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BA6ILIDEB, bas i lai'dfz, AND THE BASILID
IAlIS: Basilidea, a famous Gnostic, was a pupil
of as alleged interpreter of St. Peter, Glsucisa by
name, and taught at Alexandria during the reign of
Hadrian (117 138). He may have been previously
a disciple of Menander at Antioch, together with
Saturnilna. The Acts Archelai state that for a time
he taught among the Persians. He composed
twenty four books on the Gospel, which, according
to Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, iv, 12), were
entitled "; Exegetice."; Fragments of xiii and xxiii,
preserved by Clement and in the Acta Archelai,
supplement the knowledge of Basilides furnished
by his opponents. Origen is certainly wrong in
ascribing to him a Gospel. The oldest
Basilidea. refutation of the teachings of Basilides, by Agrippa Castor (q.v.), is lost, and we are dependent upon the later accounts of Irenseus, Clement of Alexandria, and Hippolytus. The latter, in his Phidosophu»xena, gives a presentation entirely different from the other sources. It either rests on corrupt accounts, or, more probably, on those of a later, post Basilidian phase of the system. Hippolytus describes a monistic system, in which Hellenic, or rather Stoic, conceptions stand in the foreground, whereas the genuine. IL i
Basilides is an Oriental through and through, who stands in closer relationship to Zoroaster than to Aristotle.
The fundamental theme of the Basilidian speculation is the question concerning the origin of evil and how to overcome it. The answer. is given entirely in the forma of Oriental gnosis, evidently influenced by Paraeeiem. There are two principles, untreated and self existent, light and darkness, originally separated and without knowledge of tech other. At the head of the"; kingdom of light
stands "; the untreated, unnamable His System. God."; From him divine life unfolds in successive steps. Seven such revelations form the first ogdoad, from which issued the rent of the spirit world, till three hundred and aixtyfive spirit realms had originated. These are comprised under the mystic name Abraeaa (q.v.), whose numerical value answers to the number of the heavens and days. Being seized with a longing for light, darkness now interferes. A etruggIp of the principles commences, in which originated our system of the world as copy of the last stage of the spirit world, having an archon and angel at its head. The earthly life is only a moment of the general purification process which now takes place to deliver the world of light from darkness. Hence everything which is bad and evil in this system of the world becomes intelligible when regarded in its proper relations. Gradually the rays of light find their way through the mineral kingdom, vegetable kingdom, and animal kingdom. Man has two souls in his breast, of which the rational soul trite to master the material or animal. For the consummation of the process an intervention from above is necessary, however. The Christian idea of the manifestation of God in Jesus Christ is the historical fact which Basilides subjects to his general thoughts. God's "; mind "; (Gk. noun) descended upon Jesus as dove at the Jordan, sad he proclaimed salvation to the Jews, the chosen people of the archon. The suffering of Jesus, Basilides admitted as a historical fact, but he did not. understand how to utilize it religiously. The Spirit of God is the redeemer, not the crucified one. Jesus suffered as man, whose light nature was also contaminated through the matter of evil. But the belief in the redemption which came from above lifts man beyond himself to a higher degree of exist
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
ante. How far the individual can attain it depends on the degree of pure entanglement in former degrees of the spirit world. In the perfected spirit world the place will be assigned to each which belongs to him according to the degree of his faith.
Among the Basilidians, Basilidea' son, Isidore, occupies a prominent place. Of his writings ("; On the Excrescent Soul,"; "; Exegetics,"; "; Ethics ";) some fragments are extant. The sect does not seem to have spread beyond Lower Egypt.
The Basi In opposition to the rigid ethics of lidittna. their master, the Basilidiana seem often to have advocated libertinism. According to Clement of Alexandria they celebrated the sixth or the tenth of January as the day of the 'baptism of Jesus. On the importance of this fact for the origin of the ecclesiastical festival of the Epiphany, cf. H. Uaener, Rcligionageschichtlithe Untersuchungen, i (Bonn, 1889).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The fragments of Basilidea ere collected in
J. E. Grabs, Spicikyium $S. Palram, ii, 35 43, Oxford,
1890; in A. 8tieren's edition of Irenerus, i, 901 903, 907
909, Leipeic, 1853; and in A. Hilgenfeld, Ketaerpaschichte
dw Urchriatentums, pp., 207 217, Leipeic, 1884. The
sources are Irenmua (Her., I, zxiv, 1; cf. ii, 18et passim),
Clement of Alexandria (Strom., ii, 8; iii, 1; iv, 12, 24, 28;
v, 1), Origen (Ham. i on Luke; oom. on Roinans, v), Eu
eebiua (Chron., an. 133; Hist. ecc1.. IV, vii, 7), the Acta
Arehelai (lv), Epiphanius (HaT., xxiii, 1; xaiv; aaxii, 3),
and Hippolytus (PAiloaophumena, vii, 2 1b). Consult A.
