern Bavaria a bishopric founded in Roman times maintained its existence at Seben, and the diocese of Augsburg stretched over a part of the Bavarian territory. Under these circum­stances the fact was of decisive importance that the Bavarians no sooner occupied their new home than they came into a position of dependence on the Frankish kingdom. The first ducal family, that of the Agilulfings, was of Frankish origin and

professed Christianity, and the first

Labors outsiders who labored for the spread of IMis  of the faith in Bavaria came from the sionaries. Frankish kingdom. Eustasius of Lux 

euil (q.v.), the successor of Columban, worked there, and left missionaries trained by him when he returned to Burgundy. Later, Rupert, bishop of Worms, found a wide field here for his activity; Emmeram and Corbinia,n (qq.v.) were Franks. Side by side with them there seem to have been at a very early period some Scoto­Irish monks, but there is no record of their labors. The result of the combined operation of these imperfectly known factors was the acceptance of Christianity by the Bavarian race as a whole, which was completed in the course of the seventh century. It is a remarkable fact that it was not accompanied by the organization of a local epis­copate; as far as can be told the direction of eccle­siastical affairs was in the hands of the dukes; it is Theodo who invites Rupert thither, and who treats with the pope in regard to church institutions. From this fact it would appear that the Christian profession of the dukes played a decisive part in the conversion of the people at large. The exist 

ence of the Church without diocesan bishops was made possible by the fact that the wandering monks and missionaries were frequently in episcopal orders, and could thus perform the strictly episcopal functions.

The above mentioned Duke Theodo, acting in concert with the pope, endeavored to introduce a more regular organization. With this end in view, he visited Rome in 716, and had an agree­ment with Pope Gregory II as to the measures to be taken. At least four dioceses were to be founded corresponding to the divisions of the secular juris­diction. The bishop of the moat

Orgsniza  important place was to be set as tion of metropolitan at the head of the

Bishoprics. Bavarian Church, the pope reserving

the right to consecrate him, and if

necessary to name an Italian. Order was to be

brought into the ecclesiastical affairs by a general

visitation; the Roman use was to be taken as the

model in liturgical matters. But these plans

were never carried into execution, apparently by

reason of the death of Theodo. The organization

of the Bavarian bishoprics, involving the termina­

tion of the missionary period, was only accomplished

by Boniface (q.v.), who paid a short visit to the

country in 719, and returned in 735 or 736 to make

a formal visitation by virtue of what was practically

s metropolitan jurisdiction over the whole of

Germany, for the purpose of acquiring full infor­

mation as to the prevailing conditions. His

definite organizing work is introduced by a brief

(738 or 739) from Gregory III to the bishops of

Bavaria and Alemannia, enjoining them to receive

Boniface with fitting honors as his representative,

and to attend a synod to be held by him. In 739

Boniface undertook the settlement of diocesan

boundaries and institutions, and provided three

of the four bishoprics of Bavaria with bishops

consecrated by himself Erembrecht, brother of

Corbinian, at Freising, Gavibald at Regensburg,

and John, a newcomer from England, at Salzburg­

while Vivilo, who had been consecrated by the pope,

remained at Passau. Gregory III confirmed these

arrangements on Oct. 29, and the subordinate

divisions of archdeaconriea and parishes were

soon organized. The decisions of the Synod of

Reisbach (799) show the parochial system in full

operation. (A. Heucg.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hauck, KD, vol. i; 8. Riesler, (#eachichts Bayerna, vol. i, Goths, 1873; Rsttberg, RD, 2 vole.;

Friedrich, KD, 2 vole.

BAVINCg, HERMAN: Dutch Reformed; b. at Hoogeveen (35 m. s. of Groningen), Holland, Dec. 13, 1854. He was educated at the gymnasium of Zwolle, the theological seminary of the Reformed Church at Kampen, and the University of Leyden (D.D., 1880); he was then pastor at Franeker, Friesland (1881,82), and professor of dogmatic theology in the theological seminary at Kampen (1882 1903). Since 1903 he has been professor of dogmatics and apologetics at the Free Uni­versity, Amsterdam. In theology he adheres to the principles of the Heidelberg Confession and the canons of the Synod of Dort. He has written De Ethiek van H. Zwingli (Kampen, 1880); De



Wetenschap der htilige Godgeleerdheid (1883); De Theologie van Prof. Dr. D. Chantepie de la Sauasaye (Leyden, 1884); De Katholiciteit van Christendom en Kerk (Kampen, 1888); De algemeene Genade (1894); Gerefornxeerde Dogmatiek (4 vole., 1895­1901); Beginselen der Psychologie (1897); De Of­ferande des Lofs (The Hague, 1901); De Lebenheid des Geloofs (Kampen, 1901); Hedendaagsche lVloraal (1902); Roeping en Wedergeboorte (1902); Gods­dienst en Godgeleerdheid (Wageningen, 1902); Christelijke Wetenschap (Kampen, 1904); Chris­telijke Wereldbeachouwing (1904); Podagogische Be­glnaelen (1904); and Bilderdijk als Danker en Dichter (1906).

BAXTER, RICHARD: One of the greatest of English theologians; b. at Rowton (42 m. n.e. of Shrewsbury), Shropshire, Nov. 12, 1615; d. in London Dec. 8, 1691. Though without a university education, and always sickly, he acquired great learning. In 1633 he had a brief experience of court life at Whitehall (London), but turned from the court in disgust and studied theology. In 1638 he was ordained by the bishop of Worcester and preached in various places till 1641, when he

began his ministry at Kidderminster Ministry (18 m. s.w. of Birmingham), as at Bidder  "; teacher."; There he labored with

 inster. wonderful success so that the place

was utterly transformed. When the Civil War broke out (1642) he retired temporarily to Gloucester and then to Coventry because he sided with the parliament, while all in and about Kidderminster sided with the king. He was, however, no blind partizan and boldly spoke out for moderation and fairness. After acting as an army chaplain he separated from the army, partly on account of illness, and returned to Kidder­minster.

In the spring of 1660 he left Kidderminster and went to London. He preached before the House of Commons at St. Margaret's, Westminster, Apr. 30, 1660, and before the lard mayor and aldermen at St. Paul's, May 10, and was among those to give Charles II welcome to his kingdom. Charles made him one of his chaplains and offered him

the bishopric of Hereford, which he In London. declined. He was a leader on the Non 

conformist aide in the Savoy Con­ference (1661) and presented a revision of the Prayer book which could be used by the Non­conformists. He also preached frequently in different pulpits. Seeing how things were going, he desired permission to return to Kidderminster as curate, but was refused. On May 16, 1662, three days before the Act of Uniformity was passed, he took formal farewell of the Church of England and retired to Acton, a west suburb of London. From this time on he had no regular charge and until the accession of William and Mary in 1888 he suffered, like other Non conformist preachers, from repressive laws often rigorously and harshly enforced. On Sept. 10, 1662, he married Margaret, daughter of Francis Charlton, of Shropshire, twenty­four years his junior, who possessed wealth and social position, and made him a devoted helpmeet,

cheerfully going with him into exile and prison and spending her money lavishly in the relief of their less fortunate fellow sufferers. She died June 14, 1681, and Baxter has perpetuated her memory in a singularly artless but engaging memoir (London, 1681).

During all these years on the verge of trouble

because he persisted in preaching, he was actually

imprisoned only twice, once for a short period,

and again from Feb. 28, 1685, to Nov. 24, 1686.

The judge who condemned him the second time

was George Jeffreys, who treated him

Imprison  with characteristic brutality. The meat. charge was that in his Paraphrase of the New Testament (1685) Baxter had libeled the Church of England. But insult, heavy and indeed ruinous fines, enforced wander­ings, anxiety as to personal safety, and imprison­ment had no power to daunt Baxter's spirit. He preached constantly to great multitudes, and ad­dressed through his writings a still vaster throng. The Toleration Act of 1688 ended his sufferings and he died in peace.

Baxter was one of the moat voluminous of Eng­lish authors, and one of the best. But there is no complete edition of his 1038 treatises, only of his prac­tical works. A few of his works are in verse (Poet­ical Fragments, reprinted, London, 1821), though he has small claim to be called a poet, and one familiar hymn ("; Lord, it belongs not to my care ";) has been manufactured out of a longer one of his. The after world knows him by reputation as the author of The Reformed Pastor (1656),

Writings. a treatise on pastoral theology still

usable; A Call to the Unconverted to

turn and live and accept o f mercy while mercy may

be had, as even they would find mercy in the day o f

their extremity; from the Living God (1657), uttered

as a dying man to dying men and impressive to day;

but chiefly because of The Saints' Everlasting Rest

or a treatise of the blessed state of the Saints in their

enjoyment of God in glory. Wherein is chewed its

excellency and certainty; the misery of those that

lose it, the way to attain it, and assurance o f it; and

how to live in the continual delightful foretaste of it,

by the help o f meditation. Written by the author

for his own use, in the time of his languishing, when

God took him off from all publike employment; and

afterwards preached in his weekly lecture (1650).

The ";Saints' Rest "; gained a reputation it has never

lost, but the 648 pages of the original edition have

proved too many for posterity and the work is

read nowadays, if at all, only in an abridgment

of an abridgment. The best brief characterization

of this faithful, fearless, and gifted religious teacher

is on his monument at Kidderminster, erected by

Churchmen and Non conformists, and unveiled

July 28, 1875: "; Between the years 1641 and 1660

this town was the scene of the labours of Richard

Baxter, renowned equally for his Christian learning

and his pastoral fidelity. In a stormy and divided

age he advocated unity and comprehension, point­

ing the way to everlasting rest."; In many re­

spects Baxter was a modern man.

Baxter's theology was set forth moat elaborately in his Latin Methodus theologies Chriatianre (London,

BOXW Ileach


1681); the Christian Directory (1673) contains

the practical part of his system; and Catholic

Theology (1675) is an English ergo 

His sition. His theology made Baxter

Theology. very unpopular among his contempo­

raaies and caused a split among the Die­

senters of the eighteenth century. As summarized

by ThomasW. Jenkyn, it differed from theCalvinism

of Baxter's day on four points: (i) The atonement

of Christ did not consist in his suffering the identical

but the equivalent punishment (i.e., one which would

have the same effect in moral government) as that

deserved by mankind because of offended law.

Christ died for sins, not. persons. While the hens  ~,

fits of substitutionary atonement are accessible I

and available to all men for their salvation; they

have in the divine appointment a special reference

to the subjects of personal elation. (2) The elect

were a certain fined number determined by the

decree without any reference to their faith as .the

ground of their election; which decree contemplates

no reprobation but rather the redemption of all

who will accept Christ as their Savior. (3) What

is imputed to the sinner in the work of justification

is not the righteousness of Christ but the faith of

the sinner himself in the righteousness of Christ.

(4) Every sinner has a distinct agency of his own

to exert in the process of his conversion. The Baz­

terian theory, with modifications, was adopted by

many later Presbyterians and Congregationalists

in England, Scotland, and America (Isaac Watts,

Philip Doddridge, and many others).

Btsmoomr>n: Bantu's Practical Works were collected by w. Orme and published is 23 vole., London, 1830; vol. i con­tains Orme's Life and Times of Richard Baxter, published separately in 2 vole., the same year; a table of the con­tents of this edition of Banter's works is found in Darling's Cyciopddia Bi6liopraphica, pp. 205 208, London, 1864; the Practical Works appeared also in 4 vole., ib. 1847; and Select Practical Writings, ed. L. Bacon, 2 vole., New Haven, 1844. An Annotated List of the Writings o/ R. Baxter is appended to the ed. of What Must we do to  6e Saved t by A. B. Gmeart, London, 1868. The chief source for a life is the antobiogiaphiod material left to M. Byl­vester, who published it as ReLiquice Baxterianar, London, 1898, abridged by E. Calamy, 1702, this enlarged and re­published in 2 vole., 1713. A notable paper on Baxter by Sir James Stephen, originally published in the Edin­burgh Review, is to be found in his Essays, vol. ii, Lon­don, 1880. Among the biographies may be mentioned A. B. Grosw k Representative Nonconformists, 11, Richard Baxter, ib. 1879; G. D. Boyle, Men Worth Remembering, Richard Baxter, ib. 1883; J. Stalker, Richard Baxter, Edin­burgh, 1883; DNB, iii, 429 d37; J. H. Davies, Life of Richard Baxter, London, 1887. The account of his trial is given by Macaulay in his History of England, vol. ii. Consult also Banter's Making Light of Christ, with an Essay on his Lice, Ministry and Theology, by T. W. Jen­kyn, London, 1848.

BAYhE, bbl, PIERRE: French Protestant; b. at Carts (li m. w. of Pamiers), department of Ariisge, Nov. 18, 1647; d. at Rotterdam Dec. 28, 1706. He was the son of a Calvinist clergyman, and, in 1666, began his studies at the Protestant Academy at Puylaurens, whence he went to the University of Toulouse in 1669. Not satisfied with the objections of the Reformed against the dogma of a divinely appointed judge in matters of faith, he became a Roman Catholic. He spent eighteen months at the Jesuits' College in Toulouse,

and then returned to Protestantism sad went to Geneva (1670), wham, living as a tutor in private families, he studied theology as well as the Car­tesian philosophy. His friendship with Jacques Basaage sad Minutoli began there. Later he accom­panied pupils to Rouen and in 1675 to Paris. Then he spent several years as. a lecturer on philosophy at $E3daa; when that academy was closed by order of the king (1681), he accepted an appointment as lecturer on philosophy at the "; Acole illustre "; of Rotterdam. In this refuge of liberty, Bayle wrote most of his works. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes raised his indignation, and several of the best Protestant works called forth by that disgraceful piece of policy proceeded from the pen of Bayle. The conclusion at which he arrives by his close reasoning is: that matters of belief should be outside the sphere of the State as such a dan­gerous principle for Catholicism, and the book was at once put on the Index. Even among Protes­tants Bayle had adversaries. Jurieu, his jealous and violent opponent at Rotterdam, considered toleration equal to indifference, and reproached Bayle with dangerous skepticism, which made his position very difficult. He tried for an appoint­ment in Berlin. Brit the realization of this wish was prevented by the death of the great Elector Frederick William. Jurieu continued his attacks and even went so far as to represent Bayle as the head of a party working into the hands of Louis XIV by aiming at a split between the princes allied against France. William III gave credence to this and influenced the magistrate of Rotterdam to remove Bayle from his position (1693). From that time he lived for his literary work, chiefly bearing on philosophy and the history of literature. His Didionsaasire historique et critique [(2 vole. in three parts Rotterdam, 1697; 2d ed., 3 vole., 1702; 11th ed., 16 vole., Paris, 1820 24; Eng. transl., 5 vole., London, 1734 38)] was mast favorably re­ceived by all the learned men of Europe, though it brought on him a revival of the reproach of skepticism, of want of respect for the Holy Scrip­tures, even of Manicheism. Called to justify himself before a commission appointed by the presbytery of. Rotterdam, he was treated with great mod­eration, sad consented to change some of the offen­sive articles, which appeared in their new form in the second edition of his Dictionrtaare. Accusations against him came up again from time to time, and he tried to refute them in minor philosophical works. Besides the Dactiortnaire his works include: Lettres h M. L. D. A. C., dodetcr en Sorbo»rte, oic il est prouW qua lee comdes ne sont point Is pr&age d'aticvai matlaeur (Cologne, 1682); Critique g&z&ale de l'Histoire du Cahrinisme de M. Maimbourg (Amsterdam, 1682); ILecueil de qttelques pies con­cernant la ph%losophie de M. Descartes (Amsterdam, 1684); Nots ltea de la Rkpublique den ldtrea (1684­1687); Ce qua c'eat q>noun le r~gne de Louis lC la7rand (St. Omer, 1685); Com­mentaire philosophique our cea parolee de ,1. C.: ";Contrains lesd'entrer"; (Amsterdam,1686); Ites;oanse de l'atiteecr den Notsroetlea de la Rkpttblique den leteres en faveur du P. Malebranche sur lee pLxieira des aens ( R,otterdam, 1686) ; Avis imp aux ,61u 


giks sur leer Prochain retottr en France (Amsterdam, 1690; 1709) ; Lettres choisies avec des remarqtiea (Rot­terdam, 1714); Nouvellea Zettrea (The Hague, 1739). G. BONET MAURY.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. de is Monnoye (pseudonym for Du RR­veat), Hiatoire du Mr. Basle et see ouvragea, Amsterdam, 1718; P. des Maizeaux, Vie de P. Basle, The Hague, 1730, re­printed from the 3d ed. of the Dictio»naire,Amaterdam,1730, reproduced in the Eng. tranel. of the "; Dictionary, ";ut sup.; E. and It. Haag, La France Proteatanfe, ii, 80 83, 9 vole., Paris, 1846 59; L. Feuerbach, P. Basle, ei» Beidnp ew Geachichfe der Philoaophie and der Meuachheit, Leipeic, 1848; J. P. Dsmiron, Memoirs our Basle et sea doctrines, Paris, 1850; C. A. 3t. Beuve, in Lundia, vol. ix, ib. 1852; F. Bouillier, Hiatoire de la Philoaophis cartEai.enne, ii, 476, ib. 1854; C. Lenient, dude our Basle, ib. 1855; A. Jean­maire, Eaaai our la critique religieuae de Bayk, $trae­burg, 1862; Voltaire, Siecle de Louis XIV, chap. 36; A. Deschamps, La Geni!ae du sceptieeame t?rudit chew Basle, Brussels, 1879; J. Denis, Boyle et Juriea, Caen, 1886; P. Janet, Hiafoire de la science politique dana sea rapporta suet la morale, Paris, 1887.

BAYLEY, JAMES ROOSEVELT: Roman Cath­olic archbishop of Baltimore; b. at Rye, N. Y., Aug. 23, 1814; d. in Newark, N. J., Oct. 3, 1877. He was a nephew of Elizabeth (Bayley) Seton ("; Mother Seton ";), founder of the order of Sisters of Charity in America; was graduated at Washington (Trinity) College, Hartford, Conn., 1835; rector of St. Peter's church, Harlem, New York, 1840 41; received into the Roman Catholic Church at Rome, 1842; studied in Paris and Rome, and was ordained priest in New York, 1843; was professor in St. John's College, Fordham, New York, and its acting president, 1845 46; became secretary to Bishop Hughes of New York, 1846, bishop of Newark, 1853, archbishop of Baltimore and primate of America, 1872. He published a volume of pas­toral letters; Sketch of the History of the Catholic Church on the Island of New York (New York,1853); Memoirs of Simon Gabriel Brut, First Bishop of Vincennes (1861).

BAYLY, LEWIS: Anglican bishop; b. perhaps at Carmarthen, Wales, perhaps at Lamington (6 m. s.w. of Bigger), Scotland, year unknown; d, at Bangor, Wales, Oct. 26, 1631. He was educated at Oxford; became vicar of Evesham, Worcester­shire, .and in 1604, probably, rector of St. Matthew's, Friday street, London; was then chaplain to Henry Prince of Wales (d. 1612), later chaplain to King James I, who, in 1616, appointed him bishop of Bangor. He was an ardent Puritan. His fame rests on The Practice of Piety, directing a Christian how to walk that he may please God (date of first ed. unknown; 3d ed., London, 1613). It reached its 74th edition in 1821 and has been translated into French, German, Italian, Polish, Romansch, Welsh, and into the language of the Massachusetts Indians. It was one of the two books which John Bunyaa's wife brought with her the other one being Arthur Dent's Plaint Man's Pathway to Heaven and it was by reading it that Bunsen was first spiritually awakened.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A biographical preface by Grace Webster is prefixed to the Practice of Piety, London, 1842; oon­avlt also A. i; Wood, Athena! Oxonienaes, ed. P. Bliss, ii, 525 531, 4 vole., ib. 1813 20.

IL 2

BAY PSALM BOOK: A metrical translation of the Psalms, published by Stephen Daye at Cam­bridge, Mass., in 1640 and the first book printed in America. The work of translation was begun in 1636, the principal collaborators being Thomas Welds, Richard Mather, and John Eliot, the mis­sionary to the Indians. The rendering, as the translators themselves recognized in their quaint preface to the book, was a crude specimen of Eng­lish, and carrying to the extreme their belief in the inspiration of the Bible, they tortured their version into what they conceived to be fidelity to the original. The meter, moreover, is irregular, and the rimes are frequently ludicrous. The general spirit and form of the translation may be represented by the following rendering of Ps. zviii, 6 9:

6. "; I in my streighte, cal'd on the Lord, and to my God cry'd: be did hears from his temple my voyce, my crye, before him came, unto his ears.

7. "; Then th' earth shocks, do quak't, do mofitaines recta mov'd, Ac were atird at his ire,

Vp from his nostrils went a amosk, and from his mouth devouring fire; By it the coalee inkindled were.

9. "; Likewise the heavens he downs how'd, And he descended, do there was under his feet a gloomy cloud.";

Of the first edition of the Bay Psalm Book only eleven copies are known to exist. In 1647 a second edition, better printed and with the spellitig and punctuation corrected, was published either by Stephen Daye or possibly by Matthew Daye or even in England, and this edition long remained in general use among the Puritans of New England. A reprint of the first edition (71 copies) was issued privately at Cambridge in 1862.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. F. Roden, The Cambridge Press, New York, 1908.

BDELLIUM, deli um (Hebr. bedhola7.d) : One

of the products of the land of Havilah, mentioned

with gold and the ahoharn. stone (E. V. "; onyx ";)

in Gen. ii, 11 12. In Num. xi, 7, manna is said

to have resembled it. It was, therefore, some­

thing well known to the Hebrews, but the

exact meaning is uncertain. Some have thought

that it was a precious stone, perhaps the pearl;

others identify it with myrrh or with musk. The

most probable and generally accepted explanation

is that it was the gum of a tree, much prized in

antiquity and used in religious ceremonies. Pliny

(Hilt. net., xii, 35) describes it as transparent,

waxy, fragrant, oily to the touch, and bitter; the

tree was black, of the size of the olive; with leaves

like the ilex, and fruit like the wild fig; he desig­

nates Bactria as its home, but statue that it grew

also in Arabia, India, Media, and Babylonia. It

probably belonged to the balsamodendra and was

allied to the myrrh. I. BENZtNVEn.

BEACH, HARLAN PAGE, Congregationalist; b. at South Orange, N. J., Apr. 4, 1854. He was



educated at Yale College (B.A., 1878) and An­dover Theological Seminary (1883). He was instructor in Phillips Andover Academy 1878 80, and was ordained in 1883. He was missionary in China. for seven years, and from 1892 to 1895 was instructor and later superintendent of the School for Christian Workers, Springfield, Mass. He was appointed educational secretary of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions in 1895, and held this position until 1906, when he was chosen professor of the theory and practise of missions in the Yale Divinity School. He has been a corporate member of the American Board of Com­missioners for Foreign Missions since 1895 and of the cooperating committee of the same organi­zation since 1906, as well as chairman of the ex­hibit committee and executive committee of the Ecumenical Conference in 1900, member of the Bureau of Missions Trustees since 1901, member of the executive committee of the Yale Foreign Missionary Society since 1903, member of the advi­sory board of Canton Christian College and trustee of the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy since 1905. In theology he is a moderate conservative. He has written The Cross in the Land of the Trident (New York, 1895); Knights of the Labarum (1896); New Testament Studies in Missions (1898); Dawn on the Hills of Tang : or, Missions in China (1898); Protestant Missions in South America (1900); Geography and Atlas of Protestant Miscuons (2 vole., 1901 03); Two Hundred Years of Christian Activity in Yale (New Haven, 1902); Princely Men of the Heavenly Kingdom (New York, 1903); and India and Christian Opportunity (1904).

BEARD, CHARLES: English Unitarian; b. at

Higher Broughton, Manchester, July 27, 1827,

son of John Relly Beard, ales a well known Uni­

tarian minister and educator (b. 1800; d. 1876);

d. at Liverpool Apr. 9,.1888. He studied at Man­

chester New College 1843 48, was graduated B.A.

at London University 1847, and continued his

studies at Berlin 18489; became assistant min­

ister at Hyde Chapel, Gee Crone, Cheshire, 1850,

minister 1854, minister at Renshaw Street Chapel,

Liverpool, 1867. From 1864.to 1879 he edited The

Theological Review. Besides sermons, addresses,

etc., he published Port Royal, a Contribution to

the History o f Religion and Literature in France

(2 vole., London, 18G1); The Reformation in its

Relation to Modern Thought (Iiibbert lectures for

1883); and Martin Luther and the Reformation in

Germany until the Close of the Diet of Worms

(ed. J. F. Smith, 1889).

BEARD, RICHARD: Cumberland Presbyterian; b. in Summer County, Tenn., Nov. 27, 1799; d, at Lebanon, Tenn., Nov. 6, 1880. He was licensed in 182(1; graduated at Cumberland College, Prince­ton, Ky., 1832, and was professor of Greek and Latin there 1832 38, and in Sharon College, Sharon, Mica., 1838 43; president of Cumberland College 1843 54; professor of systematic theology in Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenu., after 1854. He pub­lished the following books. Why am 1 a Cumberland Presbyterian? (Nashville, 1872); Lectures on The 

ology (3 vole., 1873 75); Brief Biographical .Sketches of Some of the Early Ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (1874).

BEARDSLEE, CLARK SMITH: Congrega­tionalist; b. at Coventry, N. Y., Feb. 1, 1850. He was educated at Amherst College (B.A., 1878), Hartford Theological Seminary (1879), and the University of Berlin. He was instructor in He­brew at Hartford Theological Seminary from 1$78 to 1881, and then held successive pastorates at Le Mars, Ia. (1882 85), Prescott, Ariz. (1885 86), and West Springfield, Mass. (1886 88). In 1888 he was appointed associate professor of systematic theology at Hartford Theological Seminary, and four years later was made professor of Biblical dogmatics and ethics, a position which he still holds. In theology he is a Biblical Evangelical. He is the author of Christ's Estimate of Himself (Hartford, 1899); Teacher Training with the Master Teacher (Philadelphia, 1903); and Jesus the King of Truth (Hartford, 1905).

BEATIFICATION: An intermediate stage in the process of canonization. It is in modern usage itself the result of a lengthy course of inquiry into the life of the person under consideration, and is solemnly declared in St. Peter's at Rome. By it the title of "; Blessed "; is attributed to the sub­ject, and a limited and partial cultus of him per­mitted, as in a certain country or order. See CANONIZATION.

BEATIFIC VISION: The direct and unhindered vision of God, which is part of the reserved blessed­ness of the redeemed (I Cor. xiii, 12; I John iii, 2; Rev. axii, 3, 4 ). The conception of its nature moat necessarily be very vague, but belief in its existence is said to be founded upon Scripture and reason. The only question concerns its time. This has been much disputed. The Greek Church and many Protestants, especially Lutherans and Calvinists, put the vision after the judgment day (so Dr. Hodge, Systematic Theology, iii, 860). Ae­cording to the view prevalent among Roman Catho­lic theologians, the vision, though essentially com­plete before the resurrection, is not integrally so until the soul is reunited to the glorified body (con­sult H. Hurler, Theologise dogmaticcE compendium, vol. iii, De Deo consummatore, chap. v, 10th ed., Innsbruck, 1900).

BEATON, bf'tea (BETHUNE), be than' or be ttin', DAVID: Cardinal archbishop of St. Andrews; b. 1494; assassinated at St. Andrews May 29,1546. He was the third son of John Beacon of Auchmuty, Fifeahire; studied at the universities of 9t. Andrews and Glasgow, and at the age of fifteen went to Paris and studied law; became abbot of Arbroath in 1523; bishop of Mirepoia in Langue­doc 1537; cardinal Dec., 1538. He was made lord privy seal in 1528; succeeded his uncle, James Beaton, as archbishop of St. Andrews in 1539; was consecrated archbishop of Glasgow at Rome in 1552; became chancellor and prothonotary apos­tolic and legate a latere in 1543. He served his country in many important diplomatic missions.



In the bitter political contests of the time between

the French and English parties he aided with the

former, and fought with energy and courage for

the independence of Scotland against the plans of

Henry VIII. In the religious contests between

Romaniata and Reformers he took as decidedly the

part of the hierarchy and did not scruple to use

intrigue and force when argument and persuasion

failed. His memory has been darkened by his

severity against heretics and his immoral life.

The case of George Wishart (q.v.) is adduced as a

particularly flagrant piece of religious persecution;

but it moat be remembered that he lived in a rude

country in turbulent times, and the Reformers were

implicated in political intrigues and treasonable

plots. The execution of Wishart was the imme­

diate cause of a conspiracy to put Becton out of

the way, and certain members of the Reform

party murdered him in his bedchamber.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Chambers, Lives o/ Illustrious Scotchmen,

ed. T. Thomson, b vole., Edinburgh, 1835; C. R. Rogers,

Life of George Wiahart, ib. 1878; DNB, iv, 17 18; J. Herlr­

lees, Cardinal Becton, Priest and Politician, London, 1891.


b. at Guelph, Ont., Mar. 31, 1848 ; d. at Louisville,

Ky., Sept. 4, 1906. Ire was educated at the

University of Toronto (B.A., 1875), Knox Theo­

logical College, Toronto (1878), Illinois Wesleyan

University (Ph.D., 1884), and Presbyterian Theo­

logical College, Montreal (D.D., 1887). He was

tutor in Knox College in 1876 78, and held Cana­

dian pastorates at Baltimore and Coldspringa

(1878 82) and Brantford (1882 88), in addition

to being examiner to Toronto University in 1884­

1838. In the latter year he entered the Presbyterian

Church, South, and was appointed professor of

apologetics in Columbia Seminary, Columbia, S. C.,

remaining there until 1893, when he became

professc: of apologetics and systematic theology in

the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Ken­

tucky at Louisville. He published Utilitarian

Theory of Morals (Brantford, Ont., 1884); Methods

of Theism (1887); Radical Criticism (Chicago, 1894);

Presbyterian Standards (Richmond, Va.,1896); and

Apologetics (vol. i, 1903). He also edited the Me­

morial Volume of the Westminster Assembly Celebra­

tion at Charlotte, N. C. (Richmond, Va., 1897), and

was associate editor of the Christian Observer

from 1893 and of The Presbyterian Quarterly from


BEATTIE, JAMES: Scotch poet; b. at Laurence­

kirk (70 m. n.n.e. of Edinburgh), Kincardineshire,

Oct. 25, 1735; d. at Aberdeen Aug. 18, 1803. He

studied at the Marischal College, Aberdeen (M.A.,

1753), and, after seven years as a school teacher,

became professor of moral philosophy and logic

at that institution in 1760. In reply to Hume he

wrote An Essay on the Nature and Immutability

of Truth (London, 1770), which was popular and

successful, but has little value as a philosophical

work. Other works of his were: Dissertations,

Moral and Critical (1783); Evidences of the Christian

Religion (2 vole., Edinburgh, 1786); and Elements

of Moral Science (2 vols., 1790 93). His poems,

of which the chief is The Minstrel (books i ii, 1771 

1774), are much better than his philosophical wri­tings; and it is for them that he is remembered.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sir William Forbes, An Account of the Life and Writings o/ James Beattie, Edinburgh. 1806; DNB, iv, 22 25.

BEAUSOBRE, bo";so'br, ISAAC DE: One of the moat distinguished preachers of the French Protestant Church; b. at Niort (220 m. s.w. of Paris), in the present department of Deua Scvrea, Mar. 8, 1659; d. in Berlin June 5, 1738. He was descended from a Protestant family of Gascogne, whose head took refuge in Geneva in 1578. He began his theological studies at the celebrated academy of Saumur, was ordained at the last synod of Loudun, and was called to be minister of the church at Chatillon, department of Indre, 1683. During the religious persecution, he fled in Nov., ~ 1685, to Rotterdam, where he was wel­comed at the house of the princess of Orange and, through her, was appointed chaplain to her daughter, princess of Anhalt Deasau. In 1694 he was appointed chaplain to the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick III, and was called to Berlin as minister of the French Church. He stayed there for thirty six years, preaching with much success, and was loaded with favors by King Frederick II. Among other honorable missions, he was sent in 1704 to the Duke of Marlborough, and, in 1713, to the commissioners of the Treaty of Utrecht, to ask for the exchange of Huguenot galley slaves for French prisoners. He was privy councilor of the king of Prussia, director of the French House and of the French schools, and superintendent of all the French churches in Berlin.

His works are: D~fertse de la doctrine des RE­fornt6s sur la Providence, la pr6destinatio», la grdce, et l'Euehariatie (Magdeburg, 1693); Lea Psaumea de David mix en rime frangaise (Berlin, 1701); Le Nouveau Testament de J. C. traduit en frangais our 1'original grec, suet des notes littdrales (Amster­dam, 1718); Histoire critique de Manich6e et du ManieUisme (1739); Sermons (4 vole., Lausanne, 1755); Histoire de la R6forrnation ou origins et pro­gr& du Luth6ranisme dons l'Empire de 1517 h 1556 (4 vols., Berlin, 1785 86). G. BONET MAURP.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A life is prefixed by A. B. de la Chapelle to Besusobre's Remarquea . . sur to Nouveau Testament, 2 vole, The Hague, 1742. Consult J. H. 8. Formey, dope des acadEmiciens de Berlin, 2 vola., Berlin, 1757; E, and h. Haag, La Franc proteatante, ed. H. L. Bordier, ii, 127, Paris. 1877; C. J. G. Bartholmese, La Grand Beauaobre, in Bulletin de la eociktE d'hisWire du protaatantiame frangaie, ib. 1878.

BEBB, LLEWELLYN JOHN MONTFORT: Church of England; b. at Cape Town Feb. 16, 1362. He was educated at New College, Oxford (B.A., 1885), and was fellow (1885 98), tutor (1889 98), and librarian (1892 98) of Brasenose College. He was examining chaplain to the bishop of Salis­bury from 1893 to 1898, and to the bishop of St. Aeaph from 1898 to 1902, and was also curator of the botanical garden, Oxford, in 1896 98 and Grin­feld lecturer on the Septuagint in the University of Oxford in 1837 1901. From 1892 to 1896 he was vice principal of Brasenose College; Oxford, and since 1898 has been principal of St. David's College, Lampeter, Wales. He was select preacher



at Cambridge in 1904, and has written Evidence of the Early Versions and Patristic Quotations on the Text of the New Testament, in Studio Biblica, ii (Oxford, 1890), and has edited Sermons Preached before the University of Oxford (1901) and U. Z. Rule's Graduated Lessons from the Old Testament (1902).


Bamberg, best known for his writings on eccle­

siastico political subjects; d. 1363. He came of

a knightly Frankish family, and studied canon

law at Bologna. From 1338 to 1352 he was a

member of the chapters of Wiirzburg and Mainz

and dean of St. Severna at Erfurt. In 1353 he

was made bishop of Bamberg, and remained there

till his death. In the struggle between Louis the

Bavarian and Popes John XXII, Benedict XII,

and Clement VI, he was among the jurists who

took the emperor's side. His treatise De jvribus

regni et inaPerii Romanorum (ed. J. Wimpfeling,

Strasburg, 1508; S. Sehard, in De jurisdietione,

auctoritate, et prceeminentia imperiali ac potentate

ecclesiastics variis attetoribtes scripts, Basel, 1566,

and often), dedicated to Louis' supporter, the

elector Baldwin of Treves, deals less with abstract

ideas and Aristotelian politics than with historical

considerations. Two minor works of his have also

been preserved, one in praise of the devotion of the

old German princes to the Church (in Schard, ut

sup.), the other a lament over the condition of the

Holy Roman Empire (ed. Peter, Wiirzburg, 1842).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Looehorn, Die llesehiehte des Biathums Bamberg, iii, 248 308, Bischoj Lupo7d 111 von 8ebenburp, Munich, 1891; A. Ueeermann, Epiacopatua Bamberpcnsia, pp. 178 180, Ban Bias, 1802; 8. Riesler, Die literariachen Widersaclur der PGpate, pp. 107 114, 180 192, Leipeic, 1874; F. Joel, Lupold III von Bebenburp, vol. i, Sein Leben, Halls, 1891 (the result of diligent research).

BEC, ABBEY OF: Benedictine abbey of Nor­mandy, situated at the present village of Le Bec­Hellouin (7 m. s.w. of Rouen). It was founded about 1034 by Herluin, a noble Norman, who was first abbot. Mainly because of its great teachers, Lanfranc (who came to the abbey about 1042 and was prior 1045 or 1046 66) and Anselm (en­tered the abbey 1060; prior 1063 78; abbot 1078 93; see ANBELM, SAINT, OF CANTERBURY), it became a famous center of learning for Normandy and, after the Conquest, for England. Among those who studied there were: Ansehn of Lucca, afterward Pope Alexander II; Aneelm of Laon; Gilbert Crispin, abbot of Westminster, author of the life of Herluin; Milo Crispin, biographer of Lanfranc and certain of the early abbots; Arnulf and Gun­dulf, bishops of Rochester; No of Chartres; Gut­mund, archbishop of Aversa; and William, arch­bishop of Rouen. Its fifth abbot, Theobald, became archbishop of Canterbury (1139); and the seventh abbot was Vaca.~ius, who about the middle of the twelfth century introduced the study of the Roman law into England. The abbey was des­troyed during the French Revolution

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Chronieon Bwceruis abbatias, with the lives by the Crispins above referred to, are in D'Aahdry's edition of t)ae works of Lanfrsna, Paris, 1818; reprinted

in MPL, cl; sad the Oeeta of seven Abbots of Bee, by Peter the Monk, written 1150, are in MPL, clxxxi.


MARTIN: Jesuit; b. at Hilvarenbeeck (35m. n.e. of Antwerp), in Brabant, Jan. 6, 1563; d. in Vienna Jan. 24, 1624. He joined the Jesuits in 1583; taught philosophy and theology at schools of the order in Cologne, Wilrzburg, Mainz, and Vienna; and became confessor to the emperor Ferdinand II. in 1620. He engaged in controversy with Lutherans, Calvinists and Anabaptists, and in particular at­tacked the Church of England. In his Contro­versia Anglieana de Potestate pontificis et regis (Mainz, 1613) he defended the morality of assassinating a heretic king; and in Qwestiones de fide hcereticis servanda (1609) he declared that no promise or oath given to a heretic was binding. The former work was condemned at Rome. His collected works were published in two volumes at Mainz, 1630 31.

BECK, JOHANN TOBIAS: German theologian; b. at Balingen (40 m. s.s.w. of Stuttgart), Wiirt­temberg, Feb. 22, 1804; d. at Tubingen Dec. 2S, 1878. He studied at Tu~ingen 1822 26, was pastor at Waldthann and Mergentheim, went to Basel as extraordinary professor in 1838, and in 1843 to Tiibingen, where he remained as professor and morning preacher till his death. He has been char­acterized as the most important representative of the strictly Biblical school of theology in the nine­teenth century. He aimed to base all doctrine on the Bible, and allowed value to Church teachings only as interpretations of the Bible. He held an extreme view of revelation and inspiration, and hardly entered into critico historical questions. His life was plain and simple, and his kind heart won general affection. He published, besides several collections of sermons, the following works: Einleitung in das System der ehristlichen Lehre (Stuttgart, 1838, 2d ed., 1870); Die Geburt den ehrist­dichen Lebens, aein Wesen and sein Gesetz (Basel, 1839); Die christliche Lehrtvissensehaft nosh den biblischen Urkunden, i, Logik (Stuttgart, 1841, 2d ed., 1875); Die christliche Menschenliebe,,das Wont and die Gemeinde Christi (Basel, 1842); Umriss der bx'blisehen Seelenlehre (Stuttgart, 1843, 3d ed., 1873; Eng. transl., Biblical Psychology, Edinburgh, 1877 ) ; Left f aden der christlichen Glaubenslehre fair Kirche, Schtde and Hates (Stuttgart, 1862, 2d ed., 1869); Gedanken aus and nosh der Schrift fur ehrist­liches Leben and geistliches Amt (Frankfort, 1859; 2d ed., 1878). After his death were published commentaries on the epistles to Timothy (Giitersloh, 1879) and the Romans (2 vole., 1884), and on Rev. i xii (1883); Pastorallehren des Nettea. Testaments (1880; Eng. transl., Pastoral Theology, Edinburgh, 1882); Yorlesungen fiber christliehe Ethik (3 vole., 1882 83); Briefs and Kernworte (1885); Vorlesungen fiber christliehe Glatibenslehre (2 vols., 1886 87); Vollendung den Reiehes Gotten (1887). (A. HAUCg.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY! For his life consult: Worte der Erinnerung, TVbingen, 1879 (the part by WeiserYCker is especially val­uable); B. J. Riggenbach, T. Beek, sin Schriftpelehrter sum Himmelreieh, Basel, 1888. On his theology consult: F. Liebetrut, J. T. Beck and mine Stellung sur Rirche.



Berlin, 1858; C. 8turhaha, Die Bechtfertigunpslehre reach Beck nit Beriickaichtigung von E6rard'e So7a, Leipaic, 1890. On his work as a preacher: A. Brbmel, Homiletiache Charak­terbiider, 2 vole., ib. 1874; A. Nebe, Geschichte der Predigt, vol. iii, Wiesbaden, 1879.

BECKET, THOMAS (commonly called Thomas a Becket): Archbishop of Canterbury 1162 70, the most determined English champion of the rights and liberties of the Church in his day; b. in London between 1110 and 1120; assassinated at Canterbury Dec. 29, 1170. His parents were of the middle class. He received an excellent edu­cation, which he completed at the University of Paris. Returning to England, he attracted the notice of Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, who entrusted him with several important missions to Rome, and finally made him archdeacon of Canterbury and provost of Beverley. He so dis­tinguished himself by his zeal and efficiency that Theobald commended him to King Henry II when the important office of chancellor was vacant. Henry, like all the Norman kings, desired to be absolute master of his dominions, in both Church and State, and could well appeal to the traditions

of his house when he planned to do Life before away with the special privileges of his Conse  the English clergy, which he regarded

cration. as so many fetters on his authority.

Becket struck him as an instrument well adapted for the accomplishment of his designs; the young man showed himself an accomplished courtier, a cheerful companion in the king's pleas­ures, and devoted to his master's interests with such a firm and yet diplomatic thoroughness that scarcely any one, unless perhaps it was John of Salisbury, could have doubted that he had gone over completely to the royal side. Archbishop Theobald died Apr. 18, 1161, and the chapter learned with some indignation that the king ex­pected them to choose Thomas his successor. The election was, however, consummated in May, and Thomas was consecrated on June 3, 1162.

At once there took place before the eyes of the astonished king and country an unexpected trans­formation in the character of the new primate. Instead of a gay, pleasure loving courtier, he stood forth an ascetic prelate in simple monastic garb, ready to contend to the uttermost for the cruse of the hierarchy. In the schism which at that time

divided the Church, he declared for Archbishop, Alexander III (q.v.), a man whose

::6z. devotion to the same strict hierarch 

ical principles appealed to him; and from Alexander he received the pallium at the Council of Tours. On his return to England, he proceeded at once to put into execution the project he had formed for the liberation of the Church of England from the very limitations which he had formerly helped to enforce. His aim was twofold: the complete exemption of the Church from all civil jurisdiction, with undivided control of the clergy, freedom of appeal, etc., and the acquisition and security of as independent fund of church property. The king was not slow to perceive the inevitable outcome o£ the archbishop's attitude, and called a meeting of the clergy at Westminster

(Oct. 1, 1163) at which he demanded that they should renounce all claim to exemption from civil jurisdiction and acknowledge the equality of all subjects before the law. The others were inclined to yield, but the archbishop stood firm. Henry was not ready for an open breach, and offered to be content with a more general acknowledgment and recognition of the "; customs of his ancestors."; Thomas was willing to agree to this, with the sig­nificant reservation "; saving the rights of the Church."; But this involved the whole question at issue, and Henry left London in anger.

Henry called another assembly at Clarendon for Jan. 30, 1164, at which he presented his demands in sixteen constitutions. What he asked involved the abandonment of the clergy's in 

The Con  dependence and of their direct con­

stitutions of nection with Rome; he employed all his

Clarendon. arts to induce their consent, and was

apparently successful with all but the

primate. Finally even Becket expressed his will­

ingness to agree to the constitutions; but when it

came to the actual signature he definitely refused.

This meant war between the two powers. Henry

endeavored to rid himself of his antagonist by ju­

dicial process and summoned him to appear before

a great council at Northampton on Oct. 8, 1164, to

answer charges of contempt of royal authority and

maladministration of the chancellor's office.

Becket denied the right of the assembly to judge him, appealed to the pope, and, feeling that his life was too valuable to the Church to be risked, went into voluntary exile on Nov. 2, embarking in a fishing boat which landed him in France. He went to Sens, where Pope Alexander was, while envoys from the king hastened to work against him, requesting that a legate should

Becket be sent to England with plenary au­

Leaves thority to settle the dispute. Alex­

England. ander declined, and when, the next

day, Becket arrived and gave him a

full account of the proceedings, he was still more

confirmed in his aversion to the king. Henry

pursued the fugitive archbishop with a series of

edicts, aimed at all his friends and supporters as

well as himself; but Louis VII of France received

him with respect and offered him protection. He

spent newly two years in the Cistercian abbey of

Pontigny, until Henry's threats against the order

obliged him to move to Sens again. He regarded

himself as in full possession of all his prerogatives,

and desired to see his position enforced by the

weapons of excommunication and interdict. But

Alexander, though sympathizing with him in theory,

was for a milder and more diplomatic way of reach­

ing his ends. Differences thus arose between pope

and archbishop, which were all the more embit­

tered when legates were sent in 1167 with authority

to act as arbitrators. Disregarding this limita­

tion of his jurisdiction, and steadfast in his prin­

ciples, Thomas treated with the legates at great

length, still conditioning his obedience to the king

by the rights of his order. His &rnlaesa seemed

about to meet with its reward when at last (1170)

the pope was on the point cf fulfilling his threats

sad excommunicating the king, and Henry, alarmed

8 Beecher


by the prospect, held out hopes of an agreement which should allow Thomas to return to England and resume his place. But both parties were really still holding to their former ground, and the desire for a reconciliation was only apparent. Both, however, seem for the moment to have be­lieved in its possibility; and the contrast was all the sharper when it became evident that the old irreconcilable opposition was still there. Henry, incited by his partizans, refused to restore the ec­clesiastical property which he had seized, and Thomas prepared to issue the pope's sentence against the despoilers of the Church and the bishops who had abetted them. It had been already sent to England for promulgation when he himself landed at Sandwich on Dec. 3, 1170, and two days later entered Canterbury.

The tension was now too great to be endured, and the catastrophe which relieved it was not long in coming. A passionate word of the angry king was taken as authority by four knights, who imme­diately plotted the murder of the archbishop, and

accomplished it in his own cathedral

Becket As  on Dec. 29. The crime brought its I

eassinated. own revenge. Becket was revered by

the faithful throughout Europe as a

martyr, and canonized by Alexander in 1173; while

on July 12 of the following year Henry humbled

himself to do public penance at the tomb of his

enemy, which remained one of the most popular

places of pilgrimage in England until it was des­

troyed at the Reformation (see CANTERBURY).


Bxai.toaaerar: The sources for a life were collected by J. C. Robertson in Materials for the Hiat. of Thomas Bucket, 8 vole., in Rolls Series, London, 1875 8b (contains all the known contemporary lives, others of later date, the Epis­flea, and other material); d. the Vita, epiatohe at reliquia, ed. J. A. Giles in PEA, 8 vole., Oxford, 184b 48, and J. A. Giles, Lite and Latteri of Thomas h Becket, 2 vole., London, 1848. For later discussions and lives consult: M. Cournier, L'Archev4qua de Cantorb&y, 2 vole., Paris, 1845; J. C. Robertson, Bucket, London, 1859; W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, ii, 354 607, ib. 1882; E. d Freeman, in Historical Essays, aeries 2, ib. 1880; idem, in Contemporary Review, Mar. Apr., 1878; J. A. Froude, Life and Times of Beekd, in Short Studies, vol. iv, ib. 1883; idem, in Nineteen& Century, ii (1877) 1b 27, 217 229, 389 410, 889 891; C. P. Stanley, Histor­ical Memorials of Canterbury, pp. b9 125,189 302, London, 1883; W. H. Hutton, St. Thomas of Canterbury, ib. 1889 (from contemporary lives); J. Morris, Lite and Martyr­dom of St. Thomas Becket, ib. 1891 (Roman Catholic, deals with monasteries and churches associated with Becket); M. Schmitz, Die politiachen Ideun des Thomas Bucket. Cre­feld, 1893; E. A. Abbott, 3t. Thomas of Canterbury: his Death and Miracles, 2 vole., London, 1898 (traverses the earlier accounts in a critical examination); DNB, Ivi, 16b 173.

BECKWITH, CHARLES Mi1PRIGERODE: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Alabama; b. in Prince George Co., Va., June 3, 1851. He studied at the University of Georgia (B.A., 1873), was mas­ter of the $ewanee Grammar School, University of the South (Sewanee, Tenn.), 1873 79, and was graduated from Berkeley Divinity School, Middle­town, Conn., in 1881. He was ordered deacon and advanced to the priesthood in the same year, and was rector of St. Luke's, Atlanta, Ga. (1881 $6), Christ Church, Houston, Tex. (1886 92), and

Trinity, Galveston, Tex. (1892 1902). In 1902 he was consecrated fourth bishop of Alabama. He has written The Trinity Course of Church Instruc­tion (New York, 1898) and The Teacher's Com­panion to the Trinity Course (1901).

BECKWITH, CLARENCE AUGUSTINE: Con­gregationalist; b. at Charlemont, Mesa., July 21, 1849. He studied at Olivet College, Olivet, Mich. (B.A.,1874), Yale Divinity School (1874 76), and Bangor Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1877. He became pastor of the First Congregational Church, Brewer, Me., in 1877, of the South Evangelical Congregational Church, West Roxbury, Mass., in 1882, professor of Christian theology at Bangor Theological Sem­inary in 1892, and professor of systematic theology at Chicago Theological Seminary in 1905. He holds that "; the realities of the Christian religion and the facts of Christian experience which we share with Christians of all ages are to be inter­preted by us in terms of modern thought."; He has written Realities of Christian Theology (New York, 1906).

BEC>i%, PIERRE JEAN: General of the Jesuits; b. at Sichem (33 m. s.e. of Antwerp) Feb. 8, 1795; d. at Rome Mar. 4, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus at Hildesheim in 1819, and was professed in 1830. He was active as a pastor at Hamburg, Hildesheim, and Brunswick, and in 1826 was sta­tioned at Kothen as the confessor of the newly con­verted duke and duchess of Anhalt Kiithen. From 1830 to 1848 he was in Vienna, where he exercised much influence, especially over Metternich, and was made procurator of the Society of Jesus in that country in 1847; when his Order was expelled from Austria in 1848, he was appointed rector of the University of Louvain. Four years later, how­ever, the Jesuits were readmitted to Austria, largely through his unceasing activity, and in 1852 lie rturned to Vienna as provincial of the Society. In the following yeas he was elected general, and held this office until 1883, when, on account of his ad­vancing years, the vicar general Antoine M. Ander­ledy was appointed to assist him. In the follow­ing year Beckx resigned the generalahip in favor of Anderledy. The successful fortunes of the Jesuits during the attacks upon them both in Austria and Germany were due in great part to his ability and tact, and in his administration the numbers of the Society were almost doubled. He was the founder and editor of the famous Civilth Cattolica, and. also wrote the anonymous Der Monat Marid (Vienna, 1838; Eng. transl. by Mrs. Edward Hazeland, London, 1884).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. M. Veretraeten, Leven roan den hoopeer­waarden Paten Petrua Beckx, Antwerp, 1889.

BEDE or BEDA (called ";the Venerable ";): The first great English scholar; b. in Northumbria (according to tradition, at Monkton, Durham, 5 m. e. of Newcastle) 672 or 673; d. at the monas­tery of Jarrow (6 m. e. of Newcastle) May 25, 735. Almost all that is known of his life is contained in a notice added by himself to his Hiatorea eccleaiastica (v, 24 ), which states that he was placed in the monas­tery at ZV earmouth at the age of seven, that he became



deacon in his nineteenth year, and priest in his

thirtieth. He was trained by the abbots Benedict

Biscop and Ceolfrid (qq.v.), and probably accom­

panied the latter to Jarrow in 682. There he spent

his life, finding his chief pleasure in being always

occupied in learning, teaching, or writing, and zeal­

ous in the performance of monastic duties. His

works show that he had at his command all the

learning of his time. He was proficient in patris­

tic literature, and quotes from Puny the Younger,

Vergil, Lucretius, Ovid, Horace, and other classical

writers, but with some disapproval. He knew

Greek and a little Hebrew. His Latin is clear and

without affectation, and he is a skilful story teller.

Like all men of his time he was devoted to the alle­

gorical method of interpretation, and was credu­

lous concerning the miraculous; but in most things

his good sense is conspicuous, and his kindly and

broad sympathies, his love of truth and fairness,

his unfeigned piety, and his devotion to the service

of others combine to make him an exceedingly

attractive character. His works were so widely

spread throughout Europe and so much esteemed

that he won the name of "; the teacher,of the Middle


Bede's writings are classed as scientific, historical,

and theological. The scientific include treatises

on grammar (written for his pupils), a work on

natural phenomena (De rerun notura), and two

on chronology (De temporibus and De temporum

rations). The moat important and best known

of his , works is the Historic eccteaiasticd genus

Anglorum, giving in five books the history of

England, ecclesiastical and political, from the time

of Caesar to the date of completion (731). The

first twenty one chapters, treating of the period

before the mission of Augustine, are compiled

from earlier writers such as Orosius, Gildas, Prosper

of Aquitaine, and others, with the insertion of

legend and tradition. After 596, documentary

sources, which Bede took pains to obtain, are used,

and oral testimony, which he employed not without

critical consideration of its value. His other his­

torical works taste lives of the abbots of Wear­

mouth and Jarrow, and lives in verse and prose of

St. Cuthbert. The most numero of his writings

are theological, and consist of ~mmentariea on

the books of the Old and New Testaments, homi­

lies, and treatises on detached portions of Scripture.

His last work, completed on his death bed, was

a translation into Anglo Saxon of the Gospel of


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The collected editions of Bede's works.

(such as by J. A. Giles, with Eng. travel. of the historical

works and life, Patres ecclesia Anpiioana, 12 voh., Lon­

don, 1843 44; in MPL, ac zev) leave much to be desired.

Good editions of the historical works, particularly of the

Hiatm•ia eedasiastica, have been issued by J. Smith, Cam­

bridge, 1722; J. Stevenson, Hint. accl., London, 1838,

Opera hietorfca minors, 181; G. H. Moberly, Oxford,

1889; J E. B. Mayor and J. R. Lumby, Hist. ecc1., books

iii and iv, Cambridge, 1881; A. Holder, Freiburg, 1890;

C. PI„mm.*, 2 vole., Oxford. 1898; Ecc7. Hint., travel.,

introduction, life, and notes, by A. M. 8ellar, London,

1907. The two works on chronology have been edited by

T. Mommeen in MOH, Chron. min., iii (1898). There

are English versions of the Ecclesiastical History by Bte­

vena, 1723, revised by J. A. Giles, London, 1840; J.

Stevenson, ib. 1863; and L. Gridley, Oxford, 1870. The

old Eng. version of the Hiat. eed., with trawl. and in­troduction, was ed. by T. Miller, in 4 parts, ib. 1870. For Bede's life cpneult the introduction and notes to the editions mentioned, particularly those of Stevenson and Plummer; G. F. Browns, The Venerable Beds, in The FatheratorEaplishReadara London, 1879,NewYork 1891; K. Warner, Beds der EhnoArdips and wine Zait, Vienna, 1881; J. B. Lightfoot, in Leaders o/ as Northern Church, London, 1890 (biographical sermons); F. Phillips, in Fathers of as English Church, vol. i, London, 1891 (sim­ple, scholarly, fair); W. Bright, Early English Church History, pp. 387 371 et passim, Oxford, 1897.

BEDELL, WILLIAM: Irish bishop; b. at Black Notley, near Braintree (50 m. n.e. of London), Essex, England, on or near Christmas day, 1571; d. at Drum Corr, near Kilmore, County Cavan, Ireland, Feb. 7, 1642. He studied at Emmanuel College, Cambridge (B.A., 1588; M.A., 1592; B.D., 1599), was ordained priest Jan.10,1597, and settled at Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, in 1602. In 1607 he went to Venice as chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton, British ambassador at that city, and there he made the acquaintance of a number of noteworthy men, including Marco Antonio de Dominis and Father Paolo Sarpi, author of the History o f the Council of Treat, the last two books of which, as well as Sarpi's History of the Venetian Interdict, he after­ward translated into Latin. He returned to Bury St. Edmunds in 1610, and removed to Hornings­heath, a neighboring parish, in 1616. In 1627 he was appointed provost of Trinity College, Dublin; in 1629 he became bishop of the united dio­ceses of Kihnore and Ardagh (County Longford); in 1633 he resigned the latter see owing to con­scientious objections to pluralities, and the belief that the proper administration of the diocese re­quired a separate bishop. His position was difficult; the dioceses were in wretched condition, and his earnest efforts to effect improvement stirred up. opposition. Nevertheless he reformed many abuses and enjoyed great esteem among the people. He wrote a short summary of Christian doctrine in English and Irish (published, Dublin, 1631), and a translation of the Old Testament into Irish was made under his supervision (published, London, 1685). When the rebellion of 1641 broke out, he refused to leave his diocese, and, after suffering many hardships, died of fever brought on by the privations which he had undergone. His Life with the Letters between Waddeswarth and Bedell was published by Bishop Burnet (London, 1685), and has been rewritten several times. The best biography is one by his son (ed. for the Camden Society T. W. Jones, London, 1872).

BEECHER, CHARLES: Congregationalist, fifth eon of Lyman Beecher; b. at Litchfield, Conn., Oct. 7, 1815; d. at Georgetown, Mass., Apr. 21, 1900. He was graduated at Bowdoin College 1834 and at Lane Theological Seminary 1836; became pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Fort Wayne, Ind., 1844; of the First Congregational Church, Newark, N. J., 1851; of the First Church, Georgetown, Mass., 1857. He lived in Florida 1870­1877, and for two years was State superintendent of schools. He published: The Incarnation (New York, 1849); A Review of the Spiritual Manifesta­tiorta (1853); David arid his Throne (1855); Redeemer



and Redeemed (Boston, 1864); and Spiritual Mani­festations (1879). With John Zundel he edited the music for The Plymouth Collection o f Hymns and Tunes (New York, 1855), and, alone, the Auto­biography, Correspondence, etc. of his father (2 vole., 1865).

BEECHER, EDWARD: Congregationalist, sec­ond son of Lyman Beecher; b. at East Hampton, L. L, Aug. 27. 1803;  d. in Brooklyn July 28, 1895. He was graduated at Yale 1822; began his theo­logical studies at Andover and continued them while acting as tutor at Yale 1825 26; was pastor of the Park Street Church, Boston, 1826 30; president of Illinois College, Jacksonville, Ill., 18304; pastor of the Salem Street Church, Boston, 1844 55, and editor of The Congregationalist 1849­1853; pastor at Galesburg, Ill., 185rr71; after 1871 resided in Brooklyn. He was lecturer on church institutions at the Chicago Theological Seminary (Congregational) 1859 66. In 1837 he defended the freedom of the press in the case of Elijah P. Lovejoy, an antislavery agitator at Alton, Ill. When Lovejoy's presses were destroyed by the mob, Beecher helped to obtain and secrete a new one, and was with Lovejoy and his brother, Owen, the night before the former was killed (Nov. 7, 1837). To resist the mob spirit he aided in found­ing the Illinois State Antislavery Society, drew up its constitution, and issued a Statement o f Anti­slavery Principles, and Address to the People of Illinois. He published a Narrative o f Riots at Alton (Cincinnati, 1838). His views as to the nature and cause of sin and on the atonement were set forth in two works, The Conflict of Ages, or the Great Debate on the Moral Relations of God and Man (Boston, 1853) and The Concord of Ages, or the Individual and Organic Harmony o f God and Man (New York, 1860), in which he expressed the belief that the present life is a continuation of a preceding existence as well as a preparation for a future one; that the material system is adapted to regenerate men, who have made themselves sinful in the pre­vious state; and that ultimately the conflict be­tween good and evil will disappear, and harmony be established. The doctrine of divine suffering he held to present the character of God in its moat affecting and powerful aspects, and to be essential to a true view of the atonement. He also published

On the Kingdom of God (Boston, 1827); Baptism

with Reference to its Import and Modes (New York,

1849); The Papal Conspiracy Exposed and Protes­

tantism Defended in the Light o f Reason, History,

and Scripture (New York, 1W); History of Opinions

on the Scriptural Doctrine o f Retribution (1878).

BEECHER, HENRY WARD: Congregation­alist, fourth son of Lyman Beecher; b. at Litoh­field, Conn., June 24, 1813; d. in Brooklyn Mar. 8, 1887. He was graduated at Amherst 1834, and at Lane Theological Seminary 1837; became pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Lawrenceburg, Ind., 1837, at Indianapolis 1839, and of Plymouth Church (Congregational), Brooklyn, 1847. The congregation was newly formed at that time, but soon became famed for its numbers and its influence, while Beecher attained to the position of the most


popular and widely known preacher in America. As a public lecturer he was no less successful. In his sermons he disregarded conventionalities both in subject and manner. His wit and humor appeared in his preaching, which, nevertheless, was earnest and edifying, and revealed a great character, sincere and reverent; his public prayers in particular were truly devotional (cf. Prayers from Plymouth Pulpit, New York, 1867). No alight dramatic power, robust health and physical at:ength, and a striking personal appearance added to the effect of his eloquence. Personally he was. a most estimable and attractive man, of generous instincts, of rare humanity, and catholic sympa­thies. He was active in the antislavery contest, but deprecated revolutionary measures. In 1863 he publicly advocated the Union cause in a series of addresses in the cities of England at a time when the sympathies of the people of England were strongly with the Southern Confederacy, and his success at this time before bitterly hostile audiences is one of the greatest feats of intellectual and ora­torical achievement (these addresses were published as The American Rebellion : Report of the Speeches delivered in Manchester, etc., Manchester, 1864, and are reprinted in Patriotic Addresses from 1860 to 1886 by Henry Ward Beecher, edited, with a review of Mr. Beecher's personality and influence in public affairs, by John R. Howard, New York, 1889).

In later life the development of Beecher's mind led him to desire a freedom which he thought could not be attained within strictly denominational lines, and, actuated ales by the wish not to com­promise his brethren by alleged heresies, in 1882, with his church, he withdrew from the Congrega­tional Association to which he belonged. The chief points of his divergence from the orthodox position o£ the time related to the person of Christ, whom he considered to be the Divine Spirit under the limitations of time, apace, and flesh; to miracles, which he considered divine uses of natural laws; and to future punishment, the endlessness of which he denied, inclining to a modification of the anni­hilation theory.

Beecher was regular contributor to The Inde­pendent from i~foundation in 1848 to 1870, and its editor for not quite two years (1861 63). He was editor of The Christian Union (since 1893 known as The Outlook), 1870 81, and made it the pioneer non denominational religious pager. He also wrote much for The New York Ledger. His ser­mons were published weekly after 1859 (under the title The Plymouth Pulpit), and have appeared in book form in numerous volumes. Sermons . . . selected from published and unpublished discourses and revised by their author, edited by Lyman Abbott (2 vole., New York, 1868), is a representative col­lection. His addresses, lectures, and articles were also gathered into many books, such as Lectures to Young Men (Indianapolis, 1844; rev. eds., New York, Boston, 18.50 and 1873); the Star Papers,

or experiences of art and nature (selections from

The Independent, so caned from his signature, *; 2 vo1a., New York, 1855 b8); Eyes and Ears (re­printed from The New York Ledger, Boston, 1862):



Lecture Room Talks (New York, 1870); A Summer

Parish (1875); Evolution and Religion (1885).

His books of moat permanent value were The Life

o f Jesus the Christ (i, New York, 1871; ii, left incom­

plete at his death and supplemented by extracts

from his sermons, 1891), and the Yale Lectures on

Preaching (Lyman Beecher lectures before the

Yale Divinity School, 1872 74; 3 vole., also col­

lected edition in one volume, New York, 1881).

He compiled The Plymouth Collection of Hymns

and Tunes (1855); and wrote Norwood, or Pillage

Life in New England, a novel (1867).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lyman Abbott and S. B. Halliday, Henry

Ward Beecher, Hartford, 1887; the Biography by his son

William C. Beecher and Samuel Scoville, assisted by his

wife, 1888; John Henry Barrows, Henry. Ward Beecher,

the Shakespeare of the Pulpit, New York. 1893; the Auto­

biographical REmiaiacencea edited by T. J. Ellinwood, his

private stenographer for thirty years, 1898; Lyman

Abbott, Henry Ward Beecher, Boston, 1903; N. L. Thomp­

eon, The History of Plymouth Church, New York, 1873.

BEECHER, LYMAN: Presbyterian; b. at New

Haven, Conn., Oct. 12, 1775; d. at Brooklyn Jan.

