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AIR FORCE

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) 10.3

Proposal Submission Instructions

The Air Force (AF) proposal submission instructions are intended to clarify the Department of Defense (DoD) instructions as they apply to AF requirements.

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is responsible for the implementation and management of the AF Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

The AF Program Manager is Mr. Augustine Vu, 1-800-222-0336. For general inquiries or problems with the electronic submission, contact the DoD Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (1-866-SBIRHLP) (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET). For technical questions about the topics during the pre-solicitation period (20 July through 16 August 2010), contact the Topic Authors listed for each topic on the Web site. For information on obtaining answers to your technical questions during the formal solicitation period (17 August through 15 September 2010), go to /sitis/.Please note that the SITIS system closes to receipt of new questions on September 1, 2010, but existing questions and answers in the system will remain available for viewing through the closing date of the solicitation.

For additional information regarding the SBIR/STTR Programs, a Defense Acquisition University (DAU) Continuous Learning Module, FA010, entitled “Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR)”, may be accessed (subject to availability) at https://learn.dau.mil/html/clc/Clc1.jsp?cl. It is recommended that those taking the course register as “General Public” and select “only browse the module not getting credit”. Site performance is enhanced by utilizing Internet Explorer. General information related to the AF Small Business Program can be found at the AF Small Business website, http://www. . The site contains information related to contracting opportunities within the AF, as well as business information, and upcoming outreach/conference events. Other informative sites include those for the Small Business Administration (SBA), www.sba.gov, and the Procurement Technical Assistance Centers, /new/Govt_Contracting/index.php. These centers provide Government contracting assistance and guidance to small businesses, generally at no cost.

The AF SBIR Program is a mission-oriented program that integrates the needs and requirements of the AF through R&D topics that have military and commercial potential.

PHASE I PROPOSAL SUBMISSION

Read the DoD program solicitation at /solicitation for program requirements. When you prepare your proposal, keep in mind that Phase I should address the feasibility of a solution to the topic. For the AF, the contract period of performance for Phase I shall be nine (9) months, and the award shall not exceed $100,000. We will accept only one Cost Proposal per Topic Proposal and it must address the entire nine-month contract period of performance.

The Phase I award winners must accomplish the majority of their primary research during the first six months of the contract. Each AF organization may request Phase II proposals prior to the completion of the first six months of the contract based upon an evaluation of the contractor’s technical progress and review by the AF technical point of contact utilizing the criteria in section 4.3 of the DoD solicitation The last three months of the nine-month Phase I contract will provide project continuity for all Phase II award winners so no modification to the Phase I contract should be necessary. Phase I technical proposals have a 20-page-limit (excluding the Cost Proposal, Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a–h), and Company Commercialization Report). The AF will evaluate and select Phase I proposals using review criteria based upon technical merit, principal investigator qualifications, and commercialization potential as discussed in this solicitation document (reference paragraph 4.2).

ALL PROPOSAL SUBMISSIONS TO THE AF PROGRAM MUST BE SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY.

Limitations on Length of Proposal

The technical proposal must be no more than 20 pages (no type smaller than 10-point on standard 8-1/2"; x 11"; paper with one (1) inch margins). The Cost Proposal, Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h), and Company Commercialization Report are excluded from the 20 page limit. Only the Proposal Cover Sheet (pages 1 and 2), the Technical Proposal (beginning with page 3), and any enclosures or attachments count toward the 20-page limit. In the interest of equity, pages in excess of the 20-page limitation (including attachments, appendices, or references, but excluding the Cost Proposal, Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h), and Company Commercialization Report, will not be considered for review or award.

Phase I Proposal Format

Proposal Cover Sheets: Your Cover Sheets will count as the first two pages of your proposal no matter how they print out. If your proposal is selected for award, the technical abstract and discussion of anticipated benefits will be publicly released on the Internet; therefore, do not include proprietary information in these sections.

Technical Proposal: The Technical Proposal should include all graphics and attachments but should not include the Cover Sheet or Company Commercialization Report (as these items are completed separately). Most proposals will be printed out on black and white printers so make sure all graphics are distinguishable in black and white. It is strongly encouraged that you perform a virus check on each submission to avoid complications or delays in submitting your Technical Proposal. To verify that your proposal has been received, click on the “Check Upload” icon to view your proposal. Typically, your uploaded file will be virus checked and converted to a .pdf document within the hour. However, if your proposal does not appear after an hour, please contact the DoD Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).

Key Personnel: Identify in the Technical Proposal all key personnel who will be involved in this project; include information on directly related education, experience, and citizenship. A technical resume of the principle investigator, including a list of publications, if any, must be part of that information. Concise technical resumes for subcontractors and consultants, if any, are also useful. You must identify all U.S. permanent residents to be involved in the project as direct employees, subcontractors, or consultants. You must also identify all non-U.S. citizens expected to be involved in the project as direct employees, subcontractors, or consultants. For these individuals, in addition to technical resumes, please provide countries of origin, the type of visa or work permit under which they are performing and an explanation of their anticipated level of involvement on this project. You may be asked to provide additional information during negotiations in order to verify the foreign citizen’s eligibility to participate on a contract issued as a result of this solicitation.

Voluntary Protection Program (VPP): VPP promotes effective worksite-based safety and health. In the VPP, management, labor, and the Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) establish cooperative relationships at workplaces that have implemented a comprehensive safety and health management system. Approval into the VPP is OSHA’s official recognition of the outstanding efforts of employers and employees who have achieved exemplary occupational safety and health. An “Applicable Contractor” under the VPP is defined as a construction or services contractor with employees working at least a 1,000 hours at the site in any calendar quarter within the last 12 months that is NOT directly supervised by the applicant (installation). The definition flows down to affected subcontractors. Applicable contractors will be required to submit Days Away, Restricted, and Transfer (DART) and Total Case Incident (TCIR) rates for the past three years as part of the proposal. Pages associated with this information will NOT contribute to the overall technical proposal page count.

Phase I Work Plan Outline

NOTE: PROPRIETARY INFORMATION SHALL NOT BE INCLUDED IN THE WORK PLAN OUTLINE. THE AF WILL USE THIS WORK PLAN OUTLINE AS THE INITIAL DRAFT OF THE PHASE I STATEMENT OF WORK (SOW).

At the beginning of your proposal work plan section, include an outline of the work plan in the following format:

  1. Scope

List the major requirements and specifications of the effort.

  1. Task Outline

Provide a brief outline of the work to be accomplished over the span of the Phase I effort.

  1. Milestone Schedule

  2. Deliverables

    1. Kickoff meeting within 30 days of contract start

    2. Progress reports

    3. Technical review within 6 months

    4. Final report with SF 298

Cost Proposal

Cost proposal information should be provided by completing the on-line Cost Proposal form and including the Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h) specified below. The Cost Proposal information must be at a level of detail that would enable Air Force personnel to determine the purpose, necessity and reasonability of each cost element. Provide sufficient information (a-h below) on how funds will be used if the contract is awarded. The on-line Cost Proposal, and Itemized Cost Proposal Information (a-h) will not count against the 20-page limit. The itemized listing may be placed in the “Explanatory Material” section of the on-line Cost Proposal form (if enough room), or as the last page(s) of the Technical Proposal Upload. (Note: Only one file can be uploaded to the DoD Submission Site). Ensure that this file includes your complete Technical Proposal and the Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h) information.

a. Special Tooling and Test Equipment and Material: The inclusion of equipment and materials will be carefully reviewed relative to need and appropriateness of the work proposed. The purchase of special tooling and test equipment must, in the opinion of the Contracting Officer, be advantageous to the government and relate directly to the specific effort. They may include such items as innovative instrumentation and/or automatic test equipment.

b. Direct Cost Materials: Justify costs for materials, parts, and supplies with an itemized list containing types, quantities, and price and where appropriate, purposes.

c. Other Direct Costs: This category of costs includes specialized services such as machining or milling, special testing or analysis, costs incurred in obtaining temporary use of specialized equipment. Proposals, which include leased hardware, must provide an adequate lease vs. purchase justification or rational.

d. Direct Labor: Identify key personnel by name if possible or by labor category if specific names are not available. The number of hours, labor overhead and/or fringe benefits and actual hourly rates for each individual are also necessary.

e. Travel: Travel costs must relate to the needs of the project. Break out travel cost by trip, with the number of travelers, airfare, per diem, lodging, etc. The number of trips required, as well as the destination and purpose of each trip should be reflected. Recommend budgeting at least one (1) trip to the Air Force location managing the contract.

f. Cost Sharing: Cost sharing is permitted. However, cost sharing is not required nor will it be an evaluation factor in the consideration of a proposal. Please note that cost share contracts do not allow fees.

g. Subcontracts: Involvement of university or other consultants in the planning and/or research stages of the project may be appropriate. If the offeror intends such involvement, describe in detail and include information in the cost proposal. The proposed total of all consultant fees, facility leases or usage fees, and other subcontract or purchase agreements may not exceed one-third of the total contract price or cost, unless otherwise approved in writing by the Contracting Officer.