Neander, Oenetiechs EnMaieklunp der oornehmaten pnoeti
schen Systems, Berlin, 1818 (the moat exhaustive treat
ment); F. C. Baur, Die christliche (#noeie, Ttibingen, 1835;
J. L. Jacobi, Basilidia philoeophi prwetici aeatentias ex Hip
polyti Zibri, Berlin, 1852 (valuable); G. Uhlhorn. Doe
bariiidianseehe System, GtSttingen, 1855: H. L. Maneel,
Gnostic Heresies, London, 1875 (has able lecture on Bss
itidea); Hart, in DCB, i, 288 281 (very thorough);
A. Hilgenfeld, in ZWT, axi (1878), 228 250; idem, Die
Ketzergeachichte des UrchrietenCuma, pp. 207 218. Leipsic,
1884; G. Salmon, The Cross references in the PhilosoPhou
mesa, in Herniathena, xi (I885), 389 102; H. Stiihalin, Die
pnoatiachan QueZlen Hippolyta, in TU, vi, 3, Leipaic, 1890;
Schaff, Christian Church, ii, 488 472; Harnsek. Lit
teratur, i, 157 181; ii, 1, 289 297 KriSger, History, pp.
70 71; Moeller, Christian Church, i, 141 144; J. Kennedy, in
the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1902, pp. 377 415.
BASRAGE, ba";nezh': The name of a family of Normandy which has produced several men prominent in the history of French Protestantism.
1. Benjamin Bssnage was for fifty one years pastor at Saints MEre ?;glue, near Carentan (27 m. s.e. of Cherbourg), where he was born in 1580 and died in 1852. During the religious ware he was repeatedly chosen by his coreligioniats, on account of the constancy of his character and his great learning, to represent them in political and ecclesiastical assemblies. He was president of the general synod at Alenqon in 1637 and as deputy at Charenton in 1644 he did much to defend the rights of the Protestants and to reconcile the theologians. In the year of his death he was ennobled by the government of Louis XIV. Of the many polemical tractatea which he wrote, the beat known is De l'dat viafble et invisible de l1glise et de la parfaits satisfaction de JEsus Christ, contra la fable du purgatoire (La Rochelle, 1812).
2. Hen~i Basnage, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Saints MEre tgliee Oct. 16, 1815; d.
at Rouen Oct. 20, 1895. He was one of the most eloquent advocates in the parliament of Rouen and one of the moat famous jurists of his time. He defended the cause of the Reformed Church courageously, and his reputation was such that after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he was almost the only Protestant who could follow the profession of law in Rouen.
3. Samuel Basnage, son of Antoine, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Bayeux 1838; d. at Ziitphen 1721. He was first pastor at Vauxcellea, then at Bayeux till 1885. He went with his father to the Netherlands and became pastor there of the Walloon congregation at Zutphen. Of his theological writings the moat important are: Morale tUologique et politique our lea vertus et lee vices des hommea (2 vole., Amsterdam, 1703); and Annales politico ecclesiastici (3 vole., Rotterdam, 170G).