10, 1863. He was graduated at Yale 1797;

studied theology under President Dwight the fol­

lowing year, and, after preaching on probation for

a year at East Hampton, L. L, was ordained as

pastor there, 1799; in 1810 he removed to Litch­

field, Conn., and in 1826 to Boston, as pastor of

the Hanover Street Church (Congregational). In

1832 he became president and professor of the­

ology at the newly formed Lane Theological Semi­

nary, Cincinnati, where for the first ten years

he also served as pastor of the Second Presby­

terian Church. In 1851 he returned to Boston,

and after 1856 lived in Brooklyn. He was a pro­

found student of theology, but eminently practical

in his preaching, which was marked by an uncom­

mon union of imagination, fervor, and logic. His

convictions were strong, his courage great, and

he acted with an impulsive energy which generally

succeeded in accomplishing what he thought should

be done. The death of Alexander Hamilton called

forth a sermon on dueling (preached before the

Presbytery of Long Island, Apr. 16, 1806; pub­

lished in several editions) which did much to

awaken the popular conscience on the subject.

At Litchfield he took a decided stand in favor of

a general reformation of public morals, and in

particular against the convivial habits of the time.

During his Boston pastorate he was a leader on

the conservative side in the Unitarian controversy.

In Cincinnati hard feelings evoked by the anti­

slavery contest, and certain problems inevitable

during the formative period of the seminary and

in a new society, made his career a stormy one,

but he worked with characteristic energy and

retired with honor. During the earlier stages of

the differences which led to the disruption of the

Presbyterian Church in 1837 he was charged with

holding heretical views on the atonement, and was

tried and acquitted by both presbytery and synod in

1835; throughout the entire contest he was one of

the New School leaders. His seven sons all became

clergymen and his daughters, Catherine Esther

Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stows, and Isabella

Beecher Hooker, became well known for literary

and philanthropic work. During his second resi­dence in Boston Lyman Beecher prepared a col­lected edition of his Works (i, Lectures on Political Atheism and Kindred Subjects ; Six Lectures on Intemperance, Boston, 1852; ii, Sermons, 1852; iii, Views of Theology as Developed in Three Ser­mons and on hts Trtals, 1853).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Autobiography, Correspondence, etc. was edited by his son Charles Beecher, rev. ed., 2 vole., New York, 1865; consult also D. H. Allen, The Life and Services of Lyman Beecher, a Commemorative Discourse, Cincinnati, 1863; J. C. White, Personal Reminiscences of Lyman Beecher, New York, 1882; E. F. Haywood, Lyman Beecher, Boston, 1904.

BEECHER, THOMAS gINNICUTT: Congre­gationalist, sixth son of Lyman Beecher; b. at Litchfield, Conn., Feb.10,1824; d. at Elmira, N. Y., Mar. 14, 1900. He was graduated at Illinois College, Jacksonville, Ill., 1843; became school principal at Philadelphia, 1846, at Hartford, Conn., 1848; pastor at Williamsburg (Brooklyn), L. L, 1852, of the Independent Church (afterward called the Park Church), Elmira, 1854, where he served a long pastorate and became widely known for his eccentricities, but still more esteemed for his charities and respected for the practical good sense of many of his plans and ideas. He developed one of the first "; institutional "; churches, and his Sunday school was a model one. His chief publica­tion was Our Seven Churches (New York, 1870), a volume of discourses upon the different denomi­nations in Elmira. In Time with the Stars, a book of children's stories, appeared posthumously (1902).

' BEECHER, WILLIS JUDSON: Presbyterian; b. at Hampden, O., Apr. 29, 1838. He studied at Hamilton College (B.A., 1858) and Auburn Theo­logical Seminary (1864), and was ordained to the ministry in 1864. After a pastorate at Ovid, N. Y., 1864 65, he was appointed professor of moral science and belles lettres in Knox College, Gales­burg, Ill. In 1869 he became pastor of the First Church of Christ in the same city. Two years later he was appointed professor of the Hebrew language and literature in Auburn Theological Seminary. In 1902 he delivered the Stone Lec­tures at Princeton Theological Seminary. He was a member of the Assembly's Committee on the Re­vision of the Confession of Faith (1890 92), and in theology is a progressive conservative. Besides preparing the Old Testament Sunday school lessons for the Sunday School Times since 1893, he has written Farmer Tompkins and his Bibles (Philadel­phia, 1874); General Catalogue of Auburn. Theo­logical Seminary (Auburn, 1883); Drill Lessons in Hebrew (1883); Index of Presbyterian Ministers, 1706..1881 (Philadelphia, 1883; in collaboration with his sister Mary A. Beecher); The Prophets and the Promise (New York, 1905); and The Teaching of Jesus concerning the Future Life (1906).

BEELZEBUB, be el'ze bub (properly, in all the New Testament passages Matt. x, 25; xii, 24, 27; Mark iii, 22; Luke xi, 15, 18, 19 Beelzeboul); The name of the prince of the demons; i.e., of Satan. The reading Beelzeboul has also this in its favor that the Greek oikodespot&, ";master of the



house "; (Matt. s, 25), seems to play upon be'e1 zebul (6e'el being the Aramaic form for the Hebrew ba`al). Nothing more than a play upon the word is to be sought in oikodespotea, which is not a translation of the Aramaic; "; master of the (Satanic) king­dom "; would be a meaningless designation of the prince of hell. In spite of the correctness of the reading Beelzeboul, it is justifiable to trace this name to the much older name Baal zebub, which is found in the Old Testament as that of an idol.

Baal zebub was honored in Ekron, where he had s temple and an oracle, which was consulted by Ahaziah, king of Israel (II Kings i, 2, 3, 16). The name as it stands means "; lord of flies ";; .the Sep­tuagint calls the god directly "; fly ";; so also Joae­phua (Ant., IX, ii, 1). In classical mythology, there was a god who protected from flies. It is related that Hercules banished the flies from Olympia by erecting a shrine to Zeus Apomuioa ("; averter of flies ";); and the Romans called Hercules Apomuios. A similar deity is mentioned as acting and honored in different places, the excuse for such worship being the plague which flies cause in those warm countries. Both the sending of flies and the dri­ving them away were referred to the same divinity. As may be inferred from the name Baal, the Baal­zebub of the Philistines was essentially identical with the principal god or gods of the Phenicians. He may have been lord of flies as sun god, because flies are moat numerous in midsummer, when the sun is hottest. And that he had an oracle is to be explained by a substitution of effect for cause. Flies come obedient to certain atmospheric condi­tions; hence the god was considered to have caused these conditions, and so at length his control was extended to other events, and accordingly he was consulted (see BAAL).

Beelzebul was early identified with Baal zebub, and, as was so often the case, was turned into a bad demon, in accordance with later Jewish ideas. Since Lightfoot (Horse Heb., s.v.), it has been com­mon to say that the name of the demon Beelzebul was purposely made out of Beel zebub, in order to express contempt and horror; i.e., "; lord of dung,"; instead of "; lord of flies."; But, inasmuch as such a name for Satan does not occur outside of the New Testament, it is better to seek its derivation in the old Ekronic worship, which might, in New Testa­ment times, have still existed. Beelzebul may therefore be looked upon as the same name as Beef zebub, and therefore as having the same meaning.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: .Fi. C. A. Riehm, Handw6rterbueh den bi­bliachen Afterfhume, e.v., Bielefeld, 1893 94 (revives the theory that the Syriac form may have meant simply "; an enemy,"; of. RAT, p. 481); J. Belden, De die Syria, Lon­don, 1817; J. Lightfoot, Horn hebraicm on Matt. ME, 24, and Luke u, lb, ib. 1875; F. C. Movers, Die PhBnisier i, 280 281, Bonn, 1841; idem, in JA, 1878, pp. 220 225; P. Scholz, C38tzendienat and Zaubenoeaen bei den atten Hebroan, pp. 170 173, Regensburg, 1877; Nowack. Ar­dsotooia. ii, ao4 ao5; rB, i. 514 515; JE, ii, 629 MO.

BEER, bar, GEORG: German Lutheran; b. at 8chweidnitz (31 m. s.w. of Breslau) Nov. 12, 1865. He studied in Berlin and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1887), taught in Erbach 1889 91, and became privat•docent at Breslau in 1892. Two years later he went in the


same capacity to Halls, and in 1900 to Strasburg as associate professor of the Old Testament. Be­came ordinary professor of Old Testament at Hei­delberg, 1909. He has written Alr,Gazzdli's Makdaid al faldsifat, i, die Logik (Leyden, 1888); Indivi(Marburg, 1894); and Der Text des Buches Hiob untersucht {1897); besides preparing the translation of the Martyrdom of Isaiah and of the Book of Epoch for E. Kautzach a Apokryphen and PaeudepigraPhen des Alten Testa­ments (TVbingen, 1900).

BEER, RUDOLF: German Protestant; b. at Bielitz (40 m. w.s.w. of Cracow) Dec. 5, 1863. He was educated at the universities of Vienna and Bonn, and since 1893 has been reader in Spanish at the latter university, as well as a custodian at the Imperial and Roygl Library at Vienna since 1888. He is a collaborator on the Vienna Corpus patrum ecclesiasticorum latinorum. In theology he advocates "; the scientific investigation of Chris­tian revelation."; Among his works special mention may be made of his Die Anecdotca Borderiana Atigustineischer Sermonen (Vienna, 1887); Heilige Htihen der Griechen and Ribner (1891); Die Quel­len far den fiber diurnua concilii Basiliensis den Petrus Bruneti (1891); and Urkundliche Beilrtige au Johannes de Segovia (1896); in addition to editions of Wyclif's De compositions hominia (Lon­don, 1887); and De ente prcedicamentali qumtionea tredecim (1891), and of the Monumental cmtciliorum generalium (3 vole., Vienna, 1892 96).

BEET, bit, JOSEPH AGAR: English Wesleyan;

b. at Sheffield Sept. 27, 1840. He attended Wesley

College, Sheffield (1851 56), and took up mining

engineering, but afterward studied theology at the

Wesleyan College, Richmond (18624). He was

pastor 1864 85 and professor of systematic the­

ology in Wesleyan College, Richmond, 1885 1905.

He was also a member of the faculty of theology

in the University of London 1901 05. He de­

livered the Fernley Lecture on The Credentials of

the Gospels in 1889, and lectured in America in 1896.

Though long recognized as one of the ablest theo­

logians and exegetes of his denomination, his

sympathy with the modern critical school of inter­

pretation and particularly his views on eschatology

have occasioned much criticism. In The Last

Things (London, 1897; 2d ed., 1905) he opposed

the belief that the essential and endless permanence

of the soul is taught in the Bible and denied that

eternal punishment necessarily means endless tor­

ment, holding that the sinner may suffer a relative

annihilation of his mental and moral faculties and

sink into a dehumanized state. He reiterated these

views in The Immortality o f the soul (1901). Charges

of heresy were brought against him at the Confer­

ence of 1902, but he was reelected to his professor­

ship on condition that he refrain from expressing

his opinions on immortality and future punish­

ment. To regain liberty of speech in 1904 he gave

notice that he would retire from his chair in twelve

months. His other works are: Commentary on

Romans (London, 5877); Holiness as Understood

by the Critics of the Bible (1880); Commentary on

Corinthians (1881); Commentary on Galatians



8eelsebnb 84whards

(1883); Commentary on Ephesians, Philippians, Co­lossians, and Philemon (1890); Through Christ to God (1892); The Firm Foundation of the Christian Faith (1892); The New Life in Christ (1895); Nature and Christ (New York, 1896); Key to Un­lock the Bible (1901); Transfiguration of Jesus (1905); and Manual of Theology (1906).

BEETS, bttz, HENRY: Christian Reformed; b. at Koedijk (a village near Alkmaar, 20 m. n.w. of Amsterdam), Holland, Jan. 5, 1869. He came to the United Staten at an early age, and studied at John Calvin College and Theological Seminary of the Christian Reformed Church, Grand Rapids, Mich. After graduation in 1895, he was pastor at Sioux Center, Ia., until 1899, and since the latter year has been pastor of the Lagrave Street Chris­tian Reformed Church, Grand Rapids. He has been secretary of the Board of Heathen Missions of his Church since 1900, stated clerk of its synod since 1902, and a member of the joint commit­tee of American and Canadian Churches for the revision of the Psalms in meter since 1902. In theology he is a firm Calvinist, adhering strictly to the creeds of the Synod of Dort and the West­minster Standards. He has been associate editor of De Gerefornleerde Amerikaan, a monthly, since 1898 and editor in chief of The Banner, a weekly, since 1904. He has written Het Leven van Pres. McKinley (Holland, Mich., 1901); Sacred History for Juniors (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1901); Sacred His­tory for Seniors (1902); Compendium of the Chris­tian Religion (1903); Primer of Bible Truths (1903; in collaboration with M. J. Boama); and Kerkenorde der Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerk (1905; in collaboration with W. Heyna and G. K. Hemkes).

BEGG, JAMES: Minister of the Flee Church of Scotland; b. at New Monkland, near Airdrie (10 m. e. of Glasgow), Lanarkshire, Oct. 31, 1808; d. in Edinburgh Sept. 29, 1883. He studied at Glasgow and Edinburgh; was ordained minister at Maxwelltown, Dumfries, May, 1830; became colleague at Lady Glenorchy's Chapel, Edinburgh. Dec., 1830, minister in Paisley 1831, at Liberton, near Edinburgh, 1835, and, after the Disruption in 1843, at Newington, a suburb of Edinburgh. In 1865 he was moderator of the General Assembly of the Free Church. He began his career as an ardent supporter of evangelical views and a decided opponent of the "; moderate "; party in the Church. He was strongly opposed to lay patronage and to voluntaryism. He strenuously resisted the aggres­sions of the civil courts on the jurisdiction of the Church and was disposed to continue the fight within the Establishment; but in May, 1843, he left with his brethren. (See the section on the Free Church of Scotland in the article PRF$BY­mExl.Ns. ) In the Free Church he became the leader of a minority opposed to all change and when he was charged with standing in the way of progress he gloried in his steadfast adherence to the ideas of his youth; his followers were most numer­ous in the Highlands. He was an advocate and supporter of popular education and was interested

in a movement to secure better homes for the

working classes. He wrote much for periodicals

and edited several journals at different times (The

Bulwark, for the maintenance of Protestantism;

The Watchword, against the union with the United

Presbyterians; The Signal, against instrumental

music in worship). Among his larger publica­

tions were A Handbook of Popery (Edinburgh,

1852); Happy Homes for Workingmen and How to

Get Them (London, 1866); Free Church Principles

(Edinburgh, 1869), and The Principles, Posi­

tion, and Prospects o f the Free Church o f Scotland


BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Smith, Memoirs of Jam"; Beep, 2 vole.,

Edinburgh, 188b 88; DNB, iv, 127 128.


Origin (§ 1). The Early Communities (§ 2). Extension during the Twelfth Century (§ 3). Relation to the Mendicant Orders (§ 4). The Male Communities (§ b). Persecution as Heretics (¢ 8). Surviving Beguinagee in the Netherlands (§ 7).

Beghards and Beguines are the names applied

to certain religious communities which flourished

especially in the Middle Ages. The Beguines were

women and earlier in origin than the male sesociar

tions, the Begharda (also called in France Beguins).

As early as the thirteenth century the authentic tra­

dition as to the origin of the Beguines had been

lost, so that it was possible in the fifteenth for the

belief to gain acceptance that they had been founded

by Begga, the canonized daughter of Pepin of Lan­

den and mother of Pepin of Heriatal.

:. Origin. This belief was supported by several

scholars in the early seventeenth

century, and approved at Mechlin and at Rome.

In 1630 Puteanus (van Putts), a Louvain professor,

produced three documents supposed to date from

1065, 1129, and 1151, relating to a convent of Beg­

uines at Vilvorde, near Brussels. The view as to

the date of their origin which these documents

supported was prevalent for two centuries, and is

presupposed in the modern works of Moaheim and

of Lea; but the researches of Hallmann proved

finally in 1843 that Puteanus's documents were

forgeries, probably belonging to the fourteenth

and fifteenth centuries. The origin of these com­

munities is now, accordingly, almost universally

placed in the twelfth century, and attributed to a

priest of Liege, Lambert le Bcgue (q.v.).

The scarcity of information about the earliest period has caused the significance of the move­ment to be underestimated or misconceived. As a matter of fact, the career of Lambert has many points of affinity with those of his younger con­temporaries Peter Waldo and Francis of Assisi. Like them, he renounced his property, to endow with it the hospital of St. Christopher at Li€ge and the new convent of Beguinea there. He felt his special mission to be the preaching of repentance, which brought him into conflict with the ecclesias­tical authorities when he attacked the vices of the clergy, but had an enduring influence especially on tile women of Lilge. By 1210 there is con 


temporary testimony to the existence there of

"; whole troops of holy maidens ";; the ascetic spirit

took hold also of the married women,

s. The Early who frequently made vows of conti 

Commuai  nence. Religious excitement did not

ties. fail to produce pathological phenom­

ena; stories are told of visions, proph­

ecies, convulsions, incessant tears, loss of speech,

and the like. Probably between 1170 and 1180

some of Lambert's followers, to whom his opponents

gave the name of Beguines in mockery, had formed

a sort of conventual association on a suburban

estate belonging to him. By the analogy of the

later Beguinagea, they probably inhabited a num­

ber of small houses grouped about the church and

hospital of St. Christopher, and shut off by a wall

from the outer world. The first inmates were

mostly women of position, who renounced their

property and supported themselves by their own


The religious impulse given by Lambert contin­

ued active after his death (probably 1187), and

familiarized the people of the Netherlands with

the idea of ascetic following of Christ long before

the advent of the mendicant orders. Throughout

the next century, the need o€ founding similar in­

stitutions for the large numbers of

3. Extension Beguines was felt, first in Flanders

during the and then in the neighboring French

Twelfth and German districts. In France St.

Century. Louis showed them special favor, and

erected a large Beguinage in Paris,

modeled after the Flemish, in 1264; others sprang

up, large or small, in all parts of France during the

thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The exten­

sion of the system in the other Latin countries was

probably considerable, but exact data are wanting.

In Germany only a few towns on the lower Rhine,

such as Aix la Chapelle and Wesel, had Beguinages

in the strict sense. Here the usual rule was for

women who wished to renounce the world at first

to live separately in their own houses or in solitary

places; as time went on, they came together in

larger or smaller houses put at their disposal by

pious gifts, and formed communities of a monastic

type. The growth of these convents was remark­

able, and continued from the first third of the thir­

teenth century to the beginning of the fifteenth,

by which time the majority of German towns had

their convents of Beguines. The statutes varied

much in the different houses; the number of inmates

was between ten and twenty on an average. There

was no uniform dress, but most of the members wore

hoods and scapulars resembling a religious habit.

Sometimes those who had property retained full

control of it; in other cases a portion fell to the

convent when they died or left. Celibacy was re­

quired as long as they stayed, but they were always

free to leave and marry.

The name of "; voluntary poor,"; which many convents bore, and the regulations of such houses, show the continuance of Lambert's influence in favor of desertion of the world and penitential as­ceticism; but the Franciscan ideas, very similar in their tendency, which were widely spread not long after, found here a fruitful soil. As early as the

thirteenth century a large proportion of the Beg­herds or Beguines of France, Germany, and north­ern Italy were under the direction of Franciscans or Dominicans, and so closely related 4. Relation with the penitential confraternities to the Men  attached to both these orders that the dicant Or  members of these (tertiaries) were

dens. commonly known in the Latin coun­

tries as beguini and beguince  a fact

which has caused much confusion in the study of

the history of the real Beguines. The disapproval

of these latter by the papal authorities brought

about, when it came, a still closer identification

with the tertiaries; many joined these for pro­

tection, and in the fifteenth century numerous

Beguinages were transferred to the Augustinian

order. While the original Beguinea abstained from

begging, it became more common among them is

France and Germany by the beginning of the thir­

teenth century. As in the Latin countries the Beg­

uines are found among the extreme defenders of

the Franciscan ideal of poverty, so we find fre­

quently among those of Germany the belief that

their strict poverty designated them as the true

followers of Christ. In accordance with this view,

they were apt to withdraw themselves from the

teaching of the clergy and listen rather to the ex­

citing exhortations of their "; mistresses "; or of

wandering preachers in sympathy with their be­

liefs. They developed a system of extreme cor­

poral austerity, and lost themselves in mystic

speculations which increased their tendency to see

visions and to condemn the ordinary means of

grace; even the moral law seems at times to have

been regarded as not binding upon them. The

impulse of apocalyptic enthusiasm, given by Joa­

chim of Fiore (q.v.) and spread by the "; spiritual ";

Franciscans among the laity, as well as the quietis­

tic mysticism of the Brethren of the Free Spirit

(q.v.), found an entrance into their houses before

the end of the thirteenth century. Early in the

next century, the influx of women of high social

position declined more and more, and the new

foundations took on more of the modern character

of benevolent institutions. By the end of the fif­

teenth century, in Germany at least, they had

almost completely lost their first religious fervor

and had forfeited much of the popular respect they

had formerly enjoyed.

As to the Beghards or male communities, the question whether the first associations known by this name can be directly connected with Lambert Is Bbgue, or sprang up after his death in imitation of the Flemish Beguinages, can not be decided with our present knowledge. They are first met with in Louvain (c. 1220) and Antwerp (1228). The names beguin and begard (Flemish usually bagard; Middle High German begehart and biegger) were given in mockery and are of Walloon origin; other names are Lollards (probably from the Mid 

$. The dle butch l6llen, to murmur; see

Male Com  LOLLARDB), ";voluntary poor,"; boni

munities. pueri, boni vateti, etc. In the course

of the thirteenth and fourteenth cen­

turies they spread throughout Germany, into Po­

land and the Alpine districts, and even into the


Latin countries; but their numbers were much smaller than those of the Beguinea. As early as the thirteenth century a number of their houses, too, connected themselves with the tertiaries of the two great mendicant orders. Like the Beg­uines, many of them were partizans of the views of the "; spiritual "; Franciscans and Fraticelli. They practised begging ostentatiously, frequently had no fi:ced abode, and wandered about in small groups, begging and winning adherents for their cause. They did not abandon this mode of life even after papal prohibitions were directed against them, but strengthened themselves by the adhesion of sym­pathizers who were expelled from the convents, and remained in close relations with the Beguinea, by whom they were regarded as martyrs to the Franciscan ideal of poverty and channels of mys­tical revelations. In the Netherlands the fifteenth­century Beghards appear for the most part as reg­ular Franciscan ternaries, organized from 1443 as a separate Congregatio Zepperensis beghardorurn tertice reguhe S. Franc%sci,, with the convent of Zep­peren, near Hasaelt, as their mother house. In­ternal dissensions later split them into two branches. In the seventeenth century they were united with the Lombard congregation of regular ternaries, and did not survive the Revolution. The internal organization of their houses corresponded generally to that of the Beguines. The earliest Dutch Beg­hards were mostly weavers, who continued to fol­low their trade; later they frequently copied and sold manuscripts. The German Begharda followed a variety of occupations; but at the end of the Middle Ages begging was their main source of revenue. A special inner group was that of the "; Voluntary Poor "; (also called Poor Brothers, Cel­lites, Alexians; in the Netherlands Lollards, Mate­mana, Cellebroeders; see ALEXIANS), who required the entire abandonment of property by their mem­bers and bound them by permanent vows. Their strict organization, their enthusiasm for poverty, their zealous devotion to charitable duties, all point to a tradition reaching back to the beginning of the Beghard system. They are further contrasted with the ordinary Beghards by the fact that they held aloof for the most part from the Franciscan affilia­tions which have been seen to be so common. In the fifteenth century they associated themselves with the Augustinians. Public opinion, by the end of the Middle Ages, was even more unfavorable to the Begharda than to the Beguinea; popular sat­irists and preachers alike speak of them as hypocrit­ical beggars with a tendency to deceit and immo­rality; and the Reformation swept away the last remnants of them, in Germany at least.

The persecution of Beghards and Beguines as a heretical sect began in the second half of the thir­teenth century, probably as a consequence of their re­lation to the ";spiritual"; Franciscans (see FRANCIS, SAINT, OF ABaI$I, AND THE FRANCISCAN ORDER). By 1300 the name beguinus was commonly used in the Latin countries as the accepted designation for the heretical "; spiritual "; party and Fraticelli, which naturally prejudiced the general opinion of the ortho­dox convents of Beghards and Beguinea. Still more damaging was the fact that the German bishops,

about the same time, assumed that the panthe 

istic heresy of the Brethren of the Free Spirit (q.v.)

found its chief support in their houses. Though,

as a matter of fact, this was probably

6. Persecu  true only of a small section, the name

tion as of Begharda was commonly adopted

Heretics. in Germany for the adherents of that

heresy. During the fourteenth cen­

tury the belief spread that in some convents of

Beghards and Beguines there existed an inner circle

of "; the perfect "; who were alien from the doc­

trines of the Church and the laws of morality, to

which the younger members were admitted only

after years of probation. Whether or not these

accusations were true, which it is now next to im­

possible to determine, the bitter hostility shown

against the Beghards and Beguines probably finds

its simplest explanation in the conflicts which arose

at the end of the thirteenth century between the

episcopate and the secular clergy, on the one hand,

and the mendicant orders, especially the Francis­

cans, on the other, since these latter gained their

lay following largely through the numerous houses

of Begharda and Beguinea. Several German pro­

vincial councils (Cologne 1306, Mainz 1310, Trevea

1310) passed strong measures against them, and

the Council of Vienne (1311) struck at them even

harder, undertaking to suppress them entirely on

the charge of spreading heretical doctrines under a

cloak of piety. The execution of these decrees of

suppression, which took place under John XXII,

caused great confusion in the Church of Germany,

the mendicants and sometimes the magistrates at­

tempting to defend the Beguines. Since their total

suppression appeared impracticable, John XXII

compromised by making a distinction and granting

toleration to the orthodox Beguinea. Persecution

did not, however, cease; and with the powerful

support of the Emperor Charles IV, it was taken

up once more by Urban V and Gregory XI. With­

out regard to the varying senses of the names, all

Begharda and Beguines alike were condemned as

heretics, excommunicated, and outlawed. Their

property was to serve for pious purposes, for the

support of the inquisitors, or for repairing city

walls and roads. Between 1366 and 1378 remorse­

less persecution raged against them throughout

Germany; but even then they found advocates,

especially among the secular magistrates, and Greg­

ory XI was finally prevailed upon to repeat the

distinction between orthodox and heretical Beg­

uinea and Beghards, and to tolerate the former.

About 1400 another storm broke out, aroused by

the attacks which the clergy of Basel, especially

the Dominican Johannes Mulberg made upon the

Beguines of that city. By 1410 the Beguines in the

dioceses of Constants, Basel, and Strasburg were

driven from their convents. At the time of the

Council of Constants (1414 18), which showed

itself well disposed toward them, they won a vic­

tory of some importance when they secured the

condemnation as heretical of a treatise directed

both against them and against the Brethren of the

Common Life by the Dominican Matthieus Grabo.

Attacks were still made upon them, none the less,

and that a general feeling inspired such attacks is


shown by the fact that the name "; Beghard "; con­tinued through the fifteenth century to be applied to the most various heretics, until it adhered per­manently to the Bohemian Brethren or Picards.

In what is now Belgium and Holland, the ex­ample of Lambert's first followers was widely fol­lowed, as has been seen; here the Beguines flour­ished moat, and here they have maintained their existence to the present day. A long series of

accounts of mystical visions, hysterico­Surviving ecstatic phenomena, and extreme

Beguinages austerities shows that the strong is the religious impulse of the beginning Netherlands. remained operative until after the

Reformation. Heretical mysticism was not without its adherents: in 1310 Margareta Porete, a Beguine of Hainault and the author of a book of apparently pantheistic libertinism, was executed in Paris, and the mystic Hadewich Blom­maerdine (q.v.) of Brussels (d.1336) found adherents among the Beguinea of Brabant and Zealand. The bishops and princes, however, protected the communities in times of persecution. In the four­teenth century the contemplative life was largely given up in favor of diligent work for the sick and poor, and later for the education of girls. The French Revolution deprived these institutions of their religious character, which they regained in 1814. At present there are fifteen Beguinages in Belgium, only two of which are of any size, both at Ghent, numbering 869 inmates in 1896. The larger one, transferred in 1874 to St. Amandsberg just outside the city, is a complete model of a small town, with walls, gates, streets, and gardens. The total number of Beguines in Belgium was 1,790 in 1825, 1,480 in 1866, and about 1,230 in 1896. In Holland two houses have survived, one at Am­sterdam with thirteen inmates and one at Breda

with forty nix. (HERMAN HAUPT.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Hallmann, Din Geachichte den Uraprunps der belpischen Beghiucn, Berlin, 1843 (perhaps the best book on the subject); J. L. von Moaheim, De Beghardia et 13epuinabw, Leipaio, 1790; F. von Biedenfeld, Ur­spnanp . . . e3tnUicher MBncha  and Kloater(rautn Order, Weimar, 1837; G. Uhlhorn, Die chriatliche Liebeathlltig­keit im Mittelalter, Stuttgart, 1884; H. Haupt, BeitrBge zur Geachichta den $ekle room freiern Geiete and den Bepharden­tuma, In Zeitachrift fir Kirchenpaachichte, vii (1884), 503 eqq.; H. C. Lea, History of the Inquisition, ii, 35o 517, Philadelphia, 1888; P. Frdddr'icq. Les Documents de Glasgow concernant Lambent de BI!pue, in Bulletins de Z'acadbmie de Belgique, third series, xxix (189b), 148 1f35, 990 1008; Heimbucher, Orden undKonprepationsu, i, 501, ii, 422 425; A. Neander, Christian Church, iv, passim, v, passim; W. Moeller, Christian Church, ii, 475 478.

BEGIN, b9";gar', LOUIS ftAZAIRE: Roman Catholic archbishop of Quebec; b. at Lwis, Quebec, Jan. 10, 1840. He was educated at the Seminary of Quebec (1857 62) and Laval University (B.A., 1863). He then began the study of theology at the Grand Seminary of Quebec, but was chosen to fill a chair in the newly established faculty of theology in the University of Laval, and was sent to Rome to study. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1865, and returned to Quebec in 1868, where he taught dogmatic theology and ecclesiastical history at Laval University until 1884, in addition to being prefect of the Little

Seminary and having charge of the pupils of the University during the last few years of this period. In 1884 he accompanied the archbishop of Quebec to Rome to defend the rights of Laval University, and on his return was appointed principal of the Normal School, remaining there until 1888. In the latter year he was consecrated bishop of Chi­coutimi, and three years later was appointed coadjutor, with the title of archbishop of Cyrene, to Cardinal Taschereau. On the death of the Cardinal in 1898, he became archbishop of Quebec. He has written La PrdmauM et l'infaillibiliM des aouveraina 7wrttifea (Quebec, 1873); La Saints teriture et la r~gle de la foi (1874; English trans­lation by G. M. Ward, London, 1875); Loo Cults eat)tolique (1875); Aide mftwire, au ehrortologie de fhiatoire du Canada (1886); and CtttEehiame de eontroverae (1902).

BEHAISM: A development of Babism (q.v.). The Bab had taught that the greatest and last of all manifestations of divinity was to appear and, through his teachings, wipe out all distinctions of sects. In 1862, twelve years after the Bab's exe­cution, Beha Ullah, a high born Persian and Babite leader, claimed to be the fulfilment of this teaching. He was imprisoned and exiled and died in Acre, Syria, in 1892. His son, Abdul Beha Abbas, then became the leader and "; Center of the Covenant."; From his residence in Acre, where he lives under government surveillance, a far reaching propaganda has gone forth and pilgrims find their way thither even from distant America.

Behaist missionaries are not allowed to accept money, though they may be entertained by con­verts or others interested. Their message consists in a recital of the history of their religion and the lives of the Bab and Beha Ullah. The Old and New Testament prophecies and the sacred books of ethnic religions are studied in the belief that they establish the Behaist doctrines. Their sacred wri­tings are the works of Beha Ullah, of which the most remarkable is the Book of Ighan. They are mostly short sentences called "; communes,"; consisting of prayers or truths for the guidance of life. The explanation of the Book of Ighan and the "; Hidden. Words "; in Arabic and Persian is a part of the regular preaching. The beauty of service to the poor  and suffering is a cardinal precept. Sim­plicity in food and dress is another, and herein Abdul Beha is an example to his followers. Polyg­amy is not allowed and all goods are held in com­mon. It is believed that God has manifested him­self at different times according to the needs of the race, the chief manifestations having been three in number; viz., Jesus whose life and teach­ings are commended, the Bah, and Beha Ullah, who is the greatest and last; after him there will be no other manifestation, and whosoever does not believe on him after having heard his words will not have another chance to enter the kingdom. Certain feasts are observed commemorating events in the life of Beha Ullah, and one which was in­stituted by the Bab consists in a simple repeat such as fruits, nuts, and cool water, held at the home of a believer every nineteen days; a vacant



seat is left at the head of the table for the absent master, and passages from the "; Hidden Words "; are read as the food is passed.

Behaist congregations are known as "; assemblies.";

The first in America was established in Chicago by

a Syrian, Ibrahim Iiheirallah, in 1894. There are

now thirty five in America, each independent of

the others and owning no authority but that of

Abdul r3eha. It is claimed t.tat the mission of

Behaiam is to unify the world ,r MARGARET bring all religions

into one.' MARGARET B. PEEHE.

Bratroaaera:: Consult the literature given under BAsreM; E. D. Roes, Babiam, in Great Reli7iona of the World. Lon­don, 1901; Mirza Husain Ali, Le Livre de la certitude .

traduit . . . par H. Dreyfus, Paris, 1901; Le Beyan arabe, 1e livre aacrlr du Babyame, trawl. b y A. Nicolas, Paris, 1905; Beha Ullah, Lea Pr6ceptea du B6haiame: Zes ornementa­lea parolee du paradia, lea aplendeura, lea rl=al;lationa, trawl. by H. Dreyfus and U. Chirazi, Paris, 1908.




BEISSEL, STEPHAN: German Jesuit; b. at

Aachen Apr. 21, 1841. He was educated at the

universities of Bonn and Milnster and at the semi­

nary at Cologne. He was ordained to the priest­

hood in 1871 and lived two years in France, three

in England, fifteen in Holland, sad four in Luxem­

burg, passing the remainder of his time at Aachen

and Cologne. He has written Bttttyeschichte der

Kirche des heiligen Yiktor zu Xaytten (Freiburg,

1883); Geldvxrt and Arbeitslohn im Mitlelalter

(1884); Yerehrung der Heiligen in Deutschland bis

zum Beginn des dreizehntert Jahrhurttlerta (1885);

Bilder der Handschrift des Kaisers Otto im Munster

zu Aachen (Aachen, 1886); Geschichte der Auastat­

tung tier Kirche des heiligen Yiktor zu Xanten (Frei­

burg, 1887); Geschichte der trierachen Kirchen and

ihrer Reliquien (2 parts, Trevea, 1889); Evange­

lienbuch des hxiligen Berntoard von Hildeaheim

(Hildesheim, 1891); Yerehrurtg der Heiligen and

ihrer Reliquien in Deutschland wfthrend der zttreitert

Hrilfte des Mittelalters (Freiburg, 1893); Yatikani­

sche Miniaturen (1893); Der heilige Bernward

van Ilildesheirn ttla Kiinstler (Hildeaheim, 1895);

Fra Giovanni Angelico da Resole, rein Leben oral

seine Werke (Freiburg, 1895); Die Yerehrung

Unserer Lieben Frau in Deutschland tvtihrend des

Mittelalters (1895); Bilder ants der Geachichte der

altchrtstlichen Kunst and Liturgic in Italien (1899);

Das Leben Jesu Christi, geschildert au f den Flitgeln

des Hochaltars zu Kalkctr (in collaboration with

J. Joest, Gladbach, 1900); Dcas Evangelienbuch

Heinricha 111 and die Dome zu Goslar i» der Biblio­

thek zu UPsala '(Dusseldorf, 1900); Die Aachen­

fahrE (1902); Betrachtungspunkte far alle Tape ties

Kirchexjahres (lOvola.,1904 05); and Geschichteder

Evtasngelienbiicher in der ersten HtYlfte des Mittel­

alters (Freiburg, 1906); in addition to two vol­

umes of the Zur KenrUnia and lYurdigung der

tnitteltllterlichert Altdre Detttschhands (Frankfort,

189rr1905) begun by E. F. A. Milnzenberger.

t Requests for literature may be addressed to Mr. John Mason Ramey, Corcoran Building. Washington, D. C.

BEB:gER, BALTHASAR: Dutch precursor of rationalism; b. at Metalawier (4 m. n.e. of Dok­kum) Mar. 30, 1634; d. in Friesland June 11, 1698. He studied at Groningen under J. Alting and in Franeker, where he was rector of the Latin school, was made doctor of theology, and preacher in 1666. Being an enthusiastic follower of the Cartesian philosophy, he published at Wesel in 1668 an Admonitio sincere et candida de philosophia Car­tesians, and gave greater offense by his catechisms. in 1668 and 1670. He was accused of Socinianiam, although Alting and other theologians pronounced him to be orthodox. After many controversies, he accepted a call as preacher to Weeap, and, in 1679, to Amsterdam. The appearance of a large comet in 1680 induced him to issue a work against, popular superstition, which stirred up more com­motion; and, in 1691, in De betoverde Wereld, published at Leeuwarden, he denied the existence of sorcery, magic, possessions by the devil, and of the devil himself. The consiatory of Amsterdam instituted a formal process against him, and he was deposed July 30, 1692. He went to Friesland, where he edited the last two books of his work.

H. C. RoaaEt.

BIaLIOaSAPHT: A complete list of Bakker's writings and

of the opposing works called out is given in A. van del Linden, B. Bakker, Bibliopraphie, The Hague, 1889. For his life consult J. G. Walch, Einleitunp in die Reliyionsatrei.• tigksiten auaaerhalb der lutheriachen Kirche, vol. iii, part 3, 499 eqq., J,ena, 1734; M. Schwager, Beitrap sur Osachichts der Intoleranz, oder Leben..~. B. Bekkera, mit einer Vor• rude Semiars, Leipaie, 1780; J. M. $chriickh, Kirchenpe. achichte #sit der Reformation, viii, 713 722, ib. 1808; D. Lorgion, B. Bakker is Franeker, The Hague, 1848; idem, B. Bakker in Amsterdam, 2 vols., Groningen, 1850; w. P. C. Knuttel, Balthaaar Bakker, The Hague, 1908.


BEL: A great Babylonian god, whose name, like the equivalent Hebrew Ba'al, originally and all through the history of the language was also used in the sense of "; lord "; or "; owner "; (see BAAL). The usage of the two words as namea.of deities alto ran through parallel courses; for Bel at one time in Babylonia was a local deity like each of the Baals of the Canaanitea. He was the patron deity of the city of Nippur in central Babylonia (the modern Nuffar), where his temple, of great antiquity, has been unearthed by the Pennsyl­vania expedition. The reason why there were not many Bela in Babylonia was that political union on a large scale was very early effected in that country, while it was always impossible among the Canaanites; and Nippur was the center of an extensive community in very remote times.

When, under priestly influence, Babylonian the­ology was systematized, to this great god Bel was assigned sovereignty of the earth, while Anu ruled in the highest heaven, and Ea over the deep. These formed the chief trinity with primary and uni­versal dominion.

But it is not the Bel of Nippur whose name ap­pears in the Bible and Apocrypha. On account of the rise and supremacy of the city of Babylon under Hammurabi (2250 B.C.), Marduk (Merodach), the god of that city, was invested with the prerogatives


and even with the name of Bel, so that in the com­paratively modern Old Testament times ";Bel"; stands for "; Merodach"; and for him only (so in Ira. xlvi, 1; Jer. li, 44; in Jer. 1, 2 both names occur together, meaning practically ";Bel Merodach ";).

The Babylonian Bel was not only adopted by the

Assyrians as one of their chief gods (of course lower

than Asshur), but like Ishtar (see ASHTORETH),

Sin, and Nebo, he seems to have obtained wor­

shipers in the West land. Such, at least, is an

inference which has been drawn from the proper

names Bildad ("; Bel loves ";), Ashbel ("; man of

Bel ";), and Balaam. Moreover, "; Bel "; is found as an

element in several Phenician and Palmyrene names.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. H. Sayce, Religion of the Ancient Baby­lonians, London, 1887; idem, Religion of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, Edinburgh, 1902; M. Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia, Boston 1898; idem, in DB, extra vol., pp. b38 b39, 545; Schrader, KA T, pp. 354 358.


BELGIC CONFESSION: A statement of belief written in French in 1561 by Guy de BrSs (q.v.) sided by H. Saravia (professor of theology in Leyden, afterward in Cambridge, where he died 1618), H. Moderns (for some time chaplain of William of Orange), and G. Wingen. It was revised by Francis Junius of Bourges (1545 1602), a student of Calvin, pastor of a Walloon congre­gation at Antwerp, and afterward professor of theology at Leyden, who abridged the sixteenth article and sent a copy to Geneva and other churches for approval. It was probably printed in 1562, or at all events in 1.566, and afterward translated into Dutch, German, and Latin. It was presented to Philip II in 1562, with the vain hope of securing toleration. It was formally adopted by synods at Antwerp (1566), Wesel (1568), Emden (1571), Dort (1574), Middleburg (1581), and again by the great Synod of Dort, April 29, 1619. Inasmuch as the Arminians had de­manded partial changes, and the text had becolhe corrupt, the Synod of Dort submitted the French, Latin, and Dutch texts to a careful revision. Since that time the Belgic Confession, together with the Heidelberg Catechism, has been the recognized symbol of the Reformed Churches in Holland and Belgium, and of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America.

The Confession contains thirty seven articles, and follows the order of the Gallican Confession, but is less polemical, full, and elaborate, especially on the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Church, and the Sacraments. It is, upon the whole, the best symbolical statement of the Calvinistic system of doctrine, with the exception of the Westminster Confession.

The French text must be considered as the original. Of the first edition of 1561 or 1562 no copies are known. The Synod of Antwerp, in September, 1580, ordered a precise parchment copy of the revised text of Junius to be made for its archives, which copy had to be signed by every

new minister. This manuscript has always been regarded in the Belgic churches as the authentic document. The first Latin translation was made from Junius's text by Beza, or under his direction, for the Harmonic Confesaionum (Geneva, 1581). The same passed into the first edition of the Corpus et Syntagma Confessionuna (Geneva, 1612). A second Latin translation was prepared by Featus Hommius for the Synod of Dort, 1618, revised and approved 1619; and from it was made the English

I~ translation in use in the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America. It appeared in Greek 1623, 1653, and 1660, at Utrecht.

BIBLIOGRAPHY* An excellent description and abort history is given by Schaff in Creeds, i, b02 508, with the text in iii, 383 438, where the literature is given.

BELGIUM: A kingdom of northwestern Europe; area, 11,373 square miles; population, 6,800,000. After a revolt from Holland in 1830, Belgium was recognized with its present boundaries by the Powers in 1839, when it was declared to be neutral territory. The population belongs to two nation­alities, the northern portion, which is the larger, being Flemish (Low German), and the southern Walloon (French); the vernacular of forty one per cent. is French. The boundary between these two components may be defined as running from Maastricht west to the French department Nord.

The prevailing religion is Roman Catholic, since the Dutch Protestants, who were numerous from 1815 to 1830 have, for the most part, emigrated. (The Protestants constitute less than one half of one per cent. of the entire population.) The Evangelical confessions are represented in many cities, however, by immigrants from Germany in recent decades, as well as by Anglicans and Meth­odists and converts to Protestantism. The most numerous of these Protestant communions is the Union. des tglises  Ovareggliques Protestantes de la

Belgique, which was founded in 1839 and consists of French, Dutch,. and German congregations, being represented in Lil=ge, Verviers, Seraing, Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, La Bouverie, Dour,

Paturagea, Jolimont, and Tournai. Protestants. The permanent bond of the Union

is a board of directors, chosen at the annual synod of the congregations interested. Recognition by the State as a legal ecclesiastical b,,dy assures state aid to its clergy, the usual salary being 2,220 franca, although it occasionally runs as high as 4,000 and 6,000. An "; evangelization committee "; of the Union cares for scattered mem­bers, and especially for the religious education of children by "; evangelists "; where Protestant schools do not exist. The Union has between 16,000 and 18,000 members. The Societe tvan­gEhque or 9glise Chr6tienne Missionnaire Belge is a free church consisting of converts from Roman Catholicism or their children. It is strongest in the Walloon districts and has numerous places of

worship, united into three districts, whose repre­sentatives (Conseils S'eetionnaires) meet four times annually. Over these three councils, to which each congregation sends a pastor and a layman,





is the synod, of which the permanent executive body is the Co miU Adnainistrttteur. The clergy are trained chiefly in Switzerland and are subordinate to the synod. This Church possesses few schools of its own, but in public schools of one class with twenty Protestant children and in those of several classes with forty children it is entitled to give religious instruction through its own clergy. It has now about 11,000 members. There are Eng­lish churches at Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, and Ostend, and at Antwerp and Brussels there are Presbyterian congregations; in the first named city an agent of the American Seamen's Friend Society is also active. The Dutch Reformed and the Swedish Lutherans have small congregations in Brussels and Antwerp respectively.

The Roman Catholic Church of Belgium was organized in 1561, when the authority of the foreign bishops was abrogated, and in 1839 the system was readjusted to harmonize with the new boundaries. The most of the clergy receive their training at the episcopal seminaries and a small proportion at the University of Louvain. The State has no control over the appointment of priests, who are subject only to their bishops.

The Roman Catholic Church, however,

Roman receives from the State an annual

Catholic stipend of more than 4,800,000 francs,

Church. although it does not enjoy any eccle­

siastical prerogative. Its influence

on the life of the people is exerted chiefly through

the monasteries, of which there are more than 220

for monks, with some 5,000 members, and about

1,500 nunneries, with over 27,000 sisters. The

members are employed in large numbers in the pub­

lic schools, the right being given the communities

by the law of 1884 to "; adopt "; private schools,

or schools conducted by the religious organizations.

A number of intermediate schools are also under

ecclesiastical control, as well as the University of

Louvain. Academic training is slap provided for

by the state universities of Ghent and Libge, and

by the free university of Brussels.

In its hierarchic organization, Belgium consti­tutes the province of Mechlin, and its dioceses are divided according to the political boundaries of the country. The archdiocese of Mechlin on the Dyle was created by a papal enactment of 1559, which first came into full operation in 1561. It contains fifty five parishes and over 600 chapels of ease in the provinces of Brabant and Antwerp. The suffragan bishoprics are those of Bruges, Ghent, Liege, Namur, and Tournai (Doornik). Bruges, founded in 1559, has forty parishes and 245 chapels of ease; Ghent, established in the same year, also has forty parishes

Diocesan and 310 chapels of ease; Li6ge, dating

Organize  from the fourth century, has an equal

tion. number of parishes and 570 chapels

of ease; Namur, created in 1559

(1561), has the same number of parishes and 700

chapels of ease; and Doornik, the seat of a bishop

since 1146, controls thirty three parishes and 445

chapels of ease, its see comprising the Hennegau,

with the exception of five parishes belonging to

the French diocese of Cambrai.

IL 3

The Jews of Belgium, who number about 5,000, are divided into twelve rabbinical districts.

Wua>ctrac Gonxz.

BIHLIOaHAPHT: Balan, Hiatoira contamporaine de la Bah pique, Lyons, 1891; Archives Balgea, revue critique d'hia­toriographie nationals, Liittieh, 1899 eqq.; La Belgique et Is Vatican. Documents et travaux f~,ielatifa, 3 vole., Brus­sels, 1880 31; G. Veispeyen, Le Parti eatholiqua balpa, Ghent, 1893; J. Hoyois, La Politiqus tatholiqw an Beh gigue depuia 1814, Louvain, 1895; O. Coppin, L'Union aacerdotale, son hiatoire, son esprit et sea constitutions, Namur, 1898; U. Berlibre, Monaatieon beige, vol. i, Paris, 1897: La Beige eccl4eiaatique (an annual).

BELIAL, bi'li al ("; worthlessness ";) : A word which occurs once in the New Testament (II Cor, vi, 15; better reading Beliar) as the name of Satan, hardly as that of Antichrist; the Peshito has "; Sa­tan."; In the Old Testament beliyya'al is not used as a designation of Satan, or of a bad angel; it is an appellation, "; worthlessness "; or "; wickedness "; in an ethical sense, and is almost always found in connection with a word denoting the person or thing whose worthlessness or wickedness is spoken of; as, "; man of Belial,"; "; son of Belial,"; "; daugh­ter of Belial,"; "; thoughts of Belial,"; etc. In a few instances beliyya'al denotes physical destruction; so probably Ps. xviii, 4 (FI Sam. axii, 5), ";floods of destruction"; (A. V. ";ungodly men";; R. V. ";un­,godliness ";). To understand this passage to refer to the prince of hell is against Old Tester went usage. Occasionally the adjunct is omit­ted, as in II Sam. xxiii, 6; Job xxxiv, 18; Nahum i, 15, where the word means the "; bad,"; the "; destroyer,"; the "; wicked."; Although thus orig­inally not a proper name, but dn appellatibn, in the later Jewish and Christian literature it passed over into a name for Satan, not as the "; worthless,"; but as the "; destroyer."; It is so used in II Cor. vi, 15, where Paul asks: "; What harmony is there between Christ and Belial?"; ";Belial ' stands for "; Satan"; also in Jewish epigraphs and apocalyptic writings, such as the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Book of Jubilees, and the Jewish in­terpolations in the Sibylline Oracles.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Hamburger, a.v., in Real Encyklopadie fur Bibel and Talmud, vol, i., Leipeic, 1891; W. Boueaet, Der Antichrist, pp. 88 87, 99 101, GSttingen, 1895; T. K. Cheyne, in Expositor, 1895, pp. 435 439: F. Hammel, in Expository Times, viii. 472; ED, i, 525 b27.

BELL, WILLIAM M'ILVIIY: United Brethren; b. in Whitley Co., Ind., Nov. 12, 1860; entered the ministry 1879; elected bishop 1905.

BELLAMY, JOSEPH: Congregationalist; b. at New Cheshire, Conn., Feb. 20, 1719; d. at Bethle­hem, Conn., Mar. 6, 1790. He was graduated at Yale, 1735, and was licensed t0 pieaCh St the 8gC of eighteen; was ordained pastor of the church at Bethlehem Apr. 2,1740. During the Great Awaken­ing he preached as an itinerating evangelist; later he established a divinity school in his house, where many prominent New England clergymen were trained. He was a disciple and personal friend of Jonathan Edwards, and the most gifted preacher among his followers, being thought by some to be equal to Whitefield. In his True Religion Delineated (Bo&.


ton, 1750) besets forth in spirited style the plan of salvation and of the Christian life after the Ed­wardean conception, and he explicitly advocates the doctrine of a general atonement. In the Wis­dom of God in the Permission of Sin (1758) he argues that, while sin is a terrible evil, God permits it as a necessary means of the beat good, and the universe is "; more holy and happy than if sin and misery had never entered."; God could have prevented sin without violating free will. On the whole his work was more general than specific, modifying the prevalent conceptions in the direction of greater simplicity and reasonableness. He sometimes ap­proaches quite near subsequent forma of expres­sion. A collected edition of his works appeared at New York (3 vole., 1811), and another (and better) at Boston, with memoir by Tryon Edwards (2 vols., 1850).

BELLARMINE, bel";lar min'.

In Louvain (¢ I). In Rome. The DiaPutationes (¢ 2).

New Duties after 1689. Controversial Writings (¢ 3).

Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino, the fa­mous Roman Catholic controversialist, was born at Montepulciano (26 m. s.w, of Arezzo), in Tus­cany, Oct. 4, 1542; d. in Rome Sept. 17, 1621. He was a nephew of Pope Marcellua II, and came of a noble though impoverished family. His abilities showed themselves early; as a boy he knew Vergh by heart, and composed a number of poems in Italian and Latin; one of his hymns, on Mary Mag­dalene, is included in the Roman breviary. His father destined him for a political career, hoping that he might restore the fallen glories of the house; but his mother wished him to enter the Jesuit order, and her influence prevailed. He entered the Ro­man novitiate in 1560, remained in Rome three years, sad then went to a Jesuit house at Mondovi in Piedmont. Here he learned Greek, and taught it as fast as he learned, it. His systematic study of theology began at Padua in 1567 and 1568, where his teachers were Thomiata, the Jesuits not yet hav­ing had tire to develop a theology of their own.

• After a visit to Venice, where he increased his renown as a public speaker, Bellarmine was sent  by the general, Francis Borgia, in 1569, to Louvain, then the most famous Roman Catholic university. He was ordained priest at Ghent on Palm Sunday, 1570, by the elder Jansenius. A strict Augustin­ian theology prevailed among the teachers at Lou­vain, represented by Bajus, the precursor of Jan­eeniam (see Bnava, MICHEL). Bellarmine had not enough deep knowledge of his own nature or Chris­tian experience to be able to appreciate the Augus­tinian doctrines of the corruption of man and the necessity of divine grace to any good movement of the win. He contended accordingly against

the propositions of Bajus, though

r. Fn his own views and expressions in Louvain. the great controversy on grace were

adwaye a little uncertain. He was the first Jesuit to teach at the university, where the subject of his course was the Summa of St. Thomas; he also made extensive studies in the Fathers and medieval theologians, which gave him the material for his book De scripton'bus eccleaias 

ti.cis (Rome, 1613), which was later revised and en­larged by Sirmond, Labbeus, and Oudin. In the Netherlands he gained a knowledge of the great controversy with the Protestants which he could hardly have got in Italy, though he seems never to have come into personal contact with the evangel­ical leaders. Finally he learned Hebrew, and wrote his often reprinted grammar. His genius for teach­ing, clearness of thought, and adroitness in contro­versy were indisputable.

Bellarmine's residence is Louvain lasted seven years. His health was undermined by study and asceticism, and in 1576 he made a journey to Italy to restore it. Here be was detained by the com­mission given him by Gregory XIII to lecture on polemical theology in the new Roman College. He devoted eleven years to this work, out of whose activities grew his celebrated Diaputationea de eontrovereiia christidnce fidei, first published at

Ingolatadt, 4 vole., 1581 93. It occu­a. In Rome. pies in the field of dogmatics the same The ";Die  place as the Annales of Baroniua in putatlonea."; the field of history. Both were the

fruits of the great revival in religion and learning which the Roman Catholic Church had witnessed since 1540. Both bear the stamp of their period; the effort for literary elegance, which was considered the principal thing at the beginning of the sixteenth century, had given place to a desire to pile up as much material as possible, to embrace the whole field of human knowledge, and incorporate it into theology. Bellarmine's exposition of the views and arguments of the Prot­estants is surprisingly full and accurate, 8o much so that the circulation of the book in Italy was for a time not encouraged. He fails, like moat of his contemporaries, in understanding the principle of historical development, and his belief in author­ity, pressed to an extreme, injured his sense of truth and allowed him to handle both the Bible and history in an arbitrary manner. The first volume; treats of the Word of God, of Christ, and of the pope; the second of the authority of councils, and of the Church, whether militant, expectant, or triumphant; the third of the sacraments; and the fourth of grace, free will, justification, and good works. The most important part of the work is contained in the five books on the Roman pontiff. In these, after a speculative introduction on forma of government in general, holding monarchy to be relatively the best, he says that a monarchical government is necessary. for the Church, to preserve unity and order in it. Such power he considers to have been established by the commission of Christ to Peter. He then proceeds to demonstrate that this power has been transmitted to the successors of Peter, admitting that a heretical pope may be freely judged and deposed by the Church since by the very fact of his heresy he would ease to be pope, or even a member of the Church; this is almost like an echo of the great councils of the fifteenth century. The third section discusses Antichrist; Bellarmine gives in full the theory set forth by the Greek and Latin Fathers, of a personal Antichrist to come just before the end of the world and to be accepted by the Jews and



enthroned in the temple at Jerusalem thus en­deavoring to dispose of the Protestant exposition which saw Antichrist in the pope. The fourth section sets forth the pope as the supreme judge in matters of faith and morale, though making the concessions (confirmed indeed by the Vatican Council) that the pope may err 'in questions of fact which may be known by ordinary human knowl­edge, and also when he speaks as a mere unofficial theologian, doctor privatus. His assertions are much more unbounded in the last part, which treats of the pope's power in secular matters. While he says that the pope has no direct jurisdiction in such things, he yet stoutly contends for the power of deposing kings, absolving subjects from their allegiance, and altering civil laws, when these actions are necessary for the good of the souls committed to the charge of the chief pastor.

Until 1589 Bellarrnine was occupied altogether as professor of theology, but that date marked the beginning of a new epoch in his life and of new dignities. After the murder of Henry III of France Sixtus V sent Gaetano as legate to Paris to nego­tiate with the League, and chose Bellarmine to accompany him as theologian; he was in the city during its siege by Henry of Navarre. The next pope, Clement VIII (1591 1605), set great store by him. He wrote the preface to the new edition of the Vulgate, and w1s made rector of the Roman

College in 1592, examiner of bishops 3. New Du  in 1598, cardinal in 1599, and in 1602

ties after archbishop of Capua. He had written :589• Con  strongly against pluralism and non 

troversial residence, and he set a good example

Writings. himself by leaving within four days

for his diocese, where he devoted himself zealously to his episcopal duties, and firmly executed the reforming decrees of .the Council of Trent. Under Paul V (1605 21) arose the great conflict, between Venice and the papacy, in which Fra Paolo Sarpi was the spokesman of the Republic, protesting against the papal interdict, reasserting the principles of Constance and Basel, and denying the pope's authority in matters secular. Bellar­mine wrote three rejoinders to the Venetian theo­logians, and at the same time possibly saved Sarpi's life by giving him warning of an impending mur­derous attack. He anon had occasion to cross swords with a more prominent antagonist, James I of England, who prided himself on his theological attainments. Bellarmine had written a letter to the English archpriest Blackwell, reproaching him for having taken the oath of allegiance in apparent disregard of his duty to the pope. James attacked him in 1608 in a Latin treatise, which the scholarly cardinal answered at once, making merry with delicate humor over the defects of the royal Latinity. James replied with a second attack in more careful style, dedicated to the Emperor Rudolph II and all the monarchs of Christendom, in which he posed as the defender of primitive and truly Catholic Christianity. Bellarmine's answer to this covers more or less the whole controversy. In reply to a posthumous treatise of William Barclay, the celebrated Scottish jurist, he wrote another Trac­tattu de potentate eummi lOOntifrcia in rebus tem 

poralibus, which reiterated his strong ass,~rtiona on the subject, and was therefore prohibited in France, where it agreed with the sentiments of neither the king nor the bishops. He was among the theologians consulted on the teaching of Galileo when it first made a stir at Rome. In his old age he was allowed to return to his old home, Monte­pulciano, as its bishop for four years, after which he retired to the Jesuit college of St. Andrew in Rome. He received some votes in the conclaves which elected Leo XI, Paul V, and Gregory XV, but only in the second case had he any prospect of election. Since his death the members of his order have more than once attempted to procure his canonization, but without success. The beat of the older editions of his works is that in seven vole., Cologne, 1617; recent ones are those of Paris, 1870 74, and Naples, 1872. (A. HAUCH.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Vet of the works of Bellsrmine is given in H. Hurler, Nomanclator literariua, i, 273 eqq., Inns­bruck, 1892. His autobiography, written in 1813, was issued in Lat. at home, 1875. at Louvain, 1753, and in Let. sad (dorm., ed. J. J. I. von D511inger sad F. H. R.euech, Bonn, 1887; it was used in MS. by J. Fuligatti, Vita del Cardinals $. BeUarmino, Rome, 1824. The lives by D. Bartoli, Rome, 1877, N. Friaon, Nantes, 1708, and F. Heneo, Paderborn,.1888, are mere eulogies and add nothing of value; indeed it is said that the auto­biography and the works founded upon it have done much to prevent Bellarmine'e canonisation. Consult Niceron, Mhnoirea, xxai, 1 eqq.; J. B. Coudero, Le V& n&,able Cardinal Bellarmdn, 2 vols., Paris, 1893.

BELLOWS, HENRY WHITNEY: American: Unitarian; b. in Boston June 11, 1814; .d. in New York Jan. 30, 1882. He was graduated at Harvard 1832, and at the Cambridge Divinity School 1837;: was ordained pastor of the First Congregational Society (Unitarian), Chambers Street, New York,. Jan. 2, 1838, and remained there till death; during: his pastorate the church was twice moved, to, Broadway between Spring and Prince Streets and the name changed to the Church of the Divine Unity, and again to 4th Avenue and 20th Street, where it took the name of All Souls' Church. Dr.. Bellows was the organizer, president, and chief ad­ministrator of the United States Sanitary Com­mission (1862 78), and during the Civil War he superintended with rare efficiency the distribution of supplies valued at $15,000,000 and ;5,000,000' in money; at a later period he was president of the first civil service reform association organized in the country. He was president of the Na­tional Unitarian Conference 1865 79. He wrote much for the periodicals of his denomination and was the chief originator of The Christian In­quirer (New York, 1846) and for five years its principal contributor. He also published a number of books, of merely personal and transient interest.

BELLS: The use of bells se adjuncts to Chris­tian worship was not without precedent in pre­Christian times. Among the Jews the vestment, of the high priest was adorned with little bells (Ex. xxviii, $3); and among the pagans the priests of Proserpine announced the beginning of the sacrifice by ringing bells. There is no evidence of early Christian use of them to summon people to prayer; this seems to have been done by word of mouth, even as late as Tertullian and Jerome.




In the Egyptian monasteries the Old Testament use of trumpets still survived, and the sound made by knocking pieces of wood together served the same purpose; this custom is still sometimes used in the Roman Catholic Church on the last three days of Holy Week, when the ringing of bells is forbidden [and survives in some

Early Use. places in the East]. The first positive

evidence of the use of bells in con­

nection with Christian worship is found in Gregory

of Tours (d. 595), who speaks of them as being

rung at the beginning of the liturgy and the canon­

ical hours. From the seventh century on, bells

are often mentioned in the inventories of Western

churches, and by 800 they were so common as to be

found even in village churches. A capitulary of

Charlemagne (801) prescribes that priests shall

ring their bells at the accustomed hours of the day

and night. In the ninth century some Eastern

instances occur; thus Orso I, Doge of Venice, pre­

sented twelve bells to the Byzantine emperor,

who placed them in a tower near St. Sophia. But

outside of Russia they never attained the same

importance as in the `Vest. The Mohammedans

usually removed them in the countries they con­

quered; and Zwingli attempted to abolish their

use in Switzerland, though most of the Reformers

only protested against superstition in the use of

them, especially their consecration.

Walafrid Strabo distinguishes two classes of

bells in his time, vase productilia and fusilier,

wrought and cast. Of the now rare examples of

the former class the best known is the "; Saufang ";

at Cologne, so called because the

Material legend ran that it had been dug up

and Form. by pigs about 613; it is made of three plates of iron fastened together with copper nails. Similar and perhaps older examples are in the Edinburgh Museum. For the casting of bells a mixture of copper and tin was employed in the Middle Ages; afterward lead, zinc, iron, and antimony were used with copper. At present the best bell metal is supposed to be a mixture of 77 to 80 per cent. of good copper with 20 to 23 per cent. of pure tin. The earliest cast bells resemble row bells in form, though there are some shaped more like a beehive or a pear. Their dimensions are small.

As far as can be judged from the extant examples, the custom of putting inscriptions on bells does not go further back than the twelfth century, and is by no mesas general even then. On cast bells the inscriptions are rarely incised; where this occurs, it is a sign of antiquity. Later they are more commonly, raised, and in either Roman or Gothic capitals down to the end of Inscriptions. the fourteenth century; then small letters were used until about 1550, and since then more modern types of letters have been usual, except in recent deliberate imitations of the old style. Until well into the fourteenth century Latin was the regular language; then the vernacular came into use. The earliest inscriptions were short; from the end of the sixteenth century much longer ones became usual, frequently almost filling the surface of the bell. They are mostly pious dedications or prayers, or declarations of the

purpose of the bell, such as Funera plango, fulgura frango, sabbata pango; exeito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos. Besides inscriptions, the sides of bells were adorned with pictures, coats of arms, seals, and various symbols, among the oldest being, besides the cross, the dove with the olive branch, and the Agnus Dei.