(NOTE): The Small Business Administration has issued the following guidance:

Agencies participating in the SBIR Program will not issue SBIR contracts to small business firms that include provisions for subcontracting any portion of that contract award back to the originating agency or any other Federal Government agency.” See Section 2.6 of the DoD program solicitation for more details.

Support subcontract costs with copies of the subcontract agreements. The supporting agreement documents must adequately describe the work to be performed (i.e. Cost Proposal). At the very least, a Statement of Work (SOW) with a corresponding detailed cost proposal for each planned subcontract should be included.

h. Consultants: Provide a separate agreement letter for each consultant. The letter should briefly state what service or assistance will be provided, the number of hours required and hourly rate.

PHASE I PROPOSAL SUBMISSION CHECKLIST

Failure to meet any of the criteria will result in your proposal being REJECTED and the Air Force will not evaluate your proposal.

1) The Air Force Phase I proposal shall be a nine-month effort and the cost shall not exceed $100,000.

2) The Air Force will accept only those proposals submitted electronically via the DoD SBIR Web site (/submission).

3) You must submit your Company Commercialization Report electronically via the DoD SBIR Web site (/submission).

It is mandatory that the complete proposal submission -- DoD Proposal Cover Sheet, Technical Proposal with any appendices, Cost Proposal, and the Company Commercialization Report -- be submitted electronically through the DoD SBIR Web site at /submission. Each of these documents is to be submitted separately through the Web site. Your complete proposal must be submitted via the submissions site on or before the 6:00 am ET, 15 September 2010 deadline. A hardcopy will not be accepted. Signatures are not required at proposal submission when submitting electronically. If you have any questions or problems with electronic submission, contact the DoD SBIR Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).

NOTE: If no exceptions are taken to an offeror’s proposal, the Government may award a contract without discussions (except clarifications as described in FAR 15.306(a)). Therefore, the offeror’s initial proposal should contain the offeror’s best terms from a cost or price and technical standpoint. The Government reserves the right to conduct discussions if the Contracting Officer later determines them to be necessary.

The AF recommends that you complete your submission early, as computer traffic gets heavy near the solicitation closing and could slow down the system. Do not wait until the last minute. The AF will not be responsible for proposals being denied due to servers being “down” or inaccessible. Please assure that your e-mail address listed in your proposal is current and accurate. By the end of September, you will receive an e-mail serving as our acknowledgement that we have received your proposal. The AF is not responsible for notifying companies that change their mailing address, their e-mail address, or company official after proposal submission without proper notification to the AF.

AIR FORCE SBIR/STTR SITE

As a means of drawing greater attention to SBIR accomplishments, the AF has developed a SBIR/STTR site at . Along with being an information resource concerning SBIR policies and procedures, the SBIR/STTR site is designed to help facilitate the Phase III transition process. In this regard, the SBIR/STTR site: (a) SBIR Impact/Success Stories written by the Air Force; and (b) Phase I and Phase II summary reports that are written and submitted by SBIR companies. Since summary reports are intended for public viewing via the Internet, they should not contain classified, sensitive, or proprietary information. Submission of a Phase I Final Summary Report is a mandatory requirement for any company awarded a Phase I contract in response to this solicitation.

AIR FORCE PROPOSAL EVALUATIONS

Evaluation of the primary research effort and the proposal will be based on the scientific review criteria factors (i.e., technical merit, principal investigator (and team), and Commercialization Plan). Please note that where technical evaluations are essentially equal in merit, and as cost and/or price is a substantial factor, cost to the government will be considered in determining the successful offeror. The AF anticipates that pricing will be based on adequate price competition. The next tie-breaker on essentially equal proposals will be the inclusion of manufacturing technology considerations.

The AF will utilize the Phase I evaluation criteria in section 4.2 of the DoD solicitation in descending order of importance with technical merit being most important, followed by the qualifications of the principal investigator (and team), and followed by Commercialization Plan. The AF will use the Phase II evaluation criteria in section 4.3 of the DoD solicitation with technical merit being most important, followed by the Commercialization Plan, and then qualifications of the principal investigator (and team).

NOTICE: Only government personnel and technical personnel from Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Mitre Corporation and Aerospace Corporation, working under contract to provide technical support to Air Force product centers (Electronic Systems Center and Space and Missiles Center respectively) may evaluate proposals. All FFRDC employees at the product centers have non-disclosure requirements as part of their contracts with the centers. In addition, AF support contractors may be used to administratively process or monitor contract performance and testing. Contractors receiving awards where support contractors will be utilized for performance monitoring may be required to execute separate non-disclosure agreements with the support contractors.

On-Line Proposal Status and Debriefings

The AF has implemented on-line proposal status updates for small businesses submitting proposals against AF topics. At the close of the Phase I Solicitation – and following the submission of a Phase II via the DoD SBIR/STTR Submission Site (/submission) – small business can track the progress of their proposal submission by logging into the Small Business Area of the AF SBIR/STTR site (). The Small Business Area (/Firm/login.aspx) is password protected and firms can view their information only.

To receive a status update of a proposal submission, click the “Proposal Status” link at the top of the page in the Small Business Area (after logging in). A listing of proposal submissions to the AF within the last 12 months is displayed. Status update intervals are: Proposal Received, Evaluation Started, Evaluation Completed, Selection Started, and Selection Completed. A date will be displayed in the appropriate column indicating when this stage has been completed. If no date is present, the proposal submission has not completed this stage. Small businesses are encouraged to check this site often as it is updated in real-time and provide the most up-to-date information available for all proposal submissions. Once the “Selection Completed” date is visible, it could still be a few weeks (or more) before you are contacted by the AF with a notification of selection or non-selection. The AF receives thousands of proposals during each solicitation and the notification process requires specific steps to be completed prior to a Contracting Officer distributing this information to small business.

The Principal Investigator (PI) and Corporate Official (CO) indicated on the Proposal Cover Sheet will be notified by e-mail regarding proposal selection or non-selection. The email will include a link to a secure Internet page containing specific selection/non-selection information. Small Businesses will receive a notification for each proposal submitted. Please read each notification carefully and note the Proposal Number and Topic Number referenced.

In accordance with FAR 15.505, a pre-award debriefing may be received by written request. As is consistent with the DoD SBIR/STTR solicitation, the request must be received within 30 days after receipt of notification of non-selection. As found at FAR 15.505(a)(2), it may be requested that the debriefing be delayed until after award. Written requests for debriefing should be mailed to AFRL/XPP (SBIR), 1864 4th Street, Room 225, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 45433-7130. Requests for debriefing should include the company name and the telephone number/email address for a specific point of contract, as well as an alternate. Also include the topic number under which the proposal(s) was submitted, the proposal number(s), and whether a pre- or post-award debrief(s) is desired. Debrief requests received more than 30 days after receipt of notification of non-selection will be fulfilled at the Contracting Officers' discretion. Unsuccessful offerors are entitled to no more than one debriefing for each proposal.

IMPORTANT: Proposals submitted to the AF are received and evaluated by different offices within the Air Force and handled on a Topic-by-Topic basis. Each office operates within their own schedule for proposal evaluation and selection. Updates and notification timeframes will vary by office and Topic. If your company is contacted regarding a proposal submission, it is not necessary to contact the AF to inquire about additional submissions. Check the Small Business Area of the AF SBIR/STTR site for a current update. Additional notifications regarding your other submissions will be forthcoming.

We anticipate having all the proposals evaluated and our Phase I contract decisions within approximately four months of proposal receipt. All questions concerning the status of a proposal, or debriefing, should be directed to the local awarding organization SBIR Program Manager. Organizations and their Topic Numbers are listed later in this section (before the Air Force Topic descriptions).