4. Jacques Basnage (de Besuval), son of Henri, was born at Rouen Aug. 8, 1653; d. at The Hague Dec. 22, 1723. He first studied the classical languages at Saumur under Tanneguy, father of the famous Mme. Dacier; afterward theology at Geneva under Turretin and Tronchin, finally at Sedan under Jurieu. In 1678 he was chosen pastor at Rouen; after the suppression of the church at Rouen in 1685, Louis XIV granted him permission to retire to Holland. In 1691 he was made pastor of the Walloon congregation at Rotterdam, and in 1709 of the French congregation at The Hague. The prime minister Heinsius respected him highly and employed him in different diplomatic missions. The fame of his diplomatic ability reached the court at Versailles, and when, in 1718, the Abby Dubois was sent to The Hague by the Duke of Orleans, then regent, in behalf of the triple alliance, he was instructed to associate with Basnage. When an insurrection of the Camisarda in the CEvennes was feared, the regent applied to Basnage. He supported energetically the zealous Antoine Court, . then twenty years old, in restoring the Protestant Church in Southern France, but, partial to the principles of passive obedience, as preached by Calvin, he severely condemned the insurrection of the Camisarda and even blamed the first preachers in the Desert. About this time the States General of the Netherlands appointed him historiographer. His numerous works are partly dogmatic or polemic, partly historical. The former include especially his writings against ~ Bosauet: Examen des methodes propoae,es par Messieurs de L'assemblt:e du clergE de France, en 168, pour la rEunion des Protestants a l1glise romaine (Cologne, 1882); R~qoonse h M. l'&4que de Meaux sur la lettre pastorale (1686). His historical works are: Histoire de la religion des 0glises r9f ormEes (2 vole., Rotterdam, 1690; 1725); Xistoire de l'9glise depuia Jesus Christ jusqu'd present (1699); Histoires du Vieux et du Nouveau Testament, reproerttees par des figures grav6ea en taalle dotit:e par R. de Hooge (Amsterdam, 1704); Histoire des Juifa depths J&ua Christ jttaqu'h present (1708). G. BONET MAURY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Aymon, Tom Us synods& nationaux des ' Wises rE(ormBea, The H ue, 1710; P. Bayle, Diction
naire hisWrique et eritiqu ,materdam, 1740: D. Houard,
Dietionnaire de la coutu..e do Normandis, Rouen, 1780;
Lamory, >tloys do Basnape, in Bulletin d'hisfoirs du prow
tantieme franfaia, vol. x, p. 42; aiii, pp. 41 48; E. and )4. Hang, La France proteatante, 2d ed. by M. Bordier, 5 vols., Paris, 1877 88; F. Puaux, Les Prbcuraeura /ranfaia de la td6rance, ib. 1881; J. Bianquia. La R6eocation de l'bdit do Nantes, Rouen, 1885.
BASSERMANIP, HEINRICH GUSTAV: German Lutheran; b. at Frankfort on the Main July 12, 1849. He was educated at the universities of Jena, Zurich, and Heidelberg in 1868 73, but served in the campaign of 1870 71 in the First Baden Dragoons. He was assistant pastor at ArolBen, Waldeck, from 1873 to 1876, when he became privatdocent of New Testament exegesis at the University of Jena. In the same year he was appointed associate professor of practical theology at Heidelberg, and full professor and university preacher in 1880. He wrote: Dreisaig chriatliche Prediglen (Leipaic, 1875); De loco Mtetthcei v, 17 ,t'D (Jena, 1876); Handbuch der geisdichen Beredsamkeit (Stuttgart, 1885); Akodemische Predigten (1886); System der Liturgik (1888); Geschichte der bttdiachen Gotteadienstordnung (1891); Sine ire et studio (Tiibingen, 1894); Der badische Katechismus erkldrt (1896 97); Richard Rothe als praktiseher Theolog (1899); Zur Frage des Unionskatecltismua (1901); Ueber Reform des Abendmahls (1904); Wie studiert man evareyelisehe Theologief (Stuttgart, 1905); and Gott: Fiinf Predigtert (G&ttingen, 1905). From 1879 he edited the Zeitschrift fur praktische Theologie in collaboration with Rudolf Ehlers. Died in Samaden (70 m. B.B.e. of St. Gall), Switzerland, Aug. 30, 1909.
BASTHOLM, CHRISTIAN: Danish court preacher, and an influential representative of the prevalent rationalism of his time; b. at Copenhagen Nov. 2, 1740; d. there Jan. 25, 1819. He had a varied education, and was specially attracted to philosophy and natural science, but was persuaded by his father to embrace a clerical career without any real love for Christian doctrine or the Church. He was preacher to the German congregation at Smyrna from 1768 to 1771. His renown as a great orator won him in 1778 the position of court preacher, to which other court offices were Subsequently added. Full of the ideas of the "; Enlightenment,"; he felt called upon to be a missionary in their cause to his countrymen, and published a number of works in popular religious philosophy and history which have long since fallen into oblivion. His greatest success was his text book of sacred oratory (1775), which so impressed Joseph II that he introduced it into all the higher educational institutions of the empire, though its recommendations seem laughable to day. He published a history of the Jews (1777 82 ), attempting to "; rationalize "; it after Michaelis, and a translation of the New Testament with notes (1780). A small treatise on improvements in the liturgy (1785) aroused a storm of controversy; his idea was to make the
service "; interesting and diversified,"; after the
model of belle and concerto; to exclude from hymnody not only everything dogmatic but all that was not joyous; and to eliminate from the sacramental rites whatever wag contrary to sound reason. In the days of the French Revolution, he offered so many concessions to the antireligioue spirit that he made himself ridiculous even in the
eyes of freethinkers; and his book on "; Wisdom
and Happiness"; (1794) taught a Stoicism only
colored by Christianity. In 1795 he lost his library
by fire, and with the new century withdrew from
public life and authorship to live quietly with his
eon, a pastor at.Slagelse, absorbed in the study of
philosophy and science. (F. NIEIBEN.)