As early as the Frankish sacramentaries and the Pontifical of Egbert special formulas for the bene­diction of belle are mentioned. This practise was connected in those days with superstitious notions, so that Charlemagne was obliged to regulate it in 789. But the formulas of benediction themselves attributed a quasimagical effect to

Bene  the bells thus consecrated. Accord­

diction. ing to present Roman Catholic usage,

the blessing of bells is an episcopal

prerogative, though priests may exercise it in case

of necessity with the pope's permission. The cere­

monies somewhat resemble those of baptism,

which has given rise to the practise of naming bells,

sad in the Middle Ages of appointing sponsors

for them, from whom rich christening gifts were

expected. The Schmalkald Articles declared bit­

terly against these practises as "; popish jugglery ";

and "; a mockery of holy baptism.";

The main use of bells has always been to an­nounce the time of public worship. It is also a common Roman Catholic practise to ring the church bell at the consecration in the mass, as in some Protestant localities at the Lord's Prayer after the sermon, that those who are absent may unite themselves in spirit with the congregation. During the mass, moreover, a small bell (called the "; Sanc­tus "; or "; saering "; bell) is rung at Present the specially solemn parts the Sanc 

Use. tus, the beginning of the canon, the

consecration, and the Domine, non

sum dignus. Bells have been rung also at certain

regular times to call to mind some mystery, as

the passion and death or the incarnation of 'Christ

(see ANGELUS), or to bid to prayer for sinners, for

the faithful departed, or for peace. The ringing

of joyous peals at marriages, and the announcement

of a death by solemn tolling (originally intended to

move the hearers to prayer for the soul, either

before or after death) are ancient practises; the

latter existed, at least in the monasteries, in the

time of Bede. In some parts of England a special

bell was tolled with a similar intention before the

execution of a criminal. (NIgOLAUS Mt1LLEx.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Literature on the subject is given in H. T. Ellaeombe, Practical Remarks on Belfries and Ringers, with an Appendix on Chiming, London, 1859 60; H. Otte, Gloekenkunde, pp. 1 8, Leipeie, 1884; and F. w. Schu­bart, Die Glocken im Hersopthum Anhalt, pp. aiv xvii, Dessau, 1898. H. T. Ellacombe has a series of works treating of English bells, among which are: Sundry Words AtautBella, Easter, 1884; Church Bellaof Devon, ib. 1872; Church Belie of Somerset, 1875; Church Bells of Gloucester­shire, 1881. Consult also: Joseph Anderson, Scotland in Early Times, let series, pp. 187 215. Edinburgh, 1881; F. W. Warren, Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church, p. 92, Oxford, 1881; Margaret Stokes, Early Christian Art in Ireland, pp. 50 eqq., London, 1887; J. T. Ff)wler; Adamrwni Vita S. Cofumba pp xliii xliv, Oxford, 1894; K. H. Bergner, Zur Glockenkunde Thiirinpene, Jena, 1898; Encyelapoxlia Britannica, s.v., contains interesting mate. rio not easily found elsewhere; DCA, i, 184 188.





BELSHAM, THOMAS: English Unitarian; b. at Bedford Apr. 26, 1750; d. at Hampstead Nov. 11, 1829. He finished his studies at the Dissenting Academy of Daventry and in 1770 became teacher there; in 1778 he became minister of an independ­ent chapel at Worcester, but returned to Daventry as teacher and preacher in 1781. Having adopted Unitarian views he resigned in 1789, and was professor of divinity at the college of Hackney until it ceased to exist in 1796. In 1794 he succeeded Dr. Prieatleyas minister of the Gravel Pit Unitarian Chapel at Hackney, and in 1805 became minister of the Essex Street Chapel, London. He published much, sermons, controversial writings, and general theological works, including Elements of the Phi­losophy of the Mind and of Moral Philosophy (Lon­don, 1801); Letters to the Bishop of London in Vindication of Unitarians (1815); The Epistles of St. Paul Translated, with an Exposition and Notes (2 vols., 1822); he was principal editor of The New Testament in an Improved Version upon the Basis of Archbishop Newcome's New Translation; with a critical text and notes critical and explanatory (1808). American Unitarianism (4th ed., Boston, 1315) is extracted from his Memoirs of the Read. T. Lindsey (London, 1812).

131BLIOGRAPEET: J. Williams, Memoirs of Thomas Beleham, London, 1833; DNB, iv, 202 203.


BELSHEIM, JOHANNES: Norwegian Protes­

tant; b. at Valders (about 100 m. n.w. of Chris­

tiania) Jan. 21, 1829. He received only an ele­

mentary education in his early years, and from

1851 was a teacher in village schools until 1858,

when he was enabled to enter the University of

Christiania, and graduated three years later. He

was tutor at a teachers' seminary in 1863 64, and

was then appointed pastor of a small parish in Fin­

marken near the Russian frontier. Six years later

he was called to a parish in Bjelland, in the extreme

south of Norway, but resigned in 1875 and settled

at Christiania, where he was enabled to continue

his studies by his pension and a small additional

stipend, while a government subvention later

rendered it possible for him to visit foreign

libraries. Died at Christiania July 15, 1909. His

writings are Om Bibelen, dens Opbevaring, Over

acettelse, og Udbredelae (3d ed., Christiania, 1884);

Til Forsvsr for nogle omtvistede Steder i det Nye

Testaments (1876); Yeiledning i Bibelens Historie,

med udforligere Oplysninger om det Nye Testsmentes

Boger (Christiania, 1880); Den evangeliske His­

tories Trovwrdighed og de Nytestamentlige Skriftera

Oprdndxlse (1891); De Gammeltestamentlige $krif­

ters Trovcsrdighed og Oprindelse (1892); Om Mose­

bogerne og nogle andre Gammeltestamentlige Skri

ter : Et Ind1(1896).

He likewise edited Codex nureus, sine quatuor Evan­

gelic ex codice purpureo aureoque in Bx3liotheca Re­

gis Halmensi asservata (Christiania, 1879); Die

Apostelgesehichte and die Offenbarung Johan,,, au,

dem Gigas Labrorum auf der kiiniglichen Bx3liothek

ate Stockholm (1879); . Das Evangelium des Mat­

thmus aus dem lateiniachen Cod. ff 1 Corbiensis auf der

kaiaerlichen Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg, nebat dem Briefs Jacobi (1881); Der Brief des Jacobus in alter lateinischer Uebersetzungnach dem Cod. ff 1 Corbien­sis in St. Petersburg (1884); Palimpsestus Vindobo­nensis : Antiquissima Veteris Testaments fragments (1885); Epiatuke Paulinee a Cod. Sangermaniense Petropolitano (1885); Evangelium des Marcus mach dem griechischxra Codex Theodorcs purpureus Petro­politanus (1885); Codex Vindobonenais purpureus antiquiasimus : Evangeliorum Lucre et Marci trans­lationia Latino fragments (Leipsie, 1885); Frag­ments Yindobonensia : Bruchstiiclce der Apostelge­achichte, des Briefea Jacobi and ersten Briefes Petri each einxm Palimpsest auf der kaiaerlichen Hofbib­Ziothek zu Wien (Christiania, 1886); Codex ft 2 Cor­biensis, sive quatuor Evangelia . . . Latino trans­latio a codiee in BxMliotheca Nationals Psrisiensi asaeruata (1887); Appendix epistularum Paulinarum e codice Germanensi (1887); Codex Colbertinus Parisienais : Quatuor Evangelic . . Latino trana­latio post editionem Petri Sabatarii cum into CodiCt collata (1888); Evangelium secundum Matthcsum . . . Latina translatio a codice olim Claramontano, nunc Yaticano (1892); Libri TOW, Judit, Ester . . . Latino translations codice olim Freisingensi:, nuns Monachensi (Trondt~jem, 1893); Ada Apostolorum.

. Latino translatio a codice Latino Grow Lau­diano Oxoniensi (Christiania, 1893); Codex Yercel­lensis : Quatuor Evangelic ex reliquiis codiais Yer­cellensis . . . et ex editions Juliana prineipi (1894); Evangelium Palatinum: Reliquite quatuor Evan­geliorum cum Latino translations a Bodice purpureo Yindobanensi et ex editions Tischendorfiana (1896); Fragments Novi Testaments in trsnalatione Latino ex H4ro qui voeatur Speculum (1899);. and Codex Yeronenaia : Quatuor Evangelic a Bodice in biblio­theca episcopali Veronensi ssserrMto et ex editions Blanchini (Prague, 1904). Of these the first, sec­ond, fifth, sixth, seventh, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and fourteenth are editiones principes. Of his numerous translations, special mention may be made of versions of the catechism of Cyril (Christiania, 1882) sad the De Imitations Christi of Thomas h Kempis (1890).

BEMA: In classical literature a semicircular platform at the end of a basilica, which supported the official seat of the judge. When the basilicas style was adapted to Christian use (see ARCHITEC­KvxE, ECCLESIASTICAL), the apse, or similar semi­circular termination of the building, was reserved for the seats of the bishop and clergy, sad the same name was sometimes applied to it. In a more re­stricted sense it signifies any elevated place in the church, such as that from which the gospel was read, and is thus synpnylnOlls With 8dllb0 (Q.V.).

BEMBO, PIETRO: Cardinal and humanist; b. in Venice May 20, 1470; d. in Rome Jan. 18, 1547. He was the son of a senator, and studied at Padua and Ferrara, in the latter place attracting the attention of Alfonso d'Eate and his wife, Lu­crezia Borgia. He spent six years at the court of Urbino, where he became acquainted with Raffael. He then went to Rome, where Leo X recognized his ability as a Latinist by making him his secre­tary. As he held this office to the death of the



pope (1521), the sixteen books of Latin letters of

Leo X are practically, as to their form, of Bembo's

composition. Returning to Padua, Bembo made

his house the meeting place of humanist circles.

In 1530 he was commissioned by the Venetian sen­

ate to complete the history of the republic begun

by Marcantonio Sabellico. His part of the work,

covering the years 1487 1513, has been justly criti­

cized as to historic accuracy by Justus Lipsius

(Politico, i, Leyden, 1589, 9, note). On the other

hand, not only in the Rime, but also in his letters,

these is a regrettable tendency to a loose frivolity

strongly bordering on pagan morals. This tend­

ency, shown also in his manner of life he was

the father of several illegitimate children was no

obstacle to his being made a cardinal (1539). From

that time on (he was now sixty nine), he is said to

have changed his life. He held. two bishoprics,

Gubbio and Bergamo, but he lived in Rome till his

death. His Opera were published in three vole. at

Basel, 1567; Strasburg, 1811 52; four vole., Venice,

1729. His Rime (Venice, 1530) have often been re­

printed; as has his Gli Asolani (1505), a dialogue

on the nature of love. K. BENRATH.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The first Vita was issued by Giovanni dells Case at Florence, 1567, a second is found in the Venice edition of his works, ut sup., while a third was published by L. Beeeadelli in Mo»umenti di varies letteratura, vol. i, Bologna, 1799, and also by W. P. Greawell, Memoirs of . Petrw Bembua, Manchester, 1801. Consult also V. Clan, Un Deannio dells vita di M. P. Bembo, 161 31, Turin, 1885; J. P. Niceron, M6moirea, xi, 358, xs, 32, 43 vole., Paris, 1729 15; W. W. Weetcott, Tabula Bembina* The laiac Tablet of Cardinal Bembo, its History and Sipni fi~ canoe, Bath, 1887.

BENAIAH ("; whom Yahweh built";): The name of several Israelites. The most important of them is the valorous son of Jehoiada of Kabzeei, a city in the south of Judah (Josh. xv, 21). He is honorably mentioned (II Sam. xxiii, 20 ff.; cf. I Chron. xi, 22 ff.) among the mighty men of David, to whom he always faithfully adhered. Three heroic exploits of his are mentioned in justification of his rank: he slew the two sons of Ariel (according to the LXX), either a distinguished Moabite (so Joaephus, Ant., VII, mil, 4) or the king of Moab, in the war with that people (L1 Sam. viii, 2); he killed a lion which had fallen into a pit in time of snow; and, finally, he overcame an Egyptian giant, who carried a spear so large that it seemed like a tree thrown across a ravine (according to an addition of the LXX), or like a weaver's beam (according to I Chron. xi, 23); Benaiah disarmed his opponent and killed him with his own weapon. Being prominent among David's "; thirty heroes,"; Benaiah was set over the Cherethites and Pelethitea, David's body­guard (II Sam. viii, 18; xx, 23). In the beginning of Solomon's reign, to whom he became devoted at once (I Kings i, 8), Benaiah still held this office and executed the judgment of the king upon Adonijah and Joab (I Kings ii, 25, 30, 34), and became Joab'e successor as commander in chief (I Kings ii, 35). When, under David, the army was organized, besides his regular office he had command over one of the twelve divisions of 24,000 men (I Chron. xxvii, 5, 6, where his father, Jehoiada, Atrnnge to say, is called "; the priest,"; which is no

doubt a mistaken gloss founded upon I Chron.

xll, 27). C. VON ORELLI.

BENDER, WILHELM (FRIEDRICH): German Protestant; b. at Munzenberg (10 m. s.e. of Giessen), Hesse, Jan. 15, 1845; d. at Bonn Apr. 8, 1901. He studied at GSttingeri and Giessen, 1863 86, and at the theological seminary at Friedberg, 1866 67; became teacher of religion and assistant preacher at Worms, 1868; ordinary professor of theology at Bonn, 1876; was transferred to the philosophical faculty, 1888. He belonged to the extreme Ritach­lian school, and published Der Wunderbegriff des Neuen Testaments (Frankfort, 1871); Schleier­maehera Theologie mit ihrert philosophischen Grutld­lagen (2 vole., NSrdlingen, 1876 78); Friedrich Schleiermacher and die Frage reach dem Wesen der Religion (Bonn, 1877); Johann Konrad Dippel. Der Freigeist aus dem Pietismvs (1882); Refor­mation and Kirchenthum, sine akatlemische Fest­rede zur Feier des vierhundertjahrigen Geburts­tags Martin Lathers (1883), which caused a great stir and many protests against Bender; Das Wese» der Religion used die Grundgesetze der KirchenMldung (1886); Der Kamp/ um die Seligkeit (1888); Mytho­logie and Metaphyaik, Grundlinien einer Geschichte der Weltanschauurtgen (Stuttgart, 1899).

BENEDICITE: The name given, from its first word in the Latin, to the canticle which stands in the Anglican Prayer book as an alternative to the Te Deum, commonly need in Advent and Lent, and in the Roman breviary as a part of the priest's thanksgiving after celebrating mass. It is taken from the apocryphal fragment of the Song of the Three Holy Children (verses 35 65), which supple­ments the narrative of Dan. iii, and seems to have been used in public worship in the poatexilic Jewish Church, and in the Christian at least from the fourth century.

BENEDICT: The name of fourteen popes and one antipope.

Benedict I: Pope 574 b78. He was a Roman

by birth, the son of Boniface, and succeeded

John III, who died July 13, 573, but was unable

to be consecrated before June 3, 574, because the

Lombards had cut off communication with Con­

etantinople and the imperial confirmation could

not be obtained. Owing to the troubles of the

barbarian invasion and a great famine, which

occupied his mind, the Leer poratificalis (ed. Du­

chesne, i, Paris, 1886, 308) finds scarcely anything

to say of his sets. He died July 30 or 31, 578,

during the siege of Rome by the first Lombard

Duke of Spoleto. (A. Havcs.)

BIaLtoassrav: Paulus Diaconue, Hiatoria Lanpobardorars, ii, 10, iii, 11 in MOX Script, rer. Lanpob., pp, 12 187, ed. Waits, Hanover, 1878; Jaff€, Repeeta, i, 137; Bower, Popes, i, 380 382 F. Gregorovius, (feechidvte der Stadt Rom, ii, 19 20 Stuttgart 1878, Eng. tranel., London,

1895: . M. Hattmann, Geachichte Italisw, ii, 48, 165, Goths, 1903.

Benedict II: pope sg3_ggg. He was elected after the death of Leo II, which took place on July 3, 683, though the imperial confirmation was de­layed for almost a year. The Leber pontiTcalis (ed.


Duchesne, i, Paris, 1888, 363) asserts that the em­peror Constantine Pogonatus conceded the right to proceed at once to consecration for the future; but this is very doubtful, as it would amount to a total renunciation of the right of confirmation, and it is certain that several successors of Benedict waited to obtain it either from the emperor himself or his representative, the Exarch of Ravenna. During the interval intervening before his conse­cration, Benedict signed himself with the desig­nation presbyter et in Dei nomine electua sandte sedis aPostolicce. Like his predecessor, he had at heart the complete recognition by the Western Church of the sixth ecumenical council (Third Con­stantinople, 680). With this end in view, Leo II had sent the notary Peter to Spain, and imme­diately after his election Benedict wrote to Peter to carry out his commission. His wish was grati­fied by the condemnation of monothelitism in the fourteenth Council of Toledo (Nov., 684). Even before his consecration, which finally took place June 26, 684, he espoused the cause of Wilfrid of York (q.v.) and wrote in recognition of his innocence and his rights. Benedict died May 8, 685.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita is in ASB, 7th May, ii, 197 198. Consult Vita Wilfridi, chap. zlii eqq., in T. Gale, His­torio3 Anplscance ecriptoree quinque, i, 74 aqq., Oxford, 1891; Mann, Popes, vol. i, part 2, pp. b4 63, Lond., 1902; Jaffc, Repeats, i, 241; J. Lsngen, Geechiehta der rtimiachen Kirche room Loo 1 bin Nikolaus 1, p 579, Bonn, 1895; Hefele, Concilienpeachichte, iii, 322, Eng. tranal., v, 215: Bower, Popes, i, 487 489; L. M. Hartmann, Guchirkta Italiena, ii, 282 283, Goths, 1903.

Benedict III: Pope 855 858. He was chosen immediately after the death of Leo IV by the clergy and people of Rome, but owing to the setting up of an antipope, Anastasius, by the emperor Lothair and his son Louis II, was not consecrated for more than two months (Sept. 29). Soon afterward the Saxon king, Ethelwulf, and his eon Alfred, visited Rome and made liberal gifts to the Church. In his relations with secular powers and important prelates, Benedict displayed the same unbending principle which was carried out by his famous successor Nicholas I (q.v.), already a person of much influence. He confirmed the powerful Hinemar, archbishop of Reims, in his primacy, only on condition that the rights of the apostolic see should be safeguarded. In England he protested against the deposition of bishops by tyrannous lay nobles. The struggle with the Eastern Church in which Nicholas was involved had its origin in Benedict's pontificate, arising out of the case of the arch­bishop of Syracuse, who was deposed by the patri­arch of Constantinople, Ignatius (q.v.), and ap­pealed to Leo IV and after his death to Benedict. Before Ignatius was expelled by a faction and re­placed by the famous Photius, Benedict died

(Apr. 7, 858). (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Libar pontittealia, ed. Duoheane, ii, 140, Paris, 1892; Epietola Nicolsi 1, in Manei, Conczlis, vol. av; Jsff6, Repeats, i, 339 340; J. Hergenr5ther, Photiua, i, 358 eqq., Regensburg, 1887; R,. Baamsnn Die Pol£tsk der Pspate von Gregor I bin auf Gregor VII, i, 355 eqq., Elberfeld.1888; J. Lsngen, GescAichte der rtlmiaehen Kirclu roan Leo 1 bie Nikolaus I, p. 884, Bonn, 1885; Hefele, Con­aititnpeschichta, iv, 201; Bower, Popes, ii, 227 229.

Benedict IV: Pope 900 903. Owing to the

scantiness of the sourcesforthe history of the papacy

at this period, the chronology is very uncertain;

the exact date of Benedict's elevation can not be

determined, though it is probably May, not later

than June, 900. Like his predecessor, John IX, he

recognized Formosus (q.v.), by whom he was himself

ordained priest, as a lawful pope at a Roman

synod in August. When Louis of Burgundy

(Louie III) made his victorious descent into Italy

and wrested it from Berengar, Benedict crowned

him as emperor in Feb., 901. He died in July or

Aug., 903. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 7nBer pontifioatia, ed. Duchesne, ii, 233, Paris, 1892; Jaffd, Repesta, i, 443; Hefele, ConciLiange­achichte, iv, 570 571; .Bower, Popes, ii, 304 305.

Benedict V (called Gramma,ticus): Pope 964.

At the end of 963, the emperor Otto I deposed the

dissolute John XII in a synod.at Rome and caused

a prominent Roman layman to be put in his place

as Leo VIII, taking an oath of the people that they

would thenceforth choose no pope without his

consent and that of his son. He had scarcely left

the city when John XII returned and drove out

and anathematized Leo. The emperor came

back to chastise this rebellion, but before he arrived

John XII died (May 14, 964). A deputation met

Otto and begged him not to replace Leo, but to

permit a new election. In spite of his refusal,

the Romans chose the cardinal deacon Benedict,

a man of blameless life and great learning who had

been one of the opponents of John's unworthy rule.

He had pledged fidelity both to Otto and to Lad,

but the fear of imperial domination of the Church

had brought him to support John on the letter's

return. The people were firm in their intention

to defend Benedict against the emperor; but the

pressure of famine forced them to give him up

(June 23, 964). He was brought to trial before s

synod. After asking the pardon of Otto and of Leo,

and surrendering the insignia of his office to the

latter, he was deprived of his episcopal and priestly

functions, though allowed to retain those of deacon.

To avoid any possibility of his changing his mind,

he was sent to Germany, where he remained prac­

tically a prisoner, in the charge of the archbishop

of Hamburg, until his death, which occurred not

earlier than July 4, 966. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber ponEiRoaIra, ed. Ducheene, n, 151, Paris, 1892; Jaff4, Rapesta, i, 489; J. M. Wstterich, Romanorum yontihcum . . . roils, i. 45, Leipeie, 1882; A. von )ieumont, Guchichte der Sfadt Rom, ii, 289, Berlin, 1888; W. von Gieeebrecht Gearhichta der deutsehsn Kaiseaeit, i, 488 Brunswick, 1873; F. Gregorovius, Go­ec)tich6e der Stadt Rom, iii, 384, Stuttgart, 1878; Bower, Popes, ii, 320 321; Hefele, Concilienpatehichta, iv, 819, 828; Hauck, KD, iii, 23fY238.

Benedict VI: Pope 972 974. He was elected immediately after the death of John XIII (Sept. 6, 972), but was not consecrated until the 19th of the following January, apparently waiting for the emperor Otto's confirmation. After the death of Otto I, the affairs of the empire fell into disorder. Crescentius, the son of Theodore, conspired with the deacon Boniface to overthrow Benedict, who


was imprisoned and, after Boniface had assumed the papal authority, was strangled in July, 974.

(A. Haucx.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liter pontifirnlis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 255,

Paris, 1892; JaffB, Repeats, i, 477; J. M. Watterieh, Pon­

tiftcum Romanarum . . vita, i, 85 88, Leipeic, 1882;

Neander, Christian Church, iii, 330 331 (reference to

a letter of Benedict, given Manei, ConciLia, xix, 63);

Hefele, Conci,Ziengeachschte, iv, 832; Bower, Popes, ii, 324.

Benedict VII: Pope 974 X983. He was a Roman

by birth, said to have been a kinsman of the powerful

Roman prince and senator Alberic. He was bishop

of Sutri when, on the flight of Boniface VII, he

was called to the papal throne, and confirmed by

the emperor Otto II. As far as we know, his first

act was to condemn Boniface in a synod at Rome.

He displayed a great desire to maintain friendly

relations with the German prelates; Archbishop

Willigia of Mains was appointed papal legate for

Germany and Gaul, with the right of crowning the

German kings. Benedict showed his subservi­

ency to the emperor by agreeing to the suppression

of the bishopric of Meraeburg in a synod at Rome

(Sept. 10, 981), without regard to the arguments

brought against such a proceeding. He was a de­

voted friend of monasticism, as is shown not only

by the numerous privileges bestowed upon monas­

teries, but by the restoration of that of Saints Boni­

face and Alexius on the Aventine and the building

of the monastic church of Subiaco. He supported

the reforming movement, condemning simony at

a synod in March, 981. That he upheld the claim

of the papacy to universal jurisdiction may be in­

ferred from the fact that he sought to establish re­

lations with places as distant as Carthage and Da­

mascus, giving an archbishop once more to the

North African Church, and appointing the metro­

politan of Damascus, who had been driven out by

the Arabs, abbot of St. Boniface. He died in Oct.,

983. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Z.iber pontihcalia, ed. Duoheane, ii, 258,

Paris, 1892: Jaffd. Repeats, i, 479; J. M. WatteriehRomarwrum pontificum . . . vita, i, BB, 888, Leipaic,

1882; A. von Reumont, Geachichte der Stsdt Rom, ii, 294,

Berlin, 1888: F. Gregorovius, Geaehiehte der Stadt Rom, iii, 372, Stuttgart, 1878; Bower, Popes, ii, 325; Hefele, Corn citienpeachichte, iv, 833; Hauck, RD, iii, passim.

Benedict VIII (Theophylact) : Pope 1012 24. He was the son of Count Gregory of Tueculum, chosen by his brothers' influence, after they had defeated, by force of arms, the Creacentian party, who set up another Gregory as antipope (see GREGORY VI, antipope). Benedict was conse­crated Apr. 20, 1012, and Gregory fled to the court of Henry II, who, however, recognized Benedict, and was rewarded by a promise of coronation in St. Peter's. He descended into Italy toward the end of 1013, and was crowned, with his wife Cunigunde, in the following February. Soon of t­erward a synod was held in his presence, at which, it is said at his suggestion, the Constantinopolitau Creed was made a part of the Roman liturgy; after this he left Pope Benedict to contend with his nu­merous enemies the Crescentian faction, the Arabs, and the Greeks. The first he suppressed; the Mohammedan invaders, who threatened Italy from

Sardinia, were defeated and driven out of the island

in June, 1016, by the aid of the Pisans and Genoese;

he supported those who were attempting to free

southern Italy from the Byzantine rule, and gained

them the help of a body of Norman knights, who

conquered the Greeks, though only temporarily. He

accepted Henry's invitation to meet him in 1020 at

Bamberg, where the emperor renewed the "; Otto •

niaa privilege "; to the Church, and gave up B.nl­

berg to ecclesiastical rule. In the following year

Henry crossed the Alps for the third time; Bene­

dict met him at Benevento in 1022, and was pres­

ent when he conquered the Greek fortress of Troja

and broke the power of Pandulf IV of Capua, an

ally of the Byzautinea. These successes, again

temporary, are less important than the synod held

by the pope and emperor jointly at Pavia Aug. 1,

1022. Here Henry's reforming plane were ex­

tended to Italy. After a strong exhortation from

the pope, the synod renewed the condemnation of

clerical marriage and took measures to prevent the

alienation of church property. Henry wished to

carry his reforms into France also, and with this

purpose met King Robert at Ivois in Aug., 1023.

Another synod at Pavia was projected, but before

it could be held both Benedict and Henry had died,

the former Apr. 9, 1024. (A. Hwcs.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liter pontiAcalia, ed. Ducheene, ii, 288, Paris, 1892; JaHd, Repeats, i, 508; J. M. Watterieh, Romanorum ponMficum . . . vita, i, 69, 700, Leipaic, 1882; A. von R,eumont, Geachichk der Sfadt Rom, ii, 329, Berlin, 1888; W. von Gieaebreeht, Geachichte der deutarhsn RaiaerzeiE, ii, 122 aqq., Brunswick, 1875; P, F. Ssdee, Die SteiZunp Heinrdcha 11 our Rsrche, Jena, 1877; Hefele, ConciZienpeachichte, iv, 870; Bower, Popes, ii, 33b 337; Hartmann, in MittheiLunpen den lnatituta fiir Wterreichiache Geach%chte, av (1894). 482 eqq.; Hauck, RD, iii, 518 eqq.; P. G. Wappler, Papst Benedikt VIII, Leipeic, 1897.

Benedict IX (Theophylact): Pope 1033 48. He was the son of Count Alberic of Tuaculum, and nephew of Benedict VIII and John XIX, the latter of whom he succeeded by his father's intrigues and violence, though he was only ten years old. His life was incredibly scandalous, and the strife of fac­tions continued. A murderous assault upon him and his expulsion from Rome followed (the date can not be determined). He owed his restoration to the emperor Conrad II, who came into Italy in the winter of 1036. Benedict met him obsequi­ously at Cremona in the following June, taking no notice of the fact that he had broken the Church's laws by imprisoning Aribert, archbishop of Milan, and expelling the bishops of Piacenza, Cremona, and Vercelli from their sees; in fact, in Mar., 1038, he went so far as to excommunicate Aribert. By similar complaisancea he won the favor of Conrad's successor, Henry III, for whom, in 1041, he obli­gingly excommunicated the Hungarian nobles, who had driven out their king, Peter. The Romans bore with these conditions until the end of 1044, when they rose and drove Benedict out, afterward elect­ing John, bishop of Sabina, in his stead, under the title of Sylvester III. Benedict succeeded in lead­ing John back to Sabina inside of two months; but, doubting his own ability to maintain his position, he decided to abdicate, adding one more shameless


act of simony by selling the papacy (May 1,1045) to the archpriest John Gratian (who called himself Greg­ory VI,q.v.)forthesum of a thousand pounds of sil­ver and the continued enjoyment of  the Peter's pence from England. Henry III came to Italy in the autumn of 1046, and decided to remove Gregory. He convened a synod at Sutri, which deposed Syl­vester even from the priesthood and induced Greg­ory to resign his claims (Dec. 20, 1046); a few days later, another synod in Rome deposed Benedict also, and Suidger of Bamberg succeeded tc, an un­disputed papacy as Clement II. When he died, however, nine months later, Benedict made an at­tempt to recover his see. He was soon put down by the imperial authority, and retired to Tuaculum. When and where he died is not known.

(A. Iinuc$.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jaffd, Repeats, i, 519; J. M. Watterieh, Romanorurri Pontificum . ~ . vita, i, 71, 711, Leipeic, 1862; A. von Rsumont, Geaehichte der Stadt Rom, ii, 338, Berlin, 1868; O. Lorenz, Papatwaht urul Kaiaertum, p. 69, Berlin, 1874; F. Gregorovius, Geachichte der Stadt Rom, iv, 39, Stuttgart, 1877; Bower, Popes, ii, 340 343; Neander, Christian Church, iii, 375 377, 409, 445, 448; Hefele, Concilienpeachschte, iv, 708 707, 714; Hauck, KD, iii, 559. 589 571.

Benedict % (Johannes Mincius): Pope 1058 59. He was bishop of Velletri before, unwillingly, he was elected and enthroned in the night between Apr. 3 and 4, 1058, by the noble factions which had so long dominated the papacy and were soon to lose their power. Peter Damian and the other reforming cardinals fled; but before they left Rome they pronounced an anathema upon the new pope. Meantime Hildebrand was on his way back from Germany. At Florence he heard the news, and after conferring with the empress Agues, regent for her son Henry IV, arranged for the election of a pope acceptable to the strict churchmen. At Sienna in December Gerard, bishop of Florence, was chosen and took the title of Nicholas II. In Jan­uary he held a synod at Sutri which pronounced the deposition and excommunication of Benedict X. The latter was driven from Rome by the forces set in motion by Hildebrand, ahd finally found it expedient to abdicate, which he did for­mally at a synod in the Lateran, Apr., 1060. He is said to have lived twenty years longer as a prisoner in the monastery of St. Agues. Gregory VII, in whose reign he died, permitted him to be buried with the obsequies of a rightful pope, as which, indeed, he was reckoned until the fourteenth

century. (A. HABes.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: fiber ponti.ficalia, ed. Duchesne,. ii, 279, Paris, 1892; Jaffd, Repeats, i, 556; J. M. Watterich, Ro­marwrum pontificum . ~ roils, i, 203, 738 Leipaic 1862; W. von Gieaebrecht, Geachichte der deutachen Kaiaer­aeit, iii, 24, Brunswick, 1875; F. Gregoroviu6, GCEChBChIC der Stadt Rom, iv, 107, Stuttgart, 1877; J. Langen, Ge­achichte der rdmuclun Kirche von Nikolaus I bis Gregor VII, p. 500, Bonn, 1892; Bower Popes, ii, 340 343; Neander, Christian Church iii 387; Hefele, Concilienge­schichte, iv, 798, 828: Hauck, KD, iii, 879 681.

Benedict XI (Niccolo Bocasini): Pope 1303­1304. He was born in 1240 at Treviso, entered the Dominican order in 1254, and spent fourteen years in diligent study, which enabled him to write several Biblical commentaries. He became prior of his

house, provincial of Lombardy, and in 1296 general

of the order. Boniface VIII made him a cardinal

priest in 1298, and soon after cardinal bishop of

Ostia and Velletri. In 1302 he went to Hungary

as papal legate. He remained true to Boniface

VIII, and on his death was elected (Oct. 22, 1303)

to succeed him. He found himself at once in dif­

ficulties as the heir to the policy and the enemies

of Boniface (see BONIFACE VIII), but by a concilia­

tory prudence he found his way out of them. First

he won back the powerful Colonna family, restor­

ing to them their dignities and possessions under

certain limitations which marked his sense of their

misconduct. Frederick of Sicily was brought to a

sense of his feudal obligations toward the papacy,

which he had thought to escape. To Tuscany,

Benedict sent Nicholas of Prato, his successor as

cardinal bishop of Ostia, to make peace between

the Bianchi and Neri factions in Florence. This

mission was not very successful, but Benedict had

better fortune with the moat difficult task left to him

by his predecessor, the effecting of a reconciliation

with France. Philip the Fair was ready for peace,

but apparently made the condition that a general

council should be called to pass a post mortem con­

demnation on Boniface. Benedict met him half way,

and on Mar. 25, 1304, released him from his excom­

munication; then he annulled a number of other

measures of his predecessor which had been specially

felt as grievances in France, and on May 13 withdrew

the sentences passed against Philip and nie counsel­

ors, even those who had taken part in the outrage

of Anagni, with the exception of the ringleader

William of Nogaret. He, together with all the Ital­

ians who had taken part in the violence offered to

Boniface, was excommunicated on June 7, and

summoned to appear before Benedict to receive

sentence. A few weeks later, however (July 7),

Benedict died in Perughl, whither he had retired

on account of turbulence in Rome. The rumor

immediately spread that he had been poisoned, at

the instigation, it was variously asserted, of Philip

the Fair, of the Colonna, of the Franciscans (who

were jealous of the favor shown to the Dominicans),

of the opposition cardinals, or of William of No­

garet, who had most to gain by a change, and who,

in fact, received his absolution from Benedict's

successor. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ptolem[Bua of Lucca, Vitce ponti.fieum Romanoram, in Muratori, Scriptoraa. ri. 1224; B. Gui­donie, Vitas anti fcum Romanorum, ib. iii, 672; W. Drumann, Geechichk Bonifaciua VIII, ii. 147, K&nigsberg, 1852; L. Gautier, Benoit XI, ihde our la pa9oauM au com­msncement du xiro. sidcTe, Paris, 1883; C. Grandjean, Benoit %1, Paris, 1863; idem, Le Repiatra de Benoit X1, recueil do buiiae, Paris, 1884 85; P. Funks, Papat Banedikt Xl, Master, 1891; Bower, Popes, iii, 58 58; Neander, Christian Church, v, 19; Hefele, Co~Tienpeacki~yle, ri, 376 ago.

Benedict RII (Jacques Fournier): Pope 1334­1342. He was a native of Languedoc, of humble origin, and as a boy entered the Cistercian monas­tery of Bolbonne in the diocese of Mirepoix, mi­grating later to that of Fontfroide in the diocese of Narbonne, of which his uncle was abbot. The latter sent him to the University of Paris. pope John XXII gave him the bishopric of Pamiers and later of Mirepoia, and made him cardinal in 1327.


He was rather unexpectedly elected pope Dec. 20, 1334, and began his reign with reforming meas­ures. The bishops and abbots who lingered at the court of Avignon were ~ sent home, the system of petitions was regulated, and care was taken to se­lect worthy men for vacant benefices. Benedict planned to restore the strict discipline of the Bene­dictines and Cistercians, as well as of the men­dicant orders, and entirely avoided the reproach of nepotism. Soon after his elevation, the Romans begged him to return to them, and he promised to do so, but was prevented by the French majority in the Sacred ~ College. Later he thought of re­moving to Bologna, but finally settled down in Avignon and began the building of a magnificent palace. His attitude toward theological and eccle­siastical controversies was a pacific one. He con­demned the opinion so strongly held by his prede­cessor, that the souls of the just do not enjoy the Beatific Vision until after the last judgment. Ne­gotiations took place with the Eastern Church looking toward reunion; in 1339 the emperor An­dronicus sent ambassadors to Avignon, really with a view to gaining military aid against the Turks, but holding out prospects of ecclesiastical accom­modation, which, however, came to little. He won a moral triumph is Spain by inducing Alfonso XI of Castile to break off his adulterous connection with Eleonora de Gu'sman, and rendered no slight service to the Christian cause in the peninsula by making peace between Castile and Portugal, and thus enabling the Christian forces to unite against the Mussulmans and to defeat them completely at Tarifa. The most difficult problem was the treat­ment of Louis of Bavaria. Benedict showed him­self conciliatory, and Louis sent an embassy to Avignon (1335); but Philip VI, against whose in­terests this reconciliation would have been, pre­vented it then, and a second time in the autumn of the following year. This gave the alliance of Louis to Edward III of England against France. The electoral princess finally asserted their rights; on July 15,1338, they swore to defend the customs and liberties of the empire and to prevent any infringe­ment of their electoral prerogative; the next day they declared that the king of the Romans chosen by them stood in no need of papal confirmation, and notified Benedict of their attitude. At the diet held in Frankfort (Aug. 8, 1338), Louis went even further, denying any connection between the coronation by the pope and the right to bear the title of emperor, at the same time asserting the in­validity of all the censures pronounced against him­self and the empire by John XXII. None the less, in the following year he reopened negotiations with Benedict; sad when he had an opportunity of oon­cluding peace with Philip VI, he deserted his Eng­lish ally, hoping to gain Philip's support with the pope. He spoiled his own case, however, by his encroachments on the Church's law of marriage and its power in such matters. In order to marry his son, Louis, margrave of Brandenburg, to Mqr­garet, heiress of the Tyrol, he declared her previ­ous marriage with Prince John of Bohemia null and void (following an opinion of Occam's), and on Feb. 10, 1342, in spite of the impediment of oonsan 

guinity in the third degree between the couple, had the marriage performed. Benedict had no oppor­tunity to pass judgment upon these acts, as he died on Apr. 25 of the same year. (A. HAUCK.)

Btsrloeaaray: Lilxr pontifimlie, ed. Ducheene, ii. 488, 527,

Paris, 1892; eight accounts of his life are collected in.

Baluae, Vitae paparum Avenonsnaium, i, 197 244, Paris,

1893; Muratori, scriptorae, iii, 527 eqq.; s. M. Watterich,

Romanorum pontificum vita, i, 203 204, Leipeic. 1882;

A. Pichler, Oeechichte der kireAlie)un Trsnnunp ataiachen

dera Orient and Occident, i, 388, Munich, 1884; C. Mailer,

Der %amp/ Ludtoipe . . . mit der rtimiachen Curie, vol. ii,

TBbingen, 1880; A. R.ohrmann, Die Procuratorien Lud­

toiga du Baiern, GtSttingen, 1882;  Bower, Popes, iii, 88­

92; Pastor, Popes, i, 8488; Benoit XII, Lettrea clone,

patentee et curiaiee ea rapporfant d is Francs, ed. G. Dau­

met, Paris, 1899; 73etele, Concilienpeachichta, vi, 838 853.

Benedict XIU: 1. The title was first borne by Pedro. de Luna from 1394 to 1417, in the Great Western Schism. He came of a noble family in Aragon, studied in France, taught canon law at the University of Montpellier, and was made cardinal by Gregory XI. When the schism broke out between the partizans of Urban VI and Clement VII, he took the latter's side, and went to Spain and Portugal as Clement's representative in 1379. In

Sides with 1393, again, he appeared at a meeting Clement of English and French dignitaries, in VII in the the hope of winning England away Great from the party of Boniface IX, the Schism. pope elected in Rome to succeed Ur­ban VI. When the University of Paris in 1394 suggested three ways to end the sehiem­the resignation of both claimants, the submission of both to the decision of a tribunal agreed upon be­tween them, or the calling of a general council­Clement sent him to Paris to prevent the choice of the first; but in fact he declared in favor of it, pos­sibly with an eye to his own chances. Clement died the same autumn, and the cardinals of his party nearly all agreed that whichever of them might be chosen pope should do all in 7lie power to end the schism, even by abdicating if necessary; and no voice was louder in this agreement than Pedro de Luna'e. He was unanimously chosen on Se

,pt. 28, consecrated and crowned Oct. 11. He reiterated his willingness to do anything for peace; but when the neat year an embassy representing the king of France, a national synod, and the University of Paris approached him to urge the abdication of both popes, he declined, recommending rather a personal meeting of both to discuss the question. To this he adhered in spite of the opposite view of all his cardinals but one and of the personal entreaties of the dukes of Berry, Bur­gundy, and Orleans. Charles VI held a second national council at Paris (end of Aug., 1398), and tried to gain the support of the European sovereigns for his plan. In June, 1397, the ambassadors of France, England, and Castile pressed the necessity of abdication upon Benedict, who declined for himself while recommending it to Boniface IX. No more success attended a joint embassy (1398) from Charles and Wenceslaus, king of the Romans, headed by Pierre d'Ailly, bishop of Cambrai.

Charles held a third council is May, 1398, which decided that France should withdraw from Bene­dict's obedience. When this decision received the


royal assent and was promulgated (July 27), all the cardinals but three ioraook Benedict, and open warfare broke out. Benedict, practically a.prisoner in his palace, yielded so far (Apr., 1399) as to sign a solemn undertaking to abdicate whenever his rival would do the same or should die or be expelled from Rome; but he secretly protested that his promise was null and void, as having been given under compulsion. France was now practically without a pope; and the longer this anomalous

condition continued, the more uneasi­Course of nesa it caused. Leading churchmen,

Events in such as Gerson and Nicholas de Cld 

France. oranges, began to write in favor of a

return to Benedict XIII. Finally Charles called a meeting of bishops and nobles (May, 1403), to reconsider the question. Before they met Benedict had contrived to escape from Avignon, and the city had declared for him, once he was free. It is not surprising, therefore, that the assembled magnates declared for a restoration of France to his obedience, though on condition that he should renew his promise in regard to abdication, and undertake to submit the question how to end the schism to a general council within a year. This left things much as they had been in 1394 and 1395. Boniface IX died soon after (Oct. 1, 1404); but his successor, Innocent VII, showed just as little inclination to abandon his claims. Benedict, still attached to his own plan of a personal confer­ence, undertook a journey to Genoa, without any result except to produce fresh irritation in France, whose clergy were taxed to pay the expenses of the experiment. Another national council (1406) de­clared in favor of withdrawing his right to present the bishoprics and benefices; but the Duke of Or­Mans stood out for complete obedience and hin­dered the execution of this decision. New hopes were aroused, on the death of Innocent VII, by the choice (Nov. 30, 1406) of Gregory XII, who at once declared himself willing to take any measures, even that of abdication, to end the schism. A meet­ing was planned between'the rivals for the autumn of 1407, but it fell through. In November Benedict lost a powerful friend by the murder of the Duke of Orleans, and was so unwise in 1408 as to attempt to enforce the observance of the French obedience by threats of excommunication. In May Charles proclaimed France absolutely neutral in the con­test. Benedict, fearing for his safety, fled to his native Aragon.

The cardinals of both factions deserted their respective popes and in June took counsel together with a view to calling a general council. This met in 1409 at Pisa, summoned both claimants before it, proceeded to hear testimony when they did not

appear, and on June 5 declared both, The Coun  as heretics, schiematica, and per­cils of jurers, not only deposed but excom 

Pisa sad municated. Benedict still asserted

Constance. his claims, and Spain, Portugal, and

Scotland adhered to him. New nego­tiations with him were undertaken by the Council of Constance in 1414, but he stubbornly refused to yield, even to the persuasions of the emperor Sigismund. Finally the patience of his own sgp 

porters in Spain and Scotland was worn out, and

they renounced him in the Concordat of Narbonne

(Dec., 1415). He entrenched himself in the moun­

tain fastness of Peiiiscola, near Valencia, which

belonged to his family, and proudly told the envoys

of the council that the true Church was there only.

On July 28, 1417, the Council of Constance once

more deposed and excommunicated him; and he

remained in his castle, with a court of but four

cardinals, until his death at the age of nearly ninety

in Nov., 1424. (A. HAUCK.)

B, Benedict XIII was also the name borne by

Pietro Francesco d'Orsini Gravina, pope 1724 30.

He was born Feb. 2, 1649, at Gravina in the king­

dom of Naples, and in 1867, renouncing his rights of

succession to the ducal estates, entered the Domini­

can order at Venice, taking the name of Vincenzo

Maria. He studied theology at Venice and Bologna,

philosophy at Naples. In 1672 be was made a

cardinal by Clement X, and archbishop of Bene­

vento in 1686. After administering his diocese

admirably for thirty eight years, and spending

his leisure in the composition of theological works,

he was almost unanimously elected pope (May

29, 1724), after the death of Innocent XIII. At

first he took the name of Benedict XIV, but changed

it to Benedict XIII in the conviction that Pedro

de Luna was a schismatic and not a legitimate pope.

His pontificate began with an attempt to restrain

the pomp and luxury of the cardinals, which was

as vain as his similar attempts to reform the rest of

the clergy. Though the prescriptions of the Lateran

council of 1725 in this direction were not much

heeded, it is memorable because in it Benedict con­

firmed the constitution Unigenitus, and thus

aided the Jesuits. He had the satisfaction of

receiving in 1728 the unconditional submission of

De Noaillea, archbishop of Paris, the head of the

Gallican opposition. Weakness was the principal

characteristic of his dealings with the secular powers

of Europe. He left such matters almost entirely

in the hands of his favorite Cardinal Coscia, whose

interest it was to keep on good terms with the

powers. Thus the emperor Charles VI obtained

the privileges which he claimed in Sicily as the suc­

cessor of the older rulers, who had been legati. nati.

of the Holy See. Thus also the king of Sardinia

got the beat of a long contest with Rome; and

only one state found the curia stubborn. The

king of Portugal, John V, requested the red hat

for Bichi, the papal nuncio at Lisbon, and when

it was refused showed great hostility to the pope,

even threatening in 1728 to break off all relations

between the Church of Portugal and Rome, Bene.

diet was unpopular in Rome, owing to the mis­

government of Coacia, who,, when the pope died

(Feb. 21, 1730), was obliged to flee in disguise,

and later was imprisoned for ten years by Clem­

ent XII. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Pedro de Luna: A Vita is found is 1k.

Baluse, Vitm paparum Aroanonieneium, i, b81 588, Paris,

1693; the Eng, travel. of several original documents

which.are pertinent is given is Thatcher and McNeal,

Sours Book pp. 325 329; Theodorio of Nieheim Ds

Schiamate, ed. G. Erler, ii. 33 eqq.. Leipsic, 1890; Char­

tularium Uniroereitatia Paris, ed. H. Denifle, iii. 652


eqq.. Paris, 1894; Kehrmann, Frankreichs inhere Kirehsn­politik, Jens, 1890; Bower, Popes, iii, 145 149, 152, 162­163, 205; Neander, Christian Church, v, 58, 82 77, 84. 105 107; Hefele, Concifiengeachichte, vi, 827 1031; Pas­tor, Popes, i, 165 201; N. Valois, La Prance at le grand schisms d'occident, 2 vols., Paris, 1898; Creighton, Papacy, i, 148 315, 374. 2. Pietro Francesco: His works were issued in 3 vole., Ravenna, 1728, and the bulls are in the Bullarium Romanum, vol. xaii, Turin, 1871. For his life consult A. Borgia, Benedicti Xlll vita, Rome, 1752; A. von Reumont, Geaehichte der Stadt Rom, iii, 652 853, Ber­lin, 1888; Bower, Popes, iii, 339; J. Chantrel, Le Pape Benoit Xlll, 1724 30, Paris, 1874; M. Broach, Geachichte den Kirehenataata, ii, 61 eqq., Goths, 1882; Ranks, Popes, vol. iii, No. 158.

Benedict XIV (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini): Pope 1740 58. He was born [Mar. 31] 1675 at Bologna; at thirteen he entered the Collegium Clem­entinum at Rome, and after studies in theology and philosophy, took up the law, practising as advocate of the consiatory, and as promotor ftdei, in which office he laid the foundations of his famous work on beatification and canonization. Clement XI and Innocent XIII gave him several Roman dig­nities; Benedict XIII made him archbishop of Ancona (1727) and cardinal (1728); in 1731 Clement XII transferred him to the more important see of Bologna, where he found time to write his works on the mass, on the festivals, and Qumstiones canonicce. After the death of Clement XII the conclave was at a deadlock for six months between the French, Austrian, and Spanish factions, and finally agreed on Lambertini as a compromise candidate (Aug. 17, 1740).

Benedict was a man of great learning and piety, and did much for the welfare of the Pontifical States, by the promotion of agriculture, commerce, and manufactures and by a decrease in taxation. His expressed principle that in him "; the pope must take precedence of the temporal ruler "; was carried out both in the strenuous efforts which he made to raise the tone of the clergy and in his efforts to remove all the misunderstandings which had existed between the curia and the European powers, even at the cost of consWerable concessions. He was not able entirely to remove the antagonism

between the eighteenth century spirit Friendly and religion, but he composed more Relations than one difference temporarily.. Thus with Other he appeased John V of Portugal by the

Rulers. privilege of enjoying the revenues of

vacant bishoprics and abbeys in his

kingdom, as well as by the title of Rex fcdelissimus.

In a concordat with Naples (1741) he went even

beyond the concessions which Benedict XIII had

made, and concluded another with the king of

Sardinia which was still less favorable to the ex­

treme claims of the Church. Still another was

made with Spain in 1753, which went so far as to

allow King Ferdinand, VI the right of nomination

to all the ecclesiastical benefices in his kingdom

except fifty two. Friendly relations were also

maintained with the empire, and strict neutrality

observed in the war of the Austrian Succession,

although the contending armies not seldom crossed

the boundaries of the Papal States. When Albert

of Bavaria was elected emperor as Charles VII

and applied to Benedict for confirmation, he gave

him his hearty good wishes, but refused at first to recognize his successor, Francis I, who had neglected to observe this formality. He aban­doned his opposition, however, and became an active ally of Austria in the contest with Venice over Aquileia. As a compromise measure, he finally divided the patriarchate into two dioceses, that of GiirZ, which was to be Austrian, and that of Udine, Venetian. Though he refused to confirm the guaran­ties which the landgrave of Hesse Cassel, on be­coming a Roman Catholic, was obliged to give for the preservation of the rights of his evangelical subjects, Benedict showed none of the temper of a persecutor, and had friendly personal relations with many Protestants. He was the first pope to eoncede the title of king of Prussia to the ruler whom the curia had previously styled margrave of Brandenburg; and he yielded to Frederick the Great's wishes so far as to allow the bishop of Brea­lau to decide all Catholic causes in Prussia, appeals to the pope being forbidden. In the Gallican con­troversy he took a wise and tolerant part, reversing a decision of De Beaumont, the archbishop of Paris, which made formal assent to the constitution Unigenitus a condition for receiving the sacra­ments; in an encyclical of Oct. 16, 1756, he laid down the rule that the ministrations of the Church should be refused only to those who had publicly contemned the bull.

Benedict's conciliatory temper made him little likely to sympathize with the Jesuits, with whom he dealt at the very beginning of his reign in a way that did not please them, deciding against them, in the controversy over the "; Chinese rites,"; the

question how far the principles of The Jesuits. Christianity might be accommodated

for the purpose of making more speedy conversions among,the heathen, in two bulls

the Ex quo singulars of 1742, and the O?nnium sollicitudinum of 1744 (see ACCOMMODATION, § 9). Though he was no partizan of the Jesuits, it was not until shortly before his death that he under­took (1758) the long planned reform of the order, at least in Portugal, entrusting its execution to Sal­danha, the patriarch of Lisbon.

In 1750 Benedict celebrated a jubilee with great pomp, and invited the Protestants also to attend­naturally with no other result than to call out a number of polemical replies. To the end of his life he found his chief diversion in the company of learned men, of whom a circle assembled round him once a week. During his pontificate he com­posed his moat important work, De aynodo dice­ceaana. He had a catalogue of the Vatican library drawn up by the learned Asaemani, founded societies for the study of Roman and Christian antiquities and of church history, and cooperated in the foundation of the archeological academy with Winckehnann, who came to Rome in 1755. He died as he had lived, with cheerful, good­humored words upon his lips, May 3, 1758.


BIHIdOOAAPH7: His works were collected by Aaevedo in 12

vole., Rome, 1747 51, more completely, 15 vole., Venice,

1767, and in 17 vole., Prato, 1839 48; vole. 15 17 of the Prato ed. contain the bulls; Briefs Benedicta XIV an Pier


Franeeato Pegpi h Bologna, 1729 58, ed. F. X. Kraus, Freiburg, 1888; Opera inedita, ed. F. Heiner, St. Louie 1904. Consult: R. de Martinis, Acta Benedicti XIV. 2 vols.. Naples, 1884 85; A. Borgia, Vie de 'Benoit XIV, Paris. 1783; H. Formby, Life and Miracles of Benedict XIV, London, 1858; A. von Arneth, Geackichte Maria Thereaias, ii, 178, iv, 54 eqq., Vienna, 1864, 1870; M. Broach, Geachichte den Kirclumtaata, ii, 88, Goths, 1882; Ranks. Popes, ii, 433 443, iii, No. 184.

BENEDICT OF AftIANE: The reformer of the Benedictine order in the Frankish empire. He was born about 750 in his father's county of Mague­lone in Languedoc; d. at Inden (13 m. n.e. of Aix la Chapelle) Feb. 11, 821. His youth was spent at the court of Pepin and of Charlemagne, where, as a page, he had opportunity to distin­guish himself in feats of arms. During Charles's first Lombard campaign, Benedict rescued his brother from drowning at the risk of his own life, and the shock brought to a head the resolve which had been slowly forming in him, to renounce the world and give himself to the service of God in the monastic life. This he entered in 773 at Saint­Seine in the diocese of Langres. Returning home in 779, he built s small monastery on his own land near the little river Aniane (where the town of Aniane, 16 m. w.n.w. of Montpellier, later grew up), which was replaced by a larger one lower down when the number of his disciples increased, and by a third still larger about 792. This became the center of Benedict's efforts for the reformation of the monastic life in the south and southwest of France. King Louis of Aquitaine, who had favored him from the outset, entrusted him with the over­sight of all the monasteries within his territory, and the greatest churchmen, such as Aleuin 'and Leidrad of Lyons, sought his counsel. He had a wide knowledge of patristic literature, and for­warded the cause of education with zeal. He stood out as a champion of the orthodox faith against Adoptionism (q.v.), and wrote two treatises against it, the first of which is specially interesting as show­ing how close was the practical connection between Adoptioniem and Arianism. His influence became still wider with the accession of Louis the Pious, who first brought him up to the Alsatian abbey of Maurmiineter, and then, to have him nearer at hand, founded another for him at Inden, giving him the general oversight of all the monasteries in tae empire. He could now hope to accom­plish his great purpose of restoring the primitive strictness of the monastic observance wherever it had been relaxed or exchanged for the leas exacting canonical life. This purpose was clearly seen in the capitulariea drawn up by an assem­bly of abbots and monks at Aix la Chapelle in 817, and enforced by Louis's order throughout the empire.

Benedict's chief works are compilations of the older ascetic literature. The first of them is called by his biographer, Ardo, Liter ex regalia diversorum )vatrum collect  ; an enlarged edition of this was prepared by Lucas Holaten (published at Rome only after Holaten's death, in 1661, with the title Codex regtilaru»x). The other work, called Coa­cordia reguktrun by Benedict himself, is based on

the first; in it the sections of the Benedictine rule (except ix xvi) are given in their order, with paral­lel passages from the other rules included in the LtlSer regularum, so as to show the agreement of principles and thus to enhance the respect due to the Benedictine. The Concordia was first pub­lished in 1638 by H. Menard of the Congregation of St. Maur, with valuable notes (reprinted in MPL, ciii). A third collection of homilies, to be read daily in the monasteries, has not been definitely identified. Benedict's place is in the second rank of the men who made the reigns of Charles and Louis glorious. He had not the breadth of view possessed by Charlemagne himself or by Adalhard nor the lofty endeavor for a fusion of secular and spiritual learning of Paulus  Diaconus and Aleuin. He was primarily an ecclesiastic, who zealously placed his not inconsiderable theological learning at the service of orthodoxy, but gave the beat thing he had, the loving fervor of an upright Christian soul, to the cause of Benedictine monasticism.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita by Ardo Smaragdus, his successor as abbot, with preface by Heneehen, is in ASB, 12 Feb., ii, 808 620, in MPL, ciii, and is edited by Waitz in MGH, Script., av, 198 220, Hanover, 1887. There is a Fr. tranal., Montpellier, 1876. P. A. J. Paulinier, St. Benoit d'Axiiane et to fondation du monaattre de ee nom. Mont­pellier, 1871; P. J. Nicolai, Der heiliga Benedid, Grander son Anions, Cologne, 1885; R. Foss, Benadikt von Aniane. Berlin, 1884; O. $eebsea, in ZKG, zv (1895), 244 280; Hauck. KD, ii. 528 54b.

BENEDICT BISCQP: First abbot of Wear­mouth and Jarrow; b. of noble family about 628; d. at Wearmouth (on the north side of the Wear, opposite Sunderland, Durham hire) Jan. 12, 689 or 690. Biscop was his Saxon name, his ecclesiastical name was Benedict, and he was also called Baduc­ing as a patronymic. He was a thane and favorite of Oswy, king of Northumbria (q.v.), but in 653 decided to abandon the world and went to Rome. He became a monk at the monastery of Lerins about 665, and was appointed by Pope Vitalian to conduct Theodore of Tarsus (q.v.) to Canterbury in 668. In 674 be began to build the monastery of St. Peter at Wearmouth on land given by Eg­frid, king of Northumbria. In 681 or 682 he founded the sister house, dedicated to St. Paul, at Jarrow (5 m. farther north, on the south bank of the Tyne). He made six visits to Rome, learned the Roman ecclesiastical usages and the rules of monastic life, and strove faithfully to introduce them in England; he also brought back a rich store of books, vestments, pictures, and the like. He induced John, the archchanter of St. Peter's at Rome, to accompany him to England and lllstIUCt his monks; and he brought skilled workmen from Gaul to build his monasteries, including the first glass makers in England.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The source for a biography is the life by his great scholar Bede, Vita beatorrsm abbatum, chaps. 1 

14, beat cad moat accessible in the ad. of C. Plummer, i, 364 379 with notes ii 366 g66 Oxford 1896, Eng. tranal. by P. Witcoek Sunderland, 1818; of. also Bede, Hist. aecl., .iv, 18 r, 19: Hon., xxv. Consult also C. F. Moatslembart, Les oynea de Z'occident, iv, 456  487, Paris, 1868; ,DNB, iv, 214 216.



Z The Life of Benedict. Organisation and Direction of the

The Life of Benedict by Gregory Monastic Life (§ 3).

the Great (§ 1). III. The Earlier History of the Bene­

Early Life (§ 2). dictine Order.

Monte Cassino (J 3).

7L The Rule of Benedict.

General Characteristics (f 1).

Moderation (¢ 2).

Period of Growth to the Time of Charlemagne (1 1).

Period of Decline (§ 2).

IV. The History of the Order since the Ninth Century.

L The Life of Benedict: The only early authority on the life of Benedict, since the V%taPlacidi has been admitted to be untrustworthy ever since Mabillon, and the worthlessness of the Vita sancti Maori has been recently demonstrated by Malnory, is prac­tically the single biography written by Gregory the Great. But the expectations aroused by a life written only fifty years after Benedict's death by so distinguished an author are disappointed when

he is found, in the spirit of his time, 1. The Life exalting the greatness of his hero by of Benediot the number and importance of his by Gregory miracles. This tendency has gone so the (treat. far that Grtltzmacher is inclined to age

nothing actually historical in all this mesa of legendary details except the names of the places where Benedict lived and worked, and the names of tun disciples. But this is going some­what too far; Gregory expressly names four abbots, themselves among these disciples and one of them (Honoratue) still living at Subiaco, as witnesses to the truth of his story; and the tradition moat have been still full and clear among the monks who had migrated from Monte Cassino to the Lateran when he wrote.

According, then, to what is left of Gregory's account after removal of the legendary halo around the saint's head, Benedict came of a considerable family in the "; province of Nursia,"; in the Um­brian Apennines, and was born toward the end of the fifth century. He received at Rome the edu­cation of his day, which, however, did not mean much acquaintance with the roman classical authors, and seems to have included no Greek. Shocked by the immorality around him, he left both the school and his father's house for a life of

solitary mortification. His first per 

9. Early manent abode was a cave by the Anio, Life. not far from Subiaco, where a monk,

Romanus, provided him with the rough monastic garb and with scanty nourishment. Here Benedict spent three years of stubborn con­flict with his lower nature, until the spreading of his fame by shepherds brought his solitude to an end. The monks of a neighboring monastery (per­haps at Vicovaro), whose head had just died, begged him to come and rule them. He accepted with reluctance, probably foreseeing what actually happened when he attempted strictly to enforce their rule. When their insubordination went as far as an attempt to poison him, he discovered the plot and gently rebuked them, then retired to his beloved cave. Here, as new disciples came around him, he established twelve small communities, each with twelve inmates and a "; father "; at their head.

Gregory does not may how long Benedict re  j

821 1200. Ecumenical Activity. New Congregations (¢ 1).

1200 IbfiB. Decay and Attempts at Reform (¢ 2).

1b83 1800. Tridentine Reform. New Congregations (§ 3).

The Nineteenth Century ($ 4).

mained in the neighborhood of Subiaco as director of these pious groups; but the tradition of Monte Cassino ascribes his migration thither to the op­position of a jealous cleric named Florentius, and places it in 529. The new place was about half­way between Rome and Naples, the Castrum Casi­num of the Romans, who had had a military colony there. On the summit of the mountain (now

Monte San Germano), which had been 8. Xonte dedicated to the worship of Apollo by

Owsino. a population still largely pagan, Bene 

dict built two chapels, under the in­vocation of St. John Baptist and St. Martin, and then laid the foundations of the monastery which was to have such a long and renowned history. Though Gregory does not say so definitely, the tradi­tional view may be accepted that he soon drew up his rule, the mature outcome of his experience in guiding and governing aspirants to the monastic life of perfection. The disturbances of the time, the ware between the Goths and the Byzantine em­pire from 534, probably helped to increase the numbers of those who sought a peaceful shelter at Monte Cassino; and a daughter house was estab­lished at Terracing. In the summer of 542; Totila, king of the Goths, on his way through Campania, desired to see the famous abbot. Gregory relates that, to test his prophetic powers, the king sent one of his officers in royal array to Benedict, who per­ceived the deception instantly, and, when the young king knelt before him, told him that he should enter Rome, cross the seas, and reign nine years which came to pass. Gregory mentions Benedict's sis­ter, Scholastics, in connection with the last meeting between the two in a house near the monastery; she had been dedicated to the service of God from her earliest youth. The date of Benedict's death can not be determined from any of the authorities. His body was buried near Scholaetica's in the chapel of St. John Baptist, and, according to Paulus Diaconus, was translated about a century later to the monastery of Fleury on the Loire.

II. The Rule of *Benedict: Especially since the celebration of the fourteen hundredth anniver­sary of Benedict's birth in 1880, his rule has been made the subject of thoroughgoing studies, and it is everywhere recognized as a code which cor­responded admirably to its purpose of regulating the common life of the western monks. In the concluding passage of the prologue, probably added later by Benedict, occur the words "; Conetituenda eat ergo a nottla dominici achola aervitii."; Under the later empire, the word ackola was commonly employed to designate the body of guards in the imperial palace under the magister qicii ; thence the name passed to the garrisons of provincial


towns, and was used sometimes for other bodies or associations existing in them. As these mili­tary organizations would have a defi­1. General' ate code of regulations, so it was

Character  natural for Benedict (called "; magis­i®tias. ter "; in the first line of the prologue) to lay down a rule that should serve for all who were enlisted in the spiritual army ("; ser­vitium dominicum ";) priests or laymen, rich or poor. It separated the monks more absolutely from the world than Basil or Csesian had done. Besides the requirements of ~ poverty, silence, and chastity, others appear for the first time; that of "; stabil­ity "; or a permanent residence in one monastery as opposed to the wandering life of the earlier monks, and a specially designated habit. The aim of this life is complete surrender to the will of God, accomplished through entire obedience to the ab­bot and the rule. The abbot thus appears as an absolute ruler, responsible to God alone. It is true that in weighty matters he is to seek the counsel of the brethren, but the ultimate decision rests with him. Bjenedict seems to have hesitated in placing a prapoaitua or prior next to him as assist­ant and, if need were, representative.

In laying down the system of daily prayer, Bene­dict departed somewhat from the earlier practise by instituting the office of compline as the seventh of the canonical hours. The longest and fullest of all the offices was the nodurna vigidia (matins), re­cited at two o'clock. The day hours were much shorter laude at daybreak, not long after matins; prime; terce, with which at least on Sundays and festivals the Eucharist was connected; eext; none; vespers; and compline.: One of the principles on which the system of devotion was laid out was the weekly recitation of the entire Psalter. When this is compared with the requirement by Columban of the recitation of the whole 150 Psalms in the night office of Saturday and Sunday, a second principle is perceived which governed Benedict not merely in the arrangement of the devotional exercises but in all his rule a wise moderation 2. Xodera  and gentleness. It appears especially

tion. in the regulations for meals, of which

he allows two daily, except at times

of fasting; it comes out in the rules for labor, which

show consideration for the, weaker brethren, and

also in the system of punishment. Small offenses,

as unpunctuality at meals or office, are to be pun­

ished without harshness; more serious ones call for

two private warnings and one in public, after which

the offender is cut off from the society of the breth­

ren at meals and prayers. If he is still obstinate,

corporal punishment is the next step, and finally,

if the prayers of the brethren have no effect, he is

to be expelled from the monastery. Penitents may

be twice taken back, but on a third lapse there is

no further possibility of restoration.