PHASE II PROPOSAL SUBMISSIONS

Phase II is the demonstration of the technology that was found feasible in Phase I. Only those Phase I awardees that are invited to submit a Phase II proposal and all FAST TRACK applicants will be eligible to submit a Phase II proposal. Phase I awardees can verify selection for receipt of a Phase II invitation letter by logging into the “Small Business Area” at . If “Phase II Invitation Letter Sent” and associated date are visible, a Phase II invitation letter has been sent. If the letter is not received within 10 days of the date and/or the contact information for technical/contracting points of contact has changed since submission of the Phase I proposal, contact the appropriate AF SBIR Program Manager, as found in the Phase I selection notification letter, for resolution. Please note that it is solely the responsibility of the Phase I awardee to contact this individual. There will be no further attempts on the part of the AF to solicit a Phase II proposal. The awarding AF organization will send detailed Phase II proposal instructions to the appropriate small businesses. Phase II efforts are typically two (2) years in duration and do not exceed $750,000. NOTE: All Phase II awardees must have a Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) approved accounting system. It is strongly urged that an approved accounting system be in place prior to the AF Phase II award timeframe. If you do not have a DCAA approved accounting system, this will delay / prevent Phase II contract award. If you have questions regarding this matter, please discuss with your Phase I Contracting Officer.

All proposals must be submitted electronically at /submission. The complete proposal – Department of Defense (DoD) Cover Sheet, entire Technical Proposal with appendices, Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report – must be submitted by the date indicated in the invitation. The Technical Proposal is limited to 50 pages (unless a different number is specified in the invitation). The Commercialization Report, any advocacy letters, SBIR Environment Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH) Questionnaire,and Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h) will not count against the 50 page limitation and should be placed as the last pages of the Technical Proposal file that is uploaded. (Note: Only one file can be uploaded to the DoD Submission Site. Ensure that this single file includes your complete Technical Proposal and the additional Cost Proposal information.) The preferred format for submission of proposals is Portable Document Format (.pdf). Graphics must be distinguishable in black and white. Please virus-check your submissions.

FAST TRACK

Detailed instructions on the AF Phase II program and notification of the opportunity to submit a FAST TRACK application will be forwarded with all AF Phase I selection e-mail notifications. The AF encourages businesses to consider a FAST TRACK application when they can attract outside funding and the technology is mature enough to be ready for application following successful completion of the Phase II contract.

NOTE:

  1. Fast Track applications must be submitted not later than 150 days after the start of the Phase I contract.

  2. Fast Track Phase II proposals must be submitted not later than 180 days after the start of the Phase I contract.

3) The AF does not provide interim funding for Fast Track applications.  If selected for a Phase II award, we will match only the outside funding for Phase II.

For FAST TRACK applicants, should the outside funding not become available by the time designated by the awarding AF activity, the offeror will not be considered for any Phase II award. FAST TRACK applicants may submit a Phase II proposal prior to receiving a formal invitation letter. The AF will select Phase II winners based solely upon the merits of the proposal submitted, including FAST TRACK applicants.

AIR FORCE PHASE II ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

On active Phase II awards, the Air Force may request a Phase II enhancement application package from a limited number of Phase II awardees for the Enhancement Program to address new, unforeseen technology barriers discovered during the Phase II work. In the Air Force program, the outside investment funding must be from a government source, usually the Air Force or other military service. The selected enhancements will extend the existing Phase II contract awards for up to one year and the Air Force will match dollar-for-dollar up to $500,000 of non-SBIR government matching funds. If requested to submit a Phase II enhancement application package, it must be submitted through the DoD Submission Web site at /submission. Contact the local awarding organization SBIR Manager (see Air Force SBIR Organization Listing) for more information.

AIR FORCE SBIR PROGRAM MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS

The AF reserves the right to modify the Phase II submission requirements. Should the requirements change, all Phase I awardees that are invited to submit Phase II proposals will be notified. The AF also reserves the right to change any administrative procedures at any time that will improve management of the AF SBIR Program.

PHASE I SUMMARY REPORTS

In addition to all the Phase I contractual deliverables, Phase I award winners must submit a Phase I Final Summary Report at the end of their Phase I project. The Phase I Summary Report is an unclassified, non-sensitive, and non-proprietary summation of Phase I results that is intended for public viewing on the AF SBIR/STTR site. A Summary Report should not exceed 700 words, and should include the technology description and anticipated applications/benefits for government and/or private sector use. It should require minimal work from the contractor because most of this information is required in the final technical report. The Phase I Summary Report shall be submitted in accordance with the format and instructions posted at .

AIR FORCE SUBMISSION OF FINAL REPORTS

All Final Reports will be submitted to the awarding AF organization in accordance with the Contract. Companies will not submit Final Reports directly to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONSfor AF Manufacturing Topic AF103C-148

These special instructions apply only to topic AF103C-148, “Automated Fastener Installation System”, and are in addition to the regular instructions listed at the beginning of the AF section of the solicitation.

This is a Manufacturing related R&D SBIR topic. The primary focus of Phase I of this effort is the development of the technical concepts, business and transition plans necessary to mature the manufacturing readiness for automated robotic fastener installation on a fifth generation fighter aircraft (to an MRL 7 by Phase II completion) and ensure its production implementation on the DoD production floor. It is anticipated that the technology readiness of the proposed solution will have already been demonstrated at TRL 5 or higher prior to Phase I. The focus of Phase II of this topic is the execution of the Phase I plans.

The AF plans on awarding up to three Phase I contracts on this topic. Each Phase I contract will be limited to $100K.  These Phase I contract awards will be normal nine (9) month efforts with six (6) months for the technical effort and an additional three (3) months for reporting. The AF plans on awarding one Phase II contract worth up to $4.0M with a performance period of 24 months.  Submission of Phase II proposals will be by invitation only.  At that time, special instructions will be provided for the Phase II proposals. 

A draft business plan will be a deliverable at the completion of Phase I along with the other final documentation. This draft Business Plan will be submitted for Phase II consideration as part of the Phase II proposal. It is anticipated that the AF Program Management IPT will work with Phase I award recipients to develop a viable plan for transitioning the technology to an AF customer at the end of Phase II. The business and transition plans will document the offeror’s ability to address all aspects necessary to ensure implementation of the innovative approach to manufacturing upon completion of the Phase II award.

As this effort is focused on AF weapon system production, successful offerors may find it useful to dialog and/or partner with an AF/DoD prime in order to understand their specific system requirements, implementation risks and transition windows. Successful offerors may also benefit from consideration of technical as well as manufacturing and business readiness levels when preparing responses to Manufacturing SBIRs. Guidance and information on these three readiness measures can be found in the Air Force SBIR/STTR site located at /Library/Default.aspx. Identification of the return on investment (ROI) through a quantitative cost analysis should be addressed since this SBIR stresses the production implementation of developed technologies over existing baseline capabilities.

Air Force SBIR 10.3 Topic Index

AF103-001 Turret Integration Techniques for Transonic and Supersonic Flight Applications

AF103-002 Improved Station Keeping Equipment

AF103-003 Active Attachment Concepts for Aircraft Access Covers and Electronics Equipment

AF103-005 Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Materials/Structures for Sustainment Applications

AF103-006 Unitized Composite Airframe Structures with Three Dimensional (3-D) Preforms for

Elevated Temperature Applications

AF103-007 Intent Analysis Technologies for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

AF103-008 Integrity Management for Mixed Critical Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems (UAVS)

AF103-009 Innovative Energy Deposition for Improving the Control Effectors and Performance of

High Speed Vehicles

AF103-013 Directed Energy Hardening of Munitions

AF103-014 Phase Locked Magnetrons

AF103-015 KW Fiber Pump Combiner with Polarization Maintaining Feed Through

AF103-016 Tactical Optical Inertial Reference Unit (OIRU)

AF103-017 Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Algorithms for Daylight and Strong Turbulence

Imaging

AF103-018 Integrated Adaptive Optics System

AF103-023 Rapid Reprogramming Technologies for Electronic Warfare Training

AF103-024 Modeling and Simulation Technologies to Support Physics Based Active Electronically

Scanned Array (AESA) Radar Models in Training Systems

AF103-026 Pilot Wrist Computer System (PWCS)

AF103-027 See-through Transparent Displays

AF103-028 Evaluating the Environmental Impact of New Bio-Fuel Additives

AF103-029 Digital Flight Gloves

AF103-030 Shareable Game-Based Objects Gateway for DIS and HLA Integration

AF103-031 Modeling of Nano Effects on Major Human Organs in the Body

AF103-032 Multi-camera real-time Feature Recognition, Extraction & Tagging Automation

