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The population is overwhelmingly Indian, negro, and mixed. In British Honduras in 1891 there were only 400 whites. In Guatemala 60 per cent of the people are Indians and 28 per cent mixed. About one twentieth of the population of Salvador and one fifth of that of Nicaragua are classed as white. In Costa Rica there are 8,000 Indians, and the remainder is almost entirely creole. The Indians in many localities retain their native language and live in almost primitive conditions; where classed as Roman Catholic converts their relation to the Church is often little more than nominal. But few of the colored population still persist in heath­enism.

The republic of Panama was formed by revolu­tion from Colombia in 1903. Religious statistics for this state are not available, but it may be said, in general, that conditions are the same as in the rest of Central America and the mother country (see COLD\1BIA). The five older Central American republics, after the disruption from Spain, foraged from 1821 to 1839 the "; United States of Central America."; Their present independent status was attained gradually, often after internal dissension and warfare. During the revolutionary and form­ative period the Church suffered much. Its property was confiscated, monasteries were abol­ished, monks were banished, and the secular clergy were persecuted. Poverty has also been a heavy burden to the Church. Ecclesiastical affairs were regulated by a series of concordats with Pope Pius IX. between 1852 and 1863 (see CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BULLS, VI., 5).

The religion is everywhere Roman Catholic, but toleration is now legally assured in all states. The

diocese of Guatemala was founded in 1534 and raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1743. The suffragan bishoprics are Nicaragua (1534), Comayagua (for Honduras, 1561), San Salvador (1842), and San Josh of Costa Rica (1850). A vicar apostolic has resided at Belize in British Honduras since 1893.

An Anglican diocese of Honduras and Central America was founded in 1883. The bishop resides at Belize. Guatemala has approximately 4,500 Protes­tants representing English and American churches and including a congregation of about 1,000 Germans resident in the capital. Protestants in Honduras number about 1,000 and in Costa Rica 3,200. They are barely represented in Salvador. In Nicaragua are fifteen "; stations "; of the Moravians.

All the states have public schools, colleges, and

universities, and progress is being made in both

elementary and the higher education. As might

be expected, however, the majority of the popula­

tion is illiterate. Attendance at the elementary

schools is compulsory in Costa Rica, Guatemala,

and Honduras. WILHELM GOETZ.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: In general: T. Child, Spanish American Re­publics, London, 1892; Etnologia Centro Americana, Madrid, 1893; C. Sapper, Doe n6rdliche Mittel Amerika, Brunswick, 1897; idem, Mittelamerika, Reiaen and Studien, ib. 1902; C. Haebler, Die Religion des Miltleren Amerika, Munster, 1899. On British Honduras: A. R. Gibbs, British Honduras, London, 1883; British Honduras Almanac, annual, Belize. On Guatemala: O. Stoll, Reiaen and Schilderungen von Guatemala, 1886; T. Brigham, Guatemala, New York, 1887; A. C. Maudsley, A Glimpse at Guatemala, London, 1899; Missionary Review of the World, xiY. (1901) 168 sqq.

CEOLFRID, chohfrid, SAINT: Abbot of Wear­mouth and Jarrow; b. of noble parents in Northum­bria c. 642; d. at Langres, France, while on his way to Rome, Sept. 24, 716. He became a monk at the ab of eighteen, and was made prior by Benedict Biscop (q.v.) of his new abbey of St. Peter at Wearmouth, which was begun in 674; accompanied Biscop to Rome in 678; became abbot of his second monastery founded at Jarrow in 681 or 682 (where he had Bede among his pupils), and in 688,abbot of both Wearmouth and Jarrow. He was a good manager and increased and enriched his monasteries, at the same time making them centers of learning and industry. He took special pains to learn the Roman methods of reading and singing the services and influenced the Irish in Scotland to adopt the Roman date for Easter.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bede, Historia abbatum; also Hiat. acct., iv. 18, v. 21 (cohere Ceolfrid's letter to Naiton [Neehtan], king of the Picts, on the Easter question, is given), v. 24; also the anonymous Flistoria abbatum, by a monk of Wear­mouth, contemporary with Ceolfrid, in Plummer's Bede, i. 388 404; W. Bright, Early English Church History, pp. 308 309, Oxford, 1897.