The fact that, in his provision for the clothing of the monks, Benedict took account of the condi­tions of more than one province has been made a ground for disputing the authenticity of the rule'


but the climatic difference between the hill country of his first settlement and the Campanian plain on the banks of the Liris is sufficiently notable to find

some reflection in the rule. Benedict had lived as an anchorite and as a cenobite, in convents of vary­ing sire and in different parts of Italy, at the head of a single small house and of a whole group of houses. When, therefore, with this manifold ex­perience of what suited the monastic life of his

time, he drew up a rule for every 8. Organi  pate of it, in such a definite legislative nation and shape as none of his predecessors­Direotion of Bid Casaian, Pachomius, Jerome,

tic Lifethe ~onas  Augustine had given their prescrip 

tions, we may well believe that he was acting to a certain extent with the conscious­ness that he was giving to Italian monasticism a new form, stronger and more consistent than had been known before. This is the special importance of Benedict's work, both for the Church and for. the world at large. About the time when the Roman See, vindicating and even increasing its independence of Arian kings and Byzantine em­perors, was preparing to erect its universal empire on the ruins of the old, the monk appeared who knew how to apply the old Roman talents of legis­lation and organization to the growing but as yet. incoherent monasticism. Thus he became the founder of the great Benedictine Order which for centuries concentrated in itself the extraordinary spiritual force of the technically "; religious "; life,, and contributed in so marked a degree to the ex­tension of the Western Church. The striking in­fluence of the order would, however, be inexplicable if it had not early become the guardian of learning and literature. The rule required the brothers, in addition to their manual labor, to devote one or two hours daily to reading; it provided for a con­vent library from which the monks were to take certain books for study at appointed times; each brother was to have his tablet and stylus; Bene­dict himself undertook the education of the chil­dren of prominent Romans; and in at least one passage of the rule those who can not read are spoken of as an inferior class. All these things speak of learned and literary interests as belong­ing to the original foundation. Cassiodorus even goes further than Benedict, in whose lifetime prob­ably he founded the double convent of Squillace, providing expressly for the study of classical litera­ture though it is impossible to determine how far this influenced the Benedictine Order after the in­fusion with it of Cassiodorus's monasteries.

III. The Earlier History of the Benedictine Order: The history of the early extension of Benedict's society is only scantily told. According to the traditions of Monte Cassino, the third abbot, Sim­plicius, achieved great success in this work. Under the fifth, Bonitus, the mother house was destroyed in 589 by the Lombards, the monks fleeing to Rome (the universal refuge of those days), carrying with

them the copy of the rule written by

Growth Period to Benedict's own hand. There was

the Time of probably already a monastery there Charle  which followed this rule that of St.

Andrew, founded by the future Pope Gregory the Great is 575; but Greg­ory's attachment to the order was presumably in­creased by the coming of the fugitives, who settled



in a place given them at the Lateran by Pope

Pelagius. The mission of Augustine to the Anglo­

Saxona from the monastery of St. Andrew in


opened a new field to the order. The Latin

rules of the Spanish bishops Isidore of Seville

(d. 638) and Fructuoaus of Bragara show distinct

traces of an acquaintance with that of Benedict.

But more important was its introduction into the

Frankish kingdom in the first half of the seventh

century, since the attempt was there made to sub­

mit to it the entire monastic body. However it was

introduced, it soon become predominant, and took

the place of the rules of Columban and Caesarius.

At a Burgundian synod of 670 it was designated, with

the canons, as the only standard for monasteries;

and similarly in the synods held under the auspices

of Carloman and Boniface in 742 and 743 it is called

the norm for convents both of monks and of

nuns. The language of the capitularies of 811,

implying that only obscure traces of the prior

existence of other rules remained, shows how

completely it had occupied the field by the time of


In spite, however, of this supremacy, and of the

glory reflected on the order by such men as Ald­

helm and Bede, Alcuin and Paulus Diaconus, an

acute observer could already perceive traces of de­

cay. In some places the abbots abused the power

given them by the rule; in others laxity had begun

to creep in. There was thus room for

2. Period the reforming activity of Benedict of

of Decline. Aniane (q.v.), who attempted not

only to restore the pristine strictness,

but to supplement the rule by special ordinances

for the purpose of securing uniformity in the daily

life of the Frankish monasteries. His success;

powerfully seconded as he was by the emperor

Louis the Pious, was not lasting. The ninth cen­

tury saw a considerable number of new founda­

tions, especially in Saxony, and the literary activ­

ity promoted by Charlemagne continued; but

there were many complaints not only of the giving

of monasteries to laymen but of decay in morality

and strict monastic discipline. In addition to

these things, grievous havoc was wrought in many

different quarters by the irruptions of the barbar

riana in England by the Danes, in northern Ger­

many and France by the Normans, in the south of

Germany and the north of Italy by the Huns, and

on the Mediterranean coast by the Saracens.


IV. The History of the Order since the Ninth

Century: The palmy days of the order, from Bene­

dict of Aniane to Innocent III (821 1200) may be

designated as the time of ecumenical activity.

The family of monks which proceeded from Monte

Cassino controlled with its influence the civilization

of the entire Christian West. The Basilian monas­

teries of South Italy and Sicily, as well as the monks

and hermits of the Celtic Church in the British

isles, were able only for a time to maintain the

independence of their institutions. Patronized

and at the same time monopolized by Rome, the

Benedictine monastic character made itself the

standard of monasticism throughout Latin Chrieten 

dom. True, from the ninth century on there were marked departures from the founder's ideal, in consequence of which, even after the reform by Benedict of Aniane (q.v.), a number of similar efforts at reform became necessary; but the call to return to the original vigor of the rule ever proved its purifying power, and the total influence of the order was rather enhanced than

1. 821  decreased by the growing number of 1200. Ecu  these reform congregations. The moat

menical important of them after the tenth

New con  century was the reform of Cluny (from

eregationa. 910), with which were gradually blend­

ed more or leas the smaller reforms of

a like tendency originating almost simultane­

ously in Flanders under Gerard of Brogne

(d. 959), in Lorraine under John of Gorze (d.

974), in England under Dunstan of Glaston­

bury (d. 988), from the monastery of St. Benignua

at Dijon (c. 990) under William of Volpiano (d.

1031) and in southern Italy by Alferiua of Cava



More independent of the Benedictine institutions,

though proceeding from the order, were some reform­

ing movements of the eleventh century. Among these

were the famous congregation of Hirschau (q.v.),

c. 1060, which was distinguished by the rigor of its

discipline; that of Vallombrosa (see GUALBExTO,

GIOVANNI), 1038, which, like Hirschau, devel­

oped with especial care the institution of lay brothers

(fralres conversi), thus setting an, important ex­

ample for later orders (see MONAaTICIBM); those

of Camaldoli, 1000; Grammont, 1076; Fontkvraud,


OF; FONTEVRAUD, ORDER OF); and finally that of

Giteaux,1098. The last of these reforms, the ripest

and noblest fruit of the older Benedictine ideal, grew

so rapidly, and, especially under the influence of St.

Bernard, showed such power in the field of mission­

ary and civilizing effort that it was obliged to leave

the Benedictine family and form, not a new congre­

gation but a new order, in spite of its adherence

to the fundamental form of monastic discipline

as delineated in the Regina Benedictro (see Crs­

TExCIANB). By this separation of the youngest

daughter from the mother, the latter ceased to be

regarded as the only normal type for western

monasticism. The ecumenical period of Bene­

dictine history ends with the last decades of the

twelfth century. It moat thenceforth be traced

as the history of one order among several in the life

of western civilization.

The period from Innocent III to the Council

of Trent (1200 1563) is a time of increasing inner

decay and of futile efforts at reform. The first

attempt to restore discipline in the monasteries

of the order, which had become very

2. 1200  worldly, was made in 1215 by the 1688. Decay Fourth Lateran Council under Inno 

and At  teat III. It ordered that eve three


tempts t yearn a general chapter should be

held, and that the viaitatiors pre­

scribed by this chapter should be made by GSater

cian abbots. Under this regulation the archbishops

of Canterbury. and York introduced the triennial

visitations into the Benedictine monasteries of England, and enforced them in repeated provin­cial councils. For the monasteries of the Continent, special importance attached to the edict of Benedict XII, himself a Cistercian, who, after introducing a stricter discipline into his own order (1335), issued in the following year an edict concerning the Benedictines. This qonsti­tution, known as Summa Magistri or Conatitutio Benedictine, decrees that in each monastery a general chapter is to be held annually. For each of the thirty six provinces into which the order is divided by it, triennial provincial chapters are prescribed. But in spite of this measure, which had a temporarily beneficial effect, spirituality constantly declined. The reforms introduced after­ward by the Council of Constants (1415), by a provincial chapter of the Mainz province of the order held at Petershausen (1417), by the congregation of Burafelde (q.v.) organized for the North German territories of the order, as well as by many Spanish congregations (e.g., the Observance of Valladolid under Ferdinand the Catholic, 1493), brought about merely a temporary improvement in the con­ditions.

The Tridentine reforming period (1563 1800) was introduced by the decree De regularibvs et monialibus passed in the twenty fifth session of the Council of Trent (Dec. 3, 1563), which opposes the mischievous excess of exemptions (q.v.), puts the female members of the order without exception and the male members for the most part under the supervision of the bishops, and insists upon strict observance of the older regulations concerning the holding of general

$• 1683  chapters, visitations, etc. Several new

1800. Tri  Benedictine congregations sprang up

dentine Re 

form. under the influence of the Tridentine

C oncreff& decrees; in South Germany one for

bona. Swabia (1564 ), one at Strasburg (1601),

one at Salzburg (1641), one for

Bavaria (1684); in Flanders the congregation of

St. Vedast near Arras, founded about 1590; in

Lorraine that of St. Vanne and St. Hydulph,

which Abbot Didier de la Cour founded in 1600

and Pope Clement VIII confirmed in 1604. An

outgrcwth of the latter was the congregation of St.

Maur, founded in 1618 under the direction of the

same Abbot Didier, which spread all over France,

attaining the number of 180 monasteries, and

raised the work of the order in the direction of

learning to a prosperity which it never had before

(see ST. MAUR, CONGREGATION OF). But after

about 1780, first the forcible secularization under

Joseph II, and then the storm of the Revolution

in France and the neighboring countries to the south

brought about the ruin of the order.

The epoch of restoration, which coincides with the nineteenth century, has been able to save only about 500 houses (with about

4. The 4,300 monks), out of the 37,000 houses Nineteenth (abbeys or priories) which the order

Century. numbered before the catastrophes of the eighteenth century. Yet in some of the congregations there is at present a healthy and vigorous life as far as the morale and discipline IL a





are concerned and also as to achievements in

theological learning and Christian art (painting,

sculpture, etc.). In the latter respect the South­

German congregation of Beuron is especially dis­

tinguished. The two other South German con­

gregations (the Bavarian and the Swabian) and

those of northern France and Belgium (especially

in the monasteries of Soleames and Maredsous)

have recently produced eomt; able scholars and

theologians. The Benedictines of the mother

house of the order at Monte Camino (q.v.) and the

American congregations connected with it have

also rendered considerable services in the same

lines. O. ZtSc>iL>cllt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The somewhat voluminous early literature

on Benedict in the shape of poems and lives may be found

in part in MGH, Pod. Let, med. aroi, i, 38 42, Berlin, 1881

(the Carmine of Paul the Deacon); MGH, Script., vol. av,

part 1, pp. 480 482, 574, Hanover, 1887 (Ex adventv corv

poria S. Benedicti in aprum Floriaanaem); four works on

the Miracles are published in MGX, Script., vol. av, part

1, pp. 474 500, part 2 (1888), 883, 888, is (1851), 374­

378. The Vitor by Gregory and other writers as well

as the poems and relations of miracles may be found

in ASM, asst. i, pp. 28, 29 38, and sic. ii, pp. 80, 353 358,

389 394; in ASB, Mar., iii, 278, 288 297, 302 357; and in

MPL, lxxa, xev, exxiv, caxvi, exxxiii, exxxiv, dx. Con­

sult: P. K. Brandes, Leben des heiligen Benedikt, Eineie­

deln, 1858; P. Leehner, Leben des heiligen Benedict, Re­

genaburg, 1859; C. de Montalembert, Los Moines d'Occi­

dent, ii, 3=92 (on 6t. Benedict), 7 vole., Paris, 1880 79,

Eng, travel., 7 vole., London, 1881 79, new ed., with in­

troduction by Dom Gasquet on the Rule, 8 vole., 1898;

P. Htigli, Dar heilipe Benedik6, in Studies and MitAei7un­

pen sue dam Btnedict. Orden, year VI, Vol. i(1885), 141­

182; J. H. Newman, Mission of St. Benedict, inHkatorical

Sketches, vol. ii, London, 1885; F. C. Doyle, Teaching of 3t. Benedict, London, 188?; G. Gretamneher, Die Bedeu­tunp Banedikts . . . and seiner Repel, Berlin, 1892; L. Toeti, St. Benedict, Historical Discourse on his Life, travel. from the Ital., London, 1898 cf. St. Benedict and Orotfa­ferra, Essays on Toati'e Life of St. Benedict, ib. 1898.

On the order: BibZiopraphiadeaBenbdictinade France, $o­Ieames,1889; the fundamental work is J. Mabillon, Annalu ordiriia S. Benedicti,8 vols., Paris,1703 39; Montalembert, ut

sup.; Sir Jas. Stephens, The French Benedictines, in Essays

in Ecclesiastical Biography, London, 1887; $. Branner, Bin

Benediktiver6ueh, wUrsbutg, 1880; Scriptorea ordinia s,

Benedicti in impaio AuaMiaco Hunparico, Vienna, 1881;

B. Weldon, Chronicle of English Benedictine Mocks, Lon­

don, 1882 (covers the period from Mary to James II);

H. C. Lea, History o/ Sacerdotal Celibacy, Philadelphia,

1884, and of. his History of the Inquisition, new ed., New

York, 1908; J. H. Newman, Benedictine Schools, in His­

torical Sketches, ut sup.; F. tE. Ranbek, Saints of the Order

of St. Benedict, London, 1890; E. L. Taunton, English

Black Monks of St. Benedict 2 vole., ib. 1897; Heim­

bucher, Orden and Konprepationea, i, 92 283. Of the Rule

among old editions the best is by L. Holatenius, Codex

repularum monastioarum, i, 111 135, Augsburg, 1759; an­

other is by E. Martt;ne in his Commentariue in regulam

$. Benedicti, Paris, 1890. The best edition is by E. Woe18­

lin. Benedieti regale monachorum, Leipeie, 1895; serv 

iceable are E. Schmidt, Die Repel du heilipen Banadich, R.egensburg, 1891, and . K. BFandes, Lebeo and Revel des . Bettedtkt, Vole. ii W, Einsiedeln 1858 83. The

Latin and Anglo Saton Intelinear Trauelaticn was editAd by H. Logeman, London, 1888. The Rule was published in Eng travel., London, .1888 ib. 1898 in Thatcher and McNeal, Sours Book, pp, 4$~.4g5 in 'Henderson, Dacw. . PP. 274 313; and by D. O. A. Blair, London,

1908. A bibliography of commentaries is in KL, ii, 324 32b.


BENEDICTION  In the Roman Catholic Church a part of every liturgical act, belonging to the clue of sacramentals (q.v.) i.e., thiap which wen



instituted, foot by Christ but by the hierarchic

Church with divine authority, and which are sup­

posed, is their application to persons and things,

to communicate quasi ex opera oPerato through or­

dained priests the grace of God insisting in purifi­

cation, supernatural revivification, and sanctifi­

cation. The higher the hierarchical position of

him who bestows the blessing, the more power­

ful it is. Benediction and exorcism are always

connected; the latter breaks demoniac influences

and drives away the demons, while the former

communicates divine powers, not only positively,

but also negatively in the way of purification,

by blotting out sins of omission and the tem­

poral punishment of sins, and removing satanic

influences, thus having itself a sort of exorcism

though not explicit. Where exorcism alone takes

place, it is in an imperative manner, whereas the

benediction is preeative, yet with an effective di­

vine power quasi. ex opera operato by means of the

sign of the cross. The personal benediction effects

either a lasting habitttia (e.g , anointing at baptism),

or a forma gratiee actualis for a passing object and

condition (e.g., benediction for travelers, and the

sick); both kinds work either in the main negatively

by the removal of satanic influences or positively

in illumination and bestowal of supernatural

strength in body and soul. Benedictions of things

are always primarily negative, and positive only

in the second place, that the use and enjoyment

of the objects may conduce to the welfare of man's

body and soul. The supernatural powers are

attached to the things by means of the benediction,

and in their effect they are independent of the con­

duct of man; either they make the things perma­

nently tea eacrce, affecting men in a purifying and

sanctifying manner (baptismal water, holy water,

rosaries, etc.), or they are of transient effect as

conveying God's grace and protection. Some­

times they are also connected with indulgences.

If anointing is applied, the benediction becomes

a consecration, whereby the thing is dedicated to

the service of God (e.g., monstrances, crosses,

pictures, flags, organs, etc.).

As to the Evangelical conception of the bene­

dictions, the words of Johann Gerhard give the

proper point of view: "; The priests [in the Old

Testament] blessed by praying for good things;

God blessed by bestowing the good thin. Their

blessing was votive, his effective. God promises

to confirm this sacerdotal blessing on condition

that it is given according to his word and will.";

Thus it is only God who effectively blesses; that is,

communicates divine powers  of his grace and his

spirit; all human blessing is only intercession with

God for his blessing. [According to the Roman

Catholic view, the objective difference between

liturgical and extraliturgical, ecclesiastical and

private benediction is that in the former the efficacy

emanates from the Church as a body by whose

authority the rite was instituted and in whom name

it is conferred and, in consequence, is supposed to

be greater than in the latter where the effect de­

pends on the intercession of an individual.] Accord­

ing to the Evangelical idea, there exists no objective

difference between liturgical and eatraliturgical,

ecclesiastical and private benediction; it is only in a psychological way that the former may be more efficacious for the fulfilment of the subjective conditions of the hearing of prayer. Again, only persons, not things, can be blessed with God's spirit and grace. If things are nevertheless blessed, it means that they are net apart for ritual use; and so long as they are thus employed, they will be sacred, while they are desecrated when used lightly apart from ritual purposes. The benediction of things takes place only by metonymy; the things are mentioned, but the persona are meant who use them. Thus, e.g., a cemetery is dedicated to its special use and handed over to the reverential protection of the living; a church edifice is dedicated by its being used and offered to the living congre­gation as a valuable religious possession because of its use. But the Roman Catholic traditions still in many ways influence the ideas held even among Protestants on the subject of benediction.

E. C. AcaElla.

B:hr.ioaawra:: J. Gretaer, Do banadictionibw, Ingoletadt, 1615; J. Gerhard, Do bsrudictione sccleriaetioa, pp. 1252­1290, Jena, 1655; E. Martkne. De antiquie eecteries ritibua, vol. iii, Rouen, 1700; J. C. w. Augueti, DenkwArdigkeitea ava der chrisUiehen Archdofopia, iii, 392 393, z, 186 eqq., 12 vole., Leipeie,1817 31; A. J. Binterim, 3epen and Flush, in Denfrwardipksitan, vol. vii, part 2, Main:, 1841; L. Cole­man, Apoatoliaot and Primitive Church, chap xiv, Lon­don, 1844; V. Thalhofer, Hand6wh der katholiechen Li­turpik, ii, b23 824, Freiburg, 1890; Bingham, Oripinea, XIV, iv, 18, XV, iii, 29; DCA, i, 193 200 (elaborate).


Meshing of the Term (§ 1). Appointment to a Benefice Remuneration of Clergy (§ 2). (§ 4).

Provisions Affecting Bane  Rights of s Benefice (§ b). ,

fioee (§ 3.) Tenure (§ 8).

Benefice (beneftcium eccleaiasticum) is a term

which includes two meanings: the spiritual, relating

to the ecclesiastical duties attached to it; and the

temporal, relating to the income and other worldly

advantages of the office. The latter is more strict­

ly the meaning of the word, though the connection

o: the two was early recognized in the phrase

bane ficium dotur Propter off'tcium. Indeed, the term

beneficitsm is not generally used where there is only

the temporaM aide, with no corre­

:. Meaning spending duties. Such a case may be

of the Term: a commends, whose holder has a right

to the revenues of a church without

any responsibilities; or a prcestimonium, which is

a charge for support on the revenues of the church;

or a peenaio, the use of a part of the revenues.

These relations, however, when they are perma­

nent fall under the general rules applicable to

benefices. The benefice proper is ordinarily per­

manent, though sometimes founded for a specified


Historically in the primitive Church all the property of a diocese formed one whole, admin­istered by the bishop; its purpose was primarily the support of the poor bishop and clergy.lived se belonging to that class, and were supposed, if they had no private means, to support themselves by their own labors. Those who had no other means of support received a monthly stipend from



the general fund. With the recognition of the Church under Constantine, and the consequent

accession of considerable property s. Remu  and state subventions, the system aeration of changed. But in law the episcopal Clergy. church was still the unit in any con 

sideration of diocesan property, and the bishop still its exclusive custodian. This remained the case when church property was divided into three or into four parts (see CHURCH BUILDING, TAXATION FOR) and one part destined for the support of the clergy. While, however, it was long before the theory changed, in practise there was a tendency to decentralization, and the individual parishes began to be recognized as separate unite. This arose largely from donations and endowments destined by the donor for a par­ticular church, whose clergy were to be supported out of their returns. After the fifth century it became customary for the bishops, instead of pay­ing their clergy out of a central fund, to assign pieces of land for their support and that of the poor and of public worship. These assignments became gradually irrevocable, and thus finally the diocesan unity was dissolved, and the separate churches came into permanent possession of these properties.

The intimate connection between officium and bane flcium is shown by a review of the provisions affecting benefices. They are divided into regular and secular, according as they are served by incur antic or secular clergy; into beneTccia curate, those to which the cure of souls is attached, and non

curate, such as those of chaplains, 3. Provisions canons of cathedrals, and the like.

Affecting The Council of Trent forbade changing

Benefices. a bane fecium curatum into a non

curatum or simplex. The erection

or constitution of a benefice, the permanent attach­

ment of certain revenues to the performance of

certain duties, was held to be reserved to the eccle­

siastical authorities. The foundation of bishoprics

was originally a function of provincial synods,

but later came to the pope, who also had power

alone to found collegiate churches. The bishop

has power to found other benefices within his dio­

cese, and his officials decide whether the endowment

is sufficient and whether the proposed foundation

will be useful and not injure any other party.

The founder has certain rights of imposing con­

ditions for the tenure of his benefice, which, once

confirmed, are perpetual.

The appointment to a benefice (Provisio, inatitutio canonise) includes the choice of the person (desig­natio) and the conferring of the benefice (codladio, conceaaio, inatitutio in the narrower sense). The

designation to the greater benefices 4. Appoint  (bishoprics and the like) is sometimes went to a by election, sometimes by nomination Benefice. of the sovereign; to the lesser, by the choice of the bishop, frequently on the nomination of a patron. The collation is the act of ecclesiastical superiors of the pope .to bishoprics (con firmatio), of the bishop to the lesser benefices.

The conditions of a proper canonical appoint­ment to a benefice are several: (1) A vacancy

must exist, and that a real one, not such as would be caused by the forcible expulsion of the incum­bent. Thus expectancies (q.v.) are forbidden; but the election of a coadjutor bishop cum jure aucceasionis is allowed. (2) The person appointed must be a persona regularis and idonee, i.e., properly qualified to hold the benefice. Under this head comes the possession of the qualifications necessary for ordination (q.v.), though, where it is required, a delay of a year or other specified time may be granted. Intellectual qualifications are included, to be determined, according to the Council of Trent, by examination; and the law has sometimes re­quired native birth also, other things being equal. (3) The appointment must be made within the legal time, the rule being that no benefice shall remain vacant more than six months; otherwise the right of presentation is lost (see DEVOLUTION, LAw OF). (4) There must be no simony involved. (5) What are called subreption and obreption are also forbidden; this affects especially cases where a person obtains a benefice without letting it be known that he already holds another. The church law forbids plurality of benefices, except, for ex­ample, in cases where a bane ficium simplex is held concurrently with a bane ficium curatum, these being held to be compatible. This rule was often violated by papal dispensation, which caused great dissatisfaction. (6) The proper forms, both in the designation and in the collation, must be observed (Bee BISHOP; INVESTITURE; etc.).

The rights and duties connected with a benefice are partly matters of universal law, partly special to the particular case. The incumbent has a right to the usufruct of any property belonging to the benefice, tithes, fees, oblations, ate.

g. Rights All this is his absolutely; but the

of a view that he ought only to use so Benefice. much of it as will suffice for his sup­port, devoting the rest to ecclesiastical purposes and especially to the poor, influenced legislation very early, so that what came from the Church was supposed to revert to the Church, if it had not been used, at the cleric's death. This rule, which at one time was positive, has been very much relaxed, within certain limits. Of course the incumbent's power over church property is limited by the rights of his successor, arid no ar­rangements can be made lasting beyond his life­time, unless by the concurrence of the proper authorities.

A benefice is supposed to be conferred for life, and is normally vacated only by the death of the incumbent, but it may be vacated earlier by resig­nation, either express or tacit. Resignation can not be arbitrary with the incumbent, as he has by his acceptance of it incurred certain obligations from which he moat be released bishops by the pope, the lower clergy by their bishops. There must also be a valid ground for it 

6. Tenure. Tacit resignation may come about through any act which ipso facto dis­solves the relationship: the taking monastic vows by the holder of a beneficium stvculare, the aeeept­ance of a secular office, marriage (see CELIBACY), the acceptance of another incompatible benefice,



change of faith, etc. Vacation as a penalty may occur through deprivation or remotion; this in­cludes the transfer of a priest, as a disciplinary measure, to a smaller charge.

[The technical use of the word benefice in Protes­tant Churches is largely confined to the Church of England where a great part of the prescriptions given above is still in force. In the statute law of England the term is practically restricted to a benefice with cure of souls, as distinct from cathedral preferment. In the State Churches of Germany also the distinction between beneTtcium and offccium is still maintained, and the erection and alteration of benefices is a matter concerning jointly the ecclesiastical and secular authorities. Here the ordinary collator to a benefice is the conaistory. The tendency of the most modern legislation is toward giving the congregation a voice in the selection of the pastor.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bingham, Originea, book v; L. Thomsesin, Vetaa et nova eccleaia diaeipLina, II, iii, 13, § 5, Paris, 1698;

C. Gross, Dan Recht an der Pfrfande, Gras, 1887; Galarite,

ll beneficio eccleaiastico, Milan, 1895; U. 6tuts, Oeachichte

den kirchlirhen Bsnefizialuxaens van aeinen Anfttnpan bie

auf die Zeit Alexandere 111, Berlin, 1895.

BEIIEFICIUM COMPETEftTIE: The privilege by which a condemned debtor is allowed to retain so much of his income as is absolutely necessary to his maintenance. Such a privilege exists in many places, in the interest of the public service, for officials and also $or clerics. For the latter the custom is usually referred to the decree of Gregory IX (1271 76) De solutionibtta (iii, 23). This pas­sage, however, only establishes the principle that an unbeneficed clerical debtor can not be forced to pay by spiritual penalties, and that the creditors are to be content with sufficient security for pay­ment when the debtor's circumstances improve. The glosses, and common practice following them, base the privilege upon the decree, and statute law has confirmed it, restricting any levy upon the salary or other income of such a. cleric so that a certain sum is left to him as congrua (sustentatio). This privilege can not be pleaded in the case of debts arising from unlawful transactions or of public

taxes. (E. FRIEDBER(i.)

BENEFIT OF CLERGY: A privilege claimed by the medieval Church; as part of its general plea of immunity from secular interference. It allowed members of the clergy to have their trial for offenses with which they were charged, not before any secular tribunal, but in the bishop's court. In England thin covered practically all cases of felony except treason against the king, and by the reign of Henry II it had given rise to great abusers. In many eases grossly criminal acts of clerics escaped unpunished, sad other criminals eluded the penalty of their acts by declar­ing themselves clerics. The question was one of those on which the quarrel between the king and Becket reached its acute stage; and by the Con­stitutions of Clarendon (1164; see Bxetzr, TsoasAS) Henry attempted to deal with it by decreeing that clerics accused of crime were to be first arraigned in the king's court, which might at its dis 

cretion send them to an ecclesiastical court. If convicted here and degraded (see DEGRADATION), the clerk was to lose his benefit of clergy and be amenable to lay justice. Edward III extended the privilege in 1330 to include all persons who could read (see CLERK); and it was not until the fifteenth century that any very definite regulation of thin dangerous latitude was arrived at. Later statutes guarded against the evasion of their provisions by expressly declaring that their operation was "; with­out benefit of clergy,"; and the privilege was finally abolished in 1827. There are a few early cases of its use in the American colonies, especially the Carolinas and Virginia; but an Act of Congress put an end to it here in 1790.

BENEZET, ben";e zet', ANTHONY: Quaker

philanthropist; b. at St. Quentin, France, Jan. 31,

1714; d. at Philadelphia May 3,1784. He belonged

to a Huguenot family which settled in England in

1715, joined the Quakers there, and came to Phila­

delphia is 1731. He was a cooper by trade, but

gave his life after coming to America to teaching

and to philanthropic efforts, against slavery and

war, in behalf of the American Indiana, and the

total abstinence cause. In 1742 he became Eng­

lish master in the Friends' School at Philadelphia

and in 1755 established a girls' school there. In

1750 he undertook an evening school for slaves.

He wrote many tracts against the slave trade

and printed and distributed them at his own ex­

pense; he also published A Short Account of the

People Called Quakers (Philadelphia, 1780); The

Plainness and Innocent Simplicity of the Christi

Religion (1782); Some Observations on the Situation,

Disposition, and Character o f the Indian Natives

of this Continent (1784).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Vsux, Memoir of Anthony Beneaet, Phi. delphia, 1817, revised by w. Armistead, London, 1859.

BENGEL, JOHANN ALBRECHT: German Lu­theran; b. at Winnenden (12 m, n.e. of Stutt­gart), Wiirttemberg, June 24, 1687; d. at Stuttgart Nov. 2, 1752. He studied at Tiibingen, and de­voted himself especially, to the sacred text; he was also intent upon philosophy, paying particular at­tention to Spinoza. After a year in the ministry as vicar at Metzingen, he became theological repe­tent at Tiibingen in 1708; and in 1713 was ap­pointed professor at the cloister school at Denken­dorf, a seminary for the early training of candidates for the ministry. During this year he traveled through Germany, visiting the schools, including those of the Jesuits, to learn their methods. At Denkendorf he published in 1719 his first work, an edition of the Epistolte Cicermtia ad familaares, with notes; then Gregorsi panegyricua grtsoe d Wing (1722), and Chrysostomi h'bri. vi de stleerdotio (1725), to which he added Prodromvs Novi Teatamenti recte cauteque ordintrndi. His chief work, however, was upon the New Testament. While a student, he was much perplexed by the various readings in the text, and with characteristic energy and perse­verance he immediately began to investigate the subject. He procured all the editions, manuscripts, and  translations possible, and in 1734 published his text and an Apparatus criticua, which became


Beseflcinm Bennett

the starting point for modern text criticism of the New Testament. His famous canon was: "; The more difficult reading is to be preferred."; This critical work was followed by an exegetical one, Gnomon Nova Teatamenti (Tiibingen, 1742), which has often been reprinted in Latin, and was trans­lated into German by C. F. Werner (1853, 3d ed., 1876) and into English in Clark's Library (5 vole., Edinburgh, 1857 58) and in an improved edition by Lewis and Vincent (2 vole., Philadelphia, 1860­1861). As a brief and suggestive commentary on the New Testament, the Gnomon is still of use.

Bengel's chief principle of interpretation, briefly stated, is to read nothing into the Scriptures, but draw everything from them, and suffer nothing to remain hidden that is really in them. His Gnomon exerted considerable influence on exegesis in Germany, and John Wesley translated moat of its notes and in­corporated them into his Annotatory Notes upon the New Testament (London, 1755). In 1740 appeared Bengel's Erklarte O ff enbarung Johannis, often re­printed (Eng. transl. by John Robertson, London, 1757); in 1741 his Ordo temporum, and in 1745 his Cyclus sine de anno magno consideratio. In these chronological works he endeavored to fix the "; num­ber of the beast "; and the date of the "; millen­nium,"; which he placed in the year 1836. In 1741 he was made prelate of Herbrechtingen; in 1749 member of conaiatory and prelate of Alpirapach, with residence at Stuttgart; and two years later Tiibingen honored him with the doctorate.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The best life is by O. Wachter, J. A. Bengel. Lebaruabriaa, Stuttgart, 1885; of. idem, Benpel and Otin­pcr, Gtiteraloh, 1883; a life was written by his eon and included in the Introduction to the Gnomon, where it is usually found; in more complete form by his great grand­son J. C. F. Burk, J. A. Benpela Lebsn and Wirken, Stutt­gart, 1831, Eng. traasl. by Walker, London, 1837; E. Nestle, Bengel ale Gclehrter, T>76ingen, 1893.

BENHAM, WILLIAM: Church of England; b. at Weatmeon (16 In. n.e. of Southampton), Hants., Jan. 15, 1831. He was educated at St. Mark's College, Chelsea, and King's College, London (Theological Associate, 1857), and was a village schoolmaster from 1849 to 1852, and a private tutor from 1853 to 1858. He was ordered deacon in 1857 and ordained priest in the following year, and after acting as tutor in St. Mark's College from 1857 to 1864, was editorial secretary of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge from 1864 to 1867, and professor of modern history in Queen's College, London, from 1864 to 1871. He was successively curate of St. Lawrence, Jewry, London (18657), vicar of Addington (1867 73), St. John the Baptist, Margate (1873 80), and Mar­den, Kent (1880 82), as well as Six Preacher of Canterbury Cathedral from 1872 to 1888, and Boyle Lecturer in 1897. From 1882 he was rector of St. Edmund's, Lombard Street, and was honorary canon of Canterbury from 1885. He was also rural dean of East City from 1903. In theology he was a Broad church disciple of F. D. Maurice. Died at London July 30, 1910. His works are: The Gospel of St. Matthew, with Notes and a Com­mentary (London, 1862); English Ballads, with

Introduction and Notes (1863); T;se Epistles for the Christian Year, with Notes and Commentary (1864); The Church of the Patriarchs (1867); Companion to the Lediortary (1872); A New Translation of Thomas a Kempis' "; Imitatio Christi "; (1874); Readings on the Life of our Lord and His Apostles (1880); How to Teach the Old Testament (1881); Annals of the Diocese of Winchester (1884); A Shod History o f the Episcopal Church in America (1884); The Dictionary of Religion (1887); and Old St. Paul's Cathedral (1902). He collaborated with R. P. Davidson and with C. Welsh in Meditevad London (1901); and edited the Life of Archbiat.op Tait (London, 1891); The Writings of St. John, in the Temple Bible (1902), and the Ancient and Mod­ern Library of Theological Literature.

BENJAMIN OF TUDELA (a town of Navarre, on the Ebro, 160 miles n.e. of Madrid): Properly Benjamin ben Jonah, a Spanish rabbi, who in 1160 (or 1165; cf. Gratz, Geschichte der Juden, vi, note 10) left home and traveled through Catalonia, southern France, Italy, Greece, the islands of the Levant, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia to Bag­dad; thence he proceeded to Egypt by way of Khuziatan, the Indian Ocean, and Yemen; and finally returned to Spain in 1173. The informa­tion which he gathered with great diligence not only concerning the places visited, but also of ad­joining lands, was written down in a Hebrew work (Massa'oth steel rabbi Binyamin, "; Itinerary of the Rabbi Benjamin ";), which is one of the most fa­mous of early booksof travel. Benjamin was credu­lous, perhaps deficient in general information, and interested primarily in things Jewish; his book abounds in errors and absurdities, but it does not, justify the charge of deliberate falsification, and it

i contains much that is true and valuable not only concerning the numbers, status, and dispersion of the Jews of the twelfth century, but also concern­ing general history, political conditions, trade, de­scriptions of places, and the like.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The "; Itinerary "; was first published at Constantinople in 1543; then Ferrara, 1558; Freiburg, 1583; and many times subsequently. Arise Montanus end C. 1'Empereut issued the text with a Latin transla­tion, the former at Antwerp, 1575; the latter at Ley­den, 1833. An English translation (from the Latin of Arise Montanus) was published in Purchas's Pilgrims, London, 1825, and is given in Bohn's Early Travels in Palestine, London, 1848. Others (with text) are by A. Aaher, 2 vole., London, 1840 41, and M. N. Adler, Lon­don, 1907, the latter based on a British Museum MS. which differs considerably from other copies. A Germ, travel., with text, notes, etc., by L. Grtinhut and M. N. Adler, was published at Frankfort, 2 vole. 1903 04. Consult also M. N. Adler, in the Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement, Oct., 1894.

BERAE1f, JAMES: Congregationalist; b. in London May 22, 1774; d. there Dec. 4, 1862. He studied for the ministry at Gosport under the Rev. David Bogus; was ordained at Romaey, Ham­shire, 1797, and was minister there till 1813, when he became theological tutor of the Rotherham Inde­pendent College, and minister of the church there; pastor of the church in Silver Street (afterward re­moved to Falcon Square), London, 1828 60. He was an associate of the Haldanes in some of their tours, was a secretary of the London Missionary


Society, was chairman of the Congregational Union

1840, and attracted much attention by his defense

of Christianity against the unbelief of his time.

His publications include The History of Dissenters

from the Revolution to 1808, is collaboration with

Dr. Bogus (4 vole., London, 1808 12; 2d ed., 2

vole., 1833), continued in The History o f Dissenters

during the Last Thirty Years (1839); The Star of

the West, being memoirs of R. Darracott (1813);

Lectures on the History o f Jesus Christ (3 vole.,

1825; 2d ed., 2 vole., 1828), supplemented by Lec­

tures on the Preaching of Christ (1836); Memoirs of

the Life of David Bogus (1827) An Antidote to In­

fidelity, lectures delivered in 1831, and A Second

Antidote to Ire f delity (1831); Justification as Re­

vealed in Scripture in Opposition to the Council of

Trent and Mr. Newman's Lectures (1840); The The­

ology o f the Early Christian Church Exhibited in

Quotations from the Writers of the First Three Cen­

turies, Congregational lecture, 1841; Lectures on

the Acts o f the Apostles (1846).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Memorials of the Late James Bennstt, D.D.,

including Sermons Preached on the Occasion o/ his Death,

London, 1883; DNB, iv, 242 243.

BENNETT, WILLIAM HENRY: English Congre­gationalist; b. at London May 22,1855. He was edu­cated at Lancashire Independent College (1873 82) and Owens College, Manchester, London Univer­sity (B.A.,1875), and St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1882), and was professor in Rotherham Col­lege from 1884 to 1888 and lecturer in Hebrew in Firth College, Sheffield, in 1887 88. He has been professor of Old Testament exegesis in Hackney College, London, since 1888 and in New College, London, since 1891. He was also first secretary to the Board of Theology in the University of Lon­don in 1901 03, and has been examiner in the Old Testament to the University of Wales since 1904, se well as s recognized teacher in the same institu­tion niece 1901. He has edited Chronicles and Jere­miah in The Expositor's Bile (London, 1894 95); Joshua in The Sacred Books of the Old Testament (1895) and in The Polychrome Bible (NewYork,1899); General Epistles and Genesis in The Century Bible (London, 1901, 1903); and Joshua is The Temple Bible (1904). He hen also written Theology of the Old Testament (London, 1898); Primer of the Bible (1897); and Biblical Introduction (1899; in collab­oration with W. F. Adeney).

BENNO: Bishop of Meissen; b. at Hildesheim or Goslar 1010; d. at Meissen June 18, 1108, ac­cording to the traditional accounts. The first cer­tain fact in his life is that he was a canon of Goe­lar. He was made bishop of Meissen in 1086, and appears as a supporter of the Saxon insurrection of 1073, though Lambert of Herefeld and other con­temporary authorities attribute little weight to his share in it. Henry IV imprisoned him, however, but released him in 1078 on his taking an oath of fidelity, which he did not keep. He appeared again in the ranks of the king's enemies, and was accordingly deprived of his bishopric by the Synod of Main$ in 1085. Benno betook himself to Gui­bert, the antipope supported by Henry as Clement III, and by a penitent acknowledgment of his

offenses obtained from him both absolution and a

letter of commendation to Henry, on the basis of

which he was restored to his see. He promised,

apparently, to use his influence for peace with the

Saxons, but again failed to keep his promise, re­

turning in 1097 to the papal party and recognising

Urban II as the rightful pope. With this he dis­

appears from authentic history; there is no evi­

dence to support the later stories of his missionary

activity and zeal for church building and for

ecclesiastical music. His elevation to the fame

of sainthood seems to have been due partly

to the need of funds to complete the cathedral

of Meissen, and partly to the wish to have  a

local or diocesan saint. He was officially can­

onized by Adrian VI in 1523, ae a demonstration

against the Lutheran movement, which Luther

acknowledged by a fierce polemical treatise. His

relics were solemnly dug up and venerated in 1524;

but as the Reformation progressed they were no

longer appreciated in Meissen, and Albert V of

Bavaria obtained permission to remove them in

1578 to Munich, of which city Benno is considered

the patron saint. (A. Hwucg.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Several early .accounts in prose and verse of Benno's life and miracles were collected in ASB, June, iii, 148 231. Consult: O. Longer, Biecho/ Benno von Meissen, in Mittheilunpen den Vereine far Geachiehte der Stadt Meissen, i. 3 (1884). DD. 70 9b. i, b (1888), pp. 1 38, ii, 2 (1888), pp. 99 i44; E. Msebatechek, Oeechiclvte der Biach6fe des Horhatiftes H. PP. 85 94. Dresden, 1884; R. Doebner, AktenetUcke sur Oeachichte der Vita Bsnno his, in Neuss Archiv far edcheiache Oeachichte, vii, 131 144, Dresden, 1888; %. P. Will, Sand Banns, Biaclwf van Meissen, Dresden, 1887.

BENOIST (BENOIT), be nwd', ELIE: French Protestant; b. at Paris Jan. 20,1840; d. at Delft Nov. 15, 1728. His parents were servants of the Protes­tant family La Tremoille. He early displayed fondness for the classics, studied at Montaigu College and at La Marche (Paris), and taught pri­vately in divinity at Montauban. In 1664 he was ordained, and the following year was called to Alenpon, where he served for twenty years as Prot­estant minister, with as much prudence as capac­ity. He met with much opposition from the Roman Catholics, especially from the Jesuit De Is, Rue, who attacked him and even incited a riot against him. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Benoist went to Holland, and was called as minis­ter to the church of Delft, near The Hague, where he stayed thirty years. He wrote Lettre d'un Pasteur banni de son pays h use  Oglisa qui n'a pas fait eon devoir daps la dernie're PeraPcrctiora (Cologne, 1888); Histoire ct aPologee de la retraite des pasteura d cause de la perse=cution de France (Frankfort, 1887); H%atoire de l' 0dit de Nantes (b parts, Delft, 1693 95; Eng. travel., London, 1894).

G. Borra";1 Mevxy.

BIHLIOaaAP87; P. Pascal, lie Banoiat at d'Epliss rE/ormEe d'Alenron, Paris, 1892; E. and t. Hsag, La Franca proter (ante, ii, 289 eqq., 2d ed. by Bordier Paris, 1877 eqq.; Bulletinde 2a aocikt8 d'hiAtoire du yrotatantiams fransaia, 1878, p. 259,1884, pp. 112, 182.

BENOIST (BENOIT), RERE: Roman Catholic theologian; b. at 8avenicres, near Angers, in 1521; d. at Paris Mar, 7, 1608. He accompanied Mary


Stuart to Scotland se her confessor in 1581; after his return to France was appointed pastor of the church of St. Eustache in Paris in 1569, and played a conspicuous part in the controversies of the Ligue as one of the leaders of the opposition to the Guises and the Ultramoatanes. In 1566 he published a translation of the Bible, which, however, was little more than a reprint of the Geneva trans­lation; it has been said that he knew little of either Hebrew or Greek. The translation was condemned by . the theological faculty of the University of Paris in 1567 and by Pope Gregory XIII in 1575, and Benoist was expelled from the Borbonne in 1572. He was reinstated by Henry IV and, to reenter the faculty, subscribed his owe condemnation. He exasperated the Ultramontsnes still more by main­taining that the king did not forfeit his right to the throne by professing the Protestant faith. He had influence in bringing about Henry's change of faith, and the latter made him his confessor and appointed him bishop of Troyes, but the pope refused confirmation, and in 1604 he had to renounce the office. He was a voluminous writer.

B133LIOGRAPRT: J. C. F. Hoefer, Biopraphie pEnlrala, v, 395,

48 vole., Paris, 1852 88; C. du Pleesie d'Argentr6; Colleetio

judiciorum, II, i, 392 393, b33 584, 3 vole., Paris, 1728 38.

BENRATH, KARL: German Protestant theo­logian; b. at DQren (22 m. s.w. of Cologne) Aug. 16, 1845. He was educated at the universities of Bonn, Berlin, and Heidelberg (18647), and taught in his native city until. 1871. From 1871 to 1875 he studied in Italy, chiefly in Rome. In 1876 he became privet docent at Bonn and associate pro­fessor in 1879. In 1890 he was called to Kdnigs­berg as professor of church history. He has written Bernardino Ochino von Siena (Leipsic, 1875); Die Quellen der italieniachere Reformationageschichte (Bonn, 1876); Geschichte der Reformation in Venedig (Halls, 1887); and Julia Gonzaga (1900). He has also edited Die Summa der~heiligen Schrift, sin Zeugniss aua dam Zeitalter der Reformation (Leipsie, 1880); Luther's Schrift an den christlichen Adel deutscher Nation (Halls, 1884); and K. R. Hagen­baeh's Lehrbuch der Dogmengeachiehte (6th eel., Leipsic, 1889).


b. at Eaton (2 m. s.w. of Norwich), Norfolk, Eng­

land, Aug. 24,1831; d. at Cambridge Apr. 23, 1893.

He was educated. at King's College, London, and

Gonville and Cius College, Cambridge; studied

in Germany; was appointed ,reader in Hebrew

at Gonville and Caius College 1883; elected fellow

1876; became lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac in

his college; was made professor of Arabic 1887;

examiner is the Hebrew text of the Old Testament

in the University of London; was a member of

the Old Testament Revision Company; accom­

panied Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson on the trip to

Sinai on which the palimpsest of the Syriac Gospels

was discovered (see B1BLE V>casloNS, A, 111, 1, § 2).

He has edited The Missing Fragment of the Latin

Translation o f the Fourth Book o f Ezra, discovered

and edited with an Introduction and Notes (Cam­

bridge, 1875); contributed The Harklean Version

of lleb. xi, BS ziii, 25 to the Proceedings of the

Congress o f Orientaliata of 1889; assisted in the editing of the Sinaitic palimpsest; edited IV Mao­aabees (to which he devoted twenty seven years of labor), published posthumously (Cambridge, 1895); wrote Our Journey to Sinai, Visit to the Conroant of St. Catarina, with a chapter on the Sinai Palimpsest (London, 1896); edited St. Clement's Epistles to the Corinthians in Syriac (London, 1899).

Brsuoossra:: H. T. Francis, 1» Memoriam R. L. Benaly. Cambridge, 1893: DNB; Supplement, vol. i, 171.

BENSON, EDWARD WHITE: Archbishop of Canterbury; b. at Birmingham July 14, 1820; d. at Hawarden (6 m. e. of Chester) Oct. 11, 1896. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (BA., 1852); became master at Rugby 1852; was or­dained priest 1857; in 1859 was appointed first head master of Wellington College (on the border of Windsor forest, near Wokingham, Berkshire); was appointed examining chaplain by the bishop of Lincoln (Christopher Wordsworth) in 1868, prebendary of Lincoln 1889, and chancellor and reaidentiary canon 1872, when he resigned his mastership and took up his residence at Lincoln. In 1877 he was consecrated first bishop of Truro (Cornwall); and was translated to Canterbury in 1883. He was a man of great energy, deter­mined, and self reliant. His industry was unremit­ting, and he found time for reading and study, the (nuts of which appeared in the posthumous publi­cations Cyprian, his Life, his Times, his Work (London, 1897) and The Apocalypse (1899). His administrative ability was shown in the develop­ment of Wellington College, which was practically his creation, and the thorough and efficient organi­zation of the new diocese of Truro, where he formed a divinity school to train candidates for holy orders, began the erection of ~ a cathedral, and founded and strengthened schools. He was the first bishop to appoint a canon miesioner. As archbishop he strove for legislation effecting reforms in church patronage and discipline; opposed and prevented the disestablishment of the Church of Wales; created, in 1886, a body of laymen to act in an ad­visory capacity with the avocation of his prow­ince; cultivated cordial relations with the Nes­toriane and other Eastern Christians, but repelled what may have been intended as an advance to his own Church from Rome. He sat as judge in the trial of Bishop.King of Lincoln, charged with cer­tain ritual offenses (1889 90), and in the judgment which he delivered produced a masterly exposition of the law of the prayer book, based upon the entire history of the English Church. Besides the works already mentioned, a volume of Prayers, Public and Private appeased posthumously (1899), and he published during his lifetime several volumes of sermons and addresses.

Bisntooasra:: A. C. Benson, Life of B. W. Benson, 2 vole., London, 1899, abridged eel., 1901 (by his eldest eon); J. H. Bernard. Arc)Benson in Ireland, London, 1898; DNB, Supplement, vol. i, 17l 179.

BENTLEY, RICHARD: English theologian and scholar; b. at Oulton, near Wakefield (25 m. sm. of York), Yorkshire, Jan. 27, 1862; d. at Cam­bridge July 14; 1742. He was the eon of a black 

CB ntley


smith, was grounded in Latin by his mother, studied at the grammar school at Wakefield, and was admitted at the age of fourteen (the usual age of matriculation was seventeen or eighteen) to St. John's College, Cambridge. He took his first degree in 1680 with honor in logic, ethics, natural science, and mathematics, and became schoolmaster at Spalding in Lincolnshire. But Stillingfleet, the wealthy and learned dean of St. Paul's, soon called him to London to superintend his son's studies. He took his pupil in later years to Oxford and reveled there among the manuscripts in pursuance of his researches in profane and especially Biblical literature, entering on his life's work of treating and publishing texts. He had taken his M.A. at Cam­bridge in 1684 and received the same degree from Oxford probably in 1689. Before his twenty fourth year he had started for himself a hexapla dictionary; in the first column stood every Hebrew word in the Bible and in the other five all the different translations of these words in Chaldee, Syriac, Latin, and Greek (both the Septuagint and Aquila). His Latin letter of ninety eight pages to John Mill appeared in 1691 as an appendix to an edition of the chronicle of Malalas and presented a mass of critical research, including much drawn from manuscripts; he moved over the field of classical literature as if it were his library of which he knew every inch, and showed himself a master in criti­cizing the origin of books, in following up etymo­logical rules, in explaining their use, and in dealing with meter. In this, his virgin effort, he gave explanations and corrections for some sixty Greek and Latin authors. He wrote like an authority, and in the happiest manner. He published Calli­mtxchva (1693), Phalaris (1699; the debate is still interesting), Menander arid Philemon (1710), Horace (1711), Terence (1726), and Manili2ts (1739); his edition of Milton's Paradise Lost appeared in 1732.

Ordained 1690, probably at once StillingHeet's house chaplain, he became canon of Worcester in 1692, librarian to the king in 1694, chaplain in ordinary to the king in 1695, D.D. from Cambridge and Master of Trinity in 1699, vice chancellor of the University 1700, archdeacon of Ely 1701. His intrigues secured his election as regiua professor of theology in 1717. His apparent love of power led the academic senate, Oct. 17, 1718, to deprive him, illegally, of his academic degrees, which a decree of court restored to him in 1724. He was almost always in hot water either in litera­ture, in his college, or in politics. Legally deprived of his mastership in 1734, he kept it, simply because the man who should oust him did not choose to move.

He delivered the first Boyle lectures (see BOYLE, ROBERT) in 1692, his intimate friend Isaac Newton helping him. He wrote against the freethinker Collins in 1713. Sterns quoted in Tristram Shandy his sermon on papistry, 1715. In 1691 he wrote to John Mill about the text of the New Testament, in 1713 he discussed the readings, and in 1720 he published his proposals for a new edition. At least from 1716 on, sad apparently as late as 1732, he caused collations to be made in the libraries from

London to Rome. But he did not publish an edition, probably because he found it impossible to give what he wished to give. His collations are in the library of Trinity College.


BIBLIOGRAPHY; The best life is by R. C. Jebb, in English Men of Letters, London, 1887. Consult also J. H. Monk, Life of Richard Bentley . . with an Account of his Wri­tings, 2d corrected ed., ib. 1833; A. A. Ellis, Bentleii critics #a era, Cambridge, 1862; DNB, iv, 306 314.

BENTON, ANGELO AXES: Protestant Episco­palian; b. at Canes (Khania), on the island of Crete, July 3, 1837. He studied at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (B.A., 1856) and the General Theological Seminary, New York city (1860). He held various parishes in North Caro­Tina from 1860 to 1883, when he was appointed professor of mathematics and modern languages at Delaware College, Newark, Delaware, being transferred to the chair of Greek and Latin two years later. In 1887 he accepted a call to the University of the South as professor of dogmatic theology, where he remained until 1894, being like­wise rector of the Otey Memorial Church, Sewanee, from 1893 to 1895. He was then rector at Albion, Ill., in 1895 1904, this being interrupted by a temporary charge at Tarentum, Pa. Since 1905 he has held a temporary charge at Foxburg, Pa. His chief literary work has been the editing of the Church Encyclopedia (Philadelphia, 1884).


German Orientalist; b. at Stuttgart Feb. 21, 1865. He was educated at the University of Ttibingen (Ph.D., 1888; licentiate of theology, 1894), and after a pastorate at Neuenatadt, Wiirttemberg, from 1894 to 1898, was privat docent for Old Tes­tament theology at the University of Berlin until 1901, when he retired, and has since resided in Palestine. In theology he belongs to the hiatorico­critical school. He has been a member of the Deutacher Palkstintxverein since 1888, editing its journal in 1897 1902, and has also been on the executive committee of the Deutscher Yerein zur Erforschung PalCistinaa since 1897. He has written Hebrdische ArchBoloyie (Freiburg, 1894, 2d ed.1907); CommentarzudenKBrtigsbuchem(1899) and Ctrm­mentar zu der Chronik (1901), both in the Rurzer Hard Kommentar ztem Alter Testament; and Ge­achichte des Yolkes Israels (Leipaie,1904). He like­wise collaborated with R. J. Hartmann in Paldstina (Stuttgart, 1899), and with Frohnmeyer in Bilder­atlas zur Btbelkunde (1905), and has edited Baede­ker's Palfiatina und. Syrian since the third edition (1889).

BERZO: Bishop of Alba, a zealous partizan of Henry IV; b. about the beginning of the eleventh century; d. not earlier than 1085 or 1086. Little that is definitely attested can be related of his life; but it may be reasonably conjectured that he came originally from southern Italy, that he gained some sort of a position at the German Court, possibly as one of the chaplains of Henry III, and that before 1059 he was rained to the bishopric of Albs by Henry's influence. He was one of the moat devoted upholders of the Italian claims of the


German kings, and a bitter opponent of the Hilde­brandine party. His most prosperous days fell in the period of the schism between Honorius II and Alexander II, when he went to Rome (at the end of 1061) charged by the empress Agnes with the mission of supporting the former, the imperial candidate for the papacy, to whom he remained faithful even after Alexander's supremacy was assured. Later, he was a victim of the Patarene movement (see Dl ATARENES), when in 1078 or 1077 popular disturbances drove him from his see. Ill luck followed him during the rest of his life. Though he may have taken part in Henry IV's first ex­pedition to Rome, we never again find him in an important political position; and the latest indi­cations to be gathered from his writings leave the picture of a man broken by poverty and illness, and still waiting for the emperor to reward him for long and faithful services. His Libri vii ad Henri­cum IV do not make up a single work, but are a collection of separate writings in both prose and verse which he put together into a sort of mosaic shortly before his death. Their special interest flea is the fact that they give an admirable insight into the views of the extreme imperialists, who were carried away by boundless hatred of Gregory VII. Benzo puts forth original views on the constitution of the State and on ecclesiastical politics from the standpoint of a convinced sup­porter of the empire. His Panegtfrictts, since the time and manner of the composition of its several books have been definitely determined, is now more highly regarded as an authority on the period of

the schism. CARL MIRBT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Benao's Ad Henricum IV imgxratorem Iibri aeptem, ed. K. Perta, is in MGH, Script., xi, b91 881, Hanover, 1854. On his life and work consult: W. von Gieeebrecht, Anualea Altahenaea, pp. 123, 213 227, Ber­lin, 1841; idem, Geachiehte der Kaiaerzeit, ii, 535, Bruns­wick, 1975 (in opposition to the work of K. J. Will, next mentioned); K. J. Will, Benzoa Panepyrikua, Marburg, 1867; H. LehmgrGbner, Bauxo von Albs, . . . aein Leben uad . . . "; Panegyric";,"; Berlin, 1887; .idem, Benzo von Albs, . . wine Quellenuuterauchung, ib. 1888; T. Lind­ner, Benzoe Panepyricua auJ Heinrich IV, pp. 497 526, Gbttingen, 1888; O. Delarc, in Revue dea questions hiato­riquea, xliii (1888), 5 80; E. Steindorff, in GDttiagerGelehrte Auzeiper, No. 18, 1888, pp. 593 eqq.; Wattenbaeh, DGQ, ii (1888), 202, ii (1894), 328 329; C. Mirbt, Die Publiziatik im ZeitalterGrepora VII., Ixipsic, 1894; Hauck, KD, vol. iii.

BERERGAR OF POITIERS: A younger contem­porary and zealous adherent of Abelard (q.v.). Prac­tically nothing is known of his life except what may be learned from his few brief writings. These, however, are not without interest, partly because (in spite of their being by no means completely trustworthy) they are among the authorities for the history of the Council of Sens in 1141, and partly for the light which they throw on the mental attitude and literary tone which prevailed among the disciples of Abelard and opponents of Bernard about the middle of the twelfth century. There are three of them extant: an APologeticus against Bernard, an Epistola contra Carthttsienses, and an Epistola ad epiaeopum Mimettensem, the bishop of Mends. The first was written not long after the Council of Sens, but not until the sentence of In­nocent II against Abelard was known. Toward

the end of it Berengar points out that other teach­

ers, such as Jerome and Hilary of Poitiers, had

made mistakes without being deposed; but a large

part of the tractate is a personal attack on Ber­

nard, accusing him of having made frivolous songs

in his youth, taught the preexistence of the soul,

and made up his commentary on the Canticles of

a lot of heterogeneous material, partly borrowed

from Ambrose. Especially bitter are his accusa­

tions of duplicity and unfairness in connection with

the Council of Sens. The shorter but equally ma­

licious letter against the. Carthusians, who had

taken a stand against Abelard, accuses them of

breaking their vow of silence to speak calumny,

and, while abstaining from the flesh of beasts, de­

vouring their fellow men. The third letter is written

in a different tone. Berengaa's boldness had appar­

ently stirred up so much hostility that he feared

for his safety, left home, and sought an asylum in

the CE;vennea, whence he wrote to beg the bishop's

protection, not exactly as a penitent, though he im­

plies that he has approached more nearly to Ber­

nard's standpoint. Whether he succeeded in set­

ting himself right cannot be told, as nothing is

known of his later life. (F. N1TZSCBt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Berengsr's works are usually printed among Abelard's, e.g., in Cousin's ed., ii, 771 eqq., 2 vols., Paris, 1849 59; also in MPL, clxxviii. Consult also Hiatoira litteraire de la France, xii, 254 aqq., Paris, 1783; Hefele, Concilienpeachichte, v, 427 428; S. M. Deutsch, Die Synods von Sera, 11.¢1, and die Verurteilung Abtilarda, pp. 37 40, Berlin, 1880.


Early Life ($ 1). Controversy over the Eucharist (§ 2). Berengar Submits at Rome (§ 3). Reasserts his Views in France (§ 4). Berengar's Significance (§ b).

Berengar of Tours was born perhaps at Tours, prob 

ably in the early years of the eleventh century; d.

in the neighboring island of St. Cosme Jan. 6, 1088.

He laid the foundations of his. education in the

school of Bishop Fulbert of Chartres, who repre­

sented the traditional theology of the early Middle

Ages, but did not succeed in imposing it upon his

pupil. He was less attracted by pure theology

than by secular learning, and brought away a

knowledge of the Latin classics, dialectical clever­

ness, freedom of method, and a general culture•sur­

prising for his age. Later he paid more attention

to the Bible and the Fathers, espe­

r. Early ciadly Gregory and Augustine; and it

Life. is significant that he came to formal

theology after such preparation. Re­

turning to Tours, he became a canon of the cathe­

dral and about 1040 head of its school, which he

soon raised to a high point of efficiency, bringing

students from far and near. The fame which he

acquired sprang as much from his blameless and

ascetic life as from the success of his teaching. So

great was his reputation that a number of monks

requested him to write a hook that should kindle

their zeal; and his letter to Joscelin, later arch­

bishop of Bordeaux, who had asked him to decide

a dispute between Bishop Isembert of Poitiers and

his chapter, is evidence of the authority attributed

to his judgment. He became archdeacon of An 



gers, and enjoyed the confidence of not a few bishops and of the powerful Count Geoffrey of Anjou.

Amid this chorus of laudation, however, a dis­cordant voice began to be heard; it was asserted that Berengar held heretical views on the Eucha­rist. In fact, he was disposed to reject the teach­ing of Paechssius Radbertus, which dominated his contemporaries. The first to take formal notice of this was his former fellow student Adehnann

(q.v.), then a teacher at Liege, who a. Contro  wrote to question him, and, receiving veay over no answer, wrote again to beseech him

the Eu  to abandon his opposition to the

chariat. Church's teaching. Probably in the

early part of 1050, Berengar ad­dressed a letter to Lanfranc, then prior of Bee, in which he expressed his regret that Lanfranc adhered to the eucharistic teaching of Pae­ehsaius and considered the treatise of Ratram­nus (q.v.) on the subject (which Berengar sup­posed to have been written by Scotus Erigena) to be heretical. He declared his own agreement with the supposed Scotus, and believed himself to be supported by Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, and other authorities. This letter found Lanfrane in Rome, after it had been read by several other peo­ple; and as Berengar was not well thought of there, Lanfranc feared his association with him might be prejudicial to his own interests, and laid the matter before the pope. The latter excommunicated Berengar at a synod after Easter, 1050, and sum­moned him to appear personally at another to be held at Vercelli in September. Though disputing the legality of his condemnation, he proposed to go, first passing through Paris to obtain permission from King Henry I, se nominal abbot of St. Martin at Tours. Instead of granting it, however, the king threw him into prison, where Berengar occu­pied himself with the study of the Gospel of John, with a view to confirming his views. The synod was held at Vercelli without him; two of his friends, who attempted to defend him, were shouted down and barely escaped personal violence; Ratramnus's book was destroyed; and Berehgar was again con­demned. He obtained his release from prison, probably by the influence of Geoffrey of Anjou; but the king still pursued him, and called a synod to meet in Paris Oct., 1051. Berengar, fearing that its purpose was his destruction, avoided ap­pearing, and the king's threats after its session had no effect, since Berengar was sheltered by Geoffrey and by Bishop Eueebius Bruno of Angers, and found numerous partisans among less prominent people.

In 1054 Hildebrand came to France as papal legate. At first he showed himself friendly to Berengar, and talked of taking him back to Rome to get Pope Leo's authority with which to silence his fogy. But when he found that the latter could

do more to disturb the peace of the 3• Beren  Church than Berengar's friends, he

gar Sub  drew back. Under these circum 

mits at stances Berengar decided to concede

Rome. as much as he could, and the French

bishops showed that they wished a speedy settlement of the controversy, when the Synod of Tours declared itself satisfied by Beren 

gar's written declaration that the bread and wide after consecration were the Body and Blood of Christ. The same desire for peace and the death of Pope Leo were reasons why Hildebrand did not press for Berengar's going to Rome at once; later he did so, confident of the power of his influence there, and accordingly Berengar presented him­self in Rome in 1059, fortified by a letter of com­mendation from Count Geoffrey to Hildebrand. At a council held in the Lateran, he could get no hearing, and a formula representing what seemed to him the most cararl view of the sacrament was offered for his acceptance. Overwhelmed by the forces against him, he took this document is his hand and threw himself on the ground in the silence of apparent submission.