(McFRETA)

AF103-033 HMD-Compatible Mission Performance Measurement System and Tools

AF103-035 Airspace Management and Deconfliction Training Environment for Manned and

Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAs)

AF103-036 Multi-Modal Interactions for Multi-RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft) Supervisory Control

AF103-037 Terahertz Spectrum Analyzer

AF103-042 Innovative Aids for Combat Identification

AF103-043 Cellular Gene and Pathway Regulation

AF103-044 Auto-configuring routers to support dynamically forming networks

AF103-047 Mission Assurance and Information Security

AF103-048 Network Virtualization

AF103-049 Near-realtime Forensic Analysis Capabilities for Moving Target Indicator (MTI) Data

AF103-050 Application of Advanced Techniques to Multi-INT Information Association and Fusion

AF103-051 Enhance Situational Awareness by capturing knowledge from chat

AF103-053 Reducing time for forensic analysis of multi sensor GMTI from Days to Hours

AF103-054 Automatic Identification of Information Relevant to Anomalous Events

AF103-056 Modular Antenna System for Tracking Satellites by adaptations of existing terminals

AF103-057 E-band Radiation Hardened Low Noise Amplifier

AF103-058 Computer Network Defense (CND) for Future Satellite Operations Center (SOC)

AF103-059 Extracting Location-stamped Events from Textual Data for Persistent Situational

Awareness

AF103-060 Secure Web-Based Content Distribution System (CDS)

AF103-061 Condition-Based Health Management for Space Situational Awareness

AF103-062 Network Defense for Mission Assurance Based on Priority

AF103-064 Multi-Sensor Space Object Tracking

AF103-065 Next-Generation Power Supply for Reentry Vehicles

AF103-068 Infrared Scene Generation for Wide Field of View (WFOV) Sensors

AF103-070 Airborne Networking: Using Context-Awareness for Better Network Routing and

Management

AF103-071 Innovative Technologies for Space Asset Management

AF103-072 Improved Cryogenic Cooling Technology

AF103-073 High-Power Satellite Communications Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier

AF103-074 E-band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifer with Carbon Nanotube Cathode

AF103-075 E-band Gimbaled Dish Antenna

AF103-076 High-Power Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Optical Transceiver

AF103-077 High-Data-Rate Radio-Frequency (RF) Crosslink Transceiver

AF103-078 Laser Transmitter Module with Integrated Thermal Management System

AF103-079 Diode Lasers for Space-Based Cold Atom Clocks

AF103-080 Radiation-Resistant, High-Efficiency Direct Current-Direct Current (DC-DC) Converters

For Spacecraft Loads

AF103-081 Advanced Compression Algorithms for Image Exploitation of Space Imagery

AF103-083 Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for CubeSats

AF103-085 Agile Space Radio (ASR)

AF103-086 High Compliance Thermal Interface Material for Space Applications

AF103-087 Single Event Transient Effects for Sub-65 nm Complementary Metal-Oxide

Semiconductor (CMOS) Technologies

AF103-088 Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS)

AF103-089 Improved Solar Cell Power for Cubesats

AF103-090 Light-Weight, High-Gain Receive/Transmit Navigation/Communication Antennas

AF103-091 Miniaturized Star Tracker for Cubesats

AF103-092 Radiation-Hardened, Analog-to-Digital Converter with High-Bit Precision

AF103-093 Radiation-Hardened, Resistive Random Access Memory

AF103-094 Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

AF103-095 Reconfigurable Encoder and Decoder for High-Data-Rate Satellite Communications

AF103-096 High-Efficiency Optical Transmitter Module

AF103-097 Satellite Optical Backplane

AF103-098 Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Signal Monitoring

AF103-099 Miniature GPS Receiver to Support Operationally Responsive Space Missions

AF103-100 Low-Power, Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Communications

AF103-102 Spacecraft Integrated-Power and Attitude-Control System

AF103-103 Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) Sensor with Improved Solar Exclusion

AF103-104 Severe Space Weather Satellite Protection

AF103-105 Space-Based Distributed Cooling System

AF103-106 Radiation-Hardened, Deep-Submicron Application Specific Integrated Circuit

AF103-107 Thermal Control for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Satellites

AF103-113 All Sky Electro-Optical Proximity Sensor for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

AF103-114 Strategically Radiation-Hardened Star Tracker

AF103-116 Optimization of Satellite Ground Truth for Space Situational Awareness

AF103-117 Ultra-Lightweight and Low-Cost Space Telescope Mirrors

AF103-118 Rapid Assembly and Alignment of Electro-Optical Sensor Payloads

AF103-122 GPS Degraded and/or Denied Precision Navigation for Munitions

AF103-123 Hypervelocity Aerodynamic Interaction of Ballistic Bodies (AIBB)

AF103-125 Cumulative Structural Damage from Multiple Weapons

AF103-130 Non-GPS Dependent Method for Accurate UAS Navigation and Orientation

Determination

AF103-131 Predicting Structural Debris and Secondary Air-Blast

AF103-132 Strapdown Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) Closed Loop Guidance

AF103-134 Munitions Effects on Building Infrastructure Components

AF103-135 Innovative Micro-munition Electrical Interface Physical Interconnection Alternatives

AF103-136 Layered Sensing Bio-Signatures for Dismount Tracking

AF103-139 Automated, On-Wing Engine Airfoil Inspection

AF103-140 Powder Coating

AF103-141 Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Impact on Material

Performance

AF103-142 Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Implications for

Component Life Prediction

AF103-143 Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Enhanced Composite Structures

AF103-144 Fault Tolerant Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) Detector

AF103-145 Novel Analytical and Experimental Methods for Evaluating Repairs in Composite

Honeycomb Structure

AF103-146 Novel Analytical and Experimental Methods for Evaluating Bolted Joint Repairs in

Composite Structure

AF103-147 Peel-and-Stick Nutplates

AF103-149 Coating Removal for Surface Preparation

AF103-150 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of Holes in F-35 Structure

AF103-151 Laser-Assisted Fiber Placement for Improved Bismaelimide (BMI) Lay Down

AF103-152 Concrete Joint Sealant for High-Temperature Applications

AF103-153 Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Creation, Detection, and

Quantification

AF103-154 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Tools for the Management of Bulk Residual

Stress

AF103-155 Passive, Wireless Sensors for Extreme Turbine Conditions

AF103-156 Wavelength-Tunable Solid-State Mid Wave Infrared (MWIR) Attenuator

AF103-157 Three-Dimensional (3-D) Crack Growth Life Prediction for Probabilistic Risk Analysis

of Turbine Engine Metallic Components

AF103-158 Nonlinear Dielectric Materials and Processing for High-Energy-Density Capacitors

AF103-159 Intelligent Robo-Pallet

AF103-163 High Density and Input Rate Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Materials

AF103-164 Plasmonic Beamsteering

AF103-165 Airborne Network Trusted Code (Assurance) Involving the Anti-Access Environment

AF103-166 Methods for interfacing broad bandwidth data links to airborne ISR systems

AF103-167 Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Based Electronic Components for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

(UAS)

AF103-168 Unknown Wireless Network Discovery

AF103-169 Prioritization of Weapon System Software Assurance Assessment

AF103-170 Small Unmanned Aerial System (SUAS) Standard Payload Interface (SPI)

AF103-171 Hyperspectral Sensor for Tracking Moving Targets

AF103-172 Conformal Antennas for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

AF103-173 Manufacturable Optical Diffraction Gratings

AF103-174 Switchable Polarimetric Camera for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

AF103-176 Dual Mode Tag (DMT) Proof-of-Concept Device

AF103-178 X-Band and Ka Band Low Noise Block Downconverter

AF103-179 Real-Time Dismount Detection and Tracking Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

System

AF103-180 Cognitive Multi-Sensor Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection Technologies

(COMIDT)

AF103-181 Multimode Tracking for Next Generation Over the Horizon Radar (NG OTHR)

AF103-182 Research and develop innovative high sensitivity receiver concepts which will

significantly improve current performance of active electro-optical sensors

AF103-183 Anti Tamper (AT) Techniques

AF103-184 Advanced Integrated Circuit Anti-Tamper Methods

AF103-185 Collaborative Global Positioning System (GPS) Receivers for Enhanced Navigation