CERDO (CERDOft): A Syrian Gnostic, who, according to Irenaeus (I. xxvii. 1, III. iv. 3) and Eusebius (Chron., ed. Schoene, i. 168), lived in Rome in the time of the bishop Hyginus (c. 136­140). Epiphanius (xli. 1) connects him with Saturninus. He is of importance chiefly as having been the teacher of Marcion (q.v.). G. Ii;niiGES.

CERINTHITS: Gnostic teacher of Asia Minor, about 100 A.D. According to Irenfeus (I. xxvi. 1), he taught that the world was not created by the first God, but by a subordinate power. Jesus was



a son of Joseph and Mary, but was wiser and more

righteous than other men. After his baptism the

spirit of the all sublime power of God descended

upon him in the form of a dove. From now on he

preached the unknown Father and performed

miracles. Finally the "; Christ "; forsook him, but

"; Jesus "; suffered and rose again,, whereas the

spiritual Christ did not suffer. John directed his

Gospel especially against Cerinthus (III. xi. 1), and

in proof of the aversion which the apostle felt

toward this heretic Irena'us (III. iii. 4) tells a story

from Polycarp that the two met once in the baths

at Ephesus, whereupon the apostle fled, "; lest

even the bath house fall down because Cerinthus

is inside."; In the main the story is credible, but

the later story (cf. Epiphanius, Hcer., xxviii. and

others) of the Judaism of Cerinthus is an invention.

The assertion of the Roman Caius that Cerinthus

is the author of the Apocalypse is certainly erro 

neous. G. KR(1GER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. A. L1p81U8, ZW QuelIenlCf'itwlC dab Epi.

Phanius, pp. llb 122, Vienna, 18&5; A. Ailgenfeld. Ketzer­

geachichte des Urchrittentuma, pp. 411 421, Leipaic, 1884;

A. Harnack, Dogmengaachichte, i. 234 235, Freiburg, 1894,

Eng. transl., iii. 14 19, Boston, 1897; T. Zahn, G'eschichte

doe neuleatanuutdichen Karwna, 2 vole., Erlangen, 1888 92;

Kriiger, History, p. 88 and literature given there.


SARIIQI) : Cardinal. He belonged to a distinguished

family of Rome and attracted the attention of the

curia as a humanist and teacher of law at Padua.

Pope Martin V, made him cardinal (1426) and

Eugenius IV. promoted him to cardinal bishop of

Frascati. His knowledge of law and ability as a

diplomatist fitted him for delicate missions. The

Hussite question was entrusted to him and he en­

tered Bohemia with a crusading army, but the army

was defeated and the cardinal fled ignominiously

(1431). From 1431 to 1438 be presided at the

Council of Basel with marked ability.* In 1438 and

1439 he was active in Ferrara and Florence, and

shortly after went to Hungary to incite King

Vladislav to war against the Turks. He succeeded,

and war broke out in 1443, but Vladielav was

defeated and slain at Varna, Nov. 10, 1444, and

Cesarini also perished while trying to escape;

he was probably assassinated and robbed while

endeavoring to cross the Danube.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The older accounts are in A. Chacon, Vitd

. yontificum et . cardinalium, ii. 881 aqq., 4 vole.,

Rome, 1877; and E. Baluze, Miscellanea, vol. iii., 4 vole.,

Lucca, 1781 84. Consult also: F. van Bezold, Kdnip

Sigmund uud die Reichakriepe pepen die Huaiten, 3 parts,

Munich, 1872 77; Creighton, Papacy, ii. 183 185. 194

eqq.; Hefele, Conciliengeachichte, vol. vii. pBBb11V; Ifh,

iii. 28 28.