Berengar returned to France full of remorse for this desertion of his faith and of bitterness against the pope and his opponents; his friends were grow­ing fewer  Geoffrey was dead and his successor hos­tile. Eueebius Bruno was gradually

4. Reas  withdrawing from him. Rome, how 

serts his ever, was disposed to give him a chance;

Views is Alexander II wrote him an encour 

France. aging letter, at the same time warning

him to give no further offense. He

was still firm is his convictions, and about 1069

published a treatise in which he gave vent to his

resentment against Nicholas II and'hie antagonists

in the Roman council. Lanfranc answered it,

sad Berengar rejoined. Bishop Raynard Hugo

of Langres also wrote a treatise De corpora et

sanguine Christi. against Berengar. But the feel­

ing against him in France was growing so hos­

tile that it almost came to open violence at the

Synod of Poitiers in 1076. Hildebrand as pope

tried yet to save him; he summoned him once more

to Rome (1078), and undertook to silence his ene­

mies by getting him to assent to a vague formula,

something like the one which he had signed at

Tours. But his enemies were not satisfied, and

three months later at another synod they forced

on him s formula which could mean nothing but

transubstantiation except by utterly indefensible

sophistry. He was indiscreet enough to claim the

sympathy of Gregory VII, who commanded him

to acknowledge his errors and to pursue them no

further. Berengar's courage failed him; he con­

fessed that he had erred, and was sent home with

a protecting letter from the pope, but with rage in

his heart. Once back in France, he recovered his

boldness and published his own account of the pro­

ceedings in Rome, retracting his recantation. The

consequence was another trial before a synod at

Bordeaux (1080), and another forced submission.

After this he kept silence, retiring to the island of

Saint COsme near Tours to live in ascetic solitude.

Apparently his convictions were unchanged at his

death, and he trusted in the mercy of God under

what he considered the unjust persecutions to which

he had been subjected.

Berengar's real significance .for the development of medieval theology lies in the fact that he as­serted the rights of dialectic in theology more defi­nitely than most of his contemporaries. There sae propositions in his writings which can be under.


stood in a purely rationalistic sense. But it would be going quite too far to see in rationalism Beren 

gar's main standpoint, to attribute to S. Baran  him the deliberate design of aubvert­gar's Sig  ing all religious authority Scripture, nificance. the Fathers, popes, and councils. This

would be to ascribe to a man of the eleventh century views of which his age knew noth­ing, which it even had no terms to express. The contrast which he seta forth is not between reason and revelation, but between rational and irrational ways of understanding revelation. He did not recognize the right of the prevailing theology to claim his assent, because it made irrational asser­tions; the authorities to which he refused to sub­mit were, in his judgment, only human authorities. He spoke bitterly and unjustly of popes and coun­cils, unable to forgive them for making him untrue to himself; but this meant no rejection of the Catholic conception of the Church. His opposi­tion was limited to the eucharistic doctrine of his time, and he controverted the theory of Paschaeius not least because he believed it was contrary to Scripture and the Fathers, and destructive of the very nature of a sacrament. (A. Haucg.)

BIBIdOa6AP87: An edition of Berengar'e works was begun by A. F. and F. T. Viecher, vol. i only was published containing his De sacra cayw, Berlin, 1834; cf. Manei, Cottectio, xix, 781 aqq.; the works are also in Bouquet, Recueil, uv, 294 300. A collection of letters relating to him (one of his own) was published by E. Bishop in His­torisehes Jahrtwch der OWrea Cisseilachaft, i, 272 280, Miineter, 1880. For his life consult H. E. Lehmann, Bereaparii. Twoneneis vitae ex tontibua Iwuatm, part i, Ros­tock, 1870 (no more published); J. Hehmitaer, Berenpar von Tours, aei» Leben and seine Lehre, Munich, 1890. Consult the works of Bernold of San Bias, in Labbe, Con­ciiia, ix, 1050, in Bouquet, Recueii, aiv, 34 37, and in MPL, exlviii; B. Haurdau, Hiatoirs de la philosophic ecotaatique, i, 225 eqq., Paris, 1872; Hefele, Cancilieape­schichts, vole. iv, v; KL, ii, 391 404; Neander, Christian Church, iii, 502 b21, iv, 84, 88, 92, 335, 337, 35b.

BERENGOZ: Abbot of St. Maximin's at Trevea in the twelfth century; d. about 1125. In the records of the abbey he is first mentioned as abbot in 1107, and for the last time in 1125. The register of deaths contains his name against the date of Sept. 24, without naming the year; but as his suc­cessor, Gerhard, was installed in 1127, he must have died either in 1125 or 1126. He rendered considerable services to the monastery by procur­ing from Henry V the restitution of a number of alienated fiefs, and, besides five sermons for saints' days, wrote two ,larger works: three books De laude et inventions aandta crucis, and a aeries of discourses De mysterio ligni dominici et de lace trisibili et in­vistbili per quam antiqui patres olim meruerunt illus­trari. In the former he treats of the legend of the discovery of the cross of Christ by Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, adducing a large number of Old Testament types of the cross. The latter deals with Christ under the aspect of the light of the world, shining from the beginning of its history. Whether the commentary on the Apocalypse which the Benedictines of St. Maur printed as an appendix to the second volume of their edition of St. Ambrose, ascribing it to a cer­tain Berengaudua, is his or not moat remain un 

certain. (A. HAUCK.)

Brsrroassrar: Berengos'e works were edited by Cbriato­phorue, Cologne, 1565, and appear in M. de la Bigne, Magna bibliotheca, vol.. vii, ib. 1818, also in bfPL, clz. Consult J. Mars, l3eschichts des Brastifts Trier, ii, 95, Trier, 1880: H. V. t3suerland, Trieror (lsachichtaquelTsn, Trier, 1889; Hauck, KD, iii, 971 072.


BERGER, DANIEL: One of the United Brethren

in Christ; b. near Reading, Pa., Feb. 14, 1832. He

studied privately at Springfield, O., taught school

1852 58, and served as pastor 1858 64. From

1864 till 1897 he was editor in the publishing house

of the United Brethren in Christ at Dayton, O.,

having charge of the denominational Sunday­

4chool literature 1869 93, and was a member of

the International Sunday School Lesson Committee

from 1884 to 1896. In theology he is an Arminian.

He wrote the History o f the Church o f the United

Brethren in Christ for the American Church History

Series (New York, 1894), and a larger work with

the same title (Dayton, 1897), which is the official

history of the denomination.

BERGER, blir";zH6', SAMUEL: French Lutheran; b. at Beaucourt (10 m. s.s.e. of Belfort), France, May 2, 1843; d. in Swrea July 13, 1900. He studied at Strasburg and Tilbingen; in 1867 became assistant preacher in the Lutheran Church in Paris; in 1877, librarian to the Paris faculty of Protestant theology. He was the author of F. C. Baur, lee origines de I'9eole de Tubingtte et sea principes (Paris, 1867); La Bible au seixidrne aikcle, etude our lea on'gines de la critique (1879); De glossariis et compendiis btblicis quibuadam medii cetri (1879); Du rule de la dogmatique daps la predication (1881); la Bible /ran.: raise au moyen Bge (1884); De l'histoire de la Vul­gate en France (1887); Le Palimpsests de Floury (1889); Quam notitiam linguca Hebraicte habuerint Chriatiani medii tetri temTortbtts in Gallic (1893); L'Hiatoire de la Vulgate pendant lee premiers sipclea du moyen dge (1893); Notice sur quelques textea Wine in6alits de l'Ancien Testament (1893); Un Ancien Texts lrstin des Ades des Ap6tres (1895); Una Bible copies d Porrentruy (etudes de Theologie et d'Hiatoire, 1901, 213 219); and Lea Prefaces jointes aux livrea de la Bible dana lee manuserits de la Vulgate, memoire posthume (1902).

BERGIER, bor";zhyb', NICOLAS SYLVESTRE: French Roman Catholic; b. at Darnay (18 m. s.e. of Mirecourt), Lorraine, Dec. 31, 1718; d. at Paris Apr. 19, 1790. He gained repute while a teacher at the college at Besangon by essays in philology and mythology; abandoned this line of study to devote himself to Christian apologetics, and polem­ics against the Encyclopediata. In 17658 he published at Paris Le DEisme refute par luirmtme (2 vole.) and in 1768 the Certitude des preuves du christianisme (2 vole.), which achieved a great suc­cess and called forth replies from Voltaire and Anacharaia Cloota. 'In 1769 followed Apologia de la religion chretienne (2 vols.) against Holbaeh, in 1771 Examen du mathriaZiame (2 vole. ), and in 1780 Traitk historique et dog»xatique de la 2raie religion times la refutation des erreura qui lui ont m opposes dam lea diftrana sipclea (12 vole.). He also wrote a Diction 


Bernard of Botone THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 80

naire theologique (3 vole., 1789), which formed pare of the Encyclopedic, but has several tunes been sepa­rately edited (latest by Le Noir, 12 vole., 1876). As a reward for his services he was made canon of Notre Dame in Paris and confessor to the aunts of the king, with a pension of 2,000 livres.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bioprap)afe nouvelle des contemporains, ii,

375, Paris, 1821; BiograpAie genErale, v, 14.

BERGIUS, JOHANNES: Reformed theologian; b. at Stettin Feb. 24, 1587; d. at Berlin Dec. 19, 1658. He studied at Heidelberg and Strasburg; in 1615 became professor at Frankfort on the Oder, where the theological faculty represented the Re­formed faith; 1623 court preacher at Berlin. He was present at the Colloquy of Leipsic (1631) and the Thorn Conference (1645), but declined to at­tend the Synod of Dort (1618), as he wished for union rather than the establishment of Calvinism. He was emphatically a mediator, and showed him­self temperate and dignified in controversy. He published many sermons.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. H. Hering, Beitrdpe zur Geachichte der evanpeliach reformirten Kirche in den preueaiach branden­burpiachen Lldadern, i, 16 eqq., ii, 82, Breslau, 1784 85; H. Landwehr, Die Kirchenpolitsk Friedrich WilheZma des Groasen Kurftiraten, pp. 150 eqq., Berlin, 1894.

BERKELEY, GEORGE: Bishop of Cloyne (in

County Cork, about 15 m. e.s.e. of the city of Cork);

b. probably at Dysert Castle, near Thomastown

(90 m, s.w. of Dublin), County Kilkenny, Ireland,

Mar. 12, 1685; d. at Oxford Jan. 14, 1753. He

studied at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1704;

M.A. and fellow, 1707; B.D. and D.D., 1721), and

filled variouscollege offices from tutor (1707) to ju­

nior dean (1710) and junior Greek lecturer (1712).

He lived there in an atmosphere ";charged with the

elements of reaction against traditional scholasti­

cism in physics and metaphysics."; His Common­

place Book (first printed in the Oxford ed. of his

works, 1871, iv, 419 502) shows how the stimulus

worked upon a mind naturally inclined to inde­

pendent investigation. Very early he adopted the

idea that no existence is conceivable,

Berkeley's and therefore none is possible, which

Philosophy. is not either conscious spirit or the

ideas (i.e., objects) of which such

spirit is conscious. Locke had affirmed secondary

and primary qualities of the material world; the

secondary qualities, such as color and taste, do

not exist apart from sensations; primary qualities

exist irrespective of our knowledge. Berkeley de­

nied this distinction, and held that external ob­

jects exist only as they are perceived by a subject.

Thus the mind produces ideas, and these ideas are

things. There are, however, two classes of ideas:

the less regular and coherent, arising in the imagi­

nation; the more vivid and permanent, 'learned

by experience, "; imprinted on the senses by the

Author of nature "; which are the real things a

proof for the existence of God. According to

Berkeley matter is not an objective reality but a

composition of sensible qualities existing in the

mind. "; No object exists apart from the mind;

mind is therefore the deepest reality; it is the

pries, both in thought and existence, if for a mo­

ment we assume the popular distinction between

the two."; Berkeley appeared as an author with this theory already developed, and from it he never wavered. In 1709 he published an Essay toward. a New Theory of Vision, an examination of visual consciousness to prove that it affords no ground for belief in the reality of the objects apparently seen. In 1710 appeared a Treatise concerning the Principles o f Human Knowledge, in which his theory received complete exposition.

Meanwhile Berkeley had taken orders, and, in 1713, he left Dublin, went to London, formed many desirable acquaintances, and gained an enviable reputation for learning, humility, and piety. The same year he published Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous (ed. in Religion of Science Library, No. 29, Chicago, 1901), "; the finest specimen in our language of the conduct of argument by dia­logue."; He visited the Continent in 1713 14 and again in 1716 20. In 1721 he returned to Ireland, again filled college offices at Dublin (divinity lec­turer and senior lecturer, 1721; Hebrew lecturer, 1722; proctor, 1722), and was appointed dean of Dromore (1722) and dean of Derry, "; the best pre­ferment in Ireland "; (1724).

Berkeley now became devoted to a plan of es­tablishing a college in the Bermuda Islands, went to London to further the project in 1724, and in 1725 published A Proposal for the Better Supply­ing of Churches in our Foreign Plantations, and for converting the savage Americans to Christianity by a college to be erected in the Summer Islands, other­wise called the Isles of Bermuda. By his enthusiasm and persuasive powers he won many

Berkeley's expressions of sympathy, and came to American believe that the government would

Scheme. support the plan. In Sept., 1728, he

sailed for America and landed at New­

port, R. L, Jan., 1729. Three years of waiting con­

vinced him that his hopes were futile, and in Feb.,

1732, he returned to London. He published im­

mediately Alciphron or the Minute Philosopher, the

result of his studies in America and probably the

moat famous of his works. It is a powerful refuta­

tion of the freethinking then popular and fashion­

able. In 1734 he was made bishop of Cloyne, and

there he lived, happy in his family and beloved for

his goodness and benevolence, till 1752, when he

went to Oxford to end his days with his son, a senior

student at Christ Church. He kept up his studies

after his appointment as bishop and published a

number of books, including the curious Philosoph­

ical Reflections, and Inquiries concerning the Virtues

of Tar water (1744; three eds. the same year, the

second called Siris, a Chain o f Philosophical Re­

flections, etc.), in which he set forth a revision of

his philosophy, and expressed his faith in tar water

as a universal medicine, good for man and beast;

it was the most popular of his works.

On first coming to America Berkeley bought a farm near Newport and built there a house, still standing, which he called "; Whitehall "; after the English palace. The shore is about a mile from the house, and a cleft in the rocks is still pointed out as a retreat whither he was wont to go and where he wrote much of Alciphron. This book is indeed a permanent record o£ his life at Newport, and not


Bernard of Botoae

a little of its charm is due to this fact. He helped

found a philosophical society at Newport and

preached there in Trinity Church, a fine old wooden

structure, which is still standing. He made at

least one convert, the Rev. Samuel Johnson (q.v.),

episcopal missionary at Stratford, Conn., and after­

ward first president of Columbia College, New

York. Attempts to show that he directly influ­

enced the early idealistic thought of Jonathan

Edwards have not proved successful. His Ameri­

can plans and dreams inspired the poem, written

at uncertain date, which ends with the stanza:

Westward the course of empire takes its way;

The four first acts already past,

A fifth shall close the drama with the day;

Time's noblest offspring is the last.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The standard edition of Berkeley's com­

plete works is by A. C. Fraser, 4 vole., Oxford, 1871, re­

issued 1901, of which vol. iv includes his Life and Letters

and An Account of his Philosophy. Prof. Fraser has also

edited a volume of Selections from Berkeley, 5th ad.,

London, 1899, and contributed Berkeley to the Philo­

aophical Classics series, Edinburgh, 1881. There is an

edition of The Works of George Berkeley, by G. Sampson,

with biographical introduction by A. J. Balfour, in Bohn's

Philosophical Library, 3 vole., London, 1897JB8. An

American edition of the Principles, by C. P. Ktauth,

Philadelphia, 1874, presents a valuable epitome of opin­

ions concerning Berkeley. The sources for a biography

are a Life by Bishop Stock first published 1778, reprinted

in the Biopraphia Britannira, vol. ii, 1780, and prefixed

to the first edition of Berkeley's Collected Works, 1784,

the details being obtained from Bishop Berkeley's brother,

Dr. Robert Berkeley; S. A. Allibone gives interesting de­

tails of Berkeley's residence at Newport in Critical Dic­

tionary of English Literature, i, 174 177, Philadelphia,

1891; DNB, iv, 348 358 adds a list of the works chrono­

logically arranged. Consult further D. Stewart, Philo­

sophical Essays, Edinburgh, 1810; vol. v of his Collected

Works, 11 vole., ib. 18b9 80 (on the idealism of Berke­

ley); $. Bailey, A Review of Berkeley's Theory of Vision,

London, 1842 (adverse in its pronouncement); J. 8. Mill,

Dissertations and Discussions, ii, 182 197 and of. vol. iv,

Boston, 1865; F. Fredericha, Der phenomenale Idealiamua

Berkeley's and Kant's, Berlin, 1871; W. Graham, Ideal­

ism, an Essay, London, 1872 (connects Berkeley and

Hegel)  G. 8picker Kant, Hums and Berkeley, Berlin,

1875; A. Penjon, itude our la vie et our lea o:uvrea phi­

loeophiquea de George Berkeley, Paris, 1878; J. Janitseh,

Kant's Urtheile fiber Berkeley, Strasburg, 1879; T. Loewy,

Der Idealiamua Berkeley's, in den Grundlagen untereudat,

Vienna, 1891; T. H. Huxley, Collected Essays, vi, 241­

319, New York, 1894; M. C. Tyler, George Berkeley and

his American Visit, in Three Men of Letters, ib. 1895.



BERN, DISPUTATION OF: The decisive point

in the contest which definitely established the

Reformation at Bern. At first the movement

made slow progress there, as both the character of

the people and their manner of life rendered them

little susceptible to new ideas; even after a reform­

ing party arose; for several years things continued

in an lmdecided and vacillating condition. The

somewhat violent and domineering manner in

which the Roman Catholic authorities attempted

to use their victory at the Conference of Baden

(1526; Bee BADEN, CONFERENCE OF) brought on

s crisis which, after the fashion of the time, it was

attempted to meet by means of a disputation.

Some of the Reformers invited to participate

declined, having in mind the result at Baden, and

the Roman Catholic dignitaries and celebrities

generally refused to attend. But a great number of delegates and clergy appeared from Switzerland and the South German states, including Zwingli, (Ecolampadius, Butzer, Capito, Ambrose Blaurer, and others. The opening session was held on Jan. 6, 1528, and the discussions lasted from the following day till Jan. 26. They were based on ten theses carefully prepared by Berthold Hailer and Franz Kolb and revised by Zwingli. The out­come was that the ten theses were subscribed to by most of the clergy of Bern, the mass was done away with, the images were quietly removed from the churches, and on Feb. 7 the Reformation edict was issued, which gave the theses force of law, annulled the power of the bishops, and made the necessary regulations concerning the clergy, public worship, church property, ate. The majority of the country congregations soon gave in their ad­herence. The influence of the disputation was felt even in France, the Netherlands, and England.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The acts of the disputation were published at Zurich, 1528. and again in 1808 and 1701; the Ten Theses are given in English in Schaff, Creeds, i, 364 366, and Christian Church, vii, 104 105, in German and Latin, Creeds, iii, 208 210. Consult S. Fischer, Geachirhte der Disputation and Reformation in Bern, Bern, 1828; S. M. Jackson, HutdreieA Zurongli. pp. 280 283, New York, 1903.

BERN, SYNOD OF: The name given to the first Reformed synod at Bern (1532). The Reforma­tion was established at Bern by the Disputation and the edict of Feb. 7, 1528 (see BERN, DISPU­TATION OF), but much remained to be done in the way of consolidation and to finish the building af the new Church. This task was entrusted to a general synod, to which all the clergy of the land, 220 in number, were invited. It met on Jan. X14; Capito from Strasburg was the principal figure, and he collected the results of the discussion with much care and labor. They form a church direc­tory and pastor's manual which is noteworthy, even among the monuments of the Reformation time, for its apostolic force and unction, its warmth and sincerity, its homely simplicity and practical wisdom.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The acts of the synod were officially printed at Basel, 1532, again in 1728 sad 1778. Both the orig­inal and a modernised tent were issued by Lauener, Basel. 1830. Consult M. Kirehhofer, Bert7wld Halter, pp. 189 sqq., Zurich, 1828; Billeter, in the Berner Beitrage, ed. F. IJippold, Bern, 1884 (especial y useful); E. Bloesch, Geaehichte der achweizeriechyreforntierten Kirchen, i, 74 81, Bern, 1898.

BERNARD OF BOTONE: Canonist of the thirteenth century; b. in Parma c. 1200; d. at Bologna May, 1263. He studied law at Bologna, where he became professor and canon; then spent some time in Rome in an important official position at the papal court, but toward the end of his life returned to Bologna to lecture, especially on the decretals. He is best known as the author or com­piler of the Glossa ordinaria (see GLOSSES AND GLOaSATORB OF CANON Lww) on the decretala of Gregory IX., but wrote also Casus longi and a Sum­ma super titulis decretalium (cf. J. F. von Schulte, Die Gesehiehte der Quellen des kanonischen Rechts, ii, Stuttgart, 1877, pp. 114 sqq.


Bernard of Clairvanz THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 62


I. Life and Far reaching Ac­tivity.

Bernard's Importsnoa ($ 1).

Early Career. Abbot of Clairvauz (¢ 2).

Activity for Innocent II and against Anacletue

II (¢ 3).

The Second Crusade III. Writings.

(¢ 4). IV. Hymns.

L Life and Far reaching Activity: St. Bernard of Clsirvaux (Bernardua Clarsruallia) is one of the most prominent personalities of the twelfth century, of the entire Middle Ages, and of church history in general. He gave a new impulse to monastic life, influenced ecclesiastical affairs outside of monasticism in the most effective manner, and contributed not a little toward awakening an

inner piety in large circles. As he :. Bernard's knew how to inspire the masses by his Importance. powerful preaching, so also he under 

stood how to lead individual souls by his quiet conversation, to ease the mind, and to dominate the will. It was said in his time that the Church had had no preacher like him since Gregory the Great; and that this was no exag­geration is proved by Bernard's orations, which in copiousness of thought and beauty of exposition have few equals. Revered by his contemporaries as saint and prophet, his writings, which belong to the noblest productions of ecclesiastical litera­ture, have secured him also a far reaching influence upon posterity. Praised by Luther and Calvin, Bernard's name has retained a good repute among Protestants, though he represented many things which the Reformation had to oppose.

Bernard was born at Fontaines (20 m. n.e. of Dijon), France, 1090; d. at Clairvaux (in the valley of the Aube, 120 m. s.e. of Paris) Aug. 20, 1153. He wen the third eon of the knight Tecelin and Aleth, a very pious lady, whose influence decided his future. While yet a boy he lost his mother, and, not being qualified for military serv­ice, he was destined for a learned career. He was educated at Chatillon and for a time seemed to be influenced by the world (cf. MPL, clxaviu, 1857; Vita, I, iii, 6). But this period can not have been of long duration; the memory of his mother and the impressions of a solitary journey called him back, and he resolved quickly and firmly to break entirely with the world. He induced some of his brothers, relatives, and friends to follow him, sad, after spending half a year together at Chatillon, they entered the "; new monastery"; at Cltesua

(seeClsxa$crANe). In 1115 a daughter s. Early Ca  monastery was founded at Clairvaua reer. Abbot and Bernard became abbot. He gave of Clairvaua. all his energies to the foundation of

the. monastery, and spent himself in ascetic practises, which the famous William of Champesua, then bishop of Chalons, checked from time to time (Vats, I, vii, 31 32). Bernard soon became the spiritual adviser not only of his monks but of many who sought his advice and always left Clairvsux impressed by the spirit of solemnity and

II. Ecclesiastical sad Theo­logical significance. Asceticism (¢ 1). Study of the Bible (¢ 2). (,trace and Works (¢ 3). Bernard's Mystidsm(14). Doctrine of the Church (¢ s). Monasticism (16).

peace which seemed to be spread over the place

(Vita, I, vii, 33 34). His sermons also began to

exercise a powerful influence, which was increased

by his reputation as prophet and worker of mira­

cles (Vita, I, a, 46). According to the constitution

which the new order adopted, Clairvaux became

the mother monastery of one of the five principal

divisions into which the Cistercian community was

organized, and Bernard soon became the most in­

fluential and famous personality of the entire order.

As early as the pontificate of Honorius II (1124 30)

he was one of the most prominent men of the

Church in France; he enjoyed the favor of the

papal chancellor Haimeric (Epist., av), commu­

nicated with papal legates (Epist., xvi as, xxi),

and was consulted on important ecclesiastical

matters. At the Synod of Troyes (1128), to which

he was called by Cardinal Matthew of Albano, he

spoke in favor of the Templara, secured their recog­

nition, and is said to have outlined the first rule

of the order (M. Bouquet, Hiatortena des Gaules

et de la France, xiv, Paris, 1806, 232). In the

controversy which originated in the same year with

King Louis VI, who was not antagonistic to the

Church but jealously guarded his own rights, Ber­

nard and his friars defended the bishop before the

king (Epist., xlv), afterward also before the pope

(Epist., xlvi, ef, xlvii), though at first unsuccessfully.

With the schism of 1130 Bernard enters into the

first rank of the influential men of his time by

espousing from the very beginning the cause of

Innocent II against Anacletus II. This parti­

zanship of Bernard and others was no doubt in­

duced by the fear that Anacletus would allow him­

self to be influenced by family interests. On this

account they overlooked the illegal procedure in

the election of Innocent, regarding it as a mere

violation of formalities, defending it with reasons

of doubtful value, and emphasizing the personal

worth of that pope. At the conference which the

king held at Etampea with spiritual and secular

grandees concerning the affair, Ber­

g. Activity nard seems to have taken the part of

for Innocent reporter. He also worked for the

II and pope by personal negotiations and

against Ana  by writing (Epist., cxxiv, cxxv).

Cletus B. When Innocent was unable to main­

tain his ground at Rome and went

to France, Bernard was usually at his aide. Later,

probably in the beginning of 1132, he was in Aqui­

taine, endeavoring to counteract the influence of

Gerhard of Angoul6me upon Count William of

Poitou, who sided with Anacletus (Vita, II, vi, 36).

His success here was only temporary (Epist., cxxvii,

exxviii), and not until 1135 did Bernard succeed,

by resorting to stratagem, in changing the mind of

the count (Vita, II, vi, 37 38). When in 1133

Lothair undertook his first campaign against Rome,

Bernard accompanied the pope from his temporary

residence in Pisa to Rome, and prevented the re­

opening of the proceedings concerning the rights

of the opposing popes (ElOist., cxxvi, 8 eqq.). He

had previously visited Genoa, animated the people

by his addresses, and inclined them to an agreement

with the Pisans, se the pope needed the support of

both cities (cf. Epiat., cxxix, cxax). It was also

83 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Bernard of Glairvaus

Bernard who in the spring of 1135 induced Fred­erick of Staufen to submit to the emperor (Vita, IV, iii, 14; Otto of Freising, Chron., vii, 19). He then went to Italy, where in the beginning of June the Council of Pisa was held; according to the Vita (II, ii, 8), everybody surrounded him here, so that it looked as if he were not in parts aollicitudinis, but in plenitudine potestatis. Nevertheless, reso­lutions were passed at that time regarding appeals to the papal see, which could hardly have been to the liking of Bernard. After the council he succeeded in inducing Milan and other cities of Upper Italy to submit to the pope and emperor (Epist., cxxix cxxxiii, cxxxvii, cxl). In Milan they, attempted to elevate him almost with force to the see of St. Ambrose (Vita, II, ii v). During the last campaign of Lothair against Rome, Bernard went to Italy for the third time, in 1137; he worked there successfully against Anaeletua, and after the Pentecost of 1138 he finally brought about the submission of his successor to Innocent and thus ended the schism (Epiat., ecexvii). After this he left Rome. How great Bernard's influence in Rome was at this time may be seen from his suc­cessful opposition to Abelard (q.v.).

The ecclesiaatico political affairs of France soon made a new claim upon Bernard's attention. The young king, Louis VII, by making reckless use of his royal prerogatives, caused friction, as when he refused to invest Peter of Lachdtre, whom the chapter of Bourgea had elected archbishop. The pope consecrated him, nevertheless, and thus pro­voked a conflict which was enhanced by the parti­zanahip of Count Theobald of Champagne. After a while Bernard was asked to mediate; he faithfully performed this difficult task and enjoyed the con­fidence of the king to the end of his life (cf. EPiet., ccciv), whereas his relations to the pope appear to have been troubled toward the end (EPist., eexviii; cexxxi, 3).

A very unexpected event was the election of

Bernard, abbot of Aquae Silvise near Rome, for­

merly a monk in Clairvaux, as Pope Eugeniua III

(1145 53). Bernard writes a little later (Epiat.,

cexxxix) that all who had a cause now came to

him; they said that he, not Eugenius, was pope.

And it is true that he exercised a remarkable influ­

ence in Rome especially at first, but Eugeniua did

not always follow his counsels and views; he had

to consider the cardinals who were envious of

Bernard. About thin time Bernard, at the request

of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, undertook a journey

to Languedoc, where heresy had advanced greatly

and Henry of Lausanne (q.v.) had a large following.

Bernard's presence there, especially at Toulouse,

was not without effect, but to win permanent

success continual preaching was required. A

more important commission was given to him in

the following year by the pope himself, to preach

the crusade. At Vezelay, where the

4. The Sec  king and queen of France took the

ond Cru  cross, Mar. 21, 1146, Bernard's address

sade. was most effective. He then trav­

ersed the north of France and Flanders,

and the officious doings of the monk Radulf induced

him to go into the regions of the Rhine; he suc 

ceeded in checking the persecutions of the Jews at Mainz, which Radulf had occasioned. His journey along the Rhine was accompanied by numerous cures, of which the Vita (vi) contains notices in the form of a diary. But he regarded it as the wonder of wonders that he succeeded on Christmas day, 1146, in influencing King Conrad in favor of the crusade, in the face of all political considerations. During the crusade Eugenius sought a refuge in France. Bernard accompanied him, and was present at the great council in Reims, 1148; in the debates against Gilbert of Poitiers (see GILBERT DE LA PoaxAE) following the council, Bernard appeared as his main opponent; but the jealousy of the car­dinals brought it about that Gilbert escaped unhurt (Vita, III, v, 15; Otto of Freiaing, De gestia Frid., i, 55 57; Hint. pont., viii, MGH, Scrip., xx, 522 sqq.). About this time the first unfavorable news of the crusade became known, and tidings of its complete failure followed. No one felt the blow more keenly than Bernard, who with prophetical authority to speak had predicted a favorable issue (De corasid., ii, 1). In the last years o£ his life he had to ex­perience many things which caused him sadness. Men with whom he had had a lifelong connection died; his relations with  Eugenius III were some­times troubled (Epist., ccevi); the frailty and the pains of his body increased. But his mental vitality remained active; his last work, De considerations, betrays freshness and unimpaired force of mind.

II. Ecclesiastical and Theological Significance

Bernard's entire life was dominated by the resolu­tion he made while a youth. To work out the salvation of his soul, and which meant the same thing to him to dedicate him 

i. Asceti  self to the service of God, was thence­cism. forth the sum of his life. To serve God demanded above all a struggle against nature, and in this struggle Bernard was in earnest. Sensual temptations he seems to have overcome early and completely (Vita, I, iii, 6) and an almost virginal purity distinguished him. To suppress sensuality in the wider sense of the word, he underwent the hardest castigations, but their excess, which undermined his health, he after­ward checked in others (cf. Vita, I, xii, g0). He always remained devoted to a very strict asceticism (Epist., eccxlv; Cant., xxx, 10 12; Vita, I, xii, 60), but castigation was to him only a means of godliness not godliness itself, which demands of man still other things. The new life comes only from the grace of God, but it requires the moat serious work of one's own nature. How much importance Bernard attached to this work, whose preliminary condition is a quiet collection of the mind, may be learned from the admonitions which he gives on that point to Eugeniua. That he prefers the con­templative life to the active is nothing peculiar in him; and he doubtless had the dire to devote himself entirely to it.. He may have believed that only duty and love ipelled him to act. .And yet, as he was eminently fitted for action, ouch work was probably also is harmony with his inclina­tions. From his own experience he received the strength to work, the thorough education of the personality, by which he exercised an almost fas 

Bernard of Clatrvani THE NEW BCHAFF HER,ZOG 84

cinating power over others; on the other hand, his practical activity excited in him a stronger desire for contemplation and made it the more fruitful for him (De diversis, sermo iii, 3 5).

Of Bernard's quiet hours, in spite of the many pressing claims on him, one part was devoted to study, and his favorite study was the Holy Scrip­ture. His knowledge of the Bible

s. Study of was remarkable; not only does he the Bible. often quote Bible passages, but all his orations are impregnated with Biblical references, allusions, and phrases, to pay regard to which is often essential for the correct understanding. It is true that bra exegesis did not go beyond the average of his time, yet he allows the great fundamental thoughts and vital forma of the Holy Scripture to influence him the more. As lie was nourished by them he also knew in a masterly manner how to bring them near to others. All qualities of the great preacher were united in him; besides being vitally seized by the grace of God, he had a hearty desire to serve his hearers, an impressive knowledge of the human heart, and a wealth of thoughts and fascinating exposition, which was indeed not free from mannerism, What is missing in his sermons is reference to the variety of the relations of life, and this is intelligible, because he bad monks as his hearers.

Religious geniality is the moat distinguishing

quality in the whole disposition of Bernard; his

other rich gifts serve it, to it is due the impres­

sion which he made upon his time, and the im­

portance which he obtained in the history of the

Church. At the same time, Bernard is also a child

of his time; above all, of the Church of his time, in

which his religious life could develop without con­

flict. In this respect Bernard is related not to

Luther, but to Augustine, and between Augustine

and him stand Leo I. Nicholas I, and Gregory VII.

Thus elements are found in Bernard which point to

future developments combined with those which

belong only to the ecclesiastical consciousness of

the time. Bernard is most deeply permeated by

the feeling of owing everything to the grace of

God, that on the working of God recta the beginning

and end of the state of salvation, and that we are

to trust only in his grace, not in our

3. Grace and works and merits. From the for=

Works. givenesa of sin proceeds the Christian

life (De diversia, ser»xo iii, 1). Faith

is the means by which we lay hold of the grace of

God (In vigil. nativ. domini, v, 5; In Cant., aermo

xxii, 8; cf. also In Cant., lxvii, 10; In vigil. net.

dom., aermo ii, 4). Man can never be sure of salva­

tion by resting his hope upon his own righteousness,

for all our works always remain imperfect. On

the other hand, Bernard does not deny that man

can and should have merits, but they are only

possible through the preceding and continually

working grace of God; they are gifts of God, which

again have rewards in the world to come as their

fruit, but without becoming a cause of self glory.

Before God there is no legal claim, but an acqui­

sition for eternity through the work of the pious,

made possible and directed by God's grace.

A characteristic contrast to these thoughts,

which lead man again and again to humility, is the excessive glorification which Bernard devotee to the saints, above all to the Virgin Mary. Though he opposes (Epist., cLxsiv) the new doctrine of her immaculate conception, he nevertheless uses expres­sions concerning the mother of Jesus which go very far (e.g., In nativ. Beat. Virg. Marie, v, 7; In assumpt. Beat. Virg. Maria, i, 4; In adv. dom., ii, 5). The same concerns also other saints (e.g., In vigil. Petri et Pauli, § § 2, 4, and at the end of the second oration In tranaitu B. Malachia). But the importance of such expression which a Protes­tant consciousness will never be able to adopt is restricted by this, that they are only used on special occasions, such as a feast of the saints. Otherwise the saints stand in the background, Christ alone stands in the foreground.

Bernard has always been regarded as a main representative of Christian mysticism, and his wri­tings have been much used by later mystics and were the main source for the Imitat%o Christi. But just here becomes evident how different the phenomena are which are comprised under the name of mysti­cism. With the Neoplatonic Dionyaian mysti­cism that of Bernard has some points of contact, but it differs from it as to its religious character. It is known how depreciatingly Luther speaks of the Areopagite, but this animadversion does not concern Bernard's mysticism. It is not man who soars to divine height, but the grace of God in Christ, which first pardons the sin and then lifts up to itself the pardoned sinner. On this account 4. Bernard's the whole mysticism of Bernard

Mysticism. centers about Christ, the humbled

and exalted one; it likes to dwell

upon his earthly appearance, his suffering and death,

for it is the "; work of redemption "; which more

than anything else is fit to excite love in the

redeemed (In Cant., xx, 2; De grad. hum. in its

first chapters). At the same time Bernard per­

ceives that a sensual devotion, as it were, to the

suffering of Christ is not the goal with which one

must be satisfied; the thing necessary is rather to

be filled with the spirit of Christ and through it

to become like Christ. By Christ's work of redemp­

tion the Church has become his bride. To it, i.e.,

to the totality of the redeemed, belongs this name

first and in a proper sense, to the individual soul

only in so far as it is a part of the Church (In

Cant., axvii, 6, 7; Lyvii; Lxviii, 4, 11). What it

receives from him is in the first place mercy and

forgiveness of sins, then grace and blessing. The

climax of grace is the perfect union, but in the

earthly life this is experienced by the pious at the

utmost in single moments (De conaid., V, ii, 1; De

grad. hum., viii; De dilig. Deo, x). When Bernard

speaks of becoming one with Christ and with God,

his thought is clothed with Biblical expressions;

but that Bernard in point of fact does not intend

to go beyond the meaning of these words can be

seen by reading the explanations (In Cant., Lei, 7

aqq.), where the union with God, to which the pious

soul attains, is most keenly distinguished from a

consubstantiality, as it exists between father and

Son in the Trinity. Bernard is entirely free from

pantheistic thoughts, and that mysticism does not

68 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Bernard of Claisvsna

bring him in opposition to the Church his entire ecclesiastical attitude shows.

The Church as organized, with its hierarchy, at whose head stands the Roman bishop, as suc­cessor of Peter and vicar of Christ, is to Bernard the exhibition of the kingdom of Christ on earth. On this account it must enjoy perfect autonomy, having a right of supervision over everything in Christendom, even over princes and states. It even has a right over the worldly sword (De consid., IV, 7; cf. Epist., cclvi, 1). Nevertheless Bernard is no blind adherent of the views of Gregory VII.

In the first place Bernard demands g. Doctrine a perfect separation between secular of the and spiritual affairs; the secular as

Church. such is to be left to the secular govern 

ment, and only for spiritual purposes and in a spiritual sense is the pope to have super­vision (De cmeaid., i, 6). But Bernard is also an opponent of the absolute papal power in the Church. As certainly as he recognizes the papal authority as the highest in the Church, so decidedly does he reprove the effort to make it the only one. Even the middle and lqwer ranks of the Church have their right before God. To withdraw the bishops from the authority of the archbishops, the abbots from the authority of the bishops, that all may become dependent on the curia, means to make the Church a monster (De consid., iii, 8).

Notwithstanding Bernard's many sided activity, he was and remained above all things a monk, and would not exchange his monachism either for the chair of St. Ambrose or for the primacy of Reims. Monachism is to him the ideal of Chris­tianity. He acknowledges indeed that true Chris­tianity is also possible while living in the world (Aiool., iii, 6; In Cant., Lyvi, 3; De div, ix, 3), but such a life compared with monastic life seems to

him a lower, and in spiritual relation, 6. Moms  a dangerous position (De div., xxvii,

ticism. 2), a partition of the soul between

the earthly and heavenly. Monasti­cism itself he regards in an ideal manner; it appeals to him also not so much from the point of view of merit as from that of the safest way to salvation. To this the whole order of the monastery is sub­servient, aside from this it is of no value. Besides, Bernard had relations with the different monas­teries and monkish associations and was interested in them (cf. with regard to the Premonstratensians Epist., viii, 4; lvi; and especially ccliii; concerning other regular canons, Epist., iii; xxxix, 1; lxxxvii­xc; and elsewhere). In his many relations with the Cluniaceneiana, frictions were not wanting (cf. EPist., i; clxiv; cclxxxiii; etc., and especially the Apologia ad t";ruilelmum), for the rise of the new order took place partly at the expense of the old. Nevertheless Bernard was highly esteemed by the Cluniacensians, and close friendship associated him with their head, the noble Peter the Venerable. That it was not interrupted is .mainly due to Peter, who knew how to bear occasional lack of considera­tion by his great friend (cf. Epist., cLxvi, l; eLyviii, 1) without resentment (Epist., ccxxix, 5). There existed a mutual true affection and admiration; the letters which they exchanged with each other

IL 5

are an honorable monument for both men, and with­out regard to differences of times and confessions modern readers can appreciate them.

III. Writings: The works of Bernard in­clude a large collection of letters; a number of treatises, dogmatic and polemic, ascetic and mystical, on monasticism, and on church govern­ment; a biography of St. Malachy, the Irish arch­bishop; and sermons. Hymns are also ascribed to him (see below). The most important are the letters, which constitute one of the most valuable collections of church history; and the sermons, of which those on the Song of Songs furnish the chief source of knowledge of Bernard's mysticism. The first and fifth books of his De conaideratione are also of a mystic character, whereas ii, iii, and iv contain a .critique of church affairs of his time from Bernard's point of view and lay down a pro­gramme for papal conduct which a contemporary pope would have found it difficult to follow.


IV. Hymns: Five hymns are ascribed to Ber­nard, viz.: (1) the so called Rhythm= de con­temlutu mundi, "; O mirandu vanitcas ! 0 diviti­arum I "; (2) the Rhythmics oratio ad unum quodlibef membrorum Christi patientis, a series of salves ad­dressed to the feet, knees, etc. of the Crucified; (3) the Oratio devota ad Dominum Jesum et Beatam McH rimm matrem ejus, ";Summe summi to patris unite ";; (4) a Christmas hymn, "; Lcetabundus exultet ftdelis chorus ";; (5) the Jzthe blessedness of the soul united with Christ. All these poetical productions, besides being beautiful in form and composition, are distinguished   by a tender and living feeling and a mystic fervor and holy love. If they are really Bernard's, he deserves the title of Doctor mellifluus devotusque. An addition to the Salve regind, closing with the words, "; 0 clemens, 0 pia, 0 dulci.,s virgo, Maria,"; is also ascribed to him. Mabillon denies Bernard's author­ship of all these hymns in spite of the ancient and prevalent tradition. But one is inclined to accept the tradition, especially since the scholastic Beren­gar, in his Apologia Abelardi contra S. Bernardum, states that Bernard was devoted to poetry from his youth. German adaptations of the last section of (2) by Paul Gerhard (1659), "; O Haupt voll Blut and Wunden,"; and of (5), "; O Jesu sties, wer dein gedenkt,"; are in common use; there are several English versions as by J. W. Alexander, "; O Sacred Head, now wounded "; and "; Jesus, how sweet thy memory is,"; and Ray Palmer's ";Jesus, the very thought of thee.";


BraLrooasrar: A very accurate list of the literature (2,781

entries, arranged chronologically) is given by L. Janau­

echek, in Bibiiopraphia Barnardina, Vienna, 1891. 'the

best edition of the works of Bernard is by J. M. Hore­

tius, revised and enlarged by J. Mabillon, Paris, 1887,

corrected and enlarged 1890 and 1719, reprinted in

MPL, cluxu clszsv, of which the last vol. contains the

old Vita, and some valuable additions not found in Ma­

billon. A new critical ed. of the 3ernwnea de tempore, de

Wachs, and de diroerais has been published by B. Gsell

and L. Janauschek in vol. i of Xenia Bernardino, Vienna,

1891. An Eng. trawl. by 8,. J. Ealea of the Lice and

Works of Bt. Bernardat Clairvaux from the ed.of Msbillon,

4 vole. only completed, , London, 1888 97, contains

Bernard of Qlairvanz Bernard, Claude


the preface of Mabillon to his second edition of the Opera,

s Bernardino Chronotopy, List and Order of the Letters,

sad transl. of the Letters, Sermons, and Cantica Canli­

tarum. Of the early biographies the moat important in

the Vita prima, MPL, clrav, 225 468, the first bookof

which, by William of Thierry, was written during Ber­

nard's lifetime, the eeaond, by Ernald, abbot of Bona

Value. the other books by Gsufrid of Clairvsua, cf. G.

Htiffer, Voratudien su . . . Bernhard van Clairnauz,

Miineter, 1888. Of later literature note J. Pinio, Com­

rnentarius de S. Bernardo, in ASS, Aug., iv, 101 eqq., and

in MPL, clauv, 843 944 (still very useful); and Me,

billon'e Prafatio (translated in Esles, ut sup.). Of modern

lives the following deserve mention: A. Nesnder, Dar

lYeilips Bernhard and aein Zeitalkr, Berlin, 1813, ed. 8. M.

Deutsch, in BiblioYuk theolopiechsr Klaseiker, vole. aai­

syii, Goths, 1889 Eng. transl. of let ed., Life of St.

Bernard, London, 1843; J. C. Morrison, Lice and Timex

con Ciairoaernaux~, No. don, 1877; e Kirche Christi urd

Zsugen, Leipeic, 1878; $. J. Esles, St. Bernard, in The

P'afJrna for English Readers, London, 1890 (Roman Cath­

olic); A. C. Benson and H. F. W. Tatham, in Men of

Might, ib. 1892; R. $. Storrs, Bernard of Clairnaua, the

Times, the Man, and his Work, New York, 1892; W. J.

Sparrow $impaon, Lectures on 8t. Bernard of Clairvaux,

London, 1898 (Roman Catholic); E. Vacandsrd, Via de

Saint Bernard Paris, 1895 (displays knowledge of the

subject and good taste and judgment so far as the ultra­

montsne point of view of the author allows). Consult

farther: W. von Gieeebreo6t, Oeaclaichte der deutechen

Haiserssit, vol. iv. Brunswick. 1874; W. Berahardi. Jahr­

bOtka do@ deutaehen Reirhs enter Lothab van Supplin­

berp. Leipai0. 1879, and unfer Konrad 111, ib. 1883; B.

Kugler, Arwlekten our t3esehiehts des stoeiten Kreuaaupes,

TQbingen, 1879; idem, New AnoierEfsn, ib. 1883; K. F

Neumann, Bernhard van C(airroavz and die Anfanpe des

SWUM Kreuasupea, Heidelberg, 1882; G. Hilffer, Die

An/8npe des sweiten Kreuzsupss, in Hiatoriac)Aes JahrburA

der (16naa ()esetlachatt, Vol. viii, Bonn. 1887. On Ber­

nard's relation to Abelard: $. M. Deutsch, Die Synods cu

Sans 111/, and die Verurkelunp AIMlarde, Berlin, 1880;

E. Vscsadsrd, Aboard, as lofts avac 3. .Bernard, Paris,

1881. On Bernard as a preacher: A. BrSmel, Homile­

'. PP. b3 98, Berlin, 1889: E. Va­

aandard. S. Bernard, orateur, Rouen, 1877; R. Rothe,

OucAichde der Predipt, pp 218 eqq., Bremen, 1881; A.

Nebe, Zur (ieaehichte der Predipt, i, 250 eqq., Wiesbaden,

1879; E. C. Dargan, Hiat, of preaching, pp. 208 aqq.,

New York. 1905. Oa Bernard's teaching: A. Ritaobl,

Die Chriatlicha Lehra van der Rechlfertigung and Veraehn­

unp, i, 1 17, Bonn, 1870; idem, LeaefrOchta Gus don

hailipen BernAan3, in TSK, 1879, pp. 317 335; H. Renter,

in ZKfi, vol. i, 1878; G. Thomaeius, Dopmanpaachichte, ed.

8eeberg ii, 129 eqq, Leipeic, 1889; A. Harnack, Dogmen­

paachiehts. vol. iii, Freiburg, 1898. On Bernard se s hym­

niat: R. C. Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, pp. 138 141, Lon­

don, 1884; 8. W. huffield, English Hymns, pp. 299, 300,

317 430, 800, New York, 1888; idem, Latin Hynn­

TVriters, Passim, especially pp. 18(f 193, ib. 1889; Julian,

Hymnology, pp. 131i 137: P. Schaff, Literature and Poetry,

ib. 1890. Discussions of $t. Bernard from various points

of view will be found in the Church Histories dealing with

his period and also in works on the History of Philos­


For Bernard's hymns: H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hym­rwlopicw, b vole., Halls, 1841 58; C. J. $imrook, Lauds Swn, Cologne. 1850; J. F. H. Schlosser. Die Kiiche in Aron Liedern durch alls JaArhunderta. Freiburg, 1883; P, Schaff, Christ in Song, New York, 1888; J. Pauly, Hymni brsroiarii Romani, 3 vole.: Aachen, 1888 70: F. A. March, Latin Hymns with English Notes, pp 114 125, 278 279, New York, 1874; W. A. Merrill, Latin Hymns Selected and Annotted, Boston, 1904.

BERNARD OF CLUNY (Bernmdus Morlartetlais, often called Bernard of Morlaia, Morlartensis being improperly rendered Morlaix instead of Murlss): Monk of Clung; b. probably at Morlas (5 m. n.e. of Pau, and then the capital of the province of Barn); d. at Clung probably about the middle of the twelfth century. Nothing more is known of him, except that

he wrote a satirical poem of 2,991 lines, divided into three books, and entitled De contemptu mundi, dedicating it to Peter the Venerable. The theme is a monastic and ascetic commonplace, but its handling reveals vigor and satirical power. The meter is a medieval adaptation of the dactylic hexameter, so difficult that Bernard believed he had divine assistance is keeping it up for so many lines; each pair of lines rimes and the first third of each line rimes with the second, thus (lines 1 2):

.. Hors novieeims, tempors peseima aunt, vigilemus.

Eooe minaoiter imminet arbiter ills eupremus.";

As to contents the poem is a satirical arraignment

of the twelfth century for its vices in Church and

society, sparing not even monks and none, but so

exaggerated that it can not be accepted as history.

The opening of the first book and the concluding

part of the third are on spiritual themes of uncom­

mon beauty. The poem exists in at least nine

contemporary manuscripts and so must have been

popular in its day. But it was forgotten until

Matthias Fhlcius Illyricus discovered it and, with

a view of showing that the evils of medieval Roman­

i8m of which the Protestants complained were

already pilloried by Rome's faithful sons, printed

a few lines from its third book in his Catalogue

testiurit veritatis qui ante nostram tetatem redamaratttt

papa (Basel, 1556), and the next year the entire

poem in the collection of similar poems which he

entitled Varia doctorum p%orltmque virorum de

eorruluto Ecrlesite state poemata ante rtostram tetotem

eonscwipta. This collection was reprinted in 1754,

probably at Frankfort. The first to bring Ber­

nard's poem out separately was Nathan Chytraeus

(Bremen, 1597), and he was followed by Eilhard

Lubin (Rostock, 1610), Petrus Lucius (R,inteln,

1626), and Johann and Heinrich Stern (Lune­

burg, 1640). Finally Thomas Wright reprinted it

in his Anglo Latin Satirical Poets of the Twelfth Cen­

tury (London, 1872, Rolls Series, No. 59). The

first complete translation, in prose, was published

by Henry Preble (AJT, Jan. July, 1906). In 1849

Trench published in his Sacred Latin Poetry (Lon­

don) ninety six lines from its first book, and

these attracted the delighted attention of John

Mason Neale, who translated them in his Medi­

eval Hymns and Sequences (London, 1851). His

translation from Bernard leaped into wonderful

popularity and was separately printed along with

other 'lines not in Trench, as The Rhythm of

Bernard de Morlaiz, Monk o f Clung, on the Celestial

Country (London, 1859; often reprinted). One of

the hymns made by division out of this translation,

"; Jerusalem the golden,"; is found in all hymn­

books. Other pieces in prose and poetry are also

attributed to Bernard.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: $. M. Jackson, The Source of ";Jerusalem

the Golden"; and Other Pietas Attributed to Bernard at Clung, Chicago, 1909 (contains Preble'e translation of the De contemptu rnundi, and an elaborate introduction and bibliography).

BERNARD OF CONSTANCE: German teacher and author of the eleventh century; d. at Corvey 1088. He was a Saxon by birth, and about the middle of the century presided with notable sue 

87 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Bernard of Clairvanz

Bernard, Claude

cess over the school at Constants, which he left to teach at Hildesheim. During his residence here he was asked by his teacher Adalbert and his pupil Bernold (q.v.) to write on the questions raised by the Roman synod of 1078, and answered in a lengthy treatise against the opponents of Gregory VII. His standpoint comes out even more clearly in his Liber canonum contra Henricum IV, which on its first publication (M. Sdralek, Die Streitschriften, Altmerns von Passauund Wezilos von Mainz, Paderborn, 1890) was erroneously ascribed to Bishop Altmann of Passau. It was written after the Synod of Quedlinburg at Easter, 1085, when the Gregorian party was in great diffi­culties, and is an uncompromising declaration of fidelity to the papal cause. Bernard was, in short, as his pupil Bernold describes him, not only "; a most learned man "; but also "; moat fervent in the

cause of St. Peter."; CARL M1aBm.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The two works mentioned above have been

edited by F. Thsner in MGH, fib, do lite, ii (1892), 29­47, and i (1891), 472 b18 respectively. Consult C. Mirbt, Die PubZiaroatik im ZeitoUer Grapora Yll, Leipeic, 1894 F. Thaner, Zu swsi StrsiterArsZten du II. Jahrhundsrta, in Neu"; Archiv far Zflteradeu::chsGeaehichts,:oi (1889), b29­540; Hauck, KD, vol. iii.

BERNARD OF MENTHON: Founder of the hospices on the Great and Little St. Bernard. Little is known of his life, as modern criticism has hardly touched it, and the older biographies are untrust­worthy and legendary. According to them he was born at Menthon, near Annecy (25 m. s. of Geneva), Savoy, in 923, and studied the liberal arts, law, and theology. To avoid a marriage planned by his parents, he fled to Aoata, where he was ordained and later became archdeacon. In addition to the most faithful performance of his priestly duties, he founded the two hospices and placed them in charge of canons regular, finally dying at Novara in 1007. A sequence preserved in the Acta Sanctortcm, and dating probably from the end of the eleventh or beginning of the twelfth century, speaks of a meeting between him and Henry IV, which may possibly have occurred. It is known that in the ninth century there was a hospice under clerical auspices on the Moos Jovis, the present Great St. Bernard, which may later have fallen unto decay. First in 1125, and often after that date, we find mention of the church of St. Nicholas on the Mons Jovis; in 1145 of the hos­pitals, which in 1177 is called dmnus hospitalia SS. Nicolai et Bernardi Montia Jovis. It is thus not improbable that Bernard restored the older foun­dation; but it is more likely that this took place at the beginning of the twelfth than at the end of the eleventh century. The date of 1081 for Ber­nard's death is no better attested than that of 1007. Innocent XI canonized him in 1881. The larger hospice, on which till 1752 the smaller depended, was reformed during the Council of Basel, receiving a very original constitution in 1438. Napoleon, pleased by his reception there, placed the hospice founded by him on the Simplon pass under the care of the same community, and endowed the founda­tion, which had lost a great part of the rich pos­sessions formerly held by it in fourteen dioceses.

It is now supported by voluntary offerings from all the Swiss cantons. A statue of Bernard was erected near the hospice in 1905. (A. HAVes.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The old lives are in ASB, lb June, ii, 1071­1089; Alban Butler, Lives of the Fathers, June lb, 2 voln., London, 1857 80; an old text Le Mgsttre do 3t. Bernard do Menthon was published by A. L. de la Marche, Paris, 1889. Consult L. Burgener, Der heilipe Bernhard von Menthon, Lucerne, 1870; Wmoirea et documents publics par la soci€tb d'hiatoire do la Suisse, vol xxix Lausanne, 1875; A. Ltitolf, Ueber daa vrahre Zeitalter des heilipen Bernard von Msathon (888 1081), is TQ, lxi (1879), 179­207; J. A. Due, in Miscellanea di etoria Itaiiara, xzxi, 343 388, Turin, 1894; Wattenbach, DGQ, ii (1888), 214, ii (1894), 241.


BERNARD OF TOLEDO: Archbishop of To­

ledo 1086 1125; b. at Agen (73 m. s.e. of Bor­

deaux), France, c. 1050; d. in Spain 1125. His

significance in the history of Spain lies in the fact

that from him dates the emergence of the Spanish

Church from its isolation and its dependence on

Rome. He became a monk in the monastery of

Cluny, whence he was sent to Spain with others

to assist the cause of the reforms of Gregory VII.

Here he was made (1080) abbot of St. Fscundus

at Sahagun in the diocese of Leon, and finally

named by Alfonso VI for the archbishopric of

Toledo. Gregory's plane for Spain included (be­

sides a general crusade against clerical marriage,

simony, and lay investiture) the substitution of the

Roman liturgy for the Mozarabic and the recog­

nition of the obligations of tribute from the Spanish

Church. The former point had been practically

gained before his death, in spite of strenuous oppo­

sition. Urban II, by raising Bernard's see to

primatial dignity, gave him the power necessary

to prosecute the work of Romanizing. His co­

operation made possible Urban's intervention at

the Synod of Leon (1091) and ignoring of the royal

right of investiture when Alfonso attempted to

appoint a Spaniard to the see of St. Jago, apparently

in order to counterbalance the influence of the

French Benedictines with whom the primate was

filling the episcopal sees. His career was through­

out that of a devoted adherent of the papacy.

Some reminiscences of his youthful days as s knight

appear in his forcible seizure of the Mohammedan

mosque at Toledo in his first year as archbishop

and in his plane for a crusade against the Saracens

of the East, which both Urban II and Paschal II

forbade, in view of the tasks which Spanish Christian

chivalry had at home. Four of his sermons, on

the Salve Regina, are included among those of the

great Bernard. CARL M1xsT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Asehbaeh, Geachichte Spaniena and Por­tupats our Zeit der Herrsehaft der AZmoraviden and Almo­haden, i. 129 eqq.. 339. 358 eqq.. Frankfort, 1833; Hia­taria Compostellana: Eapiifia saprada, ed. H. Flores, ac. 1 598, 815, Madrid, 1791; A. F. GfrSrer, Payat Greporius VII and aein ZeitaZter, iv, 484, b00 ,601, Schaffhausen, 1864; Hefele, Concilienpeachichte, v, 200, 251, 328 327; idem, DerKardinal %inunes, pp. 150 eqq., Arnheim, 1853.

BERftARD, CLAUDE: Called the ";poor priest"; and "; Father Bernard ";; b. in Dijon Dec. 23, 1588; d. at Paris Mar. 23, 1641. He was the son of a jurist, studied law himself, and for a time led a life



of pleasure, but was converted by what he believed was a vision of his departed father. He became a priest and made Parse his residence, where he spent his time preaching and visiting the poor and sick, not shrinking from the most disgusting dis­eases. He gave away all that he had, including an inheritance of 400,000 francs.

BERNARD, JOHN HENRY: Church of Ireland, dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin; b. at Raniganj, Bardwan (126 m, n.w. of Calcutta), India, July 27, 1860. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1880), where he was elected fellow and tutor in 1884, retaining his fellowship until 1902. In 1886 he was ordained to the priest­hood, and was chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1887 to 1902. Since 1888 he has been Archbishop King's lecturer in divinity in the University of Ireland, and has been dean of St. Patrick's since 1902, where he had already been treasurer from 1897 to 1902. He was examining chaplain to the bishop of Down in 1889, and was select preacher to the University of Oxford in 1893­1895 and to the University of Cambridge in 1898, 1901, and 1904. He has repeatedly been exam­iner in mental and moral philosophy for the India Civil Service, and has been a member of the Council of the University of Dublin since 1892, as well as a commissioner of national education for Ireland from 1697 to 1903. He was likewise a member of the General Synod of the Church of Ireland in 1894, and of the Representative Church Body in 1897, while in 1902 he became a warden of Alex­andra College, Dublin, a commissioner of charitable donations and bequests for Ireland in 1904, and a visitor of Queen's College, Galway, in 1905. He has written or edited the following works

Kant's Critical Philosophy for English Readers (2 viols., London, 1889; in collaboration with J. P. Mahaffy); Kant's Criticism of Judgment (1892); From Faith to Faith (university sermons, 1895); Archbishop Benson do Ireland (1896); Via Domini (cathedral sermons, 1898); The Irish IRber Hym­nortcm (1898; in collaboration with R. Atkinson); The Pastoral Epistles, in The Cambridge Bible, (Cambridge, 1899); The Works of Bishop Butler (2 viola., London, 1900); The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, in The Expositor's Bible (1903); St. Patrick's Cathedral (1904); The Prayer o f the King­dom (1904); and 1><1s translated and edited The Pilgrimage of St. Silvia (1896) and other publi­cations of The Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society.

BERNARD, THOMAS DEHANY: Church of England; b. at Clifton (a suburb of Bristol), Gloucestershire, Nov. 11, 1815; d. at Wimborne (21 m. n.e. of Dorchester), Dorsetshire, Dec. 7, 1904. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford (B.A., 1838), was ordered deacon in 1840and priest in the following year, and was successively curate and vicar of Great Baddow, Essex (1840 46), vicar of Terling, Essex (1848), and rector of Wal­cot, Somerset (1863 86). He was prebendary of Haselbere and canon resident of Wells Cathedral from 1868 to 1901, and chancellor of the same cathedral after 1879, while from 1880 to 1895 he was proctor for the dean and chapter of Wells.

He was also select preacher at Oxford in 1855, 1862, and 1882, and was Bampton Lecturer in 1864. He wrote The Witness of God (university sermons, London, 1862); Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament (Bampton lectures, 1864, 4th ed., 1878); The Central Teaching of Jesus Christ (1892); and The Songs o f the Holy Nativity (1895).

BERftARDIN OF SIENNA: Franciscan; b. of noble parents at Massa (33 m. s.w. of Sienna) Sept. 8, 1350; d. at Aquila (58 m. n.e. of Rome) May 20, 1444. He entered the Franciscan order 1402; became its vicar general 1437, and effected many reforms in discipline and government. He was the moat famous preacher of his time and spoke to great crowds in all parts of Italy with wonderful effect. Three times he refused the offer of a bishop­ric. He was canonized by Nicholas V in 1450 and his day is May 20. His writings were first printed at Lyons (1501), afterward at Paris (4 vols., 1636; 5 vols., 1650) and at Venice (4 vols., 1745). The first volume contains his life by his scholar, St. John of Capistrano. Bernardin's writings are for the moat part tractattea aeu aennones, which are not so much sermons according to the modern view as formal treatises upon morals, asceticism, and mysticism.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The older accounts of his life are collected in ASB, 20 May, vi, 282 318. Consult: P. Thureau Dan­gin, Un Pr6dicateur populaira . . . St. Bernardin de Sieant (138a 1I,.1,.!), Paris, 1896, Eng. transl., London, 1908; Berthaumier, Histoira de S. Bernardin de Sienae, Paris, 1862; J. P. Toussaint, Lebe>a du heiligen Bernardin, Regensburg, 1873; F. Apollinsire, La vie et lea aeurne de S. Bernardin, Poitiers, 1882; E. C. Dargan, Hilt. of Preach­ing, pp. 317 eqq., New York, 1905.


BERNICE, ber nai'st or ber'nis (for I:ERF.­NICE): Eldest daughter of Herod Aprippa I. See HEROD AND 8I6 FAMILY.


Abbot of Reichenau (Benedictine abbey on as

island in the Untersee of Lake Constance, 4 m. w.n.w.

of Constants) 1008 till his death, June 7, 1048.

He was monk in a monastery at Prum near Treves

when appointed abbot; under his rule Reiclienau

regained its prosperity, which had been lost under

his predecessor, the abbot Immo; the library was

enriched, scholars were attracted to the school,

and the church of St. Mark was rebuilt. He was

renowned personally as scholar, as poet, and, above

all, as musician; he accompanied the emperor,

Henry II, to Rome in 1014 for his coronation and

after his return introduced reforms in German

church music. Besides lives of saints and theolog­

ical and liturgical treatises he left a number of

letters and works upon music, which are published

in Gerbert, Scriptorea ecclesiastics de musica, sacra,

ii (St. Blaise, 1784). His writings are in MPL, cxliii.