Performance

AF103-186 Novel Wavefront/Wavefunction Sensor for 3D Imaging

AF103-187 Antennas for GNSS Handheld Receivers

AF103-188 Readouts for Energetic, High-Speed Event Sensing

AF103-189 Sensor Network Data Management for Distributed Electronic Warfare

AF103-190 Robust and Reliable Broadband Infrared Coatings

AF103-191 Interrupted Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

AF103-192 Performance Prediction of Feature Aided Trackers using Persistent Sensors

AF103-196 Simultaneous Liquid-Vapor Characterization in Fuel Sprays for JP-8 and Alternative

Fuels

AF103-197 Technologies for the Suppression of Screech

AF103-198 High Temperature Blade Health Measurement System for Adaptive Engines

AF103-199 Fiber-Coupled Pulsed and High-Intensity Ultraviolet Optical Measurements for

Propulsion Systems

AF103-200 Thermal Interaction of High Performance Gas Turbine Engines Combustor Exit Products

on Downstream Components

AF103-201 Wireless Sensor Network powered by Energy Harvesting Solution Network

AF103-202 Commercial Controls Technology Insertion

AF103-203 Electrical Power System Robustness-REPS

AF103-204 Improved Data & Power Transmission: Conductor & Shielding

AF103-205 Thermally Efficient Fuel Management Technology

AF103-207 Hypersonic Propulsion: Improvements in Control and Thermal Management Techniques

AF103-208 Variable-Fidelity Toolset for Dynamic Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Aircraft

Thermal Management System (TMSs)

AF103-209 Internal Combustion (IC) Engine/Electric Hybrid Power/Propulsion System for Small

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

AF103-210 Indentification, Validation, and Control of Jet Noise Sources

AF103-211 Novel Oxidizer for Ammonium Perchlorate Replacement

AF103-214 Real-Time Health Monitoring for Solid Rocket Motors

AF103-215 Advanced Near-Net Shape Metallurgy of Liquid Rocket Engine Components

AF103-218 Fusion Technology for Multispectral Imager with Adjunct Sensors

AF103-219 Jet Engine Passive Optical Sensor Technology

AF103-220 Valve Health Monitoring System

AF103-224 Infrared Spectrometer for the Cryovacuum Environment

AF103-225 High Density Hydrogen Storage with Nano-Material Hybrids

AF103-226 Continuous Indoor Vapor Intrusion Monitoring System for Volatile Organic Compounds

AF103-232 Smart Miniaturized Power Supply

AF103-235 Universal Fire Suppressant Nozzle

AF103-236 Wireless, Time-synchronized, Event Control System

AF103-239 Multipurpose Non-Destructive Inspection Test Kit

AF103-240 UNIVERSAL FLEXIBLE COIL EDDY CURRENT PROBE

AF103-241 Improved Nut Plate Fastener Hole Eddy Current Probe

AF103-243 Improved Methodology for Engineering Repair Process

AF103-245 Frangible Cables, Ladders and other Accessories for “ILS/GS Structures and other Non-

visual Aids”

AF103-246 Energy Efficient Tactical Shelters

AF103-250 Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System

AF103-252 Direct Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

AF103-253 Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Inspection

AF103-255 Sensor Data Fusion for Intelligent Systems Monitoring and Decision Making

AF103-256 High Integrity Coatings for Aircraft Landing Skis/Skids

AF103C-148 Automated Fastener Installation System

Air Force SBIR 10.3 Topic Descriptions

AF103-001 TITLE: Turret Integration Techniques for Transonic and Supersonic Flight Applications

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Weapons

OBJECTIVE: Develop techniques for integrating directed energy apertures on transonic and supersonic aircraft.

DESCRIPTION: The integration of lasers on both tactical and strategic air platforms is usually accomplished through the use of some form of turret. This protrusion out into the air stream affords a wide angle view for the laser system, but is usually accompanied by undesirable turret vibration (jitter) as well as distortions in the local density field (aero-optic distortion). Both of these effects are connected with the strong unsteady three-dimensional separated flow surrounding and behind the turret, and both effects contribute to beam distortion, and ultimate loss of energy on target (or information to a receiver). The canonical “hemisphere atop a cylinder” style of turret, which is a logical starting point for a low-speed (subsonic) type of turret, has very little classical aerodynamic history behind it, even though it is comprised of the union of two very basic shapes (the half sphere and the cylinder). This is due to the fact that it is not a streamlined nor aerodynamic shape, and only came into use with the advent of lasers. The relative void in low-speed aerodynamic turret work has begun to be filled over the past decade with a number of low-speed hemisphere cylinder studies conducted and published. These works involve the use of flow control, in an effort to minimize the effects of unsteady separation, and hopefully in the process, to minimize jitter and wavefront distortion. The situation in turret integration for transonic and supersonic flight applications is considerably more sparse, and there is an obvious need for novel approaches for design in this portion of the flight envelope. Mitigating the potential effects of shock formation (with the resulting unsteady separation and very strong oscillating gradients) is a primary concern. Part of the challenge of turret design is that as the eye is rotated or elevated, the shape presented to the flow direction changes. While it is possible to adapt the flow control to a particular elevation and azimuth look angle, this makes for a very complicated optimization problem. Successful turrets cannot be optimized only for a single position of operation.

PHASE I: Identify design parameters to be optimized for a high-speed turret (Mach 0.7 to Mach 1.5). Develop a process for design, optimization, analysis, and test of a high-speed turret, including flow control, and produce design.

PHASE II: Refine design from Phase I, and validate procedure with wind tunnel testing, measuring both jitter and beam degradation due to aero-optics. Optimize flow control. Estimate benefit in both aero-optical and jitter characteristics from wind tunnel data.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Conduct large-scale testing of concept in wind tunnel test and/or flight test.

Commercial Application: Secure laser communication systems.

REFERENCES:

1. Smith, B.R., “Application of LES Methods to Military Aircraft Flow Problems,” AIAA-2010-343.

2. Arunajatesan, S. and Sinha, N., “Analysis of Line of Sight Effects in Distortions of Laser Beams Propagating Through a Turbulent Turret Flow Field,” AIAA-2005-1081.

KEYWORDS: directed energy, transonic, supersonic, turret, aperture, laser

AF103-002 TITLE: Improved Station Keeping Equipment

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop a novel system for accomplishing formation station keeping procedures for large transport aircraft.

DESCRIPTION: Three air force systems (C-130H, C-130J and C-17) use station keeping equipment (SKE) for formation flying. Missions that currently require SKE include precision airdrop, rendezvous, air refueling, and formation flight. Each aircraft uses a unique system and the different systems are not interoperable. The existing systems have imitations that include poor reliability and ghosting. Ghosting means that the SKE system gives the pilot false readings, indicating an a/c that does not exist. SKE is also highly vulnerable to passive detection. Studies have shown that simple detectors can find a formation of aircraft using SKE at distances greater that 45 NM. A need exists for an improved system.

Global Positioning System (GPS) based systems have shown the ability to measure relative distances between aircraft at long distances. However, this type of system can be sensitive to antenna placement on the aircraft and requires a data link between aircraft. A system that can operate in a GPS denied environment is desired.

Passive sensors (electro-optical camera, infrared, acoustic, etc) are very difficult to detect, need no data link and are not reliant on GPS. Unfortunately, these sensors have demonstrated good accuracy only at relatively short ranges. The goal of this solicitation is to develop a passive system than can demonstrate long range capability (>8000 ft) with acceptable accuracy (500 ft longitudinal, 200 ft lateral relative to host aircraft).

The system should provide information on distance, bearing, heading, airspeed, and relative altitude. Accuracy requirements, distance capability and the number of aircraft that can be included can be traded for other capabilities. The minimum requirement for the number of aircraft would be three, although many more would be desirable. Collision avoidance capability with other similarly equipped aircraft would also be desirable. The ability to operate in degraded environments (weather, etc) is critical.

The system should be fast enough to provide steering commands to correct and maintain formation position settings. A positive feature would be the ability to couple the system with existing autopilots. The focus of this study is not the cooperative control aspect of the program, it is the sensor itself. It can be assumed that all aircraft follow the leader and that the leader is always correctly positioned.