CHADERTOP, LAURENCE: Puritan; h. near

Oldham (8 m. n.e. of Manchester), Lancashire,

Sept. 14, 1536 or 1538; d. at Cambridge Nov. 13,

1640. He studied at Christ's College, Cambridge

(B.A., 156?; B.D., 1578; D.D., 1813), and there

* At the Council of Basel Ceasripi'e attitude toward the

Husaites was highly conciliatory; and he urged s thorough

reformation of ecclesiastical abuses as the only safeguard

against further schisms. A, i;. N.

IL 32

embraced the Protestant religion, for which his

father threatened to disinherit him. Ile became

fellow, dean, tutor, and lecturer of his college, and

as afternoon lecturer of St. Clement's Church,

Cambridge, for nearly fifty years acquired fame

as a preacher and exerted a far reaching influence.

When Sir Walter Mildmay founded Emmanuel

College in 1584 he insisted on Chaderton's becoming

master, and the latter filled the office with much

ability and success till 1622, when he resigned.

From 1598 to 1640 he was prebendary of Lincoln.

Though a Puritan he was moderate in views and

conciliatory in manners. He was a member of the

Hampton Court Conference (q.v.), and was one of

the Cambridge committee of Bible translators.

He appears to have published nothing except an

anonymous tract, De justi ficatiane, and a single


BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Dillingham, Vita Chadertoni, ed. J. Dil­lingham, Cambridge, 1700, Eng. tranel. by E. 8. 8chuck 

burgh, ib. 1884; DNB, ix. 430 432.


tarian; b. at Marblehead, Mass., Oct. 19, 1840;

d. in Brooklyn Dec. 11, 1904. His father was y

seafaring man, and he was apprenticed to a shoe­

maker. But in 1857 he entered the State Normal

School at Bridgewater, Mass., and while there

determined to become a minister. From the Nor­

mal School he passed to Phillips Exeter Academy

and the Divinity School of Harvard University,

from which latter institution he was graduated in

1864. He was immediately asked to supply for

three months the pulpit of the Second Unitarian

Church of Brooklyn, N. Y., but made so favorable

an impression that his relation became a permanent

one and he was its pastor at the time of his death.

Besides being well known as a preacher and lec­

turer and highly esteemed as a man, he won dis­

tinction as an author both in prose and poetry.

He described himself as a ";radical Unitarian,"; but

he was heard with respect by those who most

differed from him. Besides many other contributions

to the press, he published: Life of Nathaniel Alexan­

der Staples (Boston, 1870); A Book of Poems (1876,

now in its 10th ed.); The Bible of To day (New

York, 1878); The Faith of Reason, a Series of Dis­

courses on Leading Topics of Religion (Boston, 1879,

2d ed.,1880) ; Some Aspects o f Religion (New York,

1879); Belief and Life (1881); The Man Jesus

(Boston, 1881, 2d ed., 1882); Origin and Destiny

(1883); In Nazareth Town : to Christmas Fantasy,

and Other Poems (1883); A Daring Faith (1885);

The Good Voices, Poems (Troy, N. Y., 1885);

Ch(1fleS Robot Darwin (Boston, 1889) ; Evdution

anal Social Reform (1890); Evolution of Architecture

(New York, 1891); Evolution as Related to Citizen­

ship (1892); George William Curtis: an Address

(1893); The Old and the New Unitarian Belief (Bos­

ton, 1894); Theodore Parker (1900); William Ellery

Charming (1903); and Later Poems (1905).

CHAITANYA, chaff";t8 nf'a: Brahman formu­lator of the doctrine of BhaE.;ti. See INDIA, L, 3, § 3.

CHALCEDON, kal'se den: A city of Bithynia, on the Bosporus, near Constantinople, the scene of the Fourth General Council (451), at which



Eutychianiem was condemned and the so called

Creed of Chalcedon adopted. See Caxlsi'oloay,

IV; Eu'rrcaUNlsle.