BERNOLD : German ecclesiastical author; b. probably in southern Swabia c. 1054; d. at Schaff­hauaen Sep. 16, 1100. He was educated at Con­stance under Bernard (q.v.), with whom he con­tinued in close relations. He began writing early, and was present is Rome at the great synod of



1079 when Berengar was condemned. The neat certain date is his ordination by the cardinal legate Otto of Ostia at Constance in 1084., From 1086 to 1091 he was certainly an inmate of the monastery of St. Blaise in the Black Fort; in the latter year he migrated to Schaffhausen, where he re­mained (though not without interruption, se his presence at the battle of Pleichfeld shows) until his death. He was a versatile author. His Chronicon (ed. G. Waitz, in MGH, Script., v, 1844, 385 467) is a valuable source for his own life­time, though colored by his partizan support of Gregory VII. His treatise De Berengarii hceresu­archa damnatione mti7tiplici is interesting for the light which it throws on the attitude of German theology before the beginning of the strictly scholastic period. Moat of his extant works, how­ever, are of a practical nature, dealing with the vexed questions of the church life of his time. Though a zealous upholder of the reforming pa­pacy, he was not a fanatic.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Mirbt, Die Publiziatik im Zeitaiter Gro­pcrs Yll, Leipaic, 1894; A. Ueaermann, Gerynanim sacra p; odromua, ii, 432 437, Freiburg, 1792; E. 8trelau, lebsn and Werka des M bndvea Berrcold von St. Bkleien, Jena, 1889; G. Meyer von Knonsu, Jahrbtecher du deutschen Rei,cha unter Heinrich IV and Heinrich V, Leipeie, 1890 1904.

BERNWARD: Bishop of Hildesheim 993 1022. He came of a noble Saxon family, being the grand­son of the count palatine Adalbero and the nephew of Bishop Folkmar of Utrecht. He was educated at the cathedral school of Hildesheim by Thang­Egar, later his biographer, and ordained by Willigis of Mainz. In 987 he became chaplain at the im­perial court and tutor to the young Otto III. On Jan. 15, 993, he was consecrated bishop of Hildes­heim He protected his diocese vigorously from the attacks of the Normans, and only once took a wrong step as a temporal magnate when, at the accession of Henry II, he took the side of Margrave Ekkehart, whose death, however, saved him from the consequences of his mistake. He rendered great services to literature and art. He died Nov. 20, 1022, a few weeks after the consecration of the magnificent church of St. Michael which he had built. Celestine III canonized him in 1193.

(A. HAUCE.).

BratsooasraT: The Vita by Thsagmar is in MGH, Script., iv, 754 782, the Msracv7a, ib. pp. 782 788, Hanover. 1841; the continuation of the Vita by wolfheriua, ib. a, 185­187, 1854. Consult: A. Schultz, Der luilips Bernroard . and seine Yerdienste, Leipaie, 1879: w. A. Neumann , Berntaard van Hildeaheim and seine Zeit, in Mi#htilunpan des kaiaeriichen Geterreichiachen Museums fitr Banal, v,

730, 97 104, 124 130, 141 152, 188 173, Vienna, 1890: B. Sievers, Der hei7ige Bernward, in Studien and Mih

";unpen aua dem Benedict  and dem Ciatera. 0rden x*1V (1893), 398 420; Wsttenbavh, DfiQ, i (1893). 318, 348 

350, ii, 25, 360, 511; $. Beissel, Der Wigs Bernuxird van Hi7deaheim, Hildeeheim, 189b.


BERQUIN, bfir";kan', LOUIS DE: French Re­former; b. at Passy Paris June, 1490; d. at Paris

Apr. 17, 1529. He belonged to a noble family of Artois and was lord of the estate of Berquin, near

Abbeville. In 1512 he came to Paris to finish his studies, became acquainted with Lefcvre dttaples and the publisher Josse Badius, and was introduced to Marguerite of Valois, sister of Francis I, through whom he gained the king's favor. He belonged to that group of godly humanists who wished a reformation of the Church, but without a rupture with Rome. He hated equally the ignorance of the monks and the coarseness of Luther. Erasmus seemed to him the true Reformer; with him there­fore he opened correspondence and translated sev­eral of his tracts, as well se Luther's De votis monastieis. The doctors of the Sorbonne de­nounced him as a heretic and on May 13, 1523, the trial was held before the. Parliament. Seven of Berquin's writings and one of his translations from Luther and Melanchthon were condemned by the theological faculty and by the Parliament. On Aug. 1, he was made prisoner, but was set free by order of the king, Aug. 8. The Parliament had already burned his papers and books. The siege of Pavia and the captivity of the king (Feb., 1525) increased the Parliament's power, and the queen regent, Louise de Savoie, established (May 20) an extraordinary court to judge the heretics. On the same day three of Erasmus's treatises were censured. Berquin would have been permitted to retire and live on his estates if he had consented to keep silence. But he could not help speaking the truth and (Jan. 8, 1526), being denounced by the bishop of Amiens, he was again imprisoned. His books were again judged and forty of his propositions were declared heretical. He defended himself by saying that his propositions were taken from Erasmus and nobody adjudged the latter a heretic. His books were nevertheless condemned and he would have been burned with them if Mar­guerite of Valois had not invoked the clemency of her brother. Aug. 17 Francis sent a letter to the Parliament commanding them to take no definite steps without his advice. Although Erasmus ad­vised silence, Berquin, confident of the king's favor, tamed the struggle and quoted from Noel Beda's writings against Erasmus, against the Sorbonne, and Lefwre dttaplP.s, twelve propositions as false and heretical, and asked the king to allow the Parliament to give judgment. From July, 1528, until March, 1529, Berquin lived in security. He was then again imprisoned and Parliament con­demned him "; to have his tongue branded with a red hot iron and to remain a prisoner for the rest of his life."; Apr. 16 Berquin appealed to the king, and the neat day Parliament, taking advantage of the king's absence at Blois, ordered Berquin to be burned at the Place de Grove. He was the first Protestant martyr of France. Theodore Beza said of him: "; If Francis had upheld him to the last, he would have been the Luther of France."; Berquin's original works are all lost, only a few of his translations being left: Enehiridion du chevalier chreatien (Antwerp, 1529); Le vray moyen de bier et cat)wliquentent se eonfesaer, par grasme (Lyons, 1542); Paraphrases atrr Is Nouveau Tes­tament, and Le aymbola daa ap8trea (both from Erasmus, n.p., n.d.).



BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources for a biography are in T. Base, Hisfoire ecclteiaatique des Egiiau Hforn&a de France, i, 7, Paris, 1882; A. L. Herminjard, Corrupondanu des R& fosmateura, vol. ii and viii, especially vol. ii, containing letters by Erasmus to Berqnin, ii, 155 157, 159 180, sad the letter of Erasmus to C. Utenhoviue, ii, 1893, 193, ib. 1878, 1893; a brief but lucid account of Berquin's life is contained in A. Cbevillier, L't7rigina de i'imprimerie de Paris, ib. 1894. Consult: Hiatoire du proteatantiame Fran­gaia, xi, 129, ib. 1848 Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris ed. L. Lalanae, ib. 1894; Haur,6au, in Revue den deux monde&, Jan. 15, 1869; H. M. Baird, Rise of the Huguenots, i, 128 158, London, 1880.


French Jesuit; b. at Rouen Nov. 7, 1681; d. at Paris Feb. 18, 1758. He served as teacher of his order for many years and won notoriety from an attempt to rewrite the Bible in French in the form of a romance fitted to the taste of his time; in carrying out the idea, however, he introduced much that was unfitting, heretical, and even blas­phemous and obscene. He published the first part, Histoire du people de Dieu degntis son origins jusqu'h la venue du Meaeie, in seven volumes at Paris, 1728. It was put on the Index in 1734, but reissued in expurgated shape in 8 vole. 1733 34. The second part included the Gospels, 4 vole. 1753, also put on the Index in 1755. The third part in­cluded the Epistles, in 2 vole. 1757, but was con­demned by the pope in 1758. The whole work has appeared in Italian, Spanish, Polish, and German transls., and was reissued (expurgated) in 1851 in 10 volumes.

BIBLIOGRAPHT: E. H. Landon. Ecclesiastical Dictionary. ii. 204, London, 1853; A. de Backer, Bibdiothkua du ~6eri­vaina dada compopnie de J&ua, iv, 340.7 volr.. Paris, 1853­1881; F, H. Rinsch, Der lndex der roerbotenen Busker, ii, 804, Bonn, 1885,

BERRY, JOSEPH F.: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Aylmer, Can., Map 13, 1856; received his edu­cation at Milton Academy, Ontario; entered the min­istry of his denomination, 1874; was associate editor of the Michigan Christian Advocate, 1884 90; editor of Hepworth Herald, 1890 1904; and was elected bishop 1904.

BERSIER, b5r";sy6', EUGENE ARTUR FRAN_ CjOIS: French Reformed; b. at Morges (7 m. w. of Lausanne), Switzerland, Feb. 5, 1831; d. at Paris Nov. 19, 1889. He came of Huguenot parentage, took elementary studies at Geneva and Paris; visited America, 1848 50; studied theology at Geneva, Gottingen, and Halls; became pastor in Paris 1855 in the Free Church until 1877 (until 1861 over the Faubourg St. Antoine Church; until 1874, assistant of Pressens6 in the Taitbout Church; until 1877, over the toile Church), when he and his congregation joined the Reformed (established) Church of France. He was the author of several popular volumes of sermons, some of which have been translated into English: in the Protestant Pulpit series (2 . vole., London, 1869); Oneness of the Race in its Fall arid its Future (translated by Annie Harwood, London, 1871); Sermons, with Sketch of the Author (London, 1881; 2d aeries, 188b); St. Paula Vision (translated by Marie Stewart, New York, 1881; new ed. 1890)•,. The Gospel in Paris; Sermons, with personal Sketch of the Author by Rev. Frederick Hastings

(London, 1884). There are translations also into German, Danish, Swedish, and Russian. He wrote also Solidarity (Paris, 1869); Hietoire du Synods de 187i° (2 vola., 1872); Liturgie (now used in the Reformed Church of France, 1874); Mes atlas et men principea (1878); L'Immutabilitg de Jesus Christ (1880); Royautk de Jesus Christ (1881); Coligny avant lea gtterru de religion (1884; 3d ed., 1885; Eng. transl., Coligny : the Earlier Life of the Great Huguenot, London, 1885); La Revo­cation, diacoura . . . our l'€diL de revocation (1886); Lea Rgfugi6a frangaia et leer industries (1886); Projet de rtviaion de la liturgie den Eglises REformEes en France (1888); Quelques pagan d'hiatoire den Hu­guenots (1890) .

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. 8tapfer, La Predication d'Eug&a Beraier, Pixie, 1893; J. F. B. Tinting, Beraier'a Pulpit: Analysis of Public Sermons of . . . Eupe~ne Beraier, London, 1900; w. C. Wilkinson, Modern Masters of Pulpit Discourse, pp. 251 281, New York, 1905 highly laudatory).

$ERTHEAU, b8,r";to', CARL: German Lutheran; b. at Hamburg July 8, 1836. He was educated at the universities of Gottingen (185rr57, 1858 b9) and Halls (1857 58), and after teaching in the schools of his native city became pastor of St. Michael's Church there in 1867. Since 1897 he has been president of the Hamburg Verein fur inhere Mission. In theology he belongs to the positive evangelical school. He prepared the third volume of K. Hireehe's Prolegomena zu Thomas d KemPia (Berlin, 1894) and edited Lu­ther's catechisms (Hamburg, 1898).

BERTHEAU, ERNST: German Lutheran; b. at Hamburg Nov. 23, 1812; d. at Gottingen May 17, 1888. He studied in Berlin and Gottingen (Ph.D., 1836) and became repetent at Gottingen 1836 extraordinary professor of Oriental languages and Old Testament exegesis 1842, ordinary professor 1843. From 1870 he was a member of the com­mission to revise Luther's Bible. His publications include: Carminza Ephraemi Syri textus Syriacua secundum codicem bibliothem ArEgelicte dertuo edi­tus ac veraione et bretn: annotations instructus (Gottingen, 1837); Die sieben GruFpett mosaiacher Geaetze in den dyed mittleren Biiehern des Pertta­teucha (1840); Zur Geschichte der leraeliten, ztoei Abhartdlungen (1842); an edition of the Syriac grammar of Bar Hebra;ua (1843); and commen­taries upon Judges and Ruth (1845; 2d ed., 1883), Chronicles (1854; 2d ed., 1873), Ezra, Nehemiah, and Father (1862), and Proverbs (1847; 2d ed., 1S83), in the Kurzgefaastu ezegetiaehea Xaruibuch zum Allen Testament. (CARL BERTHEAU.)

BERTHIER, bar";tyd', GUILLAUME FRAN_ COIS: French Jesuit; b. at Iasoudun (130 m. s. of Paris), department of Indre, Apr. 7, 1704; d. at Bourgea Dec. 15, 1782. He joined the Jesuits in 1722: He added six volumes (Paris, 1749) to the twelve already completed by Longueval, Fontenay, and Brumoy of the Histoire de l'9glise gnllicane, bringing the narrative down to 1529; from 1745 to 1762 he edited the M&rtoirea de Tre­voux and displayed much moderation as well as learning under attacks from the Encyclopedists and Voltaire. After the expulsion of his order


from France in 1762 he was appointed tutor to the princes afterward Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, but had to leave the country in 1764; after an ab­sence of ten years he returned to Bourges. He translated the Psalms (8 vols., 1785) and the Book of Isaiah (5 vole., 1788 89) into French with notes. His tEuvres spirituelles were published at Paris in five volumes in 1811.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. de Backer, Biblioth?que du &rivairu de la

corwpapnie do JEsue, ex., 7 vole., Paris, 18b3 81.


BERTHOLD OF LIVONIA: Early missionary and second bishop among the Livonians. He was abbot of the Cistercian monastery in Lokkum, and was consecrated bishop to succeed Meinhard about 1196 by Hartwig II, bishop of Bremen. After he had failed to win the heathen by mild means with peril of his life, he went to Saxony and returned with a body guard in 1198. The Livonians gath­ered and were defeated in battle, but the bishop was slain July 24, 1198. His successor was Albert of Riga (q.v.).

BERTHOLD OF REGENSBURG: Franciscan friar, the greatest popular preacher of the Middle Ages in Germany; b. at Regensburg probably earlier than the traditional date of 1220; d. there Dec. 14, 1272. He was a member of the Fran­ciscan community founded at Regensburg in 1226. His novitiate was passed under the guidance of David of Augsburg; and by 1246 he is found in a position of responsibility. By 1250 at the latest, he had begun his career as an itinerant preacher, first in Bavaria, where he endeavored to bring Duke Otto II back to obedience to the Church; then he appears farther westward, at Speyer in 1254 and 1255, then passing through Alsace into Switzerland. In the following years the cantons of Aargau, Thurgau, Constance, and Grisons, with the upper Rhine country, were the principal scenes of his activity. In 1260 he went farther afield, traversing after that date Austria, Moravia, Hun­gary, Silesia, Thuringia, and possibly Bohemia, reaching his Slavonic audiences through an inter­preter. Some of his journeys in the East were probably in the interest of the crusade, the preach­ing of which was specially entrusted to him by Pope Urban IV in 1263.

The German historians, from Berthold's con­temporary, Abbot Hermann of Niedernaltaich, down to the middle of the sixteenth century, speak in the most glowing terms of the force of his per­sonality and the effect of his preaching, which is said to have attracted almost incredible numbers, so that the churches could not hold them; and he was forced to speak from a platform or a tree in the open air. The gifts of prophecy and miracles were soon attributed to him, and his fame spread from Italy to England. He must have been a preacher of great talents and success. Although the manuscript reports of his sermons, which began to circulate very early, are by no means to be trusted se literal productions, we can still form from them a tolerably accurate idea of the matter and manner

of his preaching. It was always of a missionary character, based formally on the Scriptures for the day, but soon departing from them to apply the special theme which Berthold wished to enforce. This generally finds its point in the insistent call to true sorrow for sin, sincere confession, and perfect penance; penance without contrition has no value in God's sight, and neither a crusade nor a pilgrimage has any good result unless there is a firm purpose to renounce sin. From this stand­point Berthold criticizes the new preachers of indulgences. The extremely mixed character of his audiences led him to make his appeal as wide and general as possible. He avoids subtle theo­logical questions, and advises the laity not to pry into the divine mysteries, but to leave them to the clergy, and content themselves with the credo. The weighty political occurrences of the time are also left untouched. But everything that affects the average man his joys and his sorrows, his superstitions and his prejudices is handled with intimate knowledge and with a careful clearness of arrangement easy for the most ignorant to follow. While exhorting all to be content with their station in life, he denounces oppressive taxes, unjust judges, usury, and dishonest trade. Jews and heretics are to be abhorred, and players who draw people's minds away to worldly pleasure; dances and tournaments am also condemned, and he has a word of blame for the women's vanity and proneness to gossip. He is never dry, always vivid and graphic, mingling with his exhortations a variety of anecdotes, jests, and the wild etymologies of the Middle Ague, making extensive use of the allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament and of his strong feeling for nature.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sermons in Geretsn of Berthold were edited or given in abstract by C. F. Kung, Berlin, 1824, on which cf. J. Grimm in Wiener Jahrbfiaker der likratw, zzzii (182b), 194 Zb7, and the R7einere 3chriften by J. Grimm, Vienna, 1889. A complete edition of his Predip­fen, ed. F. Pfeiffer, appeared vol. i, Vienna, 1882 (cf. K. Schmidt in T31L, aaavii, 1884, pp. 782), vol. ii, ed. J. Strobl, Vienna, 1880 (d. A. SohBabsch, in Anuiper far deuteehsa Aitertum, vii [18811, 337 38b). On the Latin sermons consult H. LeYeet. Deutsahe Predipten des 13. and ib. Jahrhunderta, Leipeic, 1838; G. Jacob, Die lateinischea Redea des aeiipera Berthold von Regensburg, Regensburg, 1880; 6srmonea ad retipiosos vipinti., ed. P. de a. Hoetsel, Munich, 1882. On his life and work consult: K. Hoff­mann, 3ifaurpabericMe der MUacherer Akademie, ii (1887). 374 eqq., ii (1888), 101; L. Ilockinger, Berthold van Regensburg and Raimund von Peniafort, in Abhandlunpen der M4nchener Akademie, hiatoriache Closes, ziii. 3 (1877). 186 eqq.; K. Unkel, Berfho7d roan Regensburg, Cologne, 1882. For his preaching consult: W. Wackerasgel, Alb deutaehe Pfsdiptsn, Basel. 1878; R,. Cruel, Geachichts der deulachen Predipt im Mi!&fafter, pp. x 322. Detmold, 1879•, A. Lineenmayer, Qeschichte der PradipE in DevtacA­land, pp. 333 3b4. Munich. 1888; E. C. Dargan. A History of Preaching, New York, 1905.

BERTHOLD OF RORBACH: Heretical mystic; d. 1356. He appears first in Wiirzburg, where be was tried on a charge of teaching heresy, but saved himself by recantation of the doctrines attributed to him. He was. again brought to trial at Speyer in 1356, but this time refused to recant and was burned. The accounts of his teaching show him as an adherent of the quietistic mysticism of the




Brothers of the Free Spirit, sharing their dis­belief in the meritoriousness of prayer and asceti­cism; those who are "; enlightened by God,"; lay­men as well as priests, may preach the Gospel and change bread and wine into the divine substance. The strange and shocking views attributed to him on the passion of Christ can scarcely be reconciled with his other teachings, and have probably come down in a distorted form. (HERMAN HAUPT.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Jundt, Histoire du panthEiame populaire du moyen age, p 105, Paris, 1875; H. Haupt, Die relipisaen Sektan in Franken, p. 8, iirzburg, 18$2.


BERTHOLDT, LEONHARD: Professor at Er­langen; b. at Emakirchen (14 m. w.n.w, of Nu­remberg), Bavaria, May 8, 1774; d. at Erlangen Mar. 22, 1822. He studied at Erlangen and became professor extraordinary on the philosophical faculty 1805; full professor of theology 1810, in recog­nition of his work upon Daniel (2 vole., Erlangen, 1806 08). His principal work was the Hzstorisch­kritische Einleitung in die sdmmtlichert kanonischen and apokryphischen Schriften des Alters and Neuen, Testaments (6 vole., 1812). Of less interest is his Einleitung in die theolog£schen TVissenschaften (2 vole., 1821 22); and of still leas, his Handbuch der Dogmengeschichte (2 vole., 1822 23). As a teacher, however, and as editor of the Kri:isches Journal der neuesten theologischen Litteratur, one of the principal organs of the rationalistic party, his activity was stimulating in many ways.

BERTHOLET, bar";t8";lb', ALFRED: Swiss Protestant; b. at Basel Nov. 9, 1868. He was educated at the universities of his native city, Strasburg, and Berlin, and, after being Franco­German pastor at Leghorn, in 1892 93, became privet docent for Old Testament exegesis in the university of his native city in 1896. In 1899 he was appointed associate professor of the same subject, and in 1905 was promoted to his present position of full professor. He was general secre­tary of the Second International Congress for the History of Religion held at Basel in 1904, and has prepared the commentaries on Leviticus, Deu­teronomy, Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Ezekiel in K. Marti's Kurzer Handkommentar zum Allen Testament (5 vols., Freiburg and Tiibingen, 1897­1902), and has written Der Yerfassungsgesetzent 

wurf des Heaekiel in seiner religionsgeachichtlichen Bedeutung (Freiburg, 1896); Die Stellung der Israelites and der Juden zu den Fremden (1896); Zu Jesaja 63 (1899); Die israelitischen Yorstellungen vom Zustand sash dem Tode (Tiibingen, 1899); Bnddhismus and Christentum (1902); Die Ge Tilde der Seligen (1903); Seelentoanderung (galls, 1904); Der Buddhismtis and seine Bedeutung fur unser Geistesleben (Tiibingen, 1904); and the section on the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha in K. Budde's Geschichte der althebraischen Literatur (Leipeie,1906).

BERTRAM: The name by which R,atramnua (q.v.) was formerly sometimes quoted.

13ERTRAN , ROBERT AITKIY; English Con_ gregationalist; b. at Henley (147 m. n.w, of Lon 


don), Staffordshire, Nov. 8, 1836; d. in London Nov. 14, 1886. He ended his .studies at Owens College (Victoria University), Manchester, 1858; was pastor at Lymm, Cheshire, at Openshaw (Manchester), and at Barnstaple, Devonshire; edited The Christian Age, 1880  83. He compiled The Cavendish Hymnal (Manchester, 1864), and published Parable or Divine Poesy, Illustrations in Theology and Morals Selected from Great Divines and Systematically Arranged (London, 1866); A Dictionary of Poetical Illustrations (1877); A Homiletical Encyclopedia of Illustrations in The­ology and Morals, d Handbook of Practical Divinity and a Commentary on Holy Scripture (1878); A Homiletical Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah (i, 1884; ii, jointly, with Alfred Tucker, 1888).



BESANT, bes'ant, ANNIE (WOOD): Theosophist; b. at London Oct. 1, 1847. She was educated by private tutors at Clearmouth, Doraetshire, London, Bonn, and Paris, and later passed B.Sc. and M..B. at London University. Originally a member of the

Church of England, she married Rev. Frank Besant, vicar of Sibaey, Lincolnshire, in 1867, but was divorced from him six years later and renounced Christianity altogether. She then joined the Na­tional Secular Society, and as a scientific material­ist worked with Charles Bradlaugh, with whom she edited the National Reformer. She was also prominent in socialistic and labor movements, and was a member of the Fabian Society and the Social Democratic Federation. In 1887 90 she was a member of the London School Board for Tower Hamlets, but declined reelection. Meanwhile, her views had undergone further change as a result of psychological study, and in 1889 she joined the Theosophical Society, of which she has since been a distinguished member, and its president in 1907. She has made extensive journeys to all parts of the world in the interests of theosophy, but has of late years resided chiefly in India. In 1898 she founded the Central Hindu College, Benares, and is still the president of its council, while in 1904 she estab­lished the Central Hindu Girls' School in the same city. 1n addition to a large number of briefer articles and pamphlets, she has written Natural Religion Versus Revealed Religion (London, 1874);

History of the Great French Revolution (1876); The

Law of Potion : Its Consequences and its Bearing

upon Human Conduct and Morale (1877); The

Gospel o f Christianity and the Gospel o f Free Thought

(1877); Heat, Light, and Sound (1881); Legends

and Tales (1885); The Sins of the Church (1886);

Reincarnation (1892); Seven Principles o f Man

(1892); Autobiography (1893); Dea!h and After

(1893); Building of the Cosmos (1894); In the Outer Court (1895); Karma (1895); The Self and

its Sheaths (1895); The Path of Discipleship (1896); Man and his Bodies (1896); Four Great Religxona (1897); The Ancient Wisdom (1897); Evolution

of Life and Form (1899); Dharma (1899); Story of the Great War : Lessons from the Mo1~Fbhigrata (1899); Avaticras (1900); Ancient Ideals in Modern


Life (1901); Esoteric Christianity (1901); Thought Power: Its Control and Cultivation (1901); The Religious Problem in India (Madras, 1902); The Pedigree of Man (Benarea, 1903); Study in Con­sciousness (London, 1904); and Theosophy and New Psychology (1904). She has also translated a number of free thought works as well as the Bhagavadgit8 (London, 1895), and has edited Our Corner (London, 1883 8$), and, in collabora­tion with G. R. S. Mead, The Theosophical Review.

BESS, BERNHARD: German librarian and

historian; b. at Nenterahauaen (near Cassel) May

19, 1863. He was educated at the universi­

ties of Marburg and Giittingen, and, after being

privat docent at the former university for several

years, was appointed to his present position of li­

brarian of the University of Halls in 1896. In 1902­

1903 hawse also entrusted with the organization of

the library of the Prussian Historical Institute at

Rome. He has written Frankreicha Kirchen­

politik and der. Prozesa lea Jean Pent (Marburg,

1891), and Luther and das landesherrlirhe Kirchert­

regiment (1894). Since 1891 he has been the

editor of the Zeitachri, ft fur Kirchengeschichte.

BESSARIOft, bea.Wri en, JOHANNES or BASIL­IUS: Cardinal; b. at Trebizond 1395; d. at Re, venna Nov. 19, 1472. He studied at Constantinople and at Misithra in the Peloponneeus under Gemiatoa Plethon; entered the Basilian order; became arch­bishop of Nicma in 1437. As such he labored at Ferrara and Florence, 1438 39, for the union of the Greek and Roman Churches (see FEaxnaw­FLOHENCE, COUNCIL OF). Having been made a car­dinal, he remained in Italy, by voice and pen work­ing for the union. His house at Rome became the center not only for hiafugitive countrymen, but also for the cultivation of Greek literature in the Went; and during his activity as legate in Bologna, 1451,55, he worked in the same interest at that ancient gymnasium illuatre. At the papal election in 1455 he lacked only a few votes of being chosen pope, and his influence in the curia may be seen from the numerous diplomatic missions with which he was entrusted. While returning from a missionary tour to France, which he had undertaken for the sake of reconciling Louis XI and the duke of Bur­gundy, he died at Ravenna.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: On the works of Besearion consult: Fabri­ciuo Harles, Bibliotheca Grieca, a, 491, xi, 480, Hamburg, 1807 08; MPG, alai. On his life and activities consult: Pastor, Popes, vol. iv, passim (well worth using); Creigh­ton, Papacy, vole. ii v, passim (gives an excellent treat­ment of the subject); G. Voittt, Die Wia3erbeGsbuny lee clwaiachen Alterthurna, Berlin, 1859; J. Burekhardt, Kut­tur der Renaissance ix Italian, Basel, 1880, Eng. trawl., 2 vole., London, 1878; H. Vast, La Cardinal Beaeotion, Paris. 1878: R. Rocholl, Beaaariou, Leipaie, 1904.

BESSEL, GOTTFRIED: Abbot of GSttweig, near Vienna; b. at Buchhain, near Mainz, Sept. 5, 1672; d. at G6ttweig Jan. 20, 1749. He studied at Salzburg, entered the Benedictine order in 1693, was ordained priest 1696, and was employed in various diplomatic negotiations by the elector of Mains. In 1707 he converted the princess Eliza­beth Christine of Brunswick to the Roman Catholic



Be 11

faith, and, in 1710, her grandfather, the duke Anton Ulrich, at which time he published Quin­quaginta Romanocatholicam f dam omnibus aliis lorceferendi motiva (Mainz, 1708). In 1714 he be­came abbot of Gottweig. He prepared a chronicle of the monastery, of which only the first part, Prodromus, has been published (2 vole., Tegernaee, 1732).

BESSER, WILHELM FRIEDRICH: German preacher and theological writer; b. at warnstedt, in the Harz, Sept. 27, 1816; d. near Dresden Sept. 26, 1884. He studied at Halls under Gesenius and Tholuck (1837), then went to Berlin, where he was influenced by Neander and Twesten, but still more by Hengstenberg, Otto von Gerlach, and others. He returned to Halls in 1838 as sec­retary to Tholuck, but a year later went as private tutor to the house of Major von Schenkendorf at Wulkow near Puppin. This had a decisive influence on his life, through his intercourse there with a persecuted Lutheran pastor, a guest in the house, who had such an effect on him that, at his ordination in 1841 as pastor at Wulkow, he refused to sign the Union formula except with the reser­vation that the Union related to common ecclesias­tical organization without prejudice to the authority of the Augsburg Confession. In 1845 he withdrew his subscription, and after long negotiations was deprived of his office in 1847. Connecting himself with the Lutheran Church of Prussia, he became pastor of Seefeld in Pomerania, and zealously supported the movement to obtain equal rights for the Lutherans with the Union. In 1853 he was called to assist Graul in the direction of the Evan­gelical Lutheran mission house; but the strain of continuous teaching was not suited to his vivacious and impulsive nature, and sharp controversies broke out over the then burning question of the Indian castes, so that he returned willingly to pas­toral life in 1857, becoming minister of Waldenburg in Silesia and also (1864) a member of the Lutheran superior council of Breslau. Failing health com­pelled him to resign his offices at Easter, 1884. His Bibelstunden, which he began to write in 1843 and continued at intervals till he had covered most of the New Testament, have had a salutary influence far beyond Germany. The list of his minor writings is a long one, and includes a number of controversial tractates against what he thought a hollow and deceiving compromise, popular biographies, devo­tional works, and sermons. (H. HOI$CHER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A sketch of Besser's life appears in his Pro­dipteu and Predigtauaziipe, Breslau, 1585. His autobiog­raphy (uncompleted) was continued to the year 1850 by Grave. Aua Beeasra Lebau, in Gotthdd, year 20, 1894­1895, and completion is promised; cf. AL%G, 1884, pp.

1038 39.


German Lutheran; b. at Delve, Holstein, Feb. 21, 1854. He studied in Leipsic, Tiibingen, Kiel, Berlin, and Erlangen (lie. theol., 1877), and was privat docent in theology at Erlangen 1877 83. He was then instructor in the gymnasium of the orphan asylum at Halls 1883 84 and at the Missionary Seminary in Leipaic 1884 86. Since the latter yeas he has been pastor in M&lln


Bethune Baker



(Lauenburg). He has been a member of the com­mittee of the Mtilln conference for theological studies since 1896, and has written Qua rations Auguatinus notiones philosophic; graces ad dogmata anthropologica deacribenda adhibuerdt (Erlangen, 1877); Geschichte der chriatlichen Sine (2 vole., NtSrdlingen, 1880 85); Die theologische Wissenachaft and die Ritachl'sche Schule (1881); Die Anfange des katholiachen Christentuma and des lalama (1884); Der Protestantiamus and die theologischen Fakul­tdten (Kiel, 1891); and Geschichte des Reichs Gottea im Alten and Neuen Bunde (2 vole., Leipaic;1896­1900). He edited also J. C. K. von Hofmann's Theologische Encycloptidie (Nilrdlingen, 1879) and Der christliche Herold (Hamburg and Mtilln, 1898­1899).

BETH, KARL: German Protestant; b. at Ftir­deratiidt (15 m. s. of Magdeburg) Feb. 12, 1872. He studied in TQbingen and Berlin (Ph.D., 1898), and was privet docent in Berlin 1901 06. Since 1906 he has been professor of systematic and sym­bolic theology at the University of Vienna. He has written Die Grundanschauungen Schleiermachera in seinem eraten Entuurf der philoaophiachen Sitten­lehre (Berlin, 1898); Did orientalische Kirche der MittelmeerlZtnder, Reiseatudien cur Statiatilc and Syrnbolik der griechischxn, armenischen und kopti­achen Kirche (1902); Des Wesen des Christentuma urui die moderns hiatoriache Denkweise (1904); and Die Wunder Jean (1905).

BETHLEHEM: A town in southern Palestine, in the territory of Judah, often called Bethlehem Judah (e.g., Judges xvii, 7, 8; cf. Matt. ii, 1, 5). Its significance for the Judah of Davidic times or earlier is as the home of Jesse (I Sam. xvi, 1), of Joab, Abiahai, and Asahel (II .Sam. ii, 32), of El­hanan (II Sam. xxi, 19), and as a place of sacrifice (I Sam. xvi, 3, 5). It was occupied by the Philie­tines in their war with David (II Sam. sxiii, 14).

Rehoboam made of it a city of defense

Old Tests  (II Chron. xi, 6), as it commanded

meat His  the roads south and west. Though in

tory. early times it was a place 'of impor 

tance because of its situation on cara­van routes, it became overshadowed by the growth of the capital. After the exile it was reckoned to the Jewish community (Ezra ii, 21), and was inhabited by Calebitea who were driven north by the Edomites pressing up from the south. This possession is explained by the Chronicler on genea­logical grounds, regarding the town as founded by Salma, a eon of Caleb. The district of Ephratah, which extended from Kirjath jearim to Bethlehem, became a possession of the Calebitea and gave occasion for the name Bethlehem Ephratah, used Micah v, 2. The inhabitants were engaged in agri­culture, viticulture, and cattle raising.

For the Hebrews its fame recta upon its being the home of David (Luke ii, 4, 11); to Christians everywhere its name is familiar as the birthplace of Jesus, according to the accounts in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. It has retained its name unchanged to the present. Bait 7alam lies five and $ half miles south of Jerusalem, a little east of the central watershed, at a level above the sea of about

2,500 feet. The elopes above it have been terraced from early times, and their fertility rewards richly

the labor of the inhabitants in pro 

Present ' ducing olives, almonds, figs, and grapes.

Condition. The numerous trees of the terraces

give the place a refreshing appearance, especially to the traveler from the bare heights of Jerusalem. There is a spring some fifteen minutes eastward from the town, and water is taken from the aqueduct on the south leading into Jerusalem. For the rest of the water supply, dependence is had upon cisterns. The population is about 8,000; 3,827 are Roman Catholics, 3,662 Greeks, 260 Mohammedans, 185 Armenians; the rest are Copts, Syrians, and Protestants. Two thirds are engaged in various handicrafts, the rest in husbandry, and all are oppressed by burdensome taxes. At­tempts have been made at various times to connect particular parts of the town with David, naming for him a house, a tower, and a well, but the tra­ditions are insecurely founded. The ";Well of David"; is the name given since the fifteenth cen­tury to three large cisterns in the northeast.

More secure is the tradition about the birthplace of Jesus, covered by the celebrated Church of St. Mary, a basilica mentioned as early as 334 as built

', by Constantine's order. Eusebiua ("; Life of Con­atantine ";) confirms thin report; Socrates and Soz­omen ascribe its erection to the empress Helena; and 1';utychiua to Justinian. De VogiiE! supports

I the first hypothesis on the, ground of the unity

of plan, conformity of extent of choir

The Church and grotto, and absence of architec 

of St. Mary. tural marks of the Justinian period.

In this opinion he is supported by the architect T. Sandel, who made a new examina­tion in 1880. This may well be the oldest church in the world. It was thoroughly restored by the emperor Manuel Comnenus, who adorned it with mosaics, of which work but little remains, though a description by F. Quareamio (1616 26) with what is left suffices to give a good idea of the whole. In 1478 (or 1482) the roof was repaired by Philip of Burgundy and Edward IV of England, sad re­newed in 1672 by the Greek patriarch Dositheos. In the latter year the Greeks obtained possession, which the Latins had had since the crusades. In 1852 Napoleon brought it about that the Latin, were given a share in holding it. The church, now in decay, can not be restored for fear of renewing outbreaks among Latino, Greeks, and Armenians.

From the southeast the church rises prominently like a fortress; the north, east, and south sides are leas pleasing to one approaching from those directions because of the cells of the monks of the different communions. It has a nave and. double aisles, sad its floor apace is about ninety eight feet by eighty seven between the cross aisles. The transept and apes are unfortunately concealed by a wall built by the Greeks in the seventeenth or eighteepth century. The entire length of the pres­ent church, including the entrance hall, is about 230 feet. Two flights of steps to the north and south lead from the choir to the chapel of the nativity, the walls of which are marble lined and hung with tapestries. The place of birth is marked


by a silver star in the floor of a niche. Opposite is the place, a marbled hollow, of the old "; genuine "; manger. A passage westward leads to the tomb and chapel of Jerome.

This subterranean room, according to tradition continuous since Constantine, is accepted as the place of Jesus's birth. A tradition

The Tradi  can be traced back to Justin Martyr tional Place that Jesus was born in a cave, since

of Jesus's Joseph could find no accommodation Birth. in the village. But it has been dis­proved that the present chapel is a [natural] cave, while it must be noted that as early as 728 it was reported that the form of the cave was changed and an oblong room hewn out. The use of caves as adjuncts to inns or "; shelters "; is in Palestine a peculiarity of the country.

Five minutes southeast from the church of St. Mary is the so called "; Milk Grotto "; of the Latino, in which Joseph, Mary, and the child are said to have concealed themselves from Herod's fury before the flight into Egypt. The white of the limestone is attributed to the fall of a drop of milk from Mary's breast. Ten minutes northeast from Beth Sahur (itself fifteen minutes east from Bethlehem) is shown the ";Grotto of the Shepherds,"; inwhich the angels are said to have announced to the shepherds the birth of the Holy Child. The underground chapel is reached by a passage between two ancient olive trees.

One of the fruits of modern missions is the honor­

ing of Jesus in his birthplace, not by sanctuaries

in stone, but by provision for the education of the

young. Since 1860 there have been a number of

Protestant and Roman Catholic schools and estab­

lishments, the founding of which has spurred the

Greeks and Armenians to accomplish something

for the instruction of children belonging to their

communities. (H. GumsE.)

B133LIGGRAPHY: Robinson, Researches, vol. ii; T. Tobler, Bethlehem in Paipetina, Bern, 1849; V. Gudrin, Description de la Palestine, Judge, i. 120 eq9., Paris, 1889; Survey of Western Palestine, 14femoirs, vol. HL sheet zDB, i, 281; EB, i, 58Q b82. On the church consult M. de VogVd. Lu gGiiees do la terre saints. Paris. 1880: Quareamius. Elucidatio tarroJ aandcc, ii, 843 eqq.. Antwerp, 1839, reissued Venice, 188082; G. Ebere and H. Goths, Paldsdna in Bild and Work 2 vole., Leip_ sic, 1883 84.

BETHLEHEMITES : The name of three religious orders. (1) An association of BetJtleentitte, known only from Matthew Paris (Hilt. maj., 839), who states that they existed at Cambridge, England, about 1257 and wore the Dominican habit, with a red ,star, referring to Matt, ii, 9 10. (2) The Knights and Hospitalers of the Blessed Mary of Bethlehem (Religio militaria ac hospitalis beatce Maria Bethlemitante), founded by Pius II in 1459 to fight against the Turks. They wore a white habit with a red cross, were given the island of Lemnos as their seat, and did not survive the cap­ture of the island by the Turks in the year of their foundation. (3) More important are the Bethlehem Brothers (Fratres Bethlemitee ; Spanish, Orden de Belemitaa) of Guatemala (Central America), founded

there about 1650 by Pierre de Bethencourt and after his death (1687) under the leadership of the brothers Rodrigo and Antonio de la Cruz. Originally en­trusted only with the care of the hospital of Mary of Bethlehem in Guatemala, the order was con­firmed by Innocent XI in 1687 and given a con­stitution and dress like that of the Capuchins. Clement XI in 1707 granted them the privileges of the mendicant orders. A society of Sisters of Bethle­hem was founded in Guatemala by Anna Maria del Galdo in 1668, and both the male and femala branches spread in Mexico, Peru, and elsewhere. A secularization decree of the Spanish Cortex in 1820 suppressed both branches.

O. ZSest,>utt.

Biwaoaswruy: Heimbuoher, Order and Ronpregafionsn, i, 497 498; G. Voigt~ Enea Silvio . . ale Papal Pius, ii, 652, Berlin, 1883; Karl vom heiligen Aloye, Die ktlw­liaehe Births in ihrer pepeaobrcipen Auabraihanp, pp. 510  fill, Regensburg, 188b; Helyot, Ordreamonasliyues, iii, 347­3b7, viii, 386 eqq.; RL, ii, 640 b44 (contains list of liter­ature in Spanish).

BETHPHANY: A name sometimes given to the festival more commonly known as the Epiphany. It is a barbarous invention of the echoohnen, from the Hebrew both, "; house,"; end the Greek  phaneia, "; manifestation,"; which forms the latter part of the word Epiphany; and was intended to empha­size the miracle (in the house) at Cane in Galilee, which is the third event commemorated by the festival of the Epiphany (q.v.).


BETHUWE, be than', GEORGE WASHINGTON: Reformed (Dutch) clergyman; b. in Greenwich, now a part of New York City, Mar. 18, 1805; d. at Florence, Italy, Apr. 27, 1862. He was graduated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., 1823; studied at Princeton Seminary 1823 25; served for a year as missionary among the negroes and sailors at Savannah, Ga.; was ordained Nov., 1827, and was pastor of Reformed (Dutch) churches at Rhinebeck (1827 30) and Utica (1830 34), N. Y., Philadelphia (First Church, 1834 37; Third Church, 1837 49), and Brooklyn (1851 59); was associate minister at the Twenty first Street Church, New York, 1859 61. He was famed as a preacher and orator, as a poet, and as a wit. Of his numerous publica­tions, perhaps that of most permanent value was his edition of Walton's Complete Angler (New York, 1847; new ed., 2 vole., 1880).

Bxsnxoaswrar: A. R,. Van Nest. Memoirs of Rev. (fexpe W. Bethune, 2 vole.; New York, 1880.

BETHUNE BAgER, JAMES FRANKLIN: Church of England; b. at Birmingham Aug. 23, 1861. He was educated at Pembroke College,Cambridge (B.A., 1884), and was head master's assistant at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and assistant curate of St. George's, Edgbaston, from 1888 to 1890. In the fouowing year he was elected fellow and dean of Pembroke College, and since 1905 has also been examining chaplain to the bishop of Rochester. He has been the editor of the Journal of Theological Stuiliea since 1903, and has written The 1»fluenes of Christianity on War (Cambridge, 1888); The Sternness of Christ's Teaching (1889); The Meaning




of Homoousios in the Constantinopolitan Creed (1901); An Introduction to the Early History of Christian Doctrine (London, 1903); and Christian Doctrines and their Ethical Significance (1905).

BETKIUS, b6t'ki ta BETgE), JOACHIM: Lutheran preacher and forerunner of the Pietistic movement; b. at Berlin Oct. 8, 1601; d. at Linum, near Fehrbellin (33 m. n.w. of Berlin), Dec. 12, 1663. After finishing his course at Wittenberg, he became associate rector at Ruppin, then was for more than thirty years pastor at Linum. He wrote several theological and devotional works, by the reading of which Spener said he had profited. They contain edifying exhortations against for­getting the need of sanctification in addition to justification, but are marred by intemperate fanati­cism; Betkius holds the clergy responsible for all the anti Christian phenomena of his time, and for the divine judgments of the Thirty Years' war.

(F. `V. D1sErlus.)


BEURLIf1, bei";er lin, JAKOB: German Lu­theran theologian; b. at Dornstetten (35 m. s.w. of Stuttgart) 1520; d. at Paris Oct. 28, 1561. In Nov., 1533, he entered the university of Tiibingen. When the Reformation was introduced in 1534, he remained faithful to Catholicism, but dili­gently studied philosophy and the writings of the Church Fathers, so that his transition to the new doctrine took place quietly. In 1541 he was made governor of the Ma,rtinianum, and at the same time lectured on philosophy. In 1549 he accepted the pastorate of Derendingen near Tiibingen, and in 1551 he was called as professor to Tubingen. On June 2, 1557, he examined and signed, together with other theologians, the Confessio Wirtember­gica, which had been prepared for the Council of Trent, and in the month of August, together with Brenz's friend Johann Isenmann (q.v.), he went to Langensalza and afterward to Saxony to come to an understanding with the theologians and coun­cilors of the elector Maurice concerning the Wiirt­temberg Confession as compared with the Saxon, which bad also been prepared for the Council of Trent. In Nov., 1551, in company with Luther's former steward, Jodocus NeuhelIer, pastor at Ent­ringen, he was sent as theological adviser of the Wiirttemberg delegates to Trent, where they took notes of the disputations. On Jan. 13, 1552, both returned home, but on Mar. 7, Beurlin, Brenz, Heerbrand, and Vannius again started for Trent to oppose the erroneous decisions of the council, and to defend the Confessio Wirtembergica before it; but the council would not hear them in a public session, and they returned home. Beurlin now devoted all his time to his academic duties. He lectured on Melanchthon's Loci, the Gospel and First Epistle of John, and the Epistles to the Ro­mans sad Hebrews, and drilled the young theologians in admirably conducted disputations. In May, 1554, the duke sent him to Prussia to pacify those who had been stirred up by Osiander's teaching. He was unsuccessful, however, and, disgusted with the behavior of the factions, he declined the bishop 

ric offered to him by Duke Albert, and returned home. In the interest of his academic office he now retired in favor of Jakob Andrea, who was a more willing interpreter of the theology and ec­clesiastical policy of Brenz (q.v.). In Oct., 1557, Beurlin and his father in law, Matthaeus Alber, went to the religious conference at Worms in place of the Thuringian theologians. At the Stuttgart synod Beurlin also remained in the background, but he assisted Brenz in the de­fense of the Confeasio Wirtembergica against Peter a Soto, and his attack upon the central point of the Roman system is still worthy of consider­ation. Vice chancellor of the university after 1557, Beurlin was the leader of the Swabians at the Erfurt Conference, Apr., 1561, and was still more prominent on his last journey made in the service of the Evangelical Church. King Antony of Navarre sought both at Stuttgart and Heidelberg for a theologian to advise him in the controversy which arose in Sept., 1557, at the religious conference in Poisay between the cardinal of Guise and Beza concerning the relation of the French Protestants to the Augsburg Confession. Duke Christopher sent three theologians, Jakob Beurlin, Jakob Andrea, and Balthazar Bidembach. Before leaving, Beurlin was made chancellor of the university and provost of the Collegiate Church (Sept. 29). The theologians left Oct. 3, and arrived at Paris Oct. 19. Meanwhile the conference at Poissy had been broken off, and the theologians bad to wait till the king called them. On Oct. 24 Beurlin fell ill with the plague and died in Paris. G. BOSSERT.

BIHLIOaRAPHT: The sources are: T. Schnepffiue, J. Beuriinw rediviroua et immortaiie, T>3bingen, 1813; J V Andrea, Fama Andreana, Strasburg, 1530. Consult G. C. F. Fischlia, Memoria theoloporum Vitteberpenaium reawcitata, i, 82 87, Ulm, 1710; C. F. Rattler, Ceackichte von Wttrttem­berp unter der Regiertcnp der Herzope, Ulm, 1771; H. F. Eiaenbaeh, Beachreibung and Geechichte der $tadt and Uni­veraitdt Tiibinpsn, pp. 108  112, TUbingen, 1822; H. L. J. Hoppe. Geecluchk dea deukchen Proteetantismue. Vol. i, Marburg, 1852 59; C. von Weizs$cker, Lehrer and Unter­richt an der evanyeliach theologiachen Fakult8t . . Tie . binpen, TVbingen, 1877; C. A. Hase, Herzog Albrecht von. Prauasen and sein Hofprediper, Leipeic, 1879; G. Boseert, Die Reiae der wllrttembergiachen Theolopen nach Paris 1561, in Warttemberpisehe Vierteljahrahefte, 1899, pp. 387 412.

BEVAN, bev'an, ANTHONY ASHLEY: Church of England layman; b. at Trent Park, Barnet (11 m. n.n.w. of London), Herts, May 19, 1859. He was educated at the Gymnase littkraire, Lausanne (1877 79) and the University of Strasburg (1881­1883), and in 1884 became a member of Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was elected fellow in 1890. Since 1893 he has been Lord Almoner's reader in Arabic in the University of Cambridge. In addition to minor studies, he has written A Short Commentary on the Book of Daniel (Cambridge, 1892) and the Hymn of the Soul Contained in she Syriac Acts of St. Thomas, Reedited xirith an English Translation, in Cambridge Tents and Studies, v (i89?).

BEVAN, LLEWELYA DAVID: Congregation­alist; b. at Llanelly (15 m. d.e. of Carmarthen), Carmarthenshire, Wales, Sept. 11, 1842. He




studied at New College, London (B. A., University of London, 1881; LL.B., 1866), and after being assistant minister to Thomas Binnvy (q.v.) at the King's Weigh House Chapel, London (1865 69), held pastorates at Tottenham Court Road Chapel, London (1869 76), the Brick Presbyterian Church, New York City (1876 82), and Highbury Quad­rant Church, London (1882 86). Since 1886 he has been pastor of the Collies Street Congrega­tional Church, Melbourne, Victoria. While in England, he was associated with F. D. Maurice (q.v.) in the Workingmen's College, London, and was for several years a professor in New College.

BEVERIDGE, WILLIAM: Bishop of St. Asaph; b. at Barrow (8 m. n. of Leicester), and baptized there Feb. 21, 1637; d. in London Mar. 5, 1708. He was educated at Cambridge; was rector of Ealing, a west suburb of London, 1661 ?2; of St. Peter's, Cornhill, London, 1672 1704, when he became bishop. In his day he was styled "; the great reviver and restorer of primitive piety "; because in his much admired sermons and other writings he dwelt so affectionately upon the Church of the early centuries. His collected works (in­complete) are in the Library of Anglo Catholic Theology in 12 vole. (Oxford, 1842  48) and embrace six volumes of sermons; The Doctrine of the Church of England Consonant to Sertloture, Reason, and the Fathers: A Complete System of Divinity (2 vole.); Codex canoxtcm ecclesi.m prlmitivce trindicatus ac illustrates, with the appendices, I. Prolegomena in .1ovoJrKdv, sine paxdectas canoreum ; and' II. Prce­fatio ad annotationea in canonea aposcoliooa (2 vole.); and the still read Private Thoughts on Religion, and Church Catechism Explained. His I restitutionum chronotogicarum h7mi duo, nets cum totidem arithmdicea chranotogico libellis (London, I6G9) was once an admired treatise on chronology.  

BaL:oeswexr: T. H. Horse, Memoir o) the Life and Wri­tinfle of iV. Beveridge. London, 1824, also prefixed to his works in the Library of AmpIo Cafholic Theology, ut sup.; DNB, iv, 447 448.

BEYER, barer, HARTMtR,Blf : Reformation preacher of Frankfort, where he was born Sept. 30, 1516, and died Aug. 11, 1577. In 1534 he went to Wittenberg as student of philosophy and theology, and received the master's degree there in 1539 and became private teacher of mathematics. He, re­turned to his native city as preacher in 1548. The Reformation, introduced in Frankfort in 1522 by Hartmann Ibaeh, had been carried on in the earlier years by compulsion and rash seal on the part of its adherents, and in later time was marked by doctrinal controversies between the Lutheran and Reformed tendencies. Beyer came with the determination to win the victory for Lutheranism, and to his activity was it due that by 1554 a com­pact Lutheran congregation stood opposed to all insinuations of Calvinism, while the earlier demo­cratic and radical tendencies had been suppressed. In the year named, three congregations of Protes­tants from the Netherlands, who had first taken refuge in England but fled that country after the accession of Mary, came to Frankfort under the lead of Velerandus Polanus and Johannes a Lasso



(qq.v.), bringing with them a Reformed creed and Reformed practises. Beyer was the soul of an opposition which induced the city council to de­prive them of the church they had used for worship in 1561. In 1596 even the right of holding services privately was forbidden.

The success of the emperor in the Schmalkald war and the promulgation of the Augsburg Interim (May, 1548) brought the Frankfort Reformers face to face with dangers which for the time quieted doctrinal disputes. The council accepted the interim cautiously, but its attempts to forbid preaching against the new law and against Roman teachings and practises, to reestablish church festivals, to prohibit the eating of meat on fast­days, and like measures met with determined and courageous resistance from Beyer and his col­leagues. The former repeatedly expressed his con­viction that church ordinances could be established only with the consent of the congregation. The struggle went on till 1577, but the preachers gained the victory.

Beyer issued two pseudonymous writings against

the Roman Catholics in 1551 and while in Witten­

berg prepared a treatise on mathematics. His

sermons are preserved in forty nine volumes in

manuscript in Frankfort. They are marked by a

beauty and force of language which make them

powerful even to day. (G. E. STEITZt.)

BisLrooaw:s:: d. E. 8teits, Der tutherischs PrOdikant,

Hartmann Beyer, Frankfort, 1862.

BEYSCBZAG, bai'sH28a, WILLIBALD : Ger­man Protestant; b. at Frankfort Sept. 5, 1823; d. at Halls Nov. 26, 1900. He studied at Bonn and Berlin 1840 44; became vicar at Coblenz 1849; assistant pastor and religious teacher at Treves 1850; court preacher at Carlsruhe 1856; ordinary professor of theology at Halls 1860; and after 1876 editor of the Deutsche Evangetische Bldtter, as organ. of the so called Mittelfxirtei, whose leader he was till the end of his life. To oppose the ultramontane aggressions in Germany, he founded in 1886 the EtxirigClidCht9' Bte7ed (am BLIND, EVwNGELl$CRER). Of his very numerous writings, besides sermons, the following are worthy of mention: Die Chria­Lologie des Netten Testaments (Berlin, 1866); Die pau­liniache Theodieee Rom. ix xi. (Berlin, 1868, 2d ed., 1895); Die chriatliehe Gemeindeverfassung im Zeitalxer des Nettett Testaments (Haarlem, 1874); Zur Johanneiacheta Frage (Goths, 1876); the biog­raphies of his brother, F. W. T. Beyschlag (Aus dem Leben einea Friihvollendetetl, 2 parts, Berlin, 1858 59, 6th ed., 1889), of Carl Ullmann (Goths, 1867), of Carl Immanuel Nitzsch (Halls, 1872, 2d ed., 1882), and of Albrecht Wolters (1880); Zur deutachchriatiiche» Bildung (1880, 2d ed., 1899); Daa Leben Jesu (2 vole., Halls, 1885 86, 4th ed., 1902); Der Frieden8achlusa sterische>t Deutschland and Rom (Halls, 1887); Reeten in der Erfurter Yor­Conferenz des evartgeliachen Bundea (1888); Godo­fred, sin Mdrchen fiira deutsche Haul (1888); Leather's Hauaatand in select reformatorischxn Bedeutureg (Barmen, 1888); Die Reformation in Ilalien (1888); Die rmniach katholischert AnaPruche an die preuaaiache Yolksschule (1889); Zur Yerstdn 


digung vber den christlichen Yorsehungaglauben (Halls, 1889); Erkenntnisspfade zu Christo (1889); Die evangelische Kirche als Bundeagenoasin wider die Socialdemokratie (Berlin, 1890); Neuteatament­liche Theologie (2 vole., 1891 92, 2d ed., 1896; Eng. transl., New Testament Theology, 2 vols., Ed­inburgh, 1895, 2d ed., 1896); Christenlehre (Halls, 3d ed., 1903).

BIHLIOdRAPHY: Consult his autobiography, Aua meiaem Lebsn, 2 vole., Halls, 1898 98; K. H. Pahnoke, WilLibald

Beyachlap, sin Gedenkbtatt, Tiibingen, 1906.


Early Life ($ 1). Teacher at Lausanne (¢ 2). Journeys in behalf of the Protestants (¢ 3). Settles in Geneva (¢ 4). Events of 1580 63 (¢ 5). Calvin's Successor (16). Course of Events after 1684 (§ T). The Colloquy of Milmpelgart (§ 8). Lest Days (¢ 9). Humanistic and Historical writings (¢ 10). Theological works (§ 11). Besa's Greek New Testament (§ 12).

Theodore Beza (Theodore de Nze or de Besze), Genevan Reformer, was born at Vkzelay (8 m. w.s.w. of Avallon), in Burgundy, June 24, 1519; d. at Ge­neva Oct.13, 1605. His father, Pierre de Bt3ze, royal governor of V6zelay, descended from a Burgundian family of distinction; his mother, Marie Bourdelot, was known for her generosity. Theodore's father had two brothers; one, Nicholas, was member of Parliament at Paris; the other, Claude, was abbot of the Cistercian monastery Froimont in the dio­cese of Beauvais. Nicholas, who was

z. Early unmarried, on a visit to V6zelay was

Life. so pleased with Theodore that, with

the permission of the parents, he took

him to Paris to educate him there. From Paris

Theodore was sent to Orleans (Dec., 1528) to enjoy

the instruction of the famous German teacher

Melchior wolmar. He was received into wohnar's

house, and the day on which this took place

was afterward celebrated as a second birthday.

Young Beza soon followed his teacher to Bourges,

whither the latter was called by the duchess Mar­

garet of Angoul6me, sister of Francis I. Bourgea

was one of the places in France in which the heart

of the Reformation beat the strongest. When, in

1534, Francis I issued his edict against ecclesias­

tical innovations, wolmar returned to Germany,

and, in accordance with the wish of his father,

Beza went back to OrIE`ana.to study law, and spent

four years there (1535 39). This pursuit had little ',

attraction for him; he enjoyed more the reading of

the ancient classics, especially Ovid, Catullus, and

Tibullus. He received the degree of licentiate in

law Aug. ll, 1539, and, as his father desired, went

to Paris, where he began practise. His relatives

had obtained for him two benefices, the proceeds

of which amounted to 700 golden crowns a year; and

his untie had promised to make him his successor.

Beza spent two happy years at Paris and soon gained a prominent position in literary circles. To escape the many temptations to which he was exposed, with the knowledge of two friends, he became engaged in the year 1544 to a young girl of humble descent, Claudine Denoese, promising to

make this engagement public as soon as his circum­stances would allow it. He published a collection of Latin poems, Juvenilia, which made him famous, and he was everywhere considered one of the beat Latin poets of his time. But he fell ill and his distress of body revealed to him his spiritual needs. Gradually he came to the knowledge of salvation in Christ, which he apprehended with a joyous faith. He then resolved to sever his connections of the time, and went to Geneva, the French city of refuge for the Evangelicals, where he arrived with Claudine Oct. 23, 1548.

He was heartily received by Calvin, who had

met him already in wolmar's house, and was at

once publicly and solemnly married in the church.

Beza was at a lose for immediate occupation, so

he went to Tilbingen to see his former teacher

wohnar. On his way home he visited Viret

at Lausanne, who at once detained

s. Teacher him and brought about his appoint­

at Lausanne. went as professor of Greek at the

academy there (Nov., 1549). In spite

of the arduous work which fell to his lot, Beza

found time to write a Biblical drama, Abraham

Sacrifeant (published at Geneva, 1550; Eng.

transl. by Arthur Golding, London, 1577, ed.,

with introduction, notes, and the French text of

the original, M. w. Wallace, Toronto, 1906), in

which he contrasted Catholiciatn with Protes­

tantism, and the work was well received. In June,

1551, he added a few psalms to the French version

of the Psalms begun by Marot, which was also very

successful. About the same time he published his

Passavantius, a satire directed against Pierre Lizet of

ill repute, formerly president of the Parliament of

Paris, and principal originator of the "; fiery cham­

ber "; (chambre ardente), who, being at the time

(1551) abbot of St. Victor near Paris, was eager

to acquire the fame of a subduer of heresy by pub­

lishing a number of polemical writings. Of a more

serious character were two controversies in which

Beza was involved at this time. The first con­

cerned the doctrine of predestination and the con­

troversy of Calvin with Bolaec (see CALVIN, JoaN;

BOIBEC, J19RBME H>;xnsI:s). The second referred

to the burning of Michael Servetue (q.v.) at

Geneva Oct. 27, 1553. In defense of Calvin and

the Genevan magistrates, Beza published in 1554

the work De heereticia a civili magiatratu puniendis

(translated into French in 1560).

In 1557 Beza took a special interest in the wal­denaians of Piedmont, who were harassed by the French government, and in their behalf went with Farel to Bern, Zurich, Basel, Schaffhausen, thence to Strasburg, Mtimpelgart, Baden, and GiSppingen. In Baden and GSppingen, Beza and Farel had to declare themselves concerning their own 3. Journeys and the waldensiana' views on the in behalf of sacrament, and on May 14, 1557, they the Protes  presented a written declaration is tents. which they clearly stated their posi­tion. This declaration was well received by the Lutheran theologians, but was strongly disapproved in Bern and Zurich. In the au­tumn of 1557 Beza undertook a second journey with Farel to worms by way of Strasburg to bring


about an intercession of the Evangelical princes of the empire in favor of the persecuted brethren at Paris. With Melanchthon and other theologians then assembled at Worms, Beza considered a union of all Protestant Christians, but this proposal was decidedly negatived by Zurich and Bern. False reports having reached the German princes that the hostilities against the Huguenots in France had ceased, no embassy was sent to the court of France, and Beza undertook another journey in the interest of the Huguenots, going with Farel, Johannes Bud­daeus, and Gaspard Carmel to Strasburg and Frank­fort, where the sending of an embassy to Paris was resolved upon.

Upon his return to Lausanne, Bess, was greatly disturbed. In union with many ministers and professors in city and country, Viret at last thought of establishing a consistory and of introducing a church discipline which should infiiCt excommu­nication especially at the celebration of the com­munion. But the Bernese would have no Cal­vinistic church government. This caused many difficulties, and Beza thought it best 4. Settles in (1558) to settle at Geneva. Here

Geneva. he occupied at first the chair of

Greek in the newly established acad­

emy, and after Calvin's death also that of theology;

besides this he was obliged to preach. He com­

pleted the revision of Olivetan's translation of the

New Testament, begun some years before. In 1559

he undertook another journey in the interest of

the Huguenots, this time to Heidelberg; about the

same time he had to defend Calvin against Joachim

Westphal in Hamburg and Tileman Hesshusen

(qq.v.). More important than this polemical activ­

ity was Beza's statement of his own confession. It

was originally prepared for his father in justifica­

tion of his course and published in revised form

to promote Evangelical knowledge among Beza's

countrymen. It was printed in Latin in 1560 with

a dedication to Wohnar. An English translation

was published at London 1563, 1572, and 1585.

Translations into German, Dutch, and Italian

were also issued.

In the mean time things took such shape in France that the happiest future for Protestantism seemed possible. King Antony of Navarre, yield­ing to the urgent requestsof Evangelical noblemen, declared his willingness to listen to a prominent teacher of the Church. Beza, a French nobleman and head of the academy in the metropolis of French Protestantism, was invited to Castle Ndrac, but he could not plant the seed of Evangelical faith in the heart of the king. In the year following (1561) Beza represented the Evangelicals at the Colloquy of Poissy (q.v.), and in an eloquent manner defended the principles of the Evangelical faith. g. Events of The colloquy was without result,

:560 63. but Beza as the head and advocate of

all Reformed congregations of France

was revered and hated at the same time. The

queen insisted upon another colloquy, which was

opened at St. Germain Jan. 28, 1562, eleven days

after the proclamation of the famous January edict

which granted important privileges to those of the

Reformed faith. But the colloquy was broken off

when it became evident that the Catholic party was preparing (after the massacre of Vassy, Mar. 1) to overthrow Protestantism. Beza hastily issued a circular letter (Mar. 25) to all Reformed congregar tions of the empire, and with Condo and his troops went to Orleans. It was necessary to proceed quickly and energetically. But there were neither soldiers nor money. At the request of Condo, Beza visited all Huguenot cities to obtain both. He also wrote amauifesto inwhich he showed the justice of the Reformed cause. As one of the messengers to collect soldiers and money among his coreligionists, Beza was appointed to visit England, Germany, and Switzerland. He went to Strasburg and Basel, but met with failure. He then returned to Geneva, which he reached Sept. 4. He had hardly been there fourteen days when he was called once more to Orleans by D'Andelot. The campaign was be­coming more successful; but the publication of the unfortunate edict of pacification which Condo accepted (Mar. 12,1563) filled Beza and all Protes­tant France with horror.

For twenty two months Bess, had been absent from Geneva, and the interests of school and Church there and especially the condition of Calvin made it necessary for him to return. For there was no one to take the place of Calvin, who was sick and unable longer to bear the burden resting on him. Calvin and Beza arranged to perform their duties jointly in alternate weeks, but the death of Calvin occurred soon afterward (May 27, 6. Calvin's 1564). As a matter of purse Beza was

Successor. his successor. Until 1580 Beza was

not only modkrateur de la eompagnie

den pasteurs, but also the real soul of the great

institution of learning at Geneva which Calvin had

founded in 1559, consisting of a gymnasium and

an academy. As long as be lived, Beza was inter­

ested in higher education. The Protestant youth

for nearly forty years thronged his lecture room to

hear his theological lectures, in which he expounded

the purest Calvinistic orthodoxy. As a counselor

he was listened to by both magistrates and pastors.

Geneva is indebted to him for the founding of a

law school in which Franpois Hotman, Jules Pacius,

and Denys Godefroy, the most eminent jurists of

the century, lectured in turn (cf. Charles Borgeaud,

L'Acadftie de Calvin, Geneva, 1900).