PHASE I: Establish performance goals for the new concept. Define the proposed concept and compare it to existing solutions. Perform modeling and simulation to establish system performance. Analyze the feasibility of providing flight steering commands.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype system. Bench level tests with sensors widely spaced should be conducted. A flight demonstration would be desirable if possible, small UAVs could be used to minimize cost. Assess integration issues for a large transport aircraft and develop cost estimates for a completed system.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Current military transports (C-130H, C-130J, C-17) have missions that involve formation flight. It would be desirable to have similar or interoperable systems on each aircraft.

Commercial Application: Formation flying of civilian airliners (Fedex transports for example) has been proposed for drag reduction. The system could be transitioned to this application.

REFERENCES:

1. /SKE_Guide.doc

2. /docs/25127471/C-130-Aircraft-Systems-Overview-_-EP-Guide

3. http:// handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA330287, “Rethinking Strategic Brigade Airdrop”

KEYWORDS: avionics, formation flying, SKE, station keeping, station keeping equipment

AF103-003 TITLE: Active Attachment Concepts for Aircraft Access Covers and Electronics

Equipment

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative, active, microscale, mechanical attachment design concepts for aircraft access covers and electronics equipment that can be actuated with an advanced electro mechanical mechanism.

DESCRIPTION: Modern air vehicles are packed with numerous subsystems and line replaceable units (LRU). Access to these subsystems and equipment and their attachment to the airframe results in significant maintenance costs and integration weight. Access panels currently make up a significant amount of acreage on the outer mold line of advanced military aircraft. A typical aircraft has thousands of mechanical fasteners in the outer mold-line to attach these panels. Attachment of subsystems and LRUs to the airframe typically requires build up and numerous mechanical fasteners as well. This conventional attachment approach inhibits the airframe designer from completely exploiting the cost and weight savings benefits of unitized structure. Compounding the problem, numerous specialized tools are necessary for fastener removal during the maintenance process. Ideally, mechanical fasteners would be replaced by concepts featuring a captive fastening approach that react to airframe loads yet enable quick disconnects such as hook and loop that can be released through a controllable material shape change phenomenon such as shape memory, piezoelectric, or other similar mechanism. The preceding are merely examples used for illustrative purposes and do not represent preferred methods. Development of such a concept could positively impact a large number of Air Force platforms; therefore, it is desirable to develop a solution that could be applicable to as many platforms requirements as possible, while addressing the unique loading and environmental requirements of the different platforms.

Additional airworthiness and natural environmental considerations are a necessity for development. The natural environment is defined in accordance with self-sustained worldwide operations over the temperature range of -40F to +120F and the following: up to 100 percent humidity to include condensation; meet the salt atmosphere requirement in MIL-STD-810F, method 509.4; operate in a sand and dust environment as defined by MIL-E-5400, para 3.2.24.7; withstand exposure to fungus as specified in MIL-STD-810F, method 508.5; withstand exposure to solar radiation at altitudes from sea level to 30,000 ft; withstand unpressurized environment from sea level to the ceiling of applicable aircraft; and be able to operate in the applicable vibration/acoustic environment peculiar to the C-130. The solution shall not incur damage or fail when subjected to normal levels of shock, it shall withstand rapid decompression, shall not degrade in a biological or chemical environment (and be operable by personnel in representative personal protective equipment PPE), and survive exposure to the fluids common to the C-130.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the basic feasibility of the fastening concept. Demonstrate controlled attachment and detachment and fundamental mechanical strength and durability.

PHASE II: Demonstrate application of the concept to a representative aircraft structural component. Demonstrate mechanical strength, durability and damage tolerance in a representative airframe environment.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: All Air Force systems will benefit from this technology. The technology is not specific to a vehicle size or type.

Commercial Application: This technology will be widely applicable to commercial and civil aviation aircraft.

REFERENCES:

1. Hook and Loop Attachment Concepts for Structure, Air Force Technical Report: WL-TR-92-3102, 1992, DTIC Accession AD#B169369.

2. Allen J. Lockyer, Kevin H. Alt, Jayanth N. Kudva, and James Tuss, ";Air vehicle integration issues and considerations for CLAS successful implementation,"; Proc. SPIE Vol. 4332, pp. 48-59, in Smart Structures and Materials 2001: Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technologies; Anna-Maria R. McGowan, Ed., Jun 2001.

3. Savas Berber, Young-Kyun Kwon, and David Toma´nek,";Bonding and Energy Dissipation in a Nanohook Assembly,"; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 17 October 2003.

KEYWORDS: aircraft, racks, fasteners, maintainability, access covers

AF103-005 TITLE: Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Materials/Structures for Sustainment

Applications

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems, Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop finite element models and perform analysis of simultaneous crack initiation/growth in metal layers and delamination of composites layers of arbitrarily configured hybrid materials/structures.

DESCRIPTION: For the purpose of this topic, hybrid materials/structures are assumed to be composed of, in part or whole, fiber metal laminates (FMLs). FMLs have been developed over the past several decades, examples of which include, but are not limited to Glare, Arall, or CentrAl. These particular materials exhibit slow crack growth, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance. Military application includes the C-17 aft cargo door (Arall), and commercial application includes the A380 fuselage (Glare). Advanced hybrid structures (AHS) are considered for sustainment of veteran aircraft to take advantage of the tailorability of the material to provide form/fit/function replacement of problematic monolithic aluminum structural components. These FMLs may require layups that are not considered part of the standard family, with varying thicknesses of individual metal layers, potentially different metal alloys, and adhesive combinations with varying fiber volume fraction in the form of pre-pregs.

To effectively consider AHS as replacements for their monolithic metal counterparts, the behavior of the failure modes of the FML must be predicted and validated by coupon, element, subcomponent, and component testing. For current FMLs that exhibit excellent fatigue resistance and impact resistance, the failure mode is characterized by a combined delamination zone between metal and composite layers and a crack in the metal layers. The mixed failure mode exhibits synergy between the delamination and crack: the crack growth rate is affected by the reduction in stress intensity due to fiber bridging in the wake of the crack, which is only possible due to the delamination zone allowing fiber stretching. The mixed mode failure may be significantly altered by a nonuniform (materials, thicknesses, layup) configuration. Successful prediction of the mixed failure mode has been performed for uniform configurations (Glare), and is currently extended to nonuniform thickness layups (CentrAl). Modeling and simulation (M&S) of static and dynamic behavior of arbitrary configurations of FMLs to capture individual layer delamination zones and crack growth is necessary to provide validation of replacement concept capability. Finite element modeling and simulation developed to capture this mixed mode failure is the first step to enabling simulation of various configurations. This capability will require capturing simultaneous crack and delamination growth, including possible nonlinear behavior of constituent materials.

PHASE I: Models and simulations of multi-constituent material FMLs, potentially incorporating micro-/meso-/macro- modeling techniques, to capture delamination and crack interactions/behaviors. Validation of analysis by comparison with existing models of FML behavior in literature, or experimental data.

PHASE II: Incorporation of modeling and simulation capabilities in commercial software code as a module or package. Modeling and simulation at the sub-component level to determine residual strength of the damaged structure. Experimental validation of sub-component.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Design and certification of hybrid components as a form/fit/function replacement to problematic monolithic aluminum structures.

Commercial Application: Design and certification of new aircraft that incorporate FMLs in primary load-bearing structures.

REFERENCES:

1. Vlot, A. and Gunnink, J.W., Fibre Metal Laminates – an Introduction, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordecht, 2001.

2. Alderliesten, “Analytical prediction model for fatigue crack propagation and delamination growth in Glare,” International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 29, No. 4, April 2007, pp. 628-646.

3. Beumler, “MoC for A380 Hybrid Structure,” Proceedings of the 2008 ASIP Conference, San Antonio, TX, December 2008.

KEYWORDS: fiber metal laminate, fibre metal laminate, sustainment, glare

AF103-006 TITLE: Unitized Composite Airframe Structures with Three Dimensional (3-D) Preforms

for Elevated Temperature Applications

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop & apply novel joining concepts for unitized composite airframe structure using 3D textile preforms (woven, braided, warp-knitted, etc.) w/thermal gradient for elevated temperature applications

DESCRIPTION: Composite airframe design is driven by strength, durability, damage tolerance, temperature suitability, and sustainment requirements. Some novel solutions, using textile preforms and the through-thickness stitching methods, have been developed for specific airframe structures to avoid the weight and cost penalties associated with fasteners-[1, 2]. This has resulted in new approaches for “damage-arrest” designs in composite structures. However, higher levels of airframe unitization require that solutions be developed to solve for the integration of dissimilar materials to accommodate varying temperature gradients in a structure.