CHALDEA. See Basxrorrtw, VI, 7.


CHALICE. See VE88EIB, SecxEn, § 1.

CHALLOlYER, RICHARD: English Roman Cath­

olic prelate; b. at Lewes (50 m. s. of London),

Sussex, Sept. 29, 1691; d. in London Jan. 12, 1781.

His father was a Protestant, but died soon after

his eon's birth, and the latter was brought up by

Roman Catholics and embraced their religion at

about the age of thirteen. In 1704 he was sent to

Douai and remained there as student, professor,

and vice president for twenty six years (B.D.,

1719; D.D., 1727; ordained priest 1716). In 1730

he joined the London mission, and in 1741 was con­

secrated coadjutor to Dr. Benjamin Petre, vicar

apostolic of the London district; he became vicar

apostolic on Dr. Petre'a death in 1758. He was a

learned and pique man, and performed his duties

with faithfulness and ability, in the midst of perse­

cution from the penal laws and the fanaticism of

the English populace. He wrote upward of forty

different works, controversial, devotional, histor­

ical, etc. His Memoirs of Missionary Priests . .

and of other Catholics . . . that have suffered death

in England on religious accounts from the year 1677

to 1681, (2 vole., London, 1741 42; many later eds.)

is the Roman Catholic "; Book of Martyrs ";; The

Garden o f the Soul (1740) is still the most popular

prayer book with English Roman Catholics; and

The Rheims New Testament and the Dotuty Bible,

with annotations (5 vole., London, 1749 50; 3d

ed., revised, 1752), prepared by Challoner and

under his direction, is the beat known version of

the Dousi Bible. His Life was written by J. Ber­

nard (London, 1784), and by Dr. John Milner

(in the 5th ed. of his Grounds of the Old Religion,


Baraooserar: J. Bernard. Life of . . . R. Challonsr,

London, 1784; John Milner, Brie/ Account of the Life of

Richard Challoner, prefixed to the 5th ed. of Challoner'e

Grounds of the Old Religion, ib. 1798; J. Gillow, Biblio­

graphical Dictionary of English Catholics, i. 447 457, Lon­

don (188b); DNB, ix. 440 443.

CHALMERS, JAMES: London Missionary So­

ciety missionary; b. at Ardriahaig, Argyleahire,

Scotland (45 m. w. by n. from Glasgow), Aug. 4,

1841; d. at Rink Point, Goaribari Island, Gulf of

Papua, New Guinea, April 8, 1901. Converted at

the age of fourteen, he was soon after called to the

foreign mission field and after study at Cheahunt

College and at Highgate, an institution conducted

by the London Missionary Society, he was sent by

that Society to Raratonga, one of the group of Cook

Islands in the Southern Pacific, where he arrived

in 1867. The island had been partially Christianized,

but he did a good work is education and evan­

gelization. In 1877 he removed to New Guinea,

where he encountered cannibals and did a memo­

rable work at the constant rink of life. It was on

one of there many journeys that he was killed. He

takes his place beside William e and Patterson as a

missionary hero in the South Seas.

Brsrxoaasra:: Consult his own Pioneer Life and Work in New Guinea, 1897 188.#, London 1895; and the biogra­phies by W. Robson, ib. 1901; C. Lennox, ib. 1902; and R. Lovett, ib. 1902 (the last named containing Chalmere'e A9tobiopraphy and Letters).