BATES, WILLIAM: English Presbyterian; b. at
London Nov., 1625; d. at Hackney July 14, 1899.
He was graduated at Cambridge 1647, and was
vicar of St. Dunstan'e in the West, London, until
1662, when he lost the benefice for non conformity;
he was one of the commissioners to the Savoy Con
ference (q.v.) in 1661 and represented the non
conformists on other occasions in negotiations
with the Churchmen; was chaplain to Charles II
and had influence in high places both under Charles
and his successors. He is said to have been a
polished preacher and a sound scholar. Perhaps
the beat known of his works is The Harmony of
the Divine Attributes in the Contrivance and Accom
plishment o f Man's Redemption (2d ed., London,
1675). A collected edition of his works, with
memoir by W. Farmer, was published in four vol
umes at London in 1815.
BATHING: The bath in the East, because of the heat and the duet, is constantly necessary for the preservation of health, and to prevent Bkindiseases. The bathing of the newly born is mentioned in Ezek. xvi, 4; bathing as part of the toilet in Ruth iii, 3; Ih Sam. xii, 20; Ezek. xxiii, 40, and elsewhere. As the Law attached great. religious value to the purity of the body, it prescribed bathing and ablutions for cases in which it was apparently impaired (Bee DEFILEMENT AND PURIFICATION, CEREMONIAL). Ablution was required when one approached the deity (cf. Gen.. xxxv, 2; Exod. xix, 10; Lev. xvi, 4, for the high priest on the Day of .Atonement). Bathing in "; living"; (i.e., running) water was regarded as most effective in every respect (Exod. ii, 5; II Kings v, 10; Lev. xv, 13). More accessible and convenient were the baths arranged in the houses. To a wellfurniBhed house belonged a courtyard, in which was: a bath according to II Sam. xi, 2, an open basin. Susannah (verges 15 eqq.) bathes in a hedged garden and uses oil and some kind of soap; the Hebrew women aged bran in the bath, or to dIy themselves, (Mishnah Pestthim ii, 7). The feet, being protected by sandals only, were exposed to dust and dirt, and no attentive host omitted to give to his. guests water for their feet before he entertained them (Gen. xviii, 4; xix, 2; I Sam. xxv, 41; cf. Luke vii, 44; John xiii, I 10). The washing of hands before meals was customary for obvious. reasons; but it is not expressly attested before New Testament time, and then as a religious enactinent which the Pharisees rigidly observed (.Matt. xv, 2; Luke xi, 38); so in general with reference to washings and bathingB the punctilious were at that time more exacting. The efficacy of warm springs wag recognized at a very early period (cf. Gen. xxxvi, 24, R. V., and the name Hammath, Josh. xix, 35; xxi, 32). They were found near Tiberias (JoeephuB, War, II, xd, 6; Ant.,
XVIII, ii, 3; Life, avi; Puny, v, 15), Gadara, the capital of Persea, and Callirrho8, east of the Dead Sea (Josephus, War, I, xxxiii, 5; Pliny, v, 16). Public baths are mentioned in Josephus, Ant., X1X, vii, 5, but their existence in Palestine can not be proved before the Grew Roman time.
C. VON OaErii.
Abuses connects with the public baths in early Christian times called forth protests from many of the heathen and led some of the emperors to attempt restrictive precautions. The Church Fathers also raised their voices, but it is noteworthy that though therewsepubliccensure (e.g., of women, particularly of virgins who were immodest in the bath), there was no formal, ecclesiastical prohibition of the public baths. The use of the bath was remitted during public calamities, penance, Lent, and for the first wok after baptism. From the time of Constantine it was usual to build baths near the basilicas, partly for the use of the clergy, and partly for other ecclesiastical purposes.
Brsr.roossray: For J3ebr. custom consult DB, i, 257 258. On the Christian. DCA, i, 182 183: the article ";Baden"; in %L, i, 1843 48, covers both subjects.
BATH gOL: Literally"; daughter of the voice,";
an expression which signifies in itself nothing
more than a call or echo, for which it is also
used. When the term is applied to a divine
manifestation, i6 implies that it was audible to the
human hearing without a personal theophauy.