This topic seeks novel concepts and methods of manufacturing complex airframe composite structures using components reinforced with 3-D textile preforms subjected to elevated temperature gradient applications. This will be achieved by infusing multiple matrix materials into the textile structural architecture, each featuring a distinct temperature capable regime. Components may include skin, stiffeners and frames. Two principal requirements include: 1) delamination propagation must be arrested, without degradation to the structural performance, and 2) the textile joint must be impregnated with a minimum of two different temperature class resins and/or metals. The textile itself can be a metallic, carbon, or glass perform, or a combination of fibers. Example matrix materials could include the use of high temperature polyimide, bismaleimide, and epoxy, all impregnated into the same textile skin/joint architecture.

PHASE I: Design & demonstrate an innovative small prototype unitized composite structural component w/ integral skin & stiffeners impregnated w/ two or more matrix materials & cured/consolidated as a single piece. This can be achieved by staging the resins to control flow & inhibit chemical incompatibilities

PHASE II: Demonstrate material property sustainability, in the elevated temperature range, on a large unitized composite structure. Perform preliminary analysis, design, fabrication and conduct testing of the unitized composite structure to demonstrate predictability of its properties and structural response.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The structural technology developed will be applicable to transports, fighters, supersonic long-range, strike and hypersonic vehicles.

Commercial Application: The technology will be applicable to commercial aircraft.

REFERENCES:

1. A. Velicki and P. Thrash, “Advanced Structural Concept Development Using Stitched Composites,” Proc. of the 49th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 7-10 April, 2008, Schaumburg, IL, AIAA Paper 2008-2329.

2. A. Velicki, P.J. Thrash, and A.V. Hawley, “Preliminary Design Requirements,” Damage Arresting Composites for Shaped Vehicles, Contract NNL07AA48C, Report for 20 December 2007.

3. A.E. Bogdanovich and M.H. Mohamed, “Three-Dimensional Reinforcements for Composites,” SAMPE Journal, Vol. 45, No. 6, November/December 2009, pp. 8-28.

4. J. Brandt, K. Drechsler, and F.-J. Arendts, “Mechanical Performance of Composites Based on Various Three-Dimensional Woven-Fibre Preforms,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 56, 1996, pp. 381-386.

5. D. Mungalov and A. Bogdanovich, “Complex Shape 3-D Braided Composite Preforms: Structural Shapes for Marine and Aerospace,” SAMPE Journal, Vol. 40, No. 3, May/June 2004, pp. 7-20.

KEYWORDS: composites, 3-D preform, airframe structures, unitized composites, elevated temperature, thermal gradient

AF103-007 TITLE: Intent Analysis Technologies for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop an algorithm(s) that enables unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to analyze the intent of other aircraft during terminal area operations.

DESCRIPTION: The AFRL Air Vehicles Directorate is currently interested in algorithms that will enable fixed-wing UAS to integrate seamlessly with manned aircraft in the terminal area of operations (TAO). TAO includes ground operations while in contact with ground control and operations in the terminal airspace while in contact with either tower control, approach control or departure control. This area is an especially congested environment for aircraft. Operations in the terminal area are time critical, detail sensitive and conducive to task saturation. Increased automation has the potential to reduce operator workload and improve UAS response time, making it possible for UAS to perform more like manned aircraft. Thus, the development of algorithms that enable UAS to recognize the intent of other aircraft in the terminal area is critical for successful integration of manned and unmanned systems.

In the terminal area, under ATC control, human pilots keep a mental database of other aircraft locations and the commands they have received from ATC. This database along with basic knowledge of terminal area operating procedures enables the human pilot to accurately predict other pilots’ intentions. For UAS to integrate into terminal area operations with manned aircraft, the UAS must also have an intent analysis capability.

There are many examples of ambiguity in the terminal area that intent analysis would reduce. One example of how intent analysis would reduce ambiguity in the terminal is, if two aircraft are landing on parallel runways but are flying a collision course before they both turn to land on their respective runways. Until the turn occurs, trajectory prediction in an automated system would deduce a potential collision and attempt to avoid the threat. However, by using data from ATC communications and basic knowledge of TAO, intent analysis algorithms could determine that there is not a collision threat and no action should be taken.

The purpose of this effort is to develop and demonstrate intent analysis algorithms for UAS. The UAS should be able to recognize a vehicles’ intent based on data obtained from onboard sensors or ATC information typically supplied to human pilots (e.g. basic airfield maps.) Common sensors may be assumed (e.g. electro optical cameras, datalink) but all assumptions should be stated upfront. The vehicle should use this intent data to remove ambiguity and assist the automation in responding appropriately. The developed algorithm(s), optimally, would require no more a priori information than a human pilot. Intent analysis should be accurate, reliable and real-time, enabling quick and appropriate decisions that are necessary in this time critical environment. Integrity of the intent determination should be a consideration.

PHASE I: For one or more aspects of terminal area operations, research, develop, and demonstrate intent analysis capability. The demonstration in this phase will consist of computer modeling, analysis, and simulation of the sensing and control system.

PHASE II: For this phase, the UAS intent analysis capability will be further developed and demonstrated through either an air or ground demonstration, incorporating flight-appropriate hardware.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Use of intent analysis algorithms on manned aircraft enables increased situational awareness for the pilot as well as increased safety.

Commercial Application: Use of intent analysis algorithms on commercial aircraft enables increased situational awareness for the pilot as well as increased safety.

REFERENCES:

1. H. Park, M. Grage, C. Wiedemann, M. Micieli, R. Wolf, and C. Brinton, ";Autonomous Terminal Area Operations Control for Unmanned Air Vehicles,"; Proceedings of AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2008.

2. J.L. Yepes, I. Hwang, and M. Rotea, ";Pilot's Intent Inference and Aircraft Trajectory Prediction with Applications to Air Traffic Control,"; Proceedings of the UKC Aerospace Science and Technology Symposium, Irvine, CA, August 2005.

KEYWORDS: intent analysis, UAV, UAS, terminal area, terminal area operations, TAO, terminal airspace, intent inference, airspace integration

AF103-008 TITLE: Integrity Management for Mixed Critical Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems

(UAVS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop new concepts for flight control integrity management that enables the integration of non-redundant data sources with highly critical, redundant flight control and vehicle management systems.

DESCRIPTION: Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a greater part of Air Force and military mission plans. A key requirement for the next generation of UAVs is the enabling through onboard software, of higher cognitive functions normally performed by a pilot (in air /on ground). These higher level cognitive functions are hallmarks of true autonomous systems capable of self-determination, decision-making, self-awareness and self-assessment, giving rise to real problem-solving automata. While not needing to protect on-board humans from incidents resulting from failures, these platforms may employ weapons, may contain expensive and/or sensitive equipment or data, and may still cause harm for unintended victims on the ground or in the air due to loss of control of the vehicle. These circumstances must be minimized or mitigated to prevent unintended loss of life or critical resources. In addition, future UAV applications will likely utilize new data sources to obtain and maintain situational awareness in order to conduct operations in dynamic mission environments.

A problem exists in that many projected UAV applications may utilize smaller platforms or have reduced payload capacity, with little or no margin for large, redundant mission systems and sensors. Due to the lack of a human on-board pilot, who traditionally provided the ultimate information fusion and safety determination, many functions that previously were of lesser criticality are now projected to integrate to, and drive, flight/safety critical functions.

The major challenge is to find innovative concepts to determine the integrity of information from non-critical systems to a level of certainty that will allow its use in a function that involves critical aircraft control. It is assumed that the non-critical systems do not have, and are prohibited from having, the redundancy or software verification and validation that is required for critical systems. The goodness of a specific signal or piece of data may or may not be compromised by failures or faults in the system. The new concepts are to determine only when the specific data of interest is degraded. Multiple faults and failures within the non-critical systems may occur and are of no consequence to the critical function if the needed information is not compromised.

The proposed SBIR effort will derive innovative approaches to integrity management that enable non-redundant data sources (on-board and off-board) to safely integrate to highly critical, redundant, on-board flight control and vehicle management systems. An example application should be formulated wherein a set of simplex (single thread) sensing elements are utilized as input to a redundant, critical flight control function. Examples can include sensor-based collision or obstacle avoidance systems for autonomous systems; or simplex health monitoring sensors that determine failure status that drives an adaptive flight control system. Concepts may encompass, but not be limited to, trend analysis, reasonableness checks, dissimilar redundancy, estimation and predictive methods, timeliness checks, accuracy determinations, and attribute assessments.