CHALMERS, THOMAS: The leader of the Free Church of Scotland; b. in East Anstruther, Fife­shire, Mar. 17, 1780; d. in Edinburgh May 30, 1847. The family to which he belonged was composed of middle class people of the strictest type of Cal­vinism; and hence in his opening years, he received thorough indoctrination. He entered St. Andrews University when only eleven years old, and con­fined his attention almost exclusively to mathe­matics, but did not give up his original intention of becoming a preacher, and accordingly was licensed by the presbytery of St. Andrews Jan., 1799. His character early developed into maturity. Instead of beginning his professional work, he con­tinued the study of mathematics and natural science; and during the winter of 1802 03 he acted as assistant to the professor of mathematics at St. Andrews. He showed an extraordinary power to awaken enthusiasm in almost any topic he took up; although it was this very fact which at that time coat him his place, the authorities disliking the novelty of his methods. He nettled as minister of Kilmeny, nine miles from St. Andrews, May, 1803, and in the following winter, while preaching regularly, opened voluntary and independent classes in mathematics at the university, which were largely attended, although vigorously discouraged by the authorities. He was a faithful pastor at Kil 

meny, and his preaching attracted

Ministry wide attention, but his heart was not

at in his work. He was trammeled by

B.ilmeny. the prevailing moderatiem, which put

culture above piety, and state support

above independence. In 1808 evidence of the

trend of his thinking appeared in his Inquiry into

the Extent and Stability o f National Resources.

The supply of man's physical and social needs

was uppermost in his mind. In the midst of such

work he was visited with severe domestic afflic­

tions, and a serious illness brought him to death's

door; but he recovered after a year. David Brew­

ster asked him to contribute to his Edinburgh

Encyclopedia. He at first chose "; Trigonometry,";

but at length took "; Christianity "; (separately

published, 1813). And as he examined the doc­

trines of this religion, and went deeper into its

mysteries, he realized its importance, and by study­

ing about Christianity he became a Christian. The

parishioners quickly became aware that he had

really not so much renamed his work among them

as begun it. His whole soul was on fire, and his

culture was now used to make the saving truth of

saving power. He cut loose from the moorings of

moderatiam, and became a decided Evangelical.

His eloquence was expended in new channels, and

with great results.

In July, 1815, he was formally admitted as minister of the Tron Church, Glasgow. In 1816 he delivered on weekdays the famous series of seven Discourses on the Christian Revelation, Viewed in Connection with Modern Astronomy. In Sept., 1819, he removed from the Tron pariah to that of



St. John's, in order that he might, in a newly

constituted parish, have an opportunity of testing

the practicability in a large city of the old Scottish

scheme of providing for the poor. In

In the parish there were two thousand

Glasgow. families. These he distributed into

twenty five divisions; and over each

such district he put an elder and a deacon the

former to attend to their spiritual, the latter to

their temporal needs. Two commodious school­

houses were built; four competent teachers were

employed, and by school fees of two and three

shillings each a quarter, seven hundred children

were educated; while on Sunday the forty or fifty

local schools supplied religious instruction. Dr.

Chalmers not only presided over all this system

of work, but made himself familiar with all the

details, even visiting personally every two years

each family of the pariah, and holding evening

meetings. He also assumed complete charge of

the poor; and by thorough system, and consequent

weeding out of unworthy cases, he reduced the

cost of maintaining them from fourteen hundred

to two hundred and eighty pounds per annum.

This efficient system, however, in 1837 was given

up; and the "; English "; plan of compulsory assess­

ments, which requires much less trouble, and

probably does much less good, was substituted.

In Nov., 1823, Dr. Chalmers became professor

of moral philosophy in St. Andrews University,

and in Nov., 1828, professor of theology in Edin­

burgh. In 1833 he issued his Bridgewater Treatise,

On the Adaptation o f External Nature to the Moral and

Intellectual Constitution of Man. This work made

a great sensation; and his biographer, Rev. Will­

iam Hanna, says that, in consequence, he received

"; literary honors such as were never united pre­

viously in the person of any Scottish ecclesiastic.";

In 1834 he was elected fellow of the Royal Society

of Edinburgh, and soon after one of its vice presi­

dents, in the same year a corresponding member of

the Institute of France; and in 1835 the Univer­

sity of Oxford conferred on him the degree of D.C.L.