In the Old Testament the notion is found in Dan.
iv, 28 (A. V. 31), "; a voice fell from heaven."; In
the New Testament similar ideas are the heavenly
voice at the baptism of Jesus (Matt. iii, 17; Mark
i, 11; Luke iii, 22), at his transfiguration (Matt.
xvii, 5; Mark ix, 7; Luke ix, 35), before his passion
(John xii, 28), and the voices from heaven heard
by Paul and Peter (Acts ix, 4; cf. axii, 7 and xxvi,
14; x, 13, 15). A voice from the sanctuary is
mentioned by Josephus (Ant., XIII, x, 3; cf. Bab.
Sotah 33a; Jeras. Sotah 24b), and was called bath kol
by the rabbis, who were of opinion that such heav
enly voices were heard during all the time of Israel's
history, even in their own time. According to
Bab. .Sotah 48b; Yomah 9a, this ";voice"; was the
only divine means of revelation after the extinction
of prophecy. They narrate legendary stories of
such divine voices which settled religious difficulties.
Different from the bath kol proper is the idea that
natural sounds or words heard by accident
are significant heavenly voices. This superstition
was not uncommon, as Jerus. Shabbat 8c shows.
Rabbi Joshua was of the opinion that such things
must not influence any legal decision (Bab.
Paba Meti'a 59b; Berakot 51b). Rabbi Johanan
lays down as general rule that that which was
heard in the city must be the voice of a man, in the
desert that of a woman, and that either s twofold
";Yea"; or twofold ";Nay"; is heard (Bab. lkfegillah
32a). (G. DAL ";.)
Brsrroassrar: F. Weber. 8ysirw der alltynapapaka palbeh»ixAer Theotoyie. PR 187,194, Lei~ 1880: W. Bate. AOada der TanraiEsn, i, 88. note 3. 9traebaB,1884: ice. Ayada der pal";dmoa0e, i, 351, note 3, ii, 24, ib. 1892r98: 8. Loins, Ancisnt Trades' of 3~parnoterai Yoion: Bath %oi, in T3Bd, ix, 18; .7E, ii, bBB 592.
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
BATIFFOL, PIERRE HENRI: French Roman Catholic; b. at Toulouse Jan. 27, 1861. He was educated at the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris (1878 82), and the University of Paris (1882 86; Docteur & lettres, 1892), and since 1898 has been rector of the Institut Catholique at Toulouse. He was created a domestic prelate to the Pope in 1899, and in theology is an orthodox Roman Catholic, inclining toward the critical school in matters of history. Since 1896 he has been the editor of the Biblioth6que de l'enseignement de t'histoire ecdksiastique, founded by him in that year, and since 1899 has also edited the monthly Bulletin de littkrature ecclsidstique. He has written L'Abbaye de Romano, contribution a L'histoire de la Vatieane (Paris, 1892); Histoire du breai,6re romain (1893); Six lel'ons sur lea .9varegiles (1897); Tractatus is in lnros sartarum scripttrarum (1900)~des d'histoire et de thtologie positive (1902); sad L'Enaeignement de J&us (1905).
BATTER, LORING WOART: Protestant Epis
copalian; b. in Gloucester County N. J., Nov.
12, 1859. He was educated at Harvard Uni
versity, the Philadelphia Divinity School, and
the University of Pennsylvania. He was ordered
deacon in 1886 and ordained priest in the following
year, and was instructor and professor of the Old
Testament in the Philadelphia Divinity School from
1888 to 1$99, when he became rector of St. Mark's,
New York City. He is also lecturer on the Old
Testament in the General Theological Seminary,
New York City. In addition to numerous briefer
studies, he has written The 01d Testament from
the Modern Point o f View (New York, 1889) and
The Hebrew Prophet (London, 1905).
BATTERSOlY, HERMON GRISWOLD: Protestant Episcopalian; b. ax Marbledale, Conn., May 27, 1827; d. in New York City Mar. 9, 1903. He was educated privately, was rector at San Antonio, Texas, 1860 61, and at Wabasha, DS'mn.,1862 66. In 1866 he removed to Philadelphia and was rector of St. Clement's Church there 18691872, of the Church of the Annunciation 1880 89; became rector of the Church of the Redeemer, New York, 1891, but soon retired. He published The Missionary Tune Book (Philadelphia, 1867); The Churchmans Hymn Book (1870); A Sketch Book of the American Episcopate (1878; 3d ed., enlarged, 1891); Christmas Carols and Other Verses (1877); Gregorian Music, a manual of plait, song for the offices of tile American Church (New York, 1884; 7th ed., 1890); Vesper Bells and Other Yeraes (i895).
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