As Calvin's successor, Beza was very successful, not only in carrying on his work but also in giving peace to the Church at Geneva. The magistrates had fully appropriated the ideas of Calvin, and the direction of spiritual affairs, the organs of which were the "; ministers of the word "; and "; the oon­eistory,"; was founded on a solid basis. No doctrinal controversy arose after 1564. The discussions concerned questions of a practical, social, or eccle­siastical nature, such as the supremacy of the magietrates over the pastors, freedom in preaching, and the obligation of the pastors to rub­y. Course of mit to the majority of the campagnie Events after des ;oaateura. Beza obtruded his will in

1564. no way upon his associates, and took

no harsh measures against injudicious

or hot headed colleagues, thoughsometimes he took

their cans in hand and acted as mediator; and yet he





often experienced an opposition so extreme that he threatened to resign. Although he was in­clined to take the part of the magistrates, he knew how to defend the rights and independ­ence of the spiritual power when occasion arose, without, however, conceding to it such a pre­ponderating influence as did Calvin. His ac­tivity was great. He mediated between the com­pagnie and the magistracy; the latter continually asked his advice even in political questions. He corresponded with all the leaders of the Reformed party in Europe. After the massacre of St. Bar­tholomew (1572), he used his influence to give to the refugees a hospitable reception at Geneva. About this time he wrote his De jure magistratuum, in which he emphatically protested against tyranny in religious matters, and affirmed that it is legiti­mate for a people to oppose an unworthy magis­tracy in a practical manner and if necessary to use weapons anddeposethem. Tosumup: Withoutbe­ing a great dogmatician like his master, nor a crea­tive genius in the ecclesiastical realm, Bess, had quali­ties which made him famous as humanist, exegete, orator, and leader in religious and ;political affairs, and qualified him to be the guide of the Calvinists in all Europe. In the various controversies into which he was drawn, Beza often showed an excess of irritation and intolerance, from which Bernar­dino Ochino, pastor of the Italian congregation at Zurich (on account of a treatise which contained some objectionable points on polygamy), and Sebastian Castellio at Bawl (on account of his Latin and French translations of the Bible) had especially to suffer. With Reformed France Beza continued to maintain the closest relations. He was the moderator of the general synod which met in April, 1571, at La Rochelle and decided not to abolish church discipline or to acknowledge the civil government as head of the Church, as the Paris minister Jean Morel and the philosopher Pierre Ramua demanded; it also decided to con­firm anew the Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper (by the expression: "; substance of the body of Christ ";) against Zwinglianism, which caused a very unpleasant discussion between Beza and Ramus and Bullinger. In the following year (May, 1572) he took an important part in the na­tional synod at Nimes. He was also interested in the controversies which concerned the Augsburg Confession in Germany, especially after 1564, on the doctrine of the person of Christ and the sacra­ment, and published several works against West­phal, Hesshusen, Selnecker, Johann Brenz, and Jakob Andrea. This made him, especially after 15?l, hated by all those who adhered to Luther­anism in opposition to Melanchthon.

The last polemical conflict of important Beza encountered from the exclusive Lutherans was at the Colloquy of Miimpelgart (q.v.), Mar. 14 27, 1586, to which he had been invited by the Lutheran Count Frederick of Wiirttemberg at the wish of the French noblemen who had fled to Mumpelgart. As a matter of course the intended union which was the purpose of the colloquy was not brought about; nevertheless it called forth serious develop­ments within the Reformed Church. When the

edition of the acts of the colloquy, as prepared by J. Andrea, was published, Samuel Huber, of Burg near Bern, who belonged to the

8. The Col  Lutheranizing faction of the Swiss

loquy of clergy, took so great offense at the

lsiimpel  supralapsarian doctrine of predesti 

gart. nation propounded at Miimpelgart

by Beza and Musculus that he felt

it to be his duty to denounce Musculua to the

magistrates of Bern as as innovator in doctrine.

To adjust the matter, the magistrates arranged a

colloquy between Huber and Musculus (Sept. 2,

1587), in which the former represented the uni­

versalism, the latter the particularism, of grace.

As the colloquy was resultless, a debate was ar­

ranged at Bern, Apr. 15 18, 1588, at which the

defense of the accepted system of doctrine was

at the start put into Beza's hands. The three

delegates of the Helvetic cantons who presided at

the debate declared in the end that Bess, had

substantiated the teaching propounded at Miim­

pelgart as the orthodox one, and Huber was dis­

missed from his office.

After that time Bess's activity was confined more and more to the affairs of his home. His faithful wife Claudine had died childless in 1588, a few days before he went to the Bern Disputation. Forty years they had lived happily

g. Last together. He contracted, on the ad 

Days. vice of his friends, a second marriage

with Catherine del Piano, a Genoese

widow, in order to have a helpmate in his declining

years. Up to his sixty fifth year he enjoyed ex­

cellent health, but after that a gradual sinking

of his vitality became perceptible. He was active

in teaching till Jas., 1597. The saddest experience

in his old days was the conversion of King Henry I V

to Roman Catholicism, in spite of his most earnest

exhortations (1593). Strange to say, in 1596 the

report was spread by the Jesuits is Germany,

France, England, and Italy that Beza and the

Church of Geneva had returned into the bosom of

Rome, and Beza replied in a satire that revealed

the possession still of his old fire of thought and

vigor of eapreasion. He was not buried, like

Calvin, in the general cemetery, Plain Palms (for

the 8avoyards had threatened to abduct his body

to Rome), but at the direction of the magistrates,

in the monastery of St. Pierre.

In Beza's literary activity as well as in his life, distinction must be made between the period of the humanist (which ended with the publication of his Juvenilia) and that of the ecclesiastic. But later productions like the humanistic, biting, :o. Human  satirical Passavantius and his Cotn 

istie sad plaints de Messire Pierre Lizet . . .

Historical prove that in later years he occasion 

Writinge, ally went back to his first love. In

his old age he published his Cato

cenaorius (1591), and revised his Poemata, from

which he purged ~ juvenile eccentricities. Of his

historiographical works, aside from his Icones (i580),

which have only an iconographical value, mention

may be made of the famous Histoire eccl6aiastique

des  4glises  4forWea au Royaume de France (1580),

and his biography of Calvin, with which must be


named his edition of Calvin's Epittoka et response (1575).

But all these humanistic and historical studies ire surpassed by his theological productions (con­tained in Tractationes theologicca). In these Bess,

appears the perfect pupil or the alter

rr. Theo  ego of Calvin. His view of life is logical deterministic and the basis of his Works. religious thinking is the predestinate

recognition of the necessity of all tem­poral existence as an effect of the absolute, eternal, and immutable will of God, so that even the fall of the human race appears to him essential to the divine plan of the world. In most lucid manner Beza shows in tabular form the connection of the religious views which emanated from thin fundamental supralapsarian mode of thought. This he added to his highly instructive treatise Summa totius Christianismi.

Of no less importance are the contributions of Beza to Biblical science. In 1565 he issued an edition of the Greek New Testament, accompanied in parallel columns by the text of the Vulgate and a translation of his own (already published as early as 1556). Annotations were added, also previ­ously published, but now he greatly enriched and

enlarged them. In the preparation of

ra. Beza's this edition of the Greek text, but much Greek New more in the preparation of the second Testament. edition which he brought out in 1582,

Beza may have availed himself of the

help of two very valuable manuscripts. One is

known as the Codex Bezes or Cantabrigenazs, and

was later presented by Beza to the University of

Cambridge; the send is the Codex Claromontanus,

which Beza had found in Clermont (now in the

National Library at Paris). It was not, however,

to these sources that Beza was chiefly indebted,

but rather to the previous edition of the eminent

Robert Stephens (1550), itself based in great meas­

ure upon one of the later editions of Erasmus.

Beza's labors in this direction were exceedingly

helpful to those who came after. The same thing

lriay be asserted with equal truth of his Latin

version and of the copious notes with which it was

accompanied. The former is said to have been

published over a hundred times. It is to be re­

gretted that the author's view of the doctrine of

predestination exercised upon the interpretation

of Scripture too preponderating an influence.

However, there is no question that Beza added

much to a clear understanding of. the New Testa­

ment. EU(ikNE CH()18y.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. w. Baum, T. Beta aQCh halldeChT6ftf6fh6n and anderenpleiehzsitipen tZuelZen, LeiPeia. 1843 52 (mas­terly, but extends only to 1b83); his life by Heppe is in vol. vi of Le6en and auapewttAite Sehriften der Vbter der Te/ormierten Ifirehe, Elberfeld 1881 (complete and excel­lent, inferior only to Baum); A. de is Faye, De vita et obitu T. Bum, Geneva, 1808 (by a favorite pupil of Bose);

Jdr6me Bolaee, Xistoire de la vie, maws, doctrine et d!­bordementa de T. de Base. Paris. 1582. republished Geneva, 1835 (Roman Catholic, a scurrilous and malignant libel); F. C. Schlosser, Lebsn des Theodor Beta and dea Pacer Martyr Vermipli. HeidelberR, 1809: E. and ~. Hang. La France proteatante. 2d ed. by Bordier, ii. b2(hb40. Paris, 1879; H. M. McCracken, Lives of the Leaders of Our Church Universal, from the Germ. of F. Piper, pp. 352  382, Philadelphia. 1879: Schaff, Christian Church, vol. vii. Pee­IL 6

aim, especially chap six; Mueller, Christian Church, wol. iii, passim; C. v. Prooadij, T. Besa medsarbeiter en opvol­ger van Calvijn. Leyden, 1895; H. M. Baud; Theodore Bexa, the Counaellar o/ the French Reformation, New York, 1899 (the one book in English, and s worthy treatment of the subject), cf. his Rise of the Huguenots, passim, ib. 1879; A. Bernus, T. do Bdse d Lausanne, Lausanne, 1900; E. Choisy, L1*tat chretien calviniate d Genwe au tamps do T. do Bhze. Geneva, 1902: Cambridge Modern History, vol. ii, The Reformation, prim, vol. iii, London, 1904; A Theodore de Bpze (1806 1906). Geneva, 1908.


German Orientalist; b. at Donauwiirth (25 m. n.n.w. of Augsburg), Bavaria, May 18, 1859. He was educated at the universities of Munich (1876 79), Leipaic (1879 80; Ph.D., 1881), and Strasburg (1881), and became privet docent at Munich in 1883. He continued his studies at Rome in the spring of 1884 and at London in the summer of 1882 and 1887, while from 1888 to 1894 he was employed in the British Museum. Since the latter year he has been professor of Oriental philology and director of the Oriental seminar at the Uni­versity of Heidelberg. ):n 1884 he founded, at Leipaic, the Zeitschrift fur' Keilschriftforachung, which was continued in the following year as the Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie, sad which he has edited to the present time. He likewise edited the second edition of C. F. A. Dilimann's Gram matik der tlthiopischen Sprache (Leipsic,1899) and the Orienta­liache Studien in honor of the seventieth birthday of T. Nbldeke (2 vole., Giessen, 1906), and was the founder and editor of the Semitistische Studixn (Berlin, 1894 sqq.). In 1904 he became one of the editors of the Archiv fur Religionaurisaenachaft. He has also written Die groast: Dariuainschrift am Felaen van Behistun (Leipsie, 1881); Die Aehlimxni­tlertinsehriften (1882); Die Sehatxhohle, syriach and deutach (2 vole., 1883 88); The Ordinary Canon of the Mass according to the Use of the Coptic Church,

in C. A. Swainson's Greek Liturgies (London, 1884);

Kurzgefasster Ue6erblick fiber die babyloniscit aa­syrisehe Literatur (Leipsie, 1886); Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets an the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum (5 vole., London, 1889 99); The Tell el Arnarna Tablets in the British Museum (1892); Oriental Diplomacy (1893); Ninive and Babylon (Bielefeld, 1903); Die babylonisch 8yrischen Keilinsch*iften and ihre Bedeutung fiirdaa Alte Testa­ment (Tiibingen, 1904); Babyloniach Asayriaehe Texts uberaetzt : i. Die Sch6plung8legende (Bonn, IM); and Kebra Nagast, die Herrlichkeit tier Kiinige (Ethiopic text and German translation, Munich, 1905).

BL?1ftCHI1PI, bf";an ld'ni (BLAftCHINUS), GIU­SEPPE: Italian Biblical scholar; b. at Verona Sept. 9, 1704; d. after 1760. He was a member of the Congregation of the Oratory, and the author of two works beating on the history of the Itala: Psalterium duplex juxta antiquam italica  ver­simtem (Rome, 1740) and Eroangaliarium qua­dru)ulez Lalinte veraionis antique aeu txteris Italics (2 vole., 1749). The detailed statements in the first volume are valuable, but the text is inferior to Sabatier's Bibliorum aacrorum latinm roersiortia antique (Reims, 1739 sqq.). The second, con­taining some older ood:ces, supplements Sabatier. K. BENxe'rs.




The Bible is the Early Church (¢ 1).

In the Middle Ages and Reformation Period (§ 2).

Modem Views and Criticism (¢ 3).

Wherein the Bible is Unique (5 4).

The word "; Bible "; (from Gk. bi6lia, "; books ";) or "; Holy Scripture"; is the customary term in Church and theology for the ecclesiastically ac­knowledged collection of the Old and the New Testament writings. As the writings of the Old Testament canon are indicated in the New Testa­ment by the term "; The Scriptures"; or "; The Scripture,"; so in the Middle Ages the whole was designated by "; The Books."; By a misunder­standing of the Greek form, the word was received into the modern languages as a singular of feminine gender.

The separation of these writings from all other literature as "; the Book of Books "; is derived from the practise of Jesus, who, with his contem­poraries, acknowledged the authority of the Old Testament literature (M. Kashler, Jeans and das Alts Testament, Leipaic, 1895). The Old Testa­ment was conveyed, in the Greek translation of the Septuagint, as the Word of God, to the Gentile Chris­tians by the followers of Jesus. At the latest in the beginning of the third century, the New :. The Bible Testament canon was added to the Old in the Early Testament, as is witnessed by the Syr 

Church. iac version (see CnxoN OF ScRIrrURE).

And from that time the bipartite col­

lection was always treated as a whole, although the

uncertainty about some books (the so called Anti­

legomena) was not forgotten during the Middle Ages,

was recognized by Luther and other Reformers,

and was treated from a dogmatic standpoint

by Martin Chemnitz (Examen concilii Tridentini,

Frankfort, 1598). The controversy about the Old

Testament Apocrypha has never been settled.

What esteem the Bible enjoyed in the ancient

catholic Church is seen from its controlling position

in divine service, in the reading of Scripture, and in

the delivery of sermons founded on it, but especially

from the labor spent in translating it (see BIBLE


It must not be imagined that the Middle Ages did not rightly appreciate the Bible. It is necessary to take into account the great difficulties which confronted the Church at that time in forming an ecclesiastical language, sad even a literary lan­guage, for the Germanic and Slavic nations. In the absence of modern philology the efforts made are worthy of acknowledgment. The

2. In the hierarchical development of the Church

Middle tended to paralyze it by enforcing Ages and uniformity in use of the church lan­162eforma  guage at the expense of intelligibility, lion Period. and in the interest of an easier man­agement put the "; heretical book "; into the keeping of the ecclesiastical magistracy. But the Reformation introduced a new epoch of wide propagation and appreciation of the Bible. The efforts of the Reformers to make this book accessible to all Christians were taken up by Pietism under Spener; the founding of the Canstein Bible Institute (see BIBLE Socnerns, II, 1; CsxsxEZrr,


KexL HILDERRAND, BARON OF) and the sending out of the first missionaries opened the double way by which the Bible, especially in the nineteenth cen­tury, has obtained its commanding position in the world; knowledge of the Bible has been spread by the Bible Societies (q.v.) through hundreds of new translations (a work in which Englishmen and Scotchmen, well read in the Scriptures, have dis­tinguished themselves). The Bible has become in the fullest sense the people's book in all Prot­estant countries of the Old World, and the same process is being repeated among the non Christian nations, to which missionary cooperation gives the Bible sad with it often also an alphabet and a literary language.

This zeal for the propagation of the Bible has its root in the unique importance which the theology of the Reformation ascribes to it. In opposition to the ecclesiastical position of Rome, the Evan­gelicals developed their doctrine of the "; norma­tive or decisive authority of Scripture"; on the basis of the unoontrovel'ted character of the Scripture as revelation. This high regard has as its founda­tion the doctrine of "; verbal inspiration "; (see INSPIRATION), which ascribes to the Bible all requisite qualities, such as "; perfection "; in com­municating the "; knowledge necessary for salva­tion,"; "; transparency,"; and the "; power of inter­preting itself by itself."; Unobserved, the body of pure doctrine, by the help of which the renewal of evangelical activity had been accomplished, became transformed into a set of doctrines which were mechanically combined, regardless of their historical origin. In opposition to the adulterated tradition of Rome, Protestantism 3. Modern could happily refer to the bulwark Views and of Scripture, in which Roman Catho 

Criticism. lice also acknowledged divine reve­

lation. But evangelical theology first

succumbed to the attack which the "; Enlighten­

ment "; (Au fklarung), about the middle of the eight­

eenth century, made upon all history and tradi­

tion and especially upon historical revelation. In

vain the effort was made to prove dogmatically

the immediate divine origin of the Bible letter,

while proof was also given in an ever cogent man­

ner .hat the Bible is a production of human

authorship and tradition. This crisis was. gradu­

ally overcome by the victory gained for the

"; historico critical "; method of treating the Bible,

but the right of historical revelation was estab­

lished over against "; natural morality and re­

ligion:' As in earlier times historical development

within the Bible was now and then perceived

(e.g., by Cocceius and Bengel), so now students

see in its writings documents of divine revelation

which entered into the human world as historical

facts (so the Erlangen School). Only one group

of theologians of the nineteenth century (e.g.,

Hengstenberg and Rudelbach) went back again to

the old doctrine of verbal inspiration; most investi­

gators assumed a new attitude toward Scripture.

Documents to have value moat be shown to be an­

cient and to be derived from a time near the events

they relate; there must be testimony to their genu­

ineness and credibility. But such merely histor 


lest consideration of the Bible proved insufficient and dangerous in the next period. "; Liberal the­ology, endowed with technical skill,"; showed error in Biblical tradition from a critical point of view, and in place of the Biblical evidences it substi­tuted conjecturally the details of a natural history of religion, which it composed after the Hegelian formula to the effect that in the "; historical revela­tion "; there is to be seen the development of a religious idea, an act in the drama of the natural development of humanity (so F. C. Baur, E. Reuse, and Wellhausen). The results of this mod­ern criticism were propagated among the people through the press and by pamphlets in a wild confusion along with the older, would be enlight­ening defamations of the Bible (so by Reimarus, Venturini, and Bahrdt). Over against this sprang up a comprehensive literature which sought to gain those who were estranged from the Bible and to reassure disquieted readers. It was based on an acknowledgment of the part the revelation of God has played in the education of the race, and in a scientific manner discarded the unjustified con­clusions of the so called constructive criticism, at least as far as the New Testament is concerned. In this intellectual battle it became evident that the estimate of the Bible stands in an indissolubly reciprocal relation to the position tan toward positive Christianity in general.

It is therefore absolutely necessary (especially for the ministry and for ecclesiastical instruction) to have a clear insight into that which makes our Bible the unique "; Book of Books."; This is ob­tained by observing what it is that has given the Bible its historical position. Throughout the whole course of its working in the human race the Bible appears only in close connection with the Church, the essential activity of which, according to the Augsburg Confession (vii), is the preaching of ";the Word."; The common object of both is to convey the revelation of the living God. Whoever has become a believer in the Gospel and recalls his experience perceives also that the service of the Church by which he was led to it was inspired by the Bible, and further observation of life and history teaches that the efficacy of the work of the Church is dependent on the use it makes of the Bible. For only in the Scripture is found the unchangeable and therefore authoritative form of 4. Wherein preaching which first induced faith the Bible is in Christ and continues so to do. On

Unique. the other hand, the Christian also

recognizes that his personal relation

to the Bible is due to the "; living voice of the Gos­

pel "; and that through the Church he comes into

personal relation with the Bible. He understands

also that the Bible is the book of the Church (so

Luther), but not a text book or devotions] book

which in all its parts is immediately useful to the

individual Christian. In it are found productions

which are far remote from one another in date,

which originally were intended for entirely different

circles with quite peculiar wants. On this account

only the cooperation of different gifts and the dili­

gence of generations working on a scientific basis

can bring out its full content. Under the assump 

tion of this service of the Church each living Chris­tian has the possibility of coming thus through his Bible into immediate touch with the historical revelation of his God from the promise of the cove­nant to the beginning of the mission to the Gentiles. While histories] inquiry establishes the historical continuation, and divides the whole Bible into single histories,] accounts and documents, the view of most Bible readers is directed only to the Bible as a whole, and seeks in every fragment a word of God applicable to immediate questions and wants. These divergent interests must be united by observ­ing that the individual parts, by being compre­hended as "; the Bible,"; receive a new worth, and that in this very form they obtain an imperishable, effective continuity, instead of being merely indi­vidual monuments of past times. The collection is not an accidental one, but transcribes in char­acteristic features the life of the human race zis it developed under the influence of the history of revelation. To him therefore who sees in reliance on God the stay of human life, the Bible will also be the book of the human race. For Christian belief the Bible appears thus as the great fact in which God has inseparably interwoven the faith awakening knowledge of his revelation with the history of the human race, and in it is discerned the clear testimony to the goal of the human race and the conquering offer of God's grace.


Brsrroassre:: M. Arnold, Literature and Dogma, latest ed.,

Now York, 1902 (s, rich book, but on rationalistic basis;

it called forth many replies which wale answered in Cod

and the Bible, 1884); J. H. Crocker, The Now Bible and

ifs Now Uses (Unitarian, ultrarakionslistie); G. J. Mets­

ger. Dar sits Bibetplaubs and der maderna Vsrnunftplaube,

Stuttgart, 1893 (evangelical); J. T. Sunderland, The

Bible . . , its Place among the Sacred Books a/ the World,

Now York, 1893 (Unitarian); J. Denney, Studies %n Tlu­

olopy, London, 1896 (by a leader in English evangelical

thought); A. M. Fsirbairn, Plate of Christ in Modem

Theology, London, 1898 (moderate in its theological posi­

tion); P. Willer, Freis%nn and Bibaiplaube, Hamburg

1898; W. &snday, Inspiration, London, 1898 (advanced

in the O. T. part, conservative in treating the N. T.):

R. L. Ottley, Aspects of the Old Testament, London, 1898;

T. Zahn, Die bteibends Bedeutunp den neuteatmnentl%chen

Ranone tar die Rirche, Leipaie, 1898; 8. Bernfeld, Dan

Btuh der Bflcher, Berlin, 1899; C. A. Briggs, General In­

boduction to the Study of Holy Scripture, New York, 1899

(comprehensive and scholarly); R. B. MacArthur, Bible


1898; idem. The Old Book and the Old Faith, ib. 1899 (de­

cidedly conservative); L. W. Batten, The Old Testament

from !he Modern Point o/ View, New York, 1901 •, R. G.

Moulton, Short Introduction to the Literature of the Bible.

Boston, 1901; P. Gardner, Historic View of the Now

Testament, London, 1904 (from a scientific standpoint);

F. Bettex, Die Bibel Gotten Wort, 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1903,

Eag. trsnsl., Cincinnati, 1904; J. E. Carpenter, The Bible

in the Nineteenth Century, London, 1903 (scholarly and

reverent, but on scientific basis); J. Haueeleiter. Die Auto­

rife! der B>bsl, Munich [1904]. 1906: M. Rods, The Bible,

its Origin and Nature, New York, 1905 (Dr. Dods is welt

known se s conservative critic); J. M. McMullen, The

Supremacy of the Bible, ib. 1906; W. Barry, The Traditim,

o/ Scripture, its Origin, Authority, and Interpretation, Lon­

don. 1908: C. F. Bent, Origin and Permanent Value of the

O. T., New York, 1908; A. T. Pierson, The Bible and

Spiritual Criticism, ib. 1908; G. F. Wright, 3rientifte

Con>Tnaations a/ O. T. History, ib. 1908; W. C. Sellegt.

Now Appreciation of the Bible, Chicago. 1907: H. F. W&  

ring, Christianity and its Bibl, ib. 1907.


Bible Christians THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG $4

Bible Beading


William O'Bryan (§ 1). Early Organisation and Growth (§ 2). Dissension Q 3). Extension to America and Australia f § 4)• Union with the Methodists in Canada (§ 5). Union in Australia and England (§ B).

Bible Christians or Bryanites are popular names of a body of Christians officially known as the Bible Christian Connection. The designation "; Bryanites "; is from their founder, William O'Bryan; that of "; Bible Christians "; was due to the persistent use of the Bible in private devotions and public services by a peasantry in. general but scantily provided with the book, and to the consistent practise of its precepts by their early ministry. The sect has usually been classed with the Method­ists and is now united with them.

William O'Bryan, the founder, was born in Gunwen (near Loatwithiel, 23 m. w. of Plymouth), Cornwall, England, Feb. 6, 1778. He was the son of a yeoman, was possessed of a vigorous mind and retentive memory, and, having a good elementary

education, was, intellectually, con­:. William siderably above his class. His home

0'Bryan. influences were devoutly religious

and resulted in his conversion at eighteen, when he began at once to exhort. He was licensed shortly after as a "; local preacher "; with the hope of entering the Wesleyan itinerancy; meanwhile he engaged in business.

Serious illness (1804) reawakened in him a pro­found conviction of his call, which delay sad oppo­sition had weakened for a time. For five years more he was content to work on the Bodmin circuit as a local preacher of the Wesleyana, while still in business. His fine presence, courteous maimer, great magnetism, and above all his fervent godli­ness gave him much popularity as a preacher. In his keen hunting for souls, he grew restive under restraint, overstepped the boundary of the circuit and plunged into the "; wild wastes of Cornwall and North Devon,"; where the voice of Methodism had never been heard.

This in the mind of the Wesleyan authorities was a ";dangerous irregularity"; of method, against which Mr. O'Bryan had been cautioned, and, when he appeared at the district meeting as a candidate for the itinerancy, caused his "; first "; rejection; the financial responsibility which would be incurred by accepting a married man, as he now was, was named as the "; second "; cause for his "; final "; rejection. He at once entered unoccupied fields in a new campaign. His unquestioned moral uprightness, indefatigable labors, and unsparing self sacrifice made his evangelical message remark­ably successful; and the generosity which prompted him to urge all his converts to enter the Church that had rejected him from its highest office of ministry compels admiration. A tendency to despotic rule, to which by nature and force of circumstances he was inclined (see below, § 3h led to a separation in 1829 from the Connection which he had founded, and in 1835 to his emigration to the United States with residence in New York City. He revisited his spiritual children more than once

and was heartily welcomed. A generous pension was provided for his support by the body. He died in Brooklyn, Jan. 8, 1868, sad was buried in Greenwood Cemetery.

The germ of the Bible Christian denomination consisted of twenty two persons, converts of Mr. O'Bryan, who were organized into a society on Oct. 9, 1815, in the house of John Thorns, Shebbear. Devonshire, England. Within a year this number became eighteen ministers and 1,500 members; and at the sixth year seventy eight ministers and 6,200 members. To carry forward a work extend 

ing so rapidly, Mr. O'Bryan adopted

z. Early John Wesley's plan and "; chose and

Organize  appointed "; both men and women as

tioa sad itinerants. The proportion of women

Growth. was large in the early history of the

Church, and their work was eminently successful; yet their number steadily declined and ultimately none remained in the itinerancy. With this working force evangelism was extended into Devonshire and Cornwall, the Scilly and Chan­nel Islands, and later by emigration (1820 30) to America.

Organization into societies and circuits required meeting places and chapels at first preaching was mostly in the field, the village green, in hired halls, and in houses and all property acquired for such purpose was held in Mr. O'Bryan's name. He also presided over the conference, the first being held at Launceston (1819), and composed of ministers

only. To all this absolutism, there

3. Dis  was serious objection, and an effort

session. to secure as amended deed by which

all property should be held in trust for the Connection was begun in 1826. A crisis was reached at the eleventh conference (1829), when opposition to Mr. O'Bryan's expressed inten­tion "; that if all the conference were opposed to his views, his single vote was to determine every case,"; resulted in his adjourning the conference, and with­drawing with comparatively few sympathizers. The conference refused to recognize his authority, elected Andrew Cory president in his stead, and proceeded with business. It was resolved "; that the conference be the organ of government; its membership, ministers and laymen; and its next place of meeting annually fixed."; The conference thus declared against an episcopacy, as it also de­cided again#t ecclesiasticism by admitting laymen to church government in equal numbers with clerical members. Eight years later these separa­tists negotiated terms of reunion, but Mr. 0'Bryan never again united.

Many members of the infant Church emigrated to the colonies and the United States. In 1831 the Missionary Society of the Bible Christians in

England sent John Glass and Francis

4. Exten  Metherall as missionaries to Canada

sion to West and Prince Edward Island

America respectively. They also organized

and Aus  missions (1846) in the States of Wie 

tralia oonsin, Ohio, and Michigan. In 1850

James Way and James Rowe were

asst out to Australia, and later work was begun in New Zealand. For the next quarter of a century


Bible Reading

the Church enjoyed undisturbed prosperity, estab­lishing three publishing houses, and a denomi­national college at Shebbear, Devonshire, England. In 1882, 300 ministers and 34,000 members were re  ~i ported. This was the high water mark numerically. These years of extension had awakened, in a much divided Methodism, a sense of the advisa­bility of "; union,"; in both England and the colo­nies. The center of discussion was Canada, where five Methodist sects wasted their energy in vigorous, if not unseemly, rivalry. As early as 1866 the Bible Christians and Methodist New Connection approached the Methodist Protes­g. Union tents of the United States upon the with the question of union, but the overture Methodists ended in friendly expressions only. in Canada. In 1870 the Methodist New Connection made overtures to the Bible Chris­tians, and in 1874 the former were absorbed by the Wesleyan Methodists of Canada. The Bible Christians announced as their policy a policy consistently held since organization "; That any basis of union to be acceptable to this Conference must assure to the laity their full share of privileges in the government of the Church."; In 1882 a committee was appointed by the Bible Christians to meet with three other committees, representing the Wesleyan Methodists, the Primitive Methodists, and the Methodist Episcopal Church of Canada. This committee was explicitly instructed to reaffirm "; That no union would be possible for their Church that did not provide for a representation of the laity in all church courts."; A basis of union was provided acceptable to all parties, voted upon by every society, and in 1884 union was fully and legally perfected. The uniting churches chose as a name "; The Methodist Church of Canada."; The parent body graciously consented to the separa­tion, which affected the work in Canada and the United States only.

The energy and resources of the English and Australian conferences were now devoted to an enlargement of home missions and 6. Union in the establishment of a foreign mission Australia in China, which has been successful. and Eng  A union of the Australian conference land. with other Methodist sects in that colony left but the parent body bear­ing the name; and in Aug., 1906, this Church voted unanimously to unite with the Methodist New Connection and the United Methodists, the union to be formally and legally consummated in 1907. The name of "; United Methodist Church "; was chosen for the new organization. At the time of approving the union the Bible Christians had 638 chapels, 202 ministers, and 30,000 members. h'RANCI6 ML ra$s,err, Warrrocg.

BIHLIO(iaAP87: J. Thorns, A Jubilee Msnsorial of as Rise and Progress of the Bible Christian Connexion, London

1888; J. G. Heyman, A Hiat. of the Methodist Revival of the Last Century %n Relation to North Devon, ib. 1885; [John Thorne], James Thorns of 3hebbear, a Menwir . . . from hit Diary and Legere, by his Son, ib 1873; F: W. Bourne, The Centenary Life f James Thorns, ib. 189b; Brief Bio­tlraRhirnl Sketches of Bible Christians, Jersey, 1905; The Book of Discipline for the People Known as Bible Chris. liana, London, the Bible Christian Book Room.



I. The Ancient Church. II. The Middle Ages. III. The Roman Catholic Church since the Reformation.

Action by the Council of Trent (§ 1).

Rules of Various Popes (§ 2).

Rules and Pretties in Different Countries (¢ 3). IV. The Greek Church. V. The Evangelical Churches.

I. The Ancient Church: It is indisputable that in Apostolic times the Old Testament was com­monly read (John v, 47; Acts viii, 28; xvii, 11; II Tim. iii, 15). Roman Catholics admit that this reading was not restricted in the first centuries, in spite of its abuse by Gnostics and other heretics. On the contrary, the reading of Scripture was urged (Justin Martyr, xliv, ANF, i, 177 178; Jerome, Adv. libros Rtt fcni, i, 9, NPNF, 2d ser., iii, 487); and Pamphilus, the friend of Eusebius, kept copies of Scripture to furnish to those who desired them. Chrysoetom attached considerable importance to the reading of Scripture on the part of the laity and denounced the error that it was to be permitted only to monks and priests (De Lazaro cortCio, iii, MPG, xlviii, 992; Honi.ii in Matt., MPG, lvii, 30, NPNF, 2d ser., x, 13). He insisted upon access being given to the entire Bible, or at least to the New Testament (Hom. ix to Col., MPG, lxii, 361, NPNF, xiii, 301). Thewomen also, who were always at home, were diligently to read the Bible (Hom. axxv on Gen. xia, MPG, liii, 323). Jerome recommended the reading and studying of Scrip­ture on the part of the women (Epzat., esxviii, 3, MPL, xxii, 1098, NPNF, 2d ser., vi, 259; Epist., Lea, 9, MPG, xxii, 730 731, NPNF, 2d eer., vi, 167). The translations of the Bible, Augustine considered a blessed means of propagating the Word of God among the nations (De door. chriat., ii, 5, NPNF, 1st sex., ii, 536); Gregory I recom­mended the reading of the Bible without placing any limitations on it (Hom. iii in Exek., MPL, lxxvi, 968).

II. The Middle Ages: Owing to lack of culture among the Germanic and Romanic peoples, there was for a long time no thought of restricting access to the Bible there. Translations of Biblical books into German began only in the Carolingian period and were not originally intended for the laity. Nevertheless the people were anxious to have the divine service and the Scripture lessons read in the vernacular. John VIII in 880 permitted, after the reading of the Latin gospel, a translation into Slavonic; but Gregory VII, in a letter to Duke Vratislav of Bohemia in 1080 characterised the custom as unwise, bold, and forbidden (Epist., vii, 11; P. AV, BRG, ii, 392 sqq.). This was a formal prohibition, not of Bible reading in general, but of divine service in the vernacular.

With the appearance, in the twelfth and thir­teenth centuries, of the Albigenses and Waldenses, who appealed to the Bible in all their disputes with the Church, the hierarchy was furnished with s reason for shutting up the Word of God. The Synod of Toulouse in 1229 forbade the laity to have in their possession any copy of the books of the Old and the New Testament except the Psalter and


each other portions as are contained in the Breviary or the Hours of the Blessed Mary. "; We most strictly forbid these works in the vulgar tongue "; (Harduin, Concilia, xii, 178; Manai, Concilia, xxiii, 194). The Synod of Tarragona (1234) ordered all vernacular versions to be brought to the bishop to be burned. James I renewed thin decision of the Tarragona synod in 1276. The synod held there in 1317 under Archbishop Ximenea prohibited to $eghards, Beguines, and ternaries of the Fran­ciscans the possession of theological books in the vernacular (Manai, Concilia, xxv, 627). The order of James I was renewed by later kings and con­firmed by Paul II (1464 ?1). Ferdinand and' Isabella (1474 1516) prohibited the translation of the Bible into .the vernacular or the possession of such translations (F. H. Reuach, Index der ver­botenen Bueher, i, Bonn, 188.3, 44).

In England Wyclif's Bible translation caused the resolution passed by the third Synod of Oxford (1408): "; No one shall henceforth of his own authority translate any text of Scripture into English; and no part of any such book or treatise composed in the time of John Wycliffe or later shall be read in public or private, under pain of excom­munication"; (Hefele, Conciliengeschiclate, vi, 984). But Sir Thomas More states that he had himself seen old Bibles which were examined by the bishop and left in the hands of good Catholic laymen (Blunt, Reformation of the Church of England, 4th ed., London, 1878, i, 505). In Germany, Charles IV issued in 1369 an edict to four inquisitors against the translating and the reading of Scripture in the German language. Thin edict was caused by the operations of Beghards and Beguines. In 1485 and 1486, Berthold, archbishop of Mainz, issued an edict against the printing of religious books in German, giving among other reasons the singular one that the German language was unadapted to convey correctly religious ideas, and therefore they would be profaned. Berthold's edict had some influence, but could not prevent the dissemination and publication of new editions of the Bible. Leaders in the Church sometimes recommended to the laity the reading of the Bible, and the Church kept silence officially as long as these efforts were not abused:

III. The Roman Catholic Church since the Ref­ormation: Luther's translation of the Bible and its propagation could not but influence the Roman Catholic Church. Humanism, through such men as Erasmus, advocated the reading of the Bible and the necessity of making it accessible by translations; but it was felt that Luther's translation must be offset by one prepared in the interest of the Church. Such editions were Emser's of 1527, and the Dieten­berg Bible of 1534. The Church of Rome silently tolerated these translations.

At last the Council of Trent took the matter in hand, and in its fourth session (Apr. 18, 1546) adopted the Deeretum de editions et usu lx7xorum eocrorum, which enacted the following: "; This synod ordains and decrees that henceforth sacred Scripture, and especially the aforesaid old and vul­gate edition, be printed in the most correct manner possible; and that it she'll not be lawful for any one

to print, or cause to be printed, any books what­ever on sacred matters without the name of the

author; or in future to sell them, r. Action or even to possess them, unless they by the Coun  shall have been first examined and ap­cil of Trent. proved of by the ordinary."; When

the question of the translation of the Bible into the vernacular came up, Bishop Acqui of Piedmont and Cardinal Pacheco advocated its pro­hibition. This was strongly opposed by Cardinal Madruzzi, who claimed that "; not the translations but the professors of Hebrew and Greek are the cause of the confusion in Germany; a prohibition would produce the worst impression in Germany."; As no agreement could be had, the council ap­pointed an index commiaeion to report to the pope, who was to give an authoritative decision.

The first index published by a pope (Paul IV), in 1559, prohibited under the title of Biblia pro­hibits a number of Latin editions as well as the publication and possession of translations of the Bible in German, French, Spanish, Italian, Eng­lish, or Dutch, without the permission of the sacred office of the Roman Inquisition (Reusch, ut sup., i, 264). In 1584 Pius IV published the index prepared by the commission mentioned above. Herein ten rules are laid down, of which the fourth reads thus: ";Inasmuch as it is man­ifest from experience that if the Holy Bible,

translated into the vulgar tongue, a. Rules of be indiscriminately allowed to every.

Various one, the rashness of men will cause

Popes. more evil than good to arise from

it, it is, on this point, referred to the judgment of the bishops or inquisitors, who may, by the advice of the priest or confessor, permit the reading of the Bible translated into the vulgar tongue by Catholic authors, to those persona whose faith and piety they apprehend will be augmented and not injured by it; and this permission must be had in writing. But if any shall have the presump­tion to read or possess it without such permission, he shall not receive absolution until he have first delivered up such Bible to the ordinary."; Regu­lations for booksellers follow, and then: "; Regulars shall neither read nor purchase such Bibles without special license from their superiors."; Sixtus V substituted in 1590 twenty two new rules for the ten of Pius IV. Clement VIII abolished in 1596 the rules of Sixtus, but added a "; remark "; to the fourth rule given above, which particularly restores the enactment of Paul IV. The right of the bishops, which the fourth rule implies, is abolished by the "; remark,"; and the bishop may grant a dispensa­tion only when especially authorized by the pope and the Inquisition (Reuach, ut sup., i, 333). Benedict XIV enlarged, in 1757, the fourth rule thus: "; If such Bible versions in the vernacular are approved by the apostolic see or are edited with annotations derived from the holy fathers of the Church or from learned and Catholic men, they are permitted."; This modification of the fourth rule was abolished by Gregory XVI in pursuance of an admonition of the index congregation, Jan. 7, 1836, "; which calls attention to the fact that according to the decree of 1757 only such versions in the ver 


nacular are to be permitted as have been approved by the apostolic see or are edited with annotations,"; but insistence is placed on all those particulars enjoined by the fourth rule of the index and after­ward by Clement VIII (Reusch, ut sup., ii, 852).

In England the reading of the Bible was made by Henry VIII (1530) to depend upon the per­mission of the superiors. Tyndale's version, printed before 1635, was prohibited. In 1534 the Canterbury convocation passed a resolution asking the king to have the Bible translated and to permit its reading. A folio copy of Coverdale's trans­lation was put into every church for the benefit of the faithful, and fastened with a chain. In Spain the Inquisitor General de Valdes published in 1551 the index of Louvain of 1550, which pro­hibits "; Bibles (New and Old Testaments) in the Spanish or other vernacular "; (Reusch, ut sup., i, 133). This prohibition was abolished in 1778. The Lisbon index of 1824 in Portugal prohibited quo­ring in the vernacular in any book passages from the Bible. In Italy the members of the order of the Jesuits were in 1596 permitted to 3. Rules and use a Catholic Italian translation of Practise is the Gospel lessons. In France the

Different SorMnne declared, Aug. 26,1525, that

Countries. a French translation of the Bible or of

single books moat be regarded as

dangerous under conditions then present; extant

versions were better suppressed than tolerated. In

the following year, 1528, it prohibited the trans­

lation of the entire Bible, but permitted the trans­

lation of single books with proper annotations.

The indexes of the Sorbonne, which by royal edict

were binding, after 1544 contained the statement:

"; How dangerous it is to allow the reading of the

Bible in the vernacular to unlearned people and

those not piously or humbly disposed (of whom

there are many in our times) may be seen from

the Waldensians, Albigenses, and Poor Men of

Lyons, who have thereby lapsed into• error and

have led many into the same condition. Con­

sidering the nature of men, the translation of the

Bible into the vernacular must in the present be

regarded therefore as dangerous and pernicious";

(Reusch, ut sup., i, 151). The rise of Jansenism in

the seventeenth century, and especially the appear­

ance, under its encouragement, of Quesnel's New

Testament with moral reflections under each verse

(Le Nouveau Teatamest en franFais aver des re f leximva

moroles our chaque vers, Paris, 1699), which was

expressly intended to popularize the reading of the

Bible, caused the renewal, with increased stringency,

of the rules already quoted. The Jesuits prevailed

upon Clement XI to publish the famous bull Umi­

genitus, Sept. 8, 1713, in which he condemned

seven propositions in Queenel's work which advo­

cated the reading of the Bible by the laity (cf. H. J.

D. Denzinger, Enchiridion, WUrzburg, 1854, 287).

In the Netherlands, Neercaseel, bishop of Emmerich,

published in 1677 (in Latin) and 1680 (in French)

a treatise in which he dealt with the fourth rule

of the Tridentine index as obsolete, and urged the

diligent reading of the Bible. In Belgium in 1570

the unlicensed sale of the Bible in the vernacular

was strictly prohibited; but the use of the Ant 

werp Bible continued. In Poland the Bible was translated and often published. In Germany papal decrees could not very well be carried out and the reading of the Bible was not only not pro­hibited, but was approved and praised. Bitluart about 1750, as quoted by Van Ess, states, ";In France, Germany, and Holland the Bible is read by all without distinction."; In the nineteenth century the clergy took great interest in the work of Bible Societies. Thus Leander van Ess (q.v.) acted as agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society for Catholic Germany, and the society published the New Testament of Van Ees, which was placed on the Index in 1821. The princes bishop of Breslau, Sedlnitzki, who after­ward joined the Evangelical Church, was also interested in circulating the Bible. As the Bible Societies generally circulated the translations of heretics, the popes Leo XII (11fay 5, 1824); Rum VIII (May 25, 1829); Gregory XVI (Aug. 15, 1840; May 8, 1844); Pius IX (Nov.'9, 1846; Dec. 8, iR49)­issued encyclicals against the Bible Societies. In the syllabus of 1884 "; socialism, communism, se­cret societies, . . . and Bible Societies"; are placed in the same category. As to the effect of the papal decrees there is a difference cf opinion within the Catholic Church. In theory the admonition of Gregory XVI no doubt exists, but practise often ignores it.

IV. The Greek Church knows of no such restric­tion of use of the Bible as that of the Roman Church. Nevertheless the Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 answered the first of the four questions: "; Whether the Holy Scripture can be read by all Christians,"; in the negative. Nicholas I of Russia abolished in 1826 the Bible Society founded by Alexander I for the propagation of the Bible in the Russian vernacular.

V. The Evangelical Churches: Luther strove to open the Bible to all, and his version served that purpose. The principle that every Evangelical Christian is at liberty to read the Bible remained uneontroverted, though Semler (De antiquo ecclesim atatu commentalio, 37, 60, 88) makes the assertion that the sacred writings, especially the apostolic epistles, were not intended for the use of the peo­ple abd the congregations; that in the ancient Church no universal use of the Bible existed, and that the catechumens especially were prohibited from using the Bible. Bible compendiums for special purposes and separate circles also came into use in the Evangelical Church. Veit Dietrich published in 1541 his Summarium of the Old and the New Testament; Cromwell's :soldiers had The Soldier's Pocket Bible of 1643 (facsimile edition, Cromwell's Soldier's Bible, London, 1895). The restriction upon Bible reading in the Evangelical Church became of practical importance only in the schools. For didactic purposes Amos Comenius recommended compendiums and special manuals of Scripture, which the scholar was to use till he could read the Gospel in the original. The didactic needs were gradually satisfied by the introduction of teat books of "; Biblical history,"; the Catechism, and collections of Bible sentences. From time to time the quea 

Bible Societies THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 88

Lion has been agitated whether the whole Bible or so called school Bibles should be used in the schools. The principal reason adduced in favor of the latter is that certain passages are objection­able because they deal with sexual relations. But these reasons are not well founded, since reading of the Bible has never bin a cause of demoralisation. The moral earnestness which without veiling calls things by their right names is to be preferred to a careful paraphrasing and veiling of the sense which only the more excite impure desires.

(GEOA(3 RlxxecaEn.)

Brsnroorarai: T. G. Hegehnaier, Ouehiehte ilea Bibefroer­bots, Ulm. 1788; N. 1.e Maire, 3anehbrium prafanis oeelu 

swe Ave do sandorum bibliorum in lingua roulpari ssu roeN

L British Bible Societies.

1. Precursors of the British and For 

eign Bible Society.

2. The British and Foreign Bible So 

ciety. Origin and Constitution (¢ 1). Present Organisation (§ 2). Foreign Work (§ 3). Dissensions. Seceding Societies (¢ 4).

8. The National Bible Society of 8cot 


macula tractatua, WUrsburg, 1862 (from the Fr. of 1651), this was reproduced in substance in Die Be'be1 kein Leas­buch fltr Jeder»iann, M>Znster, 1845; A. Arnauld, De la lecture de 1'6Criture saints, Paris (c. 1890); C. W. F. Welch, Rritisehe UnteraucAunpsn room aebrauch der Iseilipen Schrift untsr den alten Christen in den eraten drei Jahrhunderten, Leipaie, 1779; F. von Ess, Der heilipe Chrysoatomus oiler die Somme der kalhofischan Ruche uber das niitzZicht, heil­sams and erbauliche Bibelieesn, Darmstadt, 1824; J. B. Melon, La Lecture de la saints Bible an longue vulyaire, 2 vole., Louvain, 1848: Vom Leaen der heilipen Bchrift, Mains, 1848; F. H. Reuaeh Die Indices librorum prohibi­torum ilea aachssehnten Jahrhundarta, Tiibingen, 1888; W. Walther, Die deutsche BibaZtibcreetzsap lee Mitteialtera, Braunschweig, 1889; J.  H. Kurtz, Church Hi gory, §§lOb, 3; 185, 1, New York, 1890; the text of the bull Uni­penilua may be found in Reich, Documents, pp. 388 389, and the authoritative statement of the Grew Russian Church in Schaff, Creeds, iii, 438 984.


4. The Hibernian Bible Society. III. Bible Societies in America.

b. The Trinitarian Bible Society. 1. The American Bible Society.

8. The Bible Translation Society. Organisation (¢ 1).

II. Bible Societies on the Continent of Constitution and Management (¢ 2)


1. Germany.

2. France.

8. The Netherlands.

4. Scandinavia

5. Russia.

8. Switzerland.

Bible societies are benevolent associations formed to increase the circulation of the Bible and making special efforts to supply the Scriptures to those who from poverty or other causes are destitute of them. Printing the Bible or New Testament in suitable styles, translation into all important languages and even into the less important dialects, and some effective system of distribution in all accessible places are commonly regarded as essential features of the work of such societies. In some cases the books are given without price; but it is not usual to give away a large proportion. The test of manu­facture and of distribution, however, has to be provided by voluntary contributions.

The Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (q.v.), founded in London in 1698, was the first to undertake to provide the common people with the Bible. It continues this beneficent work as one branch of its publication enterprise, and has been the means of providing fairly good translations of the Scriptures in many obscure languages of Axis, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (q.v.), founded in 1701, has also done and is still doing a good work is circulating the Scriptures in connection with its extensive missions. The Scottish Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, founded in 1709, added the work of circulating the Bible to its missionary enterprises in Scotland and in America. The first society formed for the exclusive purpose of publishing the Bible at a low price seems to have been the Canstein Bible Institute, established in 1710 at Halls in Germany by Baron Canstein (see below, II, 1).

L British Bible Societies. 1. Precursors of the British sad Foreign Bible Society: In the last half of the eighteenth century several societies sprang up in Great Britain which had Bible distribution as

Summary of Work (¢ 3). Foreign Work (§ 4). Controversies (¢ 5).

2. The American and Foreign Bible Society and the American Bible Union.

8. The Bible Association of Friends in America.

part of their programme; such as the Book Society for Promoting Religious Knowledge among the Poor (1750), the Bible Society, later known as the Naval and Military Bible Society (1780), the Society for the Support and Encouragement of Sunday Schools (1785), the Association for Discounte­nancing Vice and Promoting the Knowledge and Practise of the Christian Religion (established in Dublin, 1792), the French Bible Society (established in London for printing the Bible in France, 1792), and the Religious Tract So nety (London, 1799; see TRACT SOCIETIES).

2. The British and Foreign Bible Society: These enterprises, however, did not supply the need. The Rev. Thomas Charles (q.v.) of Bala in Wale became much impressed with the need of the com­mon folk about him, who could not obtain the Bible except by persevering effort and much self denial; the Bible was not only scarce but costly. Mr.

1. Origin Charles finally devoted himself to find 

and Con  mg some effective means of supplying


stitution. his people with the Scriptures. At

a meeting of the Religious Tract

Society in London in 1802, he aroused great

interest by his vigorous presentation of the

need of the people of Wales. The Rev. Joseph

Hughes, secretary of the Religious Tract Society,

exclaimed, "; Surely a society might be formed

to provide Bibles for Wales; and if for Wales, why

not for the world?"; This remark contained the

germ from which grew the British and Foreign

Bible Society.

The ides of a Bible Sodety for the world led to discussion and to study of the destitution of the people. The Rev. C. F. A. Steinkopf, pastor of the German Lutheran Church in London, gave effective information of the situation in European countries. Members of the Religious Tract Society,


although they did not publicly appear, had much to do with the preparatory work. On Afar. 7, 1804, a public meeting was held at the London Tavern, on the call of Mr. Hughes. Three hundred persons attended the meeting. It was quickly evident that a society for increasing the circulation of the Bible presented common ground, upon which all sects and parties could stand. Dissenters met church­men, and in their interest in the needs of the masses, they forgot for a time their divergent interpre­tations of the same book. The sole condition necessary to union of action was that a text ac­cepted by all should be issued without note or comment.

At this meeting a hastily drawn up set of by laws was adopted. An executive committee of thirty­six laymen was chosen, fifteen from the Church of England, fifteen from the Dissenting bodies, and six foreigners residing in London. The Rev. Joseph Hughes (Baptist) and the Rev. Josiah Pratt (Church of England) were elected secretaries. Seven hundred pounds were subscribed for the work of the society, and the Bishop of London, Dr. Porteus, was elected President.

The constitution of the society was soon after­ward prepared; the Rev. John Owen, of the Church of England, was added to the staff of the society as a third secretary, and on nomination of Lord Teignmouth, a former governor general in India, the Rev. C. F. A. Steinkopf was appointed secre­tary for foreign lands. Besides the Bishop of Lon­don, the Bishops of Durham, Exeter, and St. Davids, and many other influential persons, among whom were William Wilberforce and Granville Sharp, long known as antislavery leaders, joined this movement.

As at present organized, the business of the society is directed by a committee made up as indicated above. Every subscriber of five guineas annually is a governor, and every subscriber of one guinea annually is a member of the society.

Every governor, and every minister

2. Present who is a member; has the privilege Off  of attending and voting at all meetings

tion. of the committee. The president,

the vice presidents (numbering more

than a hundred), and the treasurer are considered

ex officio members of the committee. There are

two secretaries and three superintendents charged

with different departments of the work besides

several assistant secretaries. To excite wider

interest and to facilitate the distribution of the

Bible, auxiliary and branch societies are formed,

which pay their collections into a common fund and

receive back a certain proportion of the sum

collected in Bibles for distribution. There were

in 1906 more than 5,800 of the auxiliary and branch

societies and associations in England and Wales


The society began its career by first meeting the wants of Wales. Twenty thousand Welsh Bibles and five thousand Testaments were printed. Providentially but a short time before this, the art of stereotyping had been invented. When in 1806 the first wagon load of Bibles came into Wales, it was received like the ark of the covenant; and the

people with shouts of joy dragged it into the city. The society also distributed the Bible in an improved Gaelic translation in the Highlands of Scotland, and turned its attention to the Irish; in short, it undertook to supply Great Britain and Ireland with Bibles.

But the society did not forget that it is a foreign as well as a British Bible Society. When it began operations Europe was convulsed with war and not so much was done as would otherwise have been accomplished in the way of supplying the destitute in European countries. Mr. Steinkopf and Robert Pinkerton made extensive tours through Germany, Switzerland, and Russia, and everywhere local

Bible societies sprang into existence S. Foreign in their wake. Many of these societies,

Work. formed in 1812 and later, have done

good work, being aided with funds and with grants of Bibles by the British Society About the time of the formation of the British Society two Seotcbmen, John Paterson and Eben­ezer Henderson, went to Copenhagen, intending to go out as missionaries to India under the Danish­Halle mission at Tranquebar. Their plan fell through, but they met an Icelander, Thorkelin, in Copenhagen, who told them of the destitution of his countrymen. There were said to be only fifty Bibles in Iceland for a population of fifty thousand. The two Scotchmen laid the matter before the Brit­ish and Foreign Bible Society, which promised to pay half of the expense of printing five thousand Testaments in Icelandic. The printing was stopped by the outbreak of war. But in 1812 Mr. Hender­son received permission to remain in Copenhagen to complete the printing of the whole Bible in Ice­landic, and, notwithstanding the war, to correspond with the Bible society in England regarding this work. The confidence thus shown in the motives of the society was certainly remarkable at that epoch; and it had much to do with the founding of the Danish Bible Society in 1814.

The British Society extended its work gradually to the British colonies, where it works through auxiliary societies. In Canada, the Canadian Bible Society, which has united a large number of local auxiliaries in one, is a society auxiliary to the British Society, and has a secretary appointed by the parent society in London. In Australia the society has fifty two auxiliaries with nearly 500 branches. In India, with the exception of Burma, the society carries on its work through six strong auxiliary societies. In Cape Colony the South­African auxiliary has for its field the whole terri­tory south of the Orange River. The whole num­ber of auxiliaries and branch societies affiliated with the British Society outside of the United King­dom exceeds 2,200. The whole number of these local societies, in Great Britain and abroad, which the British and Foreign Society aids and from which it receives donations, is over 8,160. Besides these auxiliary societies the parent society makes use of agencies, each in charge of a special agent, devoted to the increase of the circulation of the Bible in his own field. These agencies cover the con­tinent of Europe, and Turkey, Siberia. China, Korea, and Japan in Asia. In the three last named coun 

Bible Societies THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 90

tries special arrangements with the American Bible Society and the National Bible Society of Scotland prevent clashing and secure combination for the translation of the Scriptures. Agencies of the British society also promote the distribution of the Bible in Egypt and North Africa and in nearly all of the colonies of East and West Africa. Where neither auxiliary nor agency has been established the society works through the missions which are in occupation of the ground in any part of the world.

This wide spread work has not been brought to its present extension without hindrances and diffi­culties. The High church party in the Church of England has at times opposed the Bible Society, preferring to work through the Society for the Promotion of .Christian Knowledge, which takes care to have the Bible supplemented  by the Book of Common Prayer. Others have insisted that the Bible is a dangerous book to put in the hands of ignorant men without note or comment, and for this reason have opposed the Bible Society. In 1825 dissension arose within the Bible Society, which continued during two years, over the ques­tion of the Apocrypha. It was formally resolved in 1827 that the fundamental law of the society forbids its circulating the Apocrypha, and that therefore no persons or societies that circulate the Apocrypha can receive aid from

4. Dissen  the society. This decision led to the sions. 8ece  separation of a considerable number

ding Bo  of European societies from the British

cieties. society which had founded them.

The discussion also resulted in the secession of the

Scottish societies which originated the agitation

against the publication of the Apocrypha (see below,

3). In 1831 another agitation was raised against

the presence of Unitarians on the Board of Man­

agers. The society having refused to alter its

constitution so as to exclude non Trinitarians,

a separate society called the Trinitarian Bible

Society was formed (see below, 5). With the

growth of foreign missions, a question as to trans­

lation of the words relating to baptism became

acute; and the controversy finally led to the for­

mation of the Bible Translation Society, which

was supported by Baptists who preferred to trans­

late "; immerse "; rather than to transfer the Greek

word baptizein (see below, 6).

But there has been a continuous and remarkable growth of the society in spite of all obstacles and opposition. In 1904 the centenary of the society was celebrated in almost all countries of the Chris­tian and non Christian world. "; Bible Day "; in Mar., 1904, will long be remembered not only as a day of an immense popular declaration of faith in the Bible as the revelation of God's will to men, but as a time for expressing the warmest love and sympathy, and gratitude withal, to the society which then completed a hundred years of self­sacrificing service of the nations. Not only were special gifts sent into the treasury for the general work of the society, but a special centenary fund of $1,256,000 was raised in that and the following year to be used as a reserve for more firmly planting the outposts of the society. The total issues of the

British and Foreign Bible Society, in the year ending Mar. 31, 1908, amounted to 5,416,569 copies of the Bible or its parts. The total issues of the society from its organisation to Mar. 31, 1907, amount to 203,931,788 copies, of which more than 80,000,000 copies were in the English language. The president of the British and Foreign Bible Society is the Marquis of Northampton. Its headquarters are at 146 Queen Victoria St., London, E. C.; its periodicals are The Bible in the World and The Bible Society Gleanings.

8. The National Bible Society of Scotland: In 1809 the Edinburgh Bible Society was formed, in 1812 the Glasgow Bible Society, and in 1821 the Glasgow Auxiliary Bible Society. As mentioned above, these societies seceded from the British and Foreign Bible Society in consequence of the con­troversy about circulating editions of the Bible containing the Apocrypha. In 1859 the National Bible Society was formed, and in 1861 all these Scottish eoaeties,combined to form a new organiza­tion which was incorporated as the National Bible Society of Scotland. The fields of this society are in Europe and Asia. One fifth of its issues in 1906­1907 were in Roman Catholic countries and about one half in China. Its issues in the year ending Mar., 1907, amounted to 1,671,900 copies.

4. The Hibernian Bible Society: This society was organized in 1806 as an auxiliary to the British and Foreign Bible Society. It is now independent, and devotes its attention mainly to the needs of Ireland. In the year ending Mar., 1907, it cir­culated 37,258 copies, which were purchased by the society. The headquarters are in Dublin.

6. The Trinitarian Bible Society: Formed in 1831 as a protest against Unitarianism, this society issued in the year ending Dec. 31, 1907, 89,214 copies of the Bible or its parts. The headquarters of the society are at 7 Bury St., London, W. C.

8. The Bible Translation Society: This society wan organized in 1843 to serve the special interests of the British Baptist missions. It is now a part of the Baptist Missionary Society, making no sep­arate publication of its issues, and having its head­quarters at the Mission House, 19 Furnival St., London.

II. Bible Societies on the Continent of Europe.  :. Germany: The first German Bible Society was the Oaaeteia Bible Institute, founded in Halls in 1710 by Karl Hildebrand, Baron Canstein (q.v.), with the definite purpose of placing the Bible within reach of the poor. The Institute has issued up to the beginning of 1907, over 7,000,000 copies of the Bible and its parts. The issues for 1907 were 38,696 copies. The (first) Nuremberg Bible Society was formed in 1804, and received aid from the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1806 it was removed to Basel in Switzerland and took the name of the Basel Bible Society. Its issues during the year 1906 amounted to 32,708 copies. The Berlin Bible Society was formed in 1806 as a result of the energy of Father JS,nicke, a Moravian pastor, and was aided by the British and Foreign Bible Society in its early years. In 1814 it was

averted into the Prussian Bible Society. It now has many branches and devotes its attention


mainly to the circulation of the Bible in Germany. In the year 1906 its issues amounted to 212,911 Bibles and Testaments. The headquarters of the society are Kloateratrasae 71, Berlin C. The Wurttemberg Bible institute was formed in 1813 under the influence of Messrs. Steinkopf and Pink­erton, of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Its issues reported in 1906 were 334,953 copies. The headquarters are at Christophatraeae 6, Stuttgart. The Berg Bible Society was formed at Elberfeld in the old Duchy of Berg in 1814. It furnishes Scrip­tures for use abroad in some small quantities. The total of its issues in 1906 was 151,558 copies, and the total of its issues in the 93 years of its existence are 2,228,353 copies. The headquarters of the society are at Marienstraese 28, Elberfeld. The Saxon Bible Society was formed in the year 1814. It has forty two branches, and besides its publications in German, it has published an edition of the New Testament in the Chagga language, spoken in the northern part of German East Africa. Its total issues in 1906 amounted to 48,065 copies. The headquarters are at Zinzendorfatraese 17, Dresden. The BavarianProtestantBible Society was formed in 1823. It is also called the Central Bible 8ocliety. Its issues in 1906 were 12,930 copies. The head­quarters of the society are at Nuremberg. There are also many local and state societies, of which those of Hamburg, Sleswick, and Strasburg print as well as distribute Bibles. A Roman Catholic Bible Society, the Regensburg Bible Institute, was organized in 1805 by G. M. Wittmann, head of the seminary at Regensburg, with the assistance of some bishops and many laymen. A translation of the New Testament was prepared and 60,000 copies were distributed in ten years, but in 1817 the Institute was suppressed by Pope Pius VII. In 1815 another Roman Catholic Bible Society was founded at Heiligenstadt, which connected itself with the Prussian society and organised auxil­iaries. Leander van Ess (q.v.) at Marburg was especially interested and his translation of the New Testament was widely disseminated. He also founded the Christian Brotherhood for Dissemi­nating the Holy Scriptures with the support of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The Heiligen­stadt society flourished till 1830 and maintained an existence till 1864, but received its support chiefly from Protestants after the former date. The translation of the New Testament made by J. E. Gosener (q.v.) was also circulated by the English society.

2. France: The Breach Bible Society (London) referred to above began the Bible movement in France, but the outbreak of the Revolution pre­vented the circulation of French Bibles printed with English money. The Protestant Bible Society of Paris was formed in 1818, and received aid from the British and Foreign Bible Society for a time. The subsidy was withdrawn after a few years because the Paris Society included the Apocrypha in its Bibles. The issues of this society in 1906 were 8,061 copies. A sharp controversy among the French Protestants respecting the French version led in 1864 to the formation of the Bible Society of France. This society excluded the

Apocrypha from its Bibles and held to the version of J. F. Oaterwald (q.v.) of which it is now pub­lishing a new revision. It has received aid from the American Bible Society, and it circulates the Bible in the French colonies in Asia and Africa. Its issues in 1906 were 34,556 copies.

3. The Netherlands: The Netherlands Bible Society was formed in 1814. Its issues in the year 1904 amounted to 93.977 copies, of which 57,573 copies were sent abroad to the Dutch East Indies, Dutch Guiana, and South Africa. The headquarters of the society are at Heerengracht 366, Amsterdam.

4. Scandinavia: The Danish Bible Society was organized in 1814. Its circulation in 1906 amounted to 45,289 copies. The Norwegian Bible Society was formed in 1816 under the influence of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Its issues in 1904 were 6.3,300 copies, of which 751 copies were sent to Denmark, and 11,041 copies to the United States of America. Its total issues in eighty eight years ending Dec. 31, 1804, were 1,153,260 copies. The headquarters of the society are at Christiania. The Swedish Bible Society was organized in 1814. Its circulation in 1906 was 12,414 copies and its total circulation from the beginning, 1,242,515 copies, of which 666 were in the Lapp language.