Up to this time he had taken little part in church

government; from then on he was destined to have

more todowith itthananyothermanof the century.

The friction between Church and State in Scotland

was rapidlyproducingtrouble. Theattempttoaettle

ministers who were obnoxious to the congregations

was the commonest complaint .* The historic case

is that of Marnoch. Here only one

The Organ  person in the parish signed the call;

ization of and yet the presbytery of Strathbogie

the Free decided, by a vote of seven to three, to

Church. proceed with the ordination, and did,

although these seven were suspended.

In so doing they were upheld by the civil authority,

which annulled their suspension. But this case

was only an aggravation of a common ill. Matters

became so serious in all parts of Scotland that a

convocation was held in Nov., 1842, to consider the

matter; and a large number of ministers resolved

that, if relief was not afforded, they would with 

*The point at issue was lay patronage. British law having

conferred upon landowners the tight to nominate to pas­

torates in their possessions. A. H. N.

draw from the Establishment. No help came; and accordingly, on May 18, 1843, four hundred and seventy clergymen withdrew from the Gen­eral Assembly, and constituted themselves into the Free Church of Scotland, electing Dr. Chal­mera as their first moderator. He had foreseen the separation, and drawn up a scheme for the support of the outgoing ministers. But, after he had safely piloted the new church through the stormy waters, he gave himself up more exclu­sively to professional work, especially in connec­tion with the New College, Edinburgh, of which he was principal, and to the composition of his Institutes of Theology. He died suddenly.

Dr. Chalmers is to day a molding influence. All the churches of Scotland unite to do him rev­erence. He was a greater worker than writer, and a greater man than either. It was surely enough honor for one life to inspire spiritual life throughout an entire land; and as the tireless and practical reformer, as the Christian philan­thropist, and, above all, as the founder of the Free Church of Scotland, he will live.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The principal Life is by his son in law

W. Hanna, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Thomas

Chalmers, 4 vole., Edinburgh, 1849 52. Consult also:

A. J. B[ymington], Thomas Chalmers, the Man, his Times,

and his Work, Ardrossan, 1878; D. Fraser, Thomas Chal­

mera, London, 1881; J. L. WiLteon, The Life o/ Thomas

Chalmers, Edinburgh, 1881; J. Dodds, Thomas Chalmers,

ib. 1892; W. G. Blaikie. Thomas Chalmers, ib. 1898 (in

Famous Scots Series); Mrs. Oliphant, Thomas Chalmers,

Preacher, Philosopher, and Statesman, London, 1898;

DNB, ix. 449 454.

CHAMBERLAIN, JACOB: Reformed (Dutch) missionary; b. at Sharon, Conn., Apr. 13, 1835; d. at Madanapalli, Madras, India, March 2, 1908. He was educated at Western Reserve College, O. (B.A., 1856), the Reformed Theological Seminary, New Brunswick; N. J., and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. In 1859 he went as a medical missionary to the Arcot Mission, Madras, and was stationed successively at Pahnaner, Madras (1860­1863), and at Madanapalli, Madras (1863 1901). From 1891 he was lector in Biblical languages and prophecy and acting principal of the Theological Seminary in the Arcot Mission, Palmaner. He was chairman of a committee for the translation of the Bible into Telugu, 1873 94; member of the Telugu Revision Committee of the Madras Tract Society in 1873 80, and in 1878 was elected vice president of the American Tract Society for India. In 1901 he was first moderator of the South India United Church Synod, and since engaged in literary work in Tamil and Telugu. He translated the liturgy of the Reformed Dutch Church into Telugu (Ma­dras, 1873), and also prepared a Telugu version of the Hymns for Public and Social Worship (1884), as well as other devotional works in the same lan­guage. His English works include: The Bible Tested (New York, 1878); Native Churches and Foreign Missionary ,Societies (Madras, 1879); The Religions of the Orient (Clifton Springs, N. Y.,1896); In the Tiger Jungle (Chicago, 1896); The Cobra's Den, and Other Stories of Missionary Work Among the Telugua of India (1900); and The Kingdom inladia, with introductory biographical sketch by Henry N. Cobb (1908).



American Presbyterian; b. at West Brookfield, Mass., Sept. 26, 1837. He was graduated at Yale in 1863, and from 1863 to 1867 was attached to the Pacific Squadron of the United States Navy. Dur­ing this period he made explorations in the Inca civilization of ancient Peru. He studied theology at Andover 18679, and was pastor of the New England Congregational Church, Chicago, 1869 76, of the Broadway Congregational Church, Norwich, Conn., 1876 83, and of the Classon Avenue Presby­terian Church, Brooklyn, 1883 90. Since 1890 he has had no charge. He was the first United States repre­sentative secretary of the McCall Mission of France, a delegate to the Centennial of Sunday schools in Lon­don in 1880, and a delegate of the General Assembly of the United States to the Pan Presbyterian Council in the same city in 1888, a founder of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, a repre­sentative of the United States Evangelical Alliance to the General Conference of Evangelical Alliances in Florence, Italy, in 1891. He is also president of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States, of the Philafrican Liberator's League, and of the Thessalonica Agricultural and Industrial Institute, Macedonia; secretary and treasurer of the Ameri­can and Foreign Christian Union; vice chairman of the national committee on arbitration between the United States and other countries; custodian and patron of the collection of gems in the National Museum, Washington; and curator of Eocene mol­luscs in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila­delphia. In theology he is a Calvinistic Pres­byterian. He has written: A Short History of the English Bible (Norwich, Conn., 1881); Citizen's Manual (New York, 1898); The State, Its Origin, Nature, and Functions (1898); The Colonial Policy of the United States (1899); Patriotism anal the Moral Law (1900); Evolutionary Philosophy (1901); Government not Founded in Force (1904); The Suf­frage and Majority Rule (1904); and The True Doctrine of Prayer (1906).

CHAMBERS, TALBOT WILSON: Reformed (Dutch); b. at Carlisle, Pa., Feb. 25, 1819; d..


in New York Feb. 3, 1896. He was graduated at Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J., 1834. He studied at New Brunswick and Princeton Theo­logical seminaries, became minister of the Second Reformed (Dutch) Church of Raritan, at Somer­ville, N. J., 1839, and one of the ministers of the Collegiate Reformed (Dutch) Church of New York in 1849 and continued there till his death. He was a leader in his denomination, was president of its General Synod in 1863, and for the eight years preceding his death was president of its Board of Foreign Missions; he was one of the organizers of the Presbyterian Alliance (q.v.) and chosen its president in 1892 and expected to preside over its sixth general council (1896). He was a mem­ber (from 1881) and president (from 1892) of the Executive Committee of the American Tract Society; chairman of the Committee on Ver­sions of the American Bible Society; and mem­ber of the Old Testament company of the American Bible Revision Committee, being the only pastor in the Old Testament company. Be­sides many sermons, addresses, and miscellaneous articles, he published: The Noon Prayer Meeting, Fulton Street, New York (New York, 1858); Mem­oir of the Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen (1863); The Psalter : a Witness to the Divine Origin of the Bible, Vedder lectures at New Brunswick, 1876 (1876); and A Companion to the Revised Old Testament (1885). He was editor of The Presbyterian and Reformed Review and of the earlier Princeton Re­view; translated and edited Schmoller on the Book of Amos and prepared the Book of Zechariah for the Schaff Lange commentary (1874); edited the American edition of Meyer's commentary on I and II Corizilhians (1884), and the homilies of Chrysostom on the same books for The Post­Nicene Fathers, vol. xii. (1889); suggested and with the Rev. Frank Hugh Foster contributed to the Concise Dictionary of Religious Knowl­edge (1889), edited by the Rev. Samuel Macauley Jackson.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E  B.,Coe, Commemorative Discourse, New York, 1898.

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