5. Russia: The Russian Bible Society with Imperial Sanction was formed in 1863. It circu­lates the Bible in Russian and other languages under the supervision of the Holy Synod. Its reports show the contributions of the czar and czarina and the grand dukes, but do not specify clearly the circulation. It makes use of colportevrs and seems to do serious work. A Russian Bible Society formed in 1812 did an important work in Bible translation, but was suppressed by imperial ukase in 1826. The Russian Evangelical Bible Society was organized in 1831 for the purpose of circulatirg the Bible among Lutherans and in the German language. Its circulation in 1904 was 22,279 copies. The Finnish Bible Society was formed in 1812 and its issues in 1903 were about 30,000 copies.

6. Switzerland: The Basel Bible Society, trans­

ferred to Basel from Nuremberg, has been men­

tioned above (II, 1). Local Bible societies exist

in many of the cantons of Switzerland. They

seem, however, to be merely  agents of distribution

receiving Bibles from other societies, notably from

the British and Foreign Bible Society. Theit

circulation is therefore included in that of the other


III. Bible Societies in America. 1. The American Bible Society: The Revolutionary War produced a great scarcity of Bibles in the United States, One year after the Declaration of Independence Congress was memorialized to authorize the print­ing of an edition of the Bible. This memorial was referred to a committee, who found the difficulties, especially, of procuring proper material, type, and paper, to be so great that Congress ordered the importation at its own expense of 20,000 English Bibles from Holland, England, or elsewhere. The scarcity still continuing, in 1782 Congress recom­mended to the people of the United States an edition of the Bible printed by Thomas Aitken, of Phila. delphia, "; being satisfied of the care and accuracy

Bible Societies THE 1VEW SCHAFF HERZOG 92

of the execution of the work."; It was not until 1808 that the first Bible Society was organized in Philadelphia. In 1809 societies were organized in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and New Jersey in the order named and by 1816 there were 128 such societies.

The idea of uniting these societies is one organi­zation was a natural one and was much discussed. The missionary travels of the Rev. Samuel J. Mills (q.v.) in the West and South, reported in religious periodicals, increased the desire for a national organization, which he strongly advocated. On Jan. 1, 1816, Elias Boudinot (q.v.), the president of the New Jersey Bible Society, made a public com­munication on the subject, and on Jan. 17 he issued

a circular letter appointing Wednea . 1. Organ  day, May 8, 1816, as the time for

ization. holding a convention for, this pur 

pose in New York. Sixty delegates representing twenty eight Bible societies (besides several other persons admitted to seats in the convention) met on the day named in the Garden Street Collegiate Reformed Dutch Church, rep­resenting the Presbyterian, Congregational, Meth­odist, Episcopal, Dutch Reformed, and Baptist Churches, and the Society of Friends. The con­vention was in session for two days, adopted a con­stitution and in accordance therewith elected mana­gers, who met in the City Hall, May 11, and elected officers, Elias Boudinot being made president.

Under this constitution "; the sole object shall be to encourage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures without note or comment"; (art. i;. The board of managers is composed of thirty six laymen, one fourth of whom go out of office

2. Consti  every year, but are eligible for re­tution and election. Every clergyman who is a

life member may meet and vote with went. the board of managers, provided he

receives no salary or compensation for services from the society. The managers meet regularly every month, consider and act on all matters presented by ten standing committees besides other matters originating in the board itself and report all their proceedings to the annual meeting of the members of the society held on the second Thursday of May and usually in New York.

The society was incorporated in 1841. The societies which already existed became for the most part auxiliary to the national organization and in addition many other auxiliary societies were organized under its direction, the number at one time reaching 2,200. Many of these, however, have ceased to exist, the number now being 541. The "; Bible House,"; Astor Place, N. Y., the society's headquarters, was erected in 1852 and was paid for by funds contributed for the special purpose end not from current receipts for benevolent work.

The ninety first annual report of the board of managers was presented May 9, 1907. The

total cash receipts were $575,820.94.

$' $";n`'

mary of The total issues of that year were

1,910,853, of which 1,010,777 were issued fpm the Bible House in New York, sad 900,076 from the society's agencies abroad, being printed on mission presses in China.

Japan, Siam, Syria, and Turkey. The total issues of the society in Bibles, Testaments, and portions amount to 80,420,382 copies, distributed se fol­lows: Bibles 20,293,636 Testaments and portions 58,215,889.

The efforts of the society were at first directed mainly to meeting the needs of the people of the United States, but from the very first it was in spirit and intention a foreign as well as a home mission society. Bibles at the very beginning were supplied to the North American Indiana. The third annual report shows that steps were already taken for sending Spanish Bibles to Buenos Ayres and the newt year the society was reaching out to West Africa. In 1836 the first foreign agency was instituted in Constantinople, and in 1864 the agency for the La Plats region in South America.

During the past thirty years this 4. Foreign work has largely increased and regular Work. agencies have been established in

Japan, China, Brazil, Mexico, Korea, i Cuba, Siam and Laos, Central America, Porto Rico and the Philippines, besides Venezuela and Colom­bia, where the agencies have been temporarily discontinued. These agencies have distributed a total of 9,453,918 Bibles, Testaments, and portions in China alone. Besides this the society has con­tinually cooperated with missions and missionaries in countries in all quarters of the globe. It has stimulated Bible translation, initiating it in some cases, cooperating with others more frequently and securing needed revisions under its patronage and partly or wholly at its expense. It has been thus interested in about 100 translations and revisions in all.

The labors of the society have been broken twice by serious differences among its friends and sup­porters. In 1835 missionaries in Burma published at the expense of the society a translation of the New Testament which rendered the Greek word baptizein and its cognate terms by the English "; immerse "; or an equivalent. After much dis­cussion the managers resolved that they felt at liberty "; to encourage only such versions as con­form in the principle of their translation to the

common English Version at least 6. Contro. so far as that all the religious denom 

versies. inations represented in , this society

can consistently use and circulate such versions in their several schools and commu­nities,"; and missionary boards were requested in asking aid to state that the versions they proposed to circulate were in accordance with this resolution. The Baptists took offense and a controversy ensued, the consequence of which was the formation of the American and Foreign Bible Society (see below, 2).

In 1847 the committee on versions was instructed to undertake a careful collation of different editions of thg English Bible with a view to perfecting its text in minutiae. Their final report, made May 1, 1851, stated that in collating five standard copies of English and American imprint with the original edition of 1611 nearly 24,000 variations were found solely in the text and punctuation, not one of which marred the integrity of the text or affected any doctrine or precept of the Bible. A standard then


determined upon with the unanimous approval of the board of managers was accepted generally by the public and for several years Bibles printed accordingly circulated without the slightest objec­tion. But in 1856, and more decidedly in 1857, the right of the society to circulate such an edition was sharply challenged. Considerable public ex­citement followed; the matter was debated in religious and even secular journals as well as in ecclesiastical bodies, and the board of managers after long consideration, and debate finally took action, Jan. 28, 1858, as follows:

Resolved, that this society's present standard English Bible be referred to the standing committee on versions for examination; and in all cases where the same differs in the text or its accessories from the Bibles previously published by the society, the committee are directed to correct the same by conforming it to previous editions printed by this society, or by the authorized British presses, reference being also had to the original edition of the translators printed in 1811; and to report such corrections to this board, to the end that a new edition, thus perfected, may be adopted as the standard edition of the society.

The committee reported in 1859 and 1860; and from this ";standard edition"; all the society's English Bibles are now printed.

The constitution of the society originally re­

stricted it to circulating only "; the version now

in common use,"; in the English language. In

1904 at the annual meeting of the society on the

recommendation of the board of managers the

constitution was amended so as to permit the

publication of the Revised Version of the English

Bible, either in its British or American form, and

under this permission some editions of the Amer­

ican Standard Revised Version are now published

by the society under an arrangement with the

publishers. JoHN Fox.

2. The American andForeiga Bible Society and the American Bible Union: The American and Foreign Bible Society was organized at Philadel­phia in April, 1836, by Baptists who felt aggrieved at the action of the American Bible Society con­cerning the translation of the Greek baptizein, referred to above (see III, 1, § 5). Rev. S. H. Cone was made president. The society was de­clared to be "; founded upon the principle that the originals in the Hebrew and Greek are the only authentic standards of the Sacred Scriptures, and that aid for the translating, printing, or distributing of them in foreign languages should be afforded to each versions only as are conformed as nearly as possible to the original text; it being understood that no words ass to be transferred which are sus­ceptible of being literally translated.,' The con­stitution adopted declared (art. ii) "; that in the distribution of the Scriptures in the English lan­guage, the commonly received version shall be used until otherwise directed by the society."; Dis­satisfaction with this policy led to the secession of certain members and the formation in 1850 of the American Bible Union, which demanded that the principle of circulating "; such versions only as are informed as nearly as possible to the original teat "; should be applied to the English version, and avowed as its cbject "; to procure and circulate the moat faithful versions of the Sassed Scriptures

in all languages throughout the world."; The Union secured the services of a number of Baptist and other Biblical scholars, especially the Rev. Drs. H. B. Hackett, A. C. Kendrick, and T. J. Conant. The entire New Testament and portions of the Old were revised and published. Italian, Spanish, Chinese (Ningpo colloquial), Siamese, and Sgau­Karen New Testaments were also prepared. The Union ultimately reunited with the American and Foreign Bible Society, and in 1882 the latter passed over its work and good will to the American Baptist Publication Society (Philadelphia), which since then has performed the duties of the Bible Society, and is carrying on the work of revision inaugurated by the earlier societies. The revi­sion has now (1907) reached the Book of Ezra, and will be completed; it is hoped, by the end of 1908.

3. The Bible Association of Friends in America

was organized in 1830. It has been, in the main, a distributing agency, circulating the Scriptures printed by others, but in 1905 06 printed an edition of 2,925 Testaments and Psalms. In 1906 it re­ported total receipts of $3,930.59 and payments of $2,412.06. Its distribution in that year was 8,534 volumes, of which 2,030 were Bibles. The head­quarters are at 207 Walnut Place, Philadelphia, Pa.

Brsrroonwrnrf: On the general question consult: Abrisa der Geahirhte den Urayrunpa and Warhathuma der Bibelpeadl­achaften, Barmen, 1870; Summary Notice concerning Bible Societies in General and Thou of Francs in Particular, from the Fr., Northampton, 1827; W. H. Wyckoff, A Sketch of As Origin, History . . . of Bible Societies, New York 1848.

On the BFB$ consult: W. Canton, Hint. of the BFBS, 2 vole., London, 1904; idem, Story of the Bible Society, ib. 1904; J. Owes, HieE, of the Origin and First Ten Years of the BFBS, 2 vole., ib. 1818; Papers Occasioned by the At­tempts to Form Auxiliary Bible Societies in Various Parts of the Kingdom, ib. 1812; Jubilee Memorial of the BFBS, ib. 1854; G. Browse, HiaE. of the BFBS, 2 vole., ib. 1859; La SociEtJ bibliqua britannique et dtrangbre, 1804 89. No­tice au point do vue Aiatorique, ph%loeophique, et rel%pieuz, Nantes, 1889; H. Morris, Founders and President* of the Bible Society, London, 1895; Bible House Papers, ib. 1899 eqq. (in progress); Behold a Sower. Popular . . . Re­port of BFB3 for 1800 01, ib. 1902; T. H. Darlow and H. F. Moule, Catalogue of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Library of the BFBS, 2 vols., ib. 1904;. T. H. Darlow, There is a River, ib. 1908; Bible Associa­tion Reports. By Helen Plumptre, Worksop, 1843.

The organs of the society are the Monthly Reporter of the BFBS, London, 1858 88, succeeded by the Bible So­ciety MonUrly Reporter, 1889 aqq. The other British Societies issue various publications, such as Annual Re­ports, Quarterly Records, and Occasional Papers, in which their history may be traced.

For the foreign societies there are also available their reports, besides which the following may be insulted: C. F. Hezekiel, Geachichta der Canateinachen Bibal Anatalt, ed. A. H. Niemeyer, Halls, 1827; 0. &rtram, lisrchirhta der Canateinadun Bibelanatalt, ib. 1883; W. Thilo, Go. achichte der preuas%achen Hauyt BibelgeaeUachaft, 1811, 8.4, Berlin 1884; E. Breeat, Die Enluhckelunp der preue­aiachen Haupt B%belpesellachd/t, 18Bk 81, ib. 1891.

For the American Bible Society consult: The Ameri­can Bible Society's Manual, containing a Brief Sketch of the Society, New York 1885, revised ed., 1887; W. P, Strickland, Hilt. of Lie American Bible Society, ib. 1849; American Bible Society's Reports, 1818 71, 4 vole., ib. n.d. (a reprint); American Bible Society. Report o/ the Trance.. ference of the Library of the Society to the New York pub_ lie Library, ib. 1897. The organ is the Bible Society Reo­ord (a monthly).



81b1e Text.

i. The Old Testament. II.

1. The Premseoretio Period.

The Maeoretic Teat (¢ 1).

The Earlier Text (¢ 2>.

Change in Style of writing (¢ 3).

Attempts to Fix the Teat (¢ 4).

The Pronunciation Fixed, but the Teat Still Unvocalised (¢ b).

Word Division (¢ 8).

Division into Verses (¢ 7).

Division into Sections (18).

2. The Maeoretio Period.

The Maeoretes (¢ 1).

Their Work (¢ 2).

Codices (¢ 3).

3. The Poatmaeoretio Period.

The Chapter Division (11).

Old Testament Manuscripts (; 2).2.

The Printed Teat (¢ 3).

Critical Works and Commentaries (¢ 4).

L The Old Testament. I. The Premasoretfo

Period: The extant Hebrew text of the Old Testa­

ment text is commonly called the Masoretic, to dis­

tinguish it from the text of the ancient versions

as well as from the Hebrew text of former ages.

This Masoretic text does not present the original

form but a text which within a certain period was

fixed by Jewish scholars as the correct and only

authoritative one. When and how this official

Masoretic text was fixed was formerly a matter

of controversy, especially during the seventeenth

century. One party headed by the Buxtorfs

(father and son), in the interest of the view of

inspiration then prevalent, held to the absolute

completeness and infallibility, and

1. The hence the exclusive value, of the


Text. Ezra and the men of the Great Syna­

gogue, who, under the inspiration of the Holy

Spirit, were supposed to have purified the text

from all accumulated error; added the vowel­

points, the accents, and other punctuation marks

(thus settling the reading and pronunciation);

fixed the canon; made the right division into verses,

paragraphs, and books; and, finally, by the provi­

dence of God and the care of the Jews, the text thus

made was believed to have been kept from all

error, and to present the veritable Word of God.

This view of the text prevailed especially when

Protestant scholasticism was at its height, and may

be designated as the orthodox Protestant posi­

tion. It was opposed by another party headed

by Jean Morin and Louis Cappel, who, in the

interest of pure historicity or in Antiprotestant

polemics, combated these opinions, maintained

the later age of the Masoretic text, and sought

to vindicate value and usefulness for the old

versions and other critical helps. They fell into

many errors in respect to the details of the history

of the text and overrated the value of Extra­

masoretic critical helps; but their general view was

supported by irresistible arguments and is now

universally adopted. This view, instead of deriving

the existing text from a gathering of inspired

men in Ezra's time, assigns it to a much later date

and quite different men, and, instead of absolute

completeness, claims for it only a relative one


The New Testament.

History of the Written Test.

The Autographs of the New Testa­ment Books (¢ 1).

The Manuscripts (¢ 2),

Their Material and Form (¢ 2).

The Ammonian Sections (14).

Early Divisions of the Teat (¢ 6).

Divisions for Liturgical Reading (¢ 8).

Early Corruption of the Teat (¢ 7).

Varieties of Text Produced by Early Criticism (¢ 8).

The Uncial Manuscripts (¢ 9).

The Cursive Manuscripts, Evangel­istarie& etc. (¢10).

History of the Printed Text.

Compluteneian and Eraemian edi­tions (¢ 1).

Editions of Stephens and Bea& (12)

Editions between 1857 and 1830 (¢ 3). Grieebach and his Followers (¢ 4) Lachmann (¢ 5). Tieohendorf (¢ 8). Tregelles (¢ 7). weatcott and Hort (¢ 8). Other Critics of the Text (¢ 9). More Recent Tendencies (§ 10).

3. Principles of Textual Criticism. The Basal Rule (¢ 1). Other Canons (¢ 2).

4. Results of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament.

IIL Chapter and Verse Divisions. Chapter Divisions (¢ 1), Verse Divisions, Old Testament (¢ 2). Verse Divisions, New Testament ($ 3).

with a higher value than other forms of the text. A glance at the history of the text will show how this agreement has been brought about.

Concerning the oldest history of the text of the Old Testament writings there exists almost no posi­tive information. The books were written prob­ably upon skins, perhaps also on linen;

R. The as paper was used from very early

Earlier times in Egypt, it is possible that

Text. it was emple; parchment appears to have been used later. The roll seems to have been the usual form (Ps. xl, 8; Jer. xxxvi, 14 sqq.; Ezek, ii, 9; Zech. v, 1); the pen was a pointed reed (Jer.viii, 8; Ps. x(v, 1); the character was the Old Hebrew, which was almost identical with the Phenician and Moabitic (on the Moabite Stone, q.v.). Specimens of this writing are also preserved in the Siloam inscription (c; 700 s.c.), on gems (of the eighth or seventh century), on coins of the Hasmoneans and those belonging to the time of the Jewish Roman war, and, in somewhat different form, in Samaritan writings. Like the Phenicians and Moabites, the Hebrews separated the words by a point or stroke, but these signs do not seem to have been used regularly, since the Septuagint often makes word divisions different from those of the Masoretic text. Jewish tradition mentions several passages in which the separation of words was regarded as doubtful.

The difference between ancient and modern texts consisted in this, that the former were written without vowels and accents. The Hebrew writing, like Semitic writing in general, was essentially consonantal; vowels were not written. While the language lived, this occasioned no difficulty to the speakers or readers. No details are at hand con­cerning the way in which the text was multiplied and preserved; but inasmuch as the writings did not then have in popular estimation the character they came later to possess, it is likely that they were less carefully handled, and that the same amount of pains was not taken in copying them. This statement rite upon the fact that those parts of the Old Testament which we possess in double forms vary in ways that indicate a corruption of the text reaching back to precanonical times when copies were neither made nor corrected so laboriously.


A new epoch commenced after the Exile,

when the holy writings were raised to canonical

dignity and as holy writings were venerated and

handled with ever increasing care and conscientious­

ness. This veneration was not accorded to all Bib­

lical writing at once, but only to that part of the

canon called the law. The epoch begins with Ezra,

and extends to the close of the Talmud, c. 500 a.».

During this period not only were the form of writing

and the text fixed, but also the pronunciation and

division; in short, the major part of the present

Masorah was collected in verbal form. A change of

an external kind was the development of a sacred

writing, under the influence of the Aramaic char­

acter, the so called "; square "; or "; Assyrian ";

character. Jewish tradition ascribes the intro­

duction of the square character to Ezra, and calls

it expressly an Aramaic writing that the Jews

adopted in place of their Hebrew, which they left

to the Samaritans. A study of Assyrian, Persian,

and Cili«an seals and coins, of the Aramaic monu­

ments from the third to the first century s.c., and

of the Pahnyrene inscriptions from the first to the

$. ~~ third century A.D. has permitted the

is Style of tracing of the development of the

ttue, present Hebrew alphabet through a

thousand years, back to the eighth

century. Ezra, therefore, may have influenced

the use of the Aramaic alphabet, but the

square character was not developed in his day,

nor for centuries afterward; nor wad the Aramaic

alphabet then used outside of the narrow circle

of the scribes. For not only did the Samaritans

retain the ancient script for their Pentateuch, but

among the Jews also it moat have been used for

a long time, since it is found on coins down to the

time of Bar Kokba. Matt. v, 18 proves that

the Aramaic writing had become popular by the

time that Gospel was written, since in the ancient

Hebrew the letter "; yodh "; was by no means the

smallest. Taking all in all, it may be assumed

with certainty that the use of the new alphabet

in Bible manuscripts of the last Prechriatian

centuries was general, a result which is also con­

firmed by a careful examination of the Septuagint

with reference to the manuscripts used by the

translators (especially must this have been the case

with the Tetragrammaton retained in many copies

of the Greek translation, which was no doubt

written in the Aramaic script, since it was read

erroneously by the Christians). Considering this

development it may be assumed that the latest

Old Testament writings were written, not in the

ancient Hebrew but in Aramaic, by the authors

themselves. After the Aramaic writing was once in

use among the Jews, it soon took the form in which

we now have it. The descriptions which Jerome

sad the Talmud give of the different letters fully

harmonise with the form which is still found in

manuscripts. The minute rules laid down by the

Talmud as to calligraphy and orthography made

further development of the square writing im­

possible, and therefore the writing of the manu­

ecripts varies scarcely at all through centuries

(excepting Perhaps that the German sad Polish

Jews have the so called Tare script, which is some 

what angular, whereas the Spanish Jews have the Welsh or more rounded script).

The veneration shown for the canonical writings during this period naturally led to a greater care in treatment of them and above all to perception of the necessity of critically fixing the text. As soon as the ancient writings obtained canonical authority, were used in divine service, and became the standard of doctrine and life, the necessity of having one standard text naturally asserted itself. The preparation of such a text began with the law; the other two divisions (the prophets and the hagiographa) became authoritative only in the course of centuries (see CANON OF Scntrruxm, I), and naturally their text did not receive atten­tion in the earlier period. However, criticism dur­ing that period was of little value. There is no doubt that faithful and correct copies ex 

isted, especially of such books as were 4. Attempts publicly read, but this could not

to Biz the prevent errors and mistakes from Tezt. cF

p~g ntopiewhich were generally circulated. When Josephus (Contra Apion, I, viii) and Philo (cf. Eusebius, Prceparatio euangelica, VIII, vi, 7) speak of the great care bestowed by the Jews upon their sacred writings, this can not be referred to earlier centuries, and concerns more the contents than the linguistic minutiae of the text. In the oldest critical docu­ments the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Sep­tuagint  there is evidence (about 500 100 s.c.) to show that the manuscripts most approved and moat widely diffused contained many verbal dif­ferences. And these variations are not to be charged, as was formerly done, to carelessness of wilfulness on the part of the Hellenistic Jews and Samaritans, but are explained by the lesser im­portance attached to exact uniformity of text and to the existence of mistakes in the current copies. And when the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch agree in good readings, and still oftener in bad ones, against the Maaoretic text, it may be concluded that these readings were spread by many copies current among the Palestinian Jews, and are therefore not to be regarded as offensive. But after the destruction of Jerusalem, when Judaism was subject to the authority of the rab­bis, it became possible to prepare a uniform stand­ard text, although this idea was not realized until many generations had worked upon it. The Greek versions of the second century had already fewer variations from the Masoretic teat. Still nearer the latter text is the Hebrew text of Origen and Jerome. The Talmud itself bears witness, by the agreement of its Biblical quotations with the Masoretic teat, that the consonantal text was practically finished before the Talmudic era closed. It is not possible to say upon what principles the text was treated; but the way in which the cus­todians presented the individuality of the several authors, books, and periods is remarkable, and proves that intentional and arbitrary changes of the text were not made by these critics. That they changed passages for dogmatic, especially for Antichristian, reasons, as has sometimes been as­serted, has long ago been acknowledged to be a


baseless accusation. Where they mention changes, they make clear than they followed the testimony of manuscripts, the number of which was probably not very great. The fact that in the first cen­turies after Christ the text approximates our present Maeoretic reading shows that a certain recension became authoritative which was possible only after a certain manuscript had been taken as the norm. Of such a standard codex, copies could easily be made, or one could correct his own copies in accordance with it. Scholars like Olshausen and Lagarde speak therefore of some such archetype, which was slavishly fol­lowed in every respect. The critical apparatus of the time is concealed in dissociated fragments in the later Masorah, but can not be separated from the other matter. The Talmud and the older midrasbim allow a little insight into the  critical efforts of the time. Thus mention is made of the "; corrections of the scribes,"; of the "; removals of the scribes"; (meaning that in five passages a falsely introduced "; and "; was removed), and of the points in the Hebrew text over certain words to show that these words were critically suspected, such as the inverted ";nun,"; Num. x, 35, and the three kinds of reading (keri ; see KERI AND KE­TAisa), viz., "; read but not written,"; "; written but not read,"; and "; read [one way] but written [another]."; The three kinds of reading have, it is true, for the most part only exegetical value; e.g., they give the usual  instead of the unusual grammat­ical forms, show where one must understand or omit a word, or where the reader should use a euphe­mistic expression for the coarse one in the text; they are therefore scholia upon the text. It is possible that these "; readings"; are also fragments of the critical apparatus. However this may be, it is evident that at that period the text was fixed and that the matter in question concerned only subordinate details of the text.

The development of the pronunciation or of the vocalization and the division of words, verses, and sections kept pace with the settlement of the text. That the ancient writing had no vowel points has already been stated; but even during this entire period to the close of the Talmud the sacred text was without vowels and other points. The old versions, particularly the Greek, and Joaephus depart so widely from the Masoretic text that they could not possibly have used the present pointed text. The expedient which charges the translators with these differences is of no avail, since it is not any one version which alone shows such differences; they all differ. Origen, too, published a Hebrew text in the Hexapla which differed from the Maeo­retic. Jerome knew nothing about vowel points, not even the diacritical point making

6. The the difference between ";s"; and ";ah.";

Pr,,  The Talmud and the modern eccleaias 

oistion tical or ritual manuscripts of the Jews

~thee Teat t peat an unpointed text. There is

Still Un  no doubt that, as Elias Levita

vocalized. stated, the Masoretic system of punc­

tuation is of later origin, and that

during this entire period the seared text was

without points. But this does not mean that

during the same period the reading of the un­voweled text was still unsettled among the Jews; it must rather be assumed that with the official fixing of the text there was developed also a certain mode of understanding and reading it. Of course time was required to bring it into vogue; but before the end of the period it was so firmly established that Jerome's pronunciation differed very little from the Masoretic, and he was so sure of its cor­rectness that he appeals to it against the text of the versions; and the Talmud gives it throughout correctly. Before the Masoretes the pronunciation was fixed, not yet written, but handed down by word of mouth, although some scholars may have used signs in their books to assist their memory.

Closely connected and mutually dependent were pronunciation and the division of words. The latter must have been finally settled at this period.

e. Word  The sign of division was the small

Division. space between words. The final let 

ters, being limited in number, can not be regarded as word separating signs. Jerome used a text with a division of words and knew the final letters; in the Talmud, Menahot 30a states how large moat be the space between the words; the synagogue scrolls, though still with­out vowels, have nevertheless the division by spaces, following the custom of the ancient manu­scripts from Talmudic time; and the fact that a number of "; readings "; correct the traditional division of words speaks again in favor of the high antiquity of the division of words in the present texts.

The division into verses is by no means contemporary in origin with the vocalization,

but much earlier. The verse divi­7. Divi  sion depends in poetry upon the paral 

sioa into lelism, in prose upon the division

verses. of sentences and clauses. That the lat­ter were not marked in oldest timesis certain; in poet­ical texts the .members may have been distinguished either by space or by breaks of the line. This mode of writing poetical texts was formerly general, and is found in the older Hebrew manuscripts; for the poetical texts, Ex. xv; Deut. xxxii; Judges v; and II Sam. xxii, it is even prescribed (Shabbat 103b; Sopherim xii), and is therefore still customary. With the introduction of the Masoretic accents, poetry was written close, like prose. This verso­division was taught in the schools; but no rules are given for its writing, nor did any punctuation­marks indicate it in this period.

Earlier than the division into verses is that into larger or smaller sections; these were more necessary for the understanding of the Scriptures and for their reading in divine worship. Perhaps some of them were in the original text. The sections of the law

were at least Pretalmudic; for they a. Division are mentioned in the Mishnah sad

into see  frequently in the Gemara; in the tions. latter they are traced to mosaic origin; in Shahbcat 103b. Menohot 30 care is enjoined .as to the sections in copying the law, and therefore they occur also in synagogue­rolla. They are indicated by spacing; the larger sections by leaving the remainder of the line at


their close unfilled, the next great section beginning with a new line, on which account they were called ";open ";; the smaller sections were separated from each other by only a small space, and were there­fore called "; closed "; or "; connected."; Thus not only the law but also the other two parts of the canon were divided. For the division o€ the whole canon, and the arrangement of the books, see CANON OF SCRIPTURE, I.

From what has been said, it follows that the reading of the text, the vocalization, the division into words, verses, and sections depend upon the gradual settlement by the scribes; their reading can claim neither infallibility nor any absolutely binding power; and though their labor betrays a thorough and correct understanding of the text, the necessity may yet arise when the exegete must deviate from tradition. Extraordinary pains were taken to perpetuate in its purity the text thus divided and vocalized. Signs of this care, such as the rules for calligraphy and for writing the extraor­dinary points, have already been mentioned. The Posttalmudic treatises Mosseket sopJterina and Mas­seket sepher torah contain full details for copying. Nevertheless fluctuations are met with in the Maso­retic period, and it must therefore be assumed that learned labor had not yet covered all details or made final settlement.

2. The Masoretio Period: The third period of the textual history is usually reckoned as extending from the sixth until the eleventh Christian century (when Jewish learning was transferred from the East to North Africa and Spain); it embraces the age of the Masoretes proper, and has for the Bible text in general the same importance as the. Tal­mudic period had for the law. The efforts of the scholars to fix the reading and understanding of the sacred text were overshadowed somewhat by the study of the Talmud. After the close of the Talmud the work was resumed and cultivated in

Babylonia and Palestine (at Tiberias).

1. The In hot. schools the work of former

generations was continued; but the

rates. Pales, who acted more inde­pendently than the more Tabnudically inclined Babylonians, finally got the victory over the Babylonian school. In both schools they were no longer satisfied with a mere oral transmission of rules and regulations, but committed them to writing. There is no continuous history of the men of the Masorah and of the progress of their work preserved; but the marginal notes in. ancient Bible­manuseripts and the fragments of other works show that the oldest Mseoretes can be traced back to the eighth century. The main effort of this period (as the name Maaorcah, `° tradition,"; indicates; see MASORAa) was to collect and to write down the eaegetico critical material of the former period; and this makes sufficiently clear the one part of their work. But the Masoretes also added some new matter. Anxiously following the foot­steps of the older critics in their effort to fix and to guard the traditional text, they laid down more minute rules of a linguistic and grammatical char­acter, and in this respect a great part of the con­tents of the Msaorah is indeed new.

IL 7

They took the consonantal textua receptua just as it stood, and finally settled it in the minutest details, as is seen from the variants which became

2. Their a matter of controversy between the

Work. Eat and the West, the Babylonians and

the Palestinians, which to the number of 216 Jacob hen Hayyim published for the first time in the second edition of the Bomberg Rabbinic Bible; these have reference mostly to the vowel points. This list of variants, as is now known, is by no means complete. They also appended critical notes to the text, in part derived from the Talmudic period, in part new (especially the ";grammatical conjectures ";), showing that where, according to the grammar and the genius of the language, one should expect another reading, nevertheless the text must stand. Finally the great majority of the alternative "; readings "; date from the Maeoretes.

The Masoretes fixed the reading of the text by the introduction of the vowel signs, the accents, and the signs which affect the reading of the con­sonants (daghesh,. mappik, raphe, and the dia­critical point to distinguish between the letters "; sin "; and ";shin ";). The pronunciation they thus brought about was no invention, but embodied the current tradition. Nevertheless, one can not accept every Maeoretic reading as infallible and unchangeable, especially when one considers that the tradition no doubt often fluctuated and that with such fluctuation the less correct reading may often have come into the text. Besides the system found in the majority of manuscripts, there exists another which has only recently become known called the "; superlinear "; system, because the vowel signs are placed above the letters; this is found in some Babylonian and South Arabian manuscripts. The namo is also the case with the accents.

The division of the text into verses, introduced by the Maeoretes, was neither Babylonian nor Palestinian, but . one which the Masoretes them­selves seem to have established. At the beginning of this period the end of the verses was marked by soph paauk, and, when the accents mere introduced, by ailluk, besides. The old sections were retained, though not recognized as entirely correct, and the old traditional sign for the section, the smaller spacing (the little bin printed teats), was respected. The closed sections were marked in manuscripts and prints by a D, the open ones by a bin the empty space before the initial word. In addition there were introduced the Babylonian division into sections or parashiyoth. (in the law) and hcaph­taroth (in the prophets), for Sabbath public read­ing. As these sections generally agree with the beginning and the end of an open or closed sec­tion, they were marked by a threefold p [i.e., D m p] or D [D D D] in the empty space before the beginning.

But even these efforts could not entirely remove variations. Hence, before the end of this period,

the learned either attempted to find out by an elaborate comparison the correct punctuation and

to fix it, or marked the important variations in the punctuation, or added s caution to each apparently


strange and yet correct punctuation. The greater mass of notes which the Masoretes added to the text

relate to these matters. Besides some

8. Codices. other Masoretfe manuscripts of the

Bible which are quoted in the Maso­retic notes of the codices or in the writings of the rabbis as authoritative, such as the codex Hilleli, the Jericho Pentateuch, and others, two codices were especially famous as model codices of the Old Testament, the codex of Naphtali (Moses ben David ben Naphtali) and the codex of Asher (Aaron ben Moses ben Asher), both from the first half of the tenth century. (Aaron lived at Tiberias, Moses in Babylon; but the latter can not be regarded as a representative of the "; Babylonian "; text tra­dition.) They were once much examined by schol­ars; many of their variants are noted in the hlaso­retic Bible manuscripts; a list of 864 (better 867) variants, which refer almost exclusively to vowels and accents, has been published after Jacob ben Hayyim in Bomberg's and the other Rabbinic Bibles, as well as in the sixth volume of the London Polyglot; but these variants are neither correct nor complete. On the codex of Asher finally rests the whole Masoretic teat of the Occidentals; of the variant readings comparatively few were received into it.

As the older scribes had already shown extraor­dinary solicitude for the preservation of the text and its correct reading by counting its sections, verses, words, letters, and by noting where and how often and when certain words, letters, or anomalies occur in the Bible, which verse is the longest and which the shortest, and like minutiae, the Masoretes of course continued this work, wrote it down, and preserved it in manuscripts.

The punctuation of the text as developed by the Masoretea proved itself so useful and met so well an essential need of those later times that it soon went over into manuscripts and, with the exception of synagogue manuscripts, almost none were written which did not contain either the pointed text alone or the pointed beside the unpointed. The other Masoretic material was written either beside and below the text of the Biblical books on the margins and at the close of the same, or in separate maeorah­collectiona (see Me$oxna).

3. The Postmasoretic Period: After the com­pletion of the Masoretic textual work and the collection of the notes having reference to it, no essential change was made in the text; conse­quently this period is the time of the faithful preservation, multiplication, and circulation of the Masoretic text. An essential innovation was the introduction of the now customary division into

1. The chapters, which was invented by

Chapter  Stephen Langton at the beginning of

Division. the thirteenth century, and applied

to the Vulgate. Isaac ben Nathan adopted it for his Hebrew concordance (1437 38, published 1523), on which occasion the verses of the chapters were also numbered. The chapter­division was first applied to the Hebrew in tlu: second edition of Bomberg's Bible, 1521; the num­bering of verses was first adopted for the Sabi­onetta Pentateuch, 1557, and that of the whole

Bible in Athiara's edition of 1661 (see below, III, §§ 1 2).

Another feature of this period is that a sufficient number of manuscripts is preserved to give an immediate knowledge of the text. The Hebrew Bible manuscripts may be divided into two classes, the public or sacred and the private or common. The first were synagogue rolls,

and have been prepared so carefully 2. Old Tee  and watched so closely that the

tament intrusion of variants and mistakes



was hardly possible. But they con­tain only the Pentateuch or the Pen­tateuch with the five Megilloth or ";Rolls"; (i.e., Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesi­astea, Esther), and the haphtaroth (see above, 2, § 1) in the text of the Masoretes without their additions. These manuscripts are, for the most part, of recent origin, although antique in form, be­ing written on leather or parchment. The pri­vate manuscripts are written on the same material, and also upon paper in book form, with the Maso­retic additions more or less complete. It is often difficult, indeed impossible, to determine the date and country of these manuscripts. But none of those now known are really very old. The oldest authentic date is 916 A.D. for the codex containing the prophets with Babylonian punctuation, and 1009 A.D. for an entire Hebrew Bible, both of which belong to the Firkowitach collection in the Imperial Library at St. Petersburg. According to the moat recent investigation the MS. orient. 4445 in the British Museum (containing Gen. xxv, 20 Deut. i, 33) may be a little older. As a rule the oldest manuscripts are the more accurate. The number of errors that crept in, especially in private manu­scripts, which were prepared without any official oversight, awakened solicitude and led to well­directed efforts to get a pure text by means of collating good Masorah manuscripts (cf. B. Ken­nieott, Dissertatio generalis, Oxford, 1780, I lvi; J. G. Eichhorn, Einleitung, Leipaic, 1803, 136b). In this line the labors of Melr ha Levi of Toledo (d. 1244) in his work on the Pentateuch called ";The Masorah, the Hedge of the Law"; (Florence, 1750; Berlin, 1761) are celebrated.

The art of printing opened a way of escape from

copyists' errors, and it was taken very early. The

Psalter was printed first, at Bologna in 1477 [on

the earlier prints, cf. B. Pick, History of the Printed

Editions o f ,the Old Testament, in Hebraiea, ix (1892­

1893), 47 116], the first complete Bible at Soncino

8. The m 1488; Gerson's edition (the edition

Printed which Luther used for his translation)

Teat. followed (Brescia, 1494). Substan­

tially the same text is contained in

the first edition of Bomberg's Rabbinic Bible

(1517; see BIBLES, RABBINIC), also in the editions

of Robert Stephens (1539 sqq.) and of Sebastian

Munster. The second independent edition derived

from manuscripts is that in the Complutenaian

Polyglot (1514 17; see BIBLES, POLYGLOT, 1). The

text has vowels but no accents. The third impor­

tant recension is contained in the Biblia Rabbinica

Bombergiana, ed. 11., carts R. Jacob ben Ciiajim

(Venice, 1525 26); it is edited according to the


Maeorah, which the editor first revised, and con­tains the entire Masoretic and Rabbinic apparatus. It is more or less reproduced in prints published during the sixteenth and in the beginning of the seventeenth centuries. Besides these original re­censiona, editions were published having a mixed text; the Hebrew .text of the Antwerp Polyglot (1569 72), which is followed by the small editions of Plantin, the Paris and London Polyglots, and the editions of Reineccius, is based upon that of the Complutensian and Bomberg. Another recession is represented in the editions of Elias Hotter (1587), Buxtorf, and Joseph Athias with preface by J. Leusden (1661 eqq.), for which some very ancient manuscripts were collated. Athias's edition be­came also the basis of later editions like that of Jablonski (1699), Van der Hooght (1705), Opita (1709), J. H. Michaelis (1720), Hahn (1832), and Theile (1849).

None of these editions presents the Masoretic text in its original form. The large collections of variants by B. Kennieott, Vetva Teatamentum Hebraicum cum variia lectionibus (2 vole., Oxford, 1776 80), more especially by De Rossi, Varice lectionea Yeteria Twtamenti (4 vole., Parma, 1784­88) and Supplentertta ad varies sacri, texttta lectionea (1798), are valuable for some Extramgaoretic read­ings which they offer, but they are less valuable for critical purposes. More important for text­critical purposes are (besides the work of Meir ha­Levi, ut sup.) the "; Light of the Law "; of Mena 

hem de Lonzano (Venice, 1618) and 4. Critical particularly the critical commentary

Works and on the Old Testament by Solomon

O~amsa  Minorzi (Mantas, 1742 44; Vienna,

1813), the works of Wolf ben Samson Heidenheim, and especially the thorough work on the Masorah by S. Fiensdorff (Massora magna, part I, Hanover, 1878, and Oklah we 0khth, 1864). Of great service were the publication of the works of the oldest Jewish grammarians and lexicog­raphers and the discovery of fragments and publi­cation of codices like that on the prophets of the year 916 (published by Strack, Prophelarum pos­teriorum codex Babylontcu8 Petropolitantts, St. Pe­tersburg, 1876). The fruits of these preliminary works are contained in the correct editions of the Masoretic text by Baer and Ginsburg. Beer, who was assisted by Delitzsch, published the Old Testa­ment with the exception of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy [both editors died without completing their work], Ginsburg's edi­tion is entitled The New Masaoretieo Critical Text of the Hebrew Bible [2 vols., London, 1894. It should be studied with the same author's indis­pensable Introduction to the Masaoretieo critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible (London, 1897)).

Valuable as such correct editions of the Maeoretic text are, they represent only s single recession, whose source is the textua receptua mentioned above, which was fixed in the first Christian centuries. With this recession the text critical and exegetical treatment of the Old Testament can not be satisfied. Before the received text was made canonical there existed different forma of the text, which in many stood nearer to the original than that

sanctioned by the Jews. The main witness here

is the Septuagint, a correct edition of which is

an absolutely necessary though extremely difficult

task. But Old Testament textual criticism can

not be satisfied with a comparison even with this

older form of the text. In many cases the cor­

ruption of the text is so old that only a criticism

both cautious and bold can approximate to the

genuine text. In modern times some very impor­

tant contributions have been made, such as J.

Olshausen, Emendationen zum Allen Testament

(Kiel, 1826); idem, Beitrage zur Kritik den iiberlie­

ferten Textes im Bttche Genesis (1870); J. Well­

hausen, Text der Biicher Samuelis (Gbttingen,

1871); F. Baethgen, Zu den Psalmen, in JPT

(1882); C. H. Cornill, Da$ Buch des Propheten Eze­

chiel (Leipsic, 1886); S. R. Driver, Notes on dha

Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel (London,

1890); A. Klostermann, Die Bother Samttelia and

der Klinige (Munich, 1837), idem, Deutero Jesaita

(Munich, 1893); G. Beer, Der Text den Bathes

Hiob (part i, Marburg, 1895); the Sacred Books of

the Old Testament (the so called Polychrome or

Rainbow Bible), ed. P. Haupt (Baltimore, London,

and Leipsic, 1894 sqq.); and Kettel's edition, Leip­

sic, 1905 06. (F. BUHL.)

Brnrroosern:: Besides the introductions to the Old Testa­ment (especially of J. G. Eichhorn, 4th ed., GSttingen, 1823 2b; W. M. L. de Wette, 8th ed. by E. Schrader, pp. 111 158, Berlin, 1889; C. H. Cornilh $§ 49 53, Freiburg, 1905; F. E. KSnig, $§ 3 30, 92, Bonn, 1893; C. H. H. Wright, London, 1891, and W. H. Bennett, ib. 1900) and the works mentioned in the text consult: J. Morinus, Ex­arei(ationum biblicarum de Hebrasi lsraeique teztua ain­aritate Libri duo, Paris, 1889; L. Capellus, Critics sacra, Paris, 1860, new edition with notes by Vogel and $char­fenberg, Halle, 1775 $8; H. Hody, De bibliorum tertibua oripinalibue, Oxford, 1705; H. Hupfeld, in TSK, 1830, 1837; A. Geiger, Urachrift arid Ucbaraetzungen der Bibef, Breslau, 1857; L. Loew, Beitrtige Sur jildiachen ALterldums­kunde, Leipsic, 1870 (deals with materials and products of writing); H L $traek, Prolegomena critics in Vetua Teatamentum Hebraicum, Leipsie, 1873 (very full upon ex­tant and lost MSS., and on the testimony of the Talmud to, the text); A. Kuenen, Lea Originea du texts maaorbtique (from the Dutch), Paris, 1875; Palaaopraphical Society, Oriental Series, Facsimiles of MSS. and Inscriptions, Lon­don, 1875 $3 (deals with many important codices of the O. T.): A. HarkavY. Neunutpefundens hebrBiaehe BiLel­handachri/ten, $t. Petersburg, 1884 (characterises fifty one Hebrew M$$. and fragments); V. Rysael, Unterauchun­pen fiber die Testgeatalt and die Echtheit den Bathes Micha, Leipeic, 1887 (198 pages concern the text); G. C. Work­men, The Text of Jeremiah, a Critical Investigation of the Greek and .He6rew Edinburgh, 1889: T. K. Abbott, Essay& chiefly on the Original Texts of the Old and New Testaments, London 1891 (on Masoretic and Premasoretic text); F. Buhl, Ranon and Text den Alten Testaments, Leipsic, 1891, Eng. travel., Edinburgh, 1892 (useful for beginners); A,

Logy. Histoire critique du texts et den versions de la Bible, 2 Yoh., Paris, 1892 95; F. G. Kenyon, Our Bible and me Ancient MSS., Being a History o/ the Text and its Trane­Jations, London, 1898 W. A. Copinger, The Bible and its Transmission, View of the Hebrew and Greek Texts, London, 1897; E. Kautseeh, Abrine der Geachichte de,

1ffaata>nenUsrhen Schri/teams, in appendix to his edition of Die Wigs Schrift, Freiburg, 1898, Eng tranal. as a

separate work, New York, 1899; T. H. Weir, A Short History of the ebrew Text of the Old Testamen, London,

1899; R. Kittel User die Notwendipkeit anal MJiglfchkeit

11n@r `4th' hebpgiachea BU Leipsic. 1902;

P. Kahle, Der maaoretiacha Text den often Testaments nacla der Ueberlielerunp der 6abylonisck; n Judea, Le. 1902; T. K. Cheyne. Crilica biblica parts 1 b. London 1903­1906: F. W. Mosley, Psalter et the Church • Septuagint Psalms Compared oath as Hebrew, ib. 1905, On the ancient He­brew and square writing consult: D. von Muralt. Bei 


trope zur hebrlliachere Palrloprapleie and zur (ieadeichfa der Punktuation, in TSK, 1874; 8. R. Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel, pp. xi xxxv, London, 1890; Vollers, in ZATW, 1883, pp. 229 eqq.; L. Blau, Zur Einleitunp in die )eeilige Schrift, pp. 48 $0, Strasburg, 1894; R. Butin, The Tan Nequdoth of flee Torah; or the Meaning and Purpose of the Extraordinary Points of the Pentateuch, Baltimore, 1906 (an important and scientific discussion of textual critical value). On the Meaoretio material in the Talmud and Midrash consult: H. L. Strack, Prolegomena oitica in Vetua Teatamentum, ut sup.; L, Bleu, Maaoratiache Unteraucltungen, Strasburg, 1891; idem, Zur Einkdtung in die hailipe Schrift, 100 sqq., ut sup. On the vowels and accents (especially on the auperlinear system) of. Strack'e edition of the Babylonian codex of the prophets p vii, ut sup.; idem, Zeitechvsft fur die go­aammde LutheriacAa Theolopie and Kirche, 1877, pp. 17 52; idem, in Wienenachaftliche Jahreatxrichte fiber die neor­penl8ndisdeere Studien, 1879, p. 124; J. Derenbourg, in Re­vue critique, 1879, pp, 453 eqq.; W. Wickes, A Treatise on !he Accentuation of flea Three Poetical Books, 1881; A Treatise on the Accentuation of the twenty one so called Prose Books, pp. 142 sqq., London, 1887; G. F. Moors, in Proceedings o/ the American (Mental Society, 1888; D. S. Margoliouth, The Suyerlinear Punctuation, in PSBA, 1893, pp. 184 205; A. Biichler, Unterauchungen sur Enlstehunp and Entwickeiunp der hebrdiachen Accents, Vienna, 1892. On the division into sections, chapters, etc., cf. REJ, iii, 282 aqq., vi. 122 sqq., 250 sqq., vii, 148 eqq.; Theodor, in Monateachrift fiirGeschichfa and Wieaenechaftdea Judan­thuma, 1885, 1888, 1887; O, Schmid, UeZrer verachiedene Einteilungen der heiZigen Schrift, Gras, 1891. The cata­logues of Hebrew MSS, are mentioned in H. L. Strack, Prolegomena, pp. 29 33, 119 121, ut sup.; idem, in Ein­leitunp in das A. T., p. 182, Munich, 1898; and with special fulness in Ginsburg, Introduction, ut sup.

II. The New Testament. 1. History of the Writ­

ten Text: The autographs of the New Testament

very early disappeared, owing to the constant use

of the perishable papyrus; for this appears to have

been the material (II John 12). If they were

really not in the handwriting of the apostles, but

in that of their amanuenses, as Paul's Epistles

generally were (Rom. xvi, 22; II Thess. iii, 17),

it is easier to account for the phenomenon. The

papyrus rolls preserved to the present day were

never much used; indeed, the moat of them have

been found in sarcophagi, and so, of course, were

never used at all. 'The ink was lampblack mixed

with gum dissolved in water, copperas

1. The An  (sulphate of iron) being sometimes

toeraphs of added. The pen was of reed (calve

the New

Testament mtts). The writing was entirely in

Books. uncials (capitals), with no separation

of the words (except rarely to indicate

the beginning of a new paragraph), no breathings,

accents, or distinction of initial letters, and few, if

any, marks of punctuation. The evangelists may

have denominated their compositions "; Gospels,";

although Justin regularly speaks of the "; Memoirs

of the Apostles ";; but all addition to the name is

later, and presupposes a collection of the Gospels.

In the case of the Epistles the brief address, e.g.,

"; To the Romans,"; was probably added by the

original sender, and other marks of genuineness

given (cf. II Theas. iii, 17). The Muratorian Canon

(second half of the second century; see Muxe­

TORIAN CANON) calls Acts and the Apocalypse by

these names, and so proves the early use of these

designations. The designation "; Catholic (i.e., Gen­

eral) Epistle  is first met with at the close of the sec­

ond century (Apollonius, in Eueebius, Hilt. eccl,, V,

aviii, b, where the First Epistle of John is probably

meant). The application and limiting of the term to the whole of the present collection is of later date; for even in the third and fourth ceitury it was customary to give this term to epistles, like that of Barnabas or those of Dionysius of Corinth, which were not specially addressed.

The external history of the New Testament text for a thousand years prior to the invention of printing can be traced by means of manuscripts. Before the formal close of the canon (end of fourth century) there were probably few single manu 

scripts of the entire New Testament. 2. The Of the three thousand known manu 

Mann  scripts of the New Testament, only

scripts. about thirty include all the books. Some of those of the fourth and fifth century now preserved contain not only the Greek Old Testa­ment (id, A, B, C), but also writings which, though not canonical, were read in churches and studied by catechumens. Thus, attached to the Codex Sinaitictcs (N) were the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Herman; to the Codex Alexan­drinua (A), two "; epistles "; ascribed to Clement of Rome (q.v.) and the so called Psalteriurrx Salo­monis. The four Gospels were most frequently copied, the Pauline Epistles oftener than the Catholic Epistles or the Acts, least often the Apoc­alypse. The Gospels were usually arranged in the present order, then came the Pauline Epistles, the Acts, and the Catholic Epistles; the Apocalypse always last. The arrangement of the Epistles differed; indeed, there was no model. (On the various arrangements cf. C. A. Credner, Geschichte dea neutestamentlichen Kanorxs, ed. G. Volkmar, Berlin, 1860; C. R. Gregory, Prolegomena, Leipsic, 1884, pp. 131 sqq.; T. Zahn, Geschichte den neutesttt­7rterttliehen Kanona, Erlangen, 1883, ii, 343 sqq.)

After papyrus had gone out of use, parchment or vellum came in and was used from the fourth to the eleventh century; then came in cotton paper, and afterward linen paper (cf. W. Wattenbach, Daa Schriftwesen im Mittelvlter, Leipaie, 1896, pp. 139 aqq.). The growing scarcity of parchment led to the reuse of the old skins, the former writing being erased or washed off; and unfortunately it oftener happened that it was a Biblical manuscript which was thus turned into a patristic one than the reverse. Such manuscripts are termed Codices

palimpsesti (palimpsests) or rescripti. 8. Their By the use of chemicals the origi 

Material nal text has often been recovered in and Form  modern times. The moat famous

New Testament palimpsest is the Codex Ephraemi (C), of the fifth century, rewritten upon in the twelfth. As papyrus disappeared from use, the book form was generally substituted for the rolls, in manuscripts written on parchment or paper. The books were mostly made up of qtlaternions, i.e., quires of four sheets, doubled so as to make sixteen pages, less frequently of five, though later quires of six sheets were common. The division of the page into columns .was at first retained, two being the usual number (e.g., Cod. Alex.); but in many manuscripts (e.g., Cod. Ephraemi) the lines ran across the page. [Excep­tionally, Lt has four columns, B three.] From the


seventh and eighth centuries the present accents were more or less used, but very arbitrarily and irregularly. The uncials gradually changed their earlier simple round or square forms, and from the tenth century yielded to the cursives. The earliest punctuation was by means of a blank apace and a simple point. Euthalius, a deacon in Alexandria, in the year 458 published an edition of the Epistles of Paul, and soon after of the Acts and Catholic Epistles, written atichometrically, i.e., in single lines containing only so many words as could be read, consistently with the sense, at a single inspira­tion. This mode of writing was used long before in copying the poetical books of the Old Testament. It involved, however, a great waste of parchment, so that, in manuscripts of the New Testament, it was superseded after a few centuries by punctuation­marka.

Divisions of the text were early made for vari­ous purposes. In the third century Ammoniac of Alexandria (q.v.) prepared a Harmony of the Gospels, taking the text of Matthew as the basis.

Eusebius of Cmsarea, in the early 4. The Am  part of the fourth century, availin

monian g

Sections. himself of the work of Ammoniac,

divided the text of each Gospel into

sections, the length of which, varying greatly

(in John xix, 6 there are three, and in twenty­

four other instances two, in a single verse), was

determined solely by their relation of parallelism

or similarity to passages in one or more of

the other Gospels, or by their having no parallel.

These sections (often erroneously ascribed to

Ammoniac) were then numbered  consecutively

in the margin of the Gospel in black ink; Matthew

having 355, Mark 233 (not 236), Luke 342, and

John 232. They were distributed by Eusebius

into ten tables or canons prefixed to the Gospels,

and containing the sections corresponding in 

I. Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, 71.

II. Matthew, Marl, Luke, 111. III. Matthew, Luke, John, 22.

IV. Matthew, Mark, John, 26.

V. Matthew, Luke, 82.

VI. Matthew, Mark, 47. VII. Matthew, John, 7.

VIII. Luke, Mark, 14.

IX. Luke, John, 21.

X. Sections peculiar to Matthew 62, Mark 21, Luke 71, John 97.

Under the number of each section in the mar­gin of the several Gospels was written in red ink the number of the canon or table to which it be­longed. On turning to its place in this table, the number of the corresponding section or sections in the other Gospels stands with it, so that the paral­lel passages may readily be found. For example, the first verse of Matt. iv forma the fifteenth Eusebian section; the number two under this refers to the second canon or table, where it appears that section fifteen in Matthew corresponds to six in Mark, and fifteen in Luke; i.e., to Mark i, 12, and Luke iv, 1. In some manuscripts the parallel sec­tions are indicated at the bottom of the page. They thus correspond to our marginal references. Cf. Euae 

bias, Epist. ad CarPianum ; J. Burgon, The Last

Twelve Verses o f S. Mark (London, 1871), pp. 295 aqq.

Wholly different in character and purpose from the Euaebian sections, and probably older, is a division of the Gospels into sections called tillai, also kephalaia majors (in Latin manuscripts, breves), found in most manuscripts from the Alex­andrine and the Ephraem (A, C) of the fifth century onward. Of these sections Matthew

6. Early contains gg, Mark 48, Luke 83, John

Divisions 18. The numbers by which they are of the Text. designated in the margin of manu­scripts refer to the titles describing their con­tents at the top or bottom of the page, or in a list prefixed to each Gospel, or often in both places. A certain portion at the beginning of each Gospel is not numbered; for example, the first chapter in Matthew corresponds with our chap. ii, 1 15, and is entitled peri tbn magan, "; Con­cerning the Magi."; There is a similar division in the Acts and Epistles, to which Euthalius (about 458 A.D.), though not its inventor, gave wide cur­rency by his etichometric edition of these books. The Apocalypse was divided by Andrew, bishop of Caeasrea in Cappadocia (about 500 A.D.), into twenty four logoi, or chapters, and each of these chapters into three kephalaia, or sections, the former number answering to the twenty four elders spoken of in the book (Rev, iv, 4); the latter suggested by the threefold division of human nature into body, soul, and spirit (comp. I Theca. v, 23), as the author himself declares. In the Vatican manuscript (B), there is a division of the Gospels into much shorter chapters (Matt. 170, Mark 62, Luke 152, John 80), very judiciously made. This has been found in only one other manuscript, the Codex Zacynthius (_";). In the Acts and Epis­tles the Vatican manuscript has a twofold divi­sion into chapters, one very ancient, the other later, but both different from the Euthalian. In the older division, the Pauline Epistles are treated as one book. (For further details see Tiechendorf, Novum Testamentum Yaticanum, Leipsie, 1867, p. xax; Scrivener, Introduction, i, London, 1894, pp. 56 sqq.) Other ancient divisions of the New Testament into chapters were more or less widely current, especially in Latin and Syriac manuscripts.

The superacriptiona, "; Epistle of Paul,"; "; Catho­lic Epistles,"; etc., cannot be earlier than the fourth century, since they imply a canonical collection. The subscriptions at the end of the Pauline Epistles in many manuscripts are generally ascribed to Euthaliun. At least six of these are untrustworthy (I Con, Gal., I and II Theas., I Tim., Tit.). For the modern divisions of the Bible into chapters and verses see III below.

An ancient division of the text is the les­sons, or lections, from the Gospels on the one hand, and the Acts and Epistles on

  the other, read in the public services

sions for of the Church. The history of these

L'turff'°  is obscure, and they varied much at

`i Read  different periods and in different

regions. The lessons for the Sundays

and chief festivals of the year seem to have been

the earliest; next were added lessons for the Sate


urdayy, and finally for every day in the week, with special commemoration of saints and mar­tyrs. Euthaliua marked, in the Acts, 18 of these "; lessons ";; in the Catholic Epistles, 10; in the Pauline Epistles, 31; in all, 57. Ile was prob­ably not, ay many have supposed, their inventor. The system of lessons which ultimately prevailed in the Greek Church appears in our evangeliyta­riey and lectionariea (more properly praxapoatoli), containing the lessons from the Gospels and the Acts and Epistles respectively. The ordinary manuscripts of the Greek Testament were often adapted for church service by masking the begin­ning and end of each lesson, with a note in the margin of the time or occasion for reading it, and by prefixing to them a Synaxarion, or table of the lessons in their order; sometimes also a Meno­Iogion, or calendar of the immovable festivals and the saints' days, with their appropriate lessons.

Turning to the internal history of the New Testar ment text, it is evident that its original purity was early lost. The quotations of the latter half of the second century contain readings which agree with later texts, but are not apostolic. Irenaeus alludes (Hasr., V, xxx, 1) to the difference between the copies; and Origen, early in the third century, ~eepresaly declares that matters were growing worse (in Matt., xix, 19, vol. iii, p. 671, ed. De la Rue, Paris, 1733 59), ay is proved by the quotations .of the Fathers of the third and fourth centuries. From this time onward we have the manuscript text of each century, the writings of the Fathers, and the various Oriental and Occidental versions, all testifying to varieties of reading for almost every verse, which undoubtedly occasioned many more

or less important departures from the

7. Early sense of the original text. How came


tion this ? The early Church did not know

the Teat. tion of anything of that anxious clip

to the letter which characterizes the scientific rigor and the piety of modern times, and therefore was not so bent upon pre­serving the exact words. Moreover, the first copies were made rather for private than for pub­lic use; copyists were careless, often wrote from dictation, and were liable to misunderstand. Attempted improvements of the text in grammar and style; proposed corrections in history and geography; efforts to harmonize the quotations in the New Testament with the Greek of the Sep­tuagint, but especially to harmonize the Gospels; the writing out of abbreviations; incorporation of marginal notes in the text; the embellishing of the Gospel narratives with stories drawn from non apostolic though trustworthy sources, e.g., John vii, 53 to viii, 11, and Mark xvi, 9 to end,­it is to there causes that we must attribute the very numerous "; readings,"; or textual variations. It is true that the copyists were sometimes learned men; but their zeal in making corrections may have obscured the true text as much as the igno­rance of the unlearned. The copier, indeed, came under the eye of an official reviser; but he may have sometimes exceeded his functions, and done more harm than good by his changes.

Attempts were made by learned Fathers to get

the original text; and three men of the third cen­tury Origen, the Egyptian Bishop Heaychius, and the Presbyter Lucian of Antioch deserve mention for their devotion to this object. The last two undertook a sort of recension of the New Testament (cf. Jerome, Epist. ad Damastsm); but it is not known exactly what they did, and their influence was small. In regard to Origen, while he did not make a formal recension of the New Testament text, his critical work was of the highest importance. Notwithstanding these diver­sities, there were, as early as the fourth and fifth centuries, affinities between manuscripts prepared in the same district, which seem to betray certain tendencies, as is proved by the Fathers, the ver­sions, and the Greek manuscripts themselves. Thus critics are justified in speaking of an Oriental and Occidental, or, more correctly, an Alexandrian or Egyptian, and a Latin, as also of an Asiatic or Greek, and a Byzantine or' Conetantinopolitan text. According to this theory, the Alexandrian was used by those Jewish Christians of the East who already used the Septuagint; particularly was this text preserved and spread by the

e. Varie  learned Alexandrian school. The ties of Latin text characterizes not only the

Teat Pro  manuscripts prepared by Latins, but Early the Greek manuscripts they used.

Criticism. The Asiatic manuscripts were used chiefly by native Greeks in Greece, or in the Asiatic provinces having intercourse with Greece. The Byzantine manuscripts belonged to the Church of that empire. The latter alone had a certain official uniformity, and were, in the latter centuries, almost the only manuscripts circulated in the empire. This class of manuscripts is also the only one perfectly represented in existing documents, and is the result of the gradual mix­ture of older recensions under the predominance of the Asiatic or Greek. Each of these recensions is more or less altered and corrupted; so that it is often wore difficult to assign a particular reading to its proper class than to find out the original. Finally, the differences and relationships are by far most strongly marked in the Gospels, least so in the Apoc­alypse, and again are more distinct in the Pauline Epistles and the Acts than in the Catholic Epistles. (Cf. C. Tiaehendorf, Novum Testamentum Greece, editio academics viii, Leipyie, 1875, pp. xw yqq.)

The number of uncial manuscripts of the New Testament, ranging in date from the fourth to the tenth century, is 114. This does not include eight psaltery containing the text of the 9. The Un. hymns in Luke i, 4fi 55, 68 79, ii,

cial Mann  ~ designated by Tiachendorf

ao ript®.

O • ";, nor the lectionariea, evan­geliytaries, and praxapoytoli. About half of there 114 are mere fragments, containing but a few verses or at most a few chapters. They may be arranged as follows with reference to their probable date:

Cent. IV, 2: to with the whole New Testament; B, Gos­pels, Acts, Catholic, and Pauline Epistles (mutilated).

Cent. V, 15: A C h•' • lb Q, Qy T°e T";°t ~~ '17no ie,

Cent. VI, 24: D, D2 Ey Hs h .' Nl N• Oy Ob, p,•R, T";°eh z 0^•f` 2 0 ail.


Cent. VII, 17: F° G9 Is•s R9 Tdtmpq Wumn e.n w.

Cent. VIII, 19: B9 E, Ll $2 Ttnor. Wwt y ga g .p p ic.e_

Cent. IX, 31: E, Ft.' G, Gb Hj Kt.1 Ls MIA Nf Ci Ps Tfk Vw°";'X";roese11 19.

Cent. X, 8: G, Hl $, U X 7,.

Of these only one, lt, hen the New Testament entire, and only four others, ABC', the greater part of it. The remainder are distributed, accord­ing to the principal divisions of the New Testa­ment, as follows:

Gospels, 81: Complete or nearly so, 12: D E K L M $ U V r o u d2 ; containing considerable portions, 14: F G H N P Q R X Z 0 S $ 0 7 ; containing at moat a few chapters or verses, ii5: F'° It, N° O T°_t. n_r .rwot W° o gn gr>a '%s t4.

Acts, 13: Complete or nearly so, 5: D E L P $; the rest with larger (H) or smaller portions (G Gb F° I'.s.s 3).

Catholic Epistles, b: Complete or nearly so, 4: K L P $, and the fragment 7.

Pauline Epistles, 20: Complete or nearly so, 7: D E F G K L P; containing larger oremallerfregmente, 13: F° H I' M N O O° Q R $ Tg• '1";.

Apocalypse: besides g A C, B9 contains the complete teat; P has some small gape.

In reference to the character of their text, Tiaeh­endorf classifies the uncials as follows: in the Gos­pels the oldest form of the text, predominantly Alexandrine in ire coloring, is found, though with many differences, in bt A B C D I I° L P Q R T";";` X Z A A•a _w; next to these stand F' N O W,',, Y A•";•t. A later form of the text, in which the Asiatic col­oring prevails, is presented by E F G H K M 8 U V T A lI 9t, among which E K M t A II 8t incline moat toward the first class. For the Acts and Catholic E