PHASE I: This effort will develop and analyze a mixed criticality integrity management concept to provide fault detection and tolerance level commensurate with traditional redundant management schemes used in flight control systems. Analysis should accomplish validation of the concept on a theoretical basis.

PHASE II: This effort will develop and demonstrate the concept through simulation, and finalize the theoretical proof of concept. Sensor failure modes should be integrated and shown to be detected and mitigated by the integrity management mechanism.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Integrity management concepts for advanced military mixed critical avionics with increased functionality and autonomy for unmanned aerial vehicles.

Commercial Application: Integrity management concepts for mixed critical systems in which safety in paramount also lies in other domains such as commercial aviation and nuclear power plants.

REFERENCES:

1. Blaylock, J., Boose, P., et al., ”Validation of Advanced Safety Enhancements for F-16 Terrain Following,” ICAS Proceedings 1990, Stockholm, Sweden, 9-14 September, 1990, Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

2. Barhorst, J., Belote, T., Binns, P., et al., “A Research Agenda for Mixed-Criticality Systems,” paper presented at Cyber-Physical Systems Week, San Francisco, CA, 13-16 April 2009.

KEYWORDS: integrity management, mixed criticality, flight safety, mission critical, fault tolerance, unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomy

AF103-009 TITLE: Innovative Energy Deposition for Improving the Control Effectors and

Performance of High Speed Vehicles

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate laser-microwave pulsed discharges to generate surface and volumetric plasma regions in high speed aerodynamic flows to improve vehicle performance and flight control.

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is investigating innovative means of manipulating high-speed aerodynamic flows that improve vehicle performance and flight control effectiveness. Application interests are for hypersonic glide vehicles, reusable launch vehicles, and sustained supersonic cruise platforms. The proposed project will develop hardware, analysis and tools that demonstrate laser-microwave (MW) discharges are capable of forming surface and volumetric regions favorable for flow control applications. Laser (MW) generated discharge sequences are started by a pulsed laser that creates a focused stream cloud of electrons. A pulsed MW burst is then aimed at the cloud of electrons creating a plasma core concentrated in the electric field created by the electron clouds. Computations and laboratory test show plasma clouds created from the laser initiator-MW discharge require lower MW power at higher pressures than MW plasma discharges alone. It has also been demonstrated it is possible to create or form surface and volumetric plasma discharges using only MWs. With a laser precursor, it is conceivable with patterned slewing, that surface and volumetric discharge clouds may be sculpted and customized to have two- or three- dimensional shapes placed strategically on or over a vehicles that could have benefits for drag reduction, vehicle steering, and, possibly, heat transfer reduction.

PHASE I: Define favorable high speed conditions for laser MW discharges, e.g., reduced power. Determine test parameters for testing a slewing laser MW system that produces sculpted surface-volumetric discharges in quiescent and flowing air. Identify plans to develop laser MW system and demonstrate system.

PHASE II: Identify/develop appropriate laser MW system for testing in quiescent and flowing air: Document test results for surface and volumetric plasma discharge regions. Demonstrate applicability through simulation and testing on a basic generic configuration and identify costs to achieve alterations in aerodynamic conditions using surface and volumetric plasma generation approaches.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The laser-MW technologies are to be incorporated in hypersonic systems, long-range bombers, re-entry systems, sustained high-speed air vehicles, fighters, and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Commercial Application: High speed transport, space launch and reentry systems.

REFERENCES:

1. “Experimental Investigation of Combined Laser-DC-MW Discharges,” AIAA 2006-1459

2. ";Interaction of Microwave-Generated Plasma with a Blunt Body at Mach 2.1,"; AIAA-2009-846

3. ";Instabilities, Vortices and Structures Characteristics During Interaction of Microwave Filaments with Body in Supersonic Flow,"; AIAA-2010-1004

4. “Interaction of Heated Filaments with a Blunt Cylinder in Supersonic Flow,” AIAA 2010-1005

5. “Survey of Aerodynamic Drag Reduction at High Speed by Energy Deposition,” Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 24, No. 6, November–December 2008

KEYWORDS: active flow control, flow control, innovative control effectors, plasma

AF103-013 TITLE: Directed Energy Hardening of Munitions

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop technologies to protect guidance and control components against electromagnetic threats, including high power microwaves, employed by adversaries against our munitions.

DESCRIPTION: The ability of high power radio frequency (HPRF) energy to interfere with, shut down or damage electronic systems is a well known phenomenon. It is the purpose of this effort to develop technology to protect electronic systems such as precision guided munitions (PGMs) against known and expected near term electromagnetic (EM) threats. This effort deals specifically with those non-invasive techniques that can provide protection resulting in a successful mission. Protection/mitigation techniques may include software mitigation, radio frequency (RF) absorbent coatings, shielding and/or filtering. The RF environments to protect against will be those specified in MIL-STD-464.

The contractor will fabricate generic PGMs with representative apertures and conducting penetrations to use in determining the coupling RF energy into the PGM cavity. Various electronic elements and fill will be used in several configurations to allow for modeling of different PGM internal layouts. The fill will have the same or similar dielectric properties to the fuel and/or explosive materials contained in PGMs. This effort will be carried out through two distinct paths of investigation and verification. Computational simulations using models for existing and proposed materials will be carried out showing analytically that proposed processes are capable of providing the necessary protection.

Computer-aided drafting (CAD) models will be generated to model the physical properties and dimensions of the systems to be protected for use in determining the level of protection provided by “material hardening.” Circuit analysis will also be performed on representative electronics. The electronics will simulate particular aspects of interest for PGMs. Interference thresholds for detrimental effects will be determined experimentally on these simulation circuits and proposed hardening of circuits and/or material hardening will be presented. Hardening techniques will be fabricated, implemented and demonstrated empirically.

Successful demonstration of hardening techniques will ultimately result in the hardening and demonstration of representative functional electronic fixtures housed within topically correct PGM geometries during the Phase II effort. The hardening technology will be demonstrated in an “operational” flight simulation in an HPRF environment. Final acceptance of hardening success will be demonstrated by the empirical comparison of the test electronics in a protected and non-protected configuration. The levels of effect and protection will be quantified for the frequencies of interest.

The AF will provide an inert test article.

PHASE I: Consists of design and fabrication of the test article. Detailed CAD drawings are required. Shielding effectiveness will be made over MIL STD 464 frequencies. Existing coatings of at least three types will be evaluated for shielding improvement. Electrical circuits will be identified for test.

PHASE II: Circuits will be fabricated and demonstrated to be vulnerable to HPRF prior to installation. The electrical circuits will be installed into the test article. RF effects will be demonstrated for these devices within the test article, selected shielding and coatings applied, and their effectiveness verified. Hardening of electronics will also be employed as necessary to demonstrate survivability.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The AF will provide an inert test article. Effects will be verified then hardening measures will be applied. The improved performance will be verified and demonstrated in compliance with MIL STD 464.

Commercial Application: Applications include lightweight RF protection for server farms, home computers, or sensitive electronic control systems (or System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems).

REFERENCES:

1. S. Celozzi, et al., Electromagnetic Shielding, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2008.

2. Philip E. Nielsen, “Effects of Directed Energy Weapons,” National Defense University, Washington, DC, 1994.

3. J. Benford, High Power Microwaves, 2nd Ed, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2007.

4. F.M. Tesche, et al., EMC Analysis Methods and Computational Models, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.

5. W.D. Prather, “Shielding Specification Techniques and Measurement Methods for Aircraft,” Proc. IEEE/EMC International Symposium, Honolulu HI, July 2007 (Invited).

6. MIL-SRD-464B. Note: Replaces referenced MIL-STD-464 in Topic DESCRIPTION, Line 4. (Uploaded in SITIS 8/24/10.)

KEYWORDS: High Power Microwaves, HPM, Narrow Band, Shielding, Munitions

AF103-014 TITLE: Phase Locked Magnetrons

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

OBJECTIVE: Develop and verify the construction and performance of a magnetron which is equipped with a devoted input port to accomplish phase locking. Frequency of interest is L-Band; power level 100kW plus.

DESCRIPTION: Magnetrons are the highest efficiency oscillators and therefore have the potential for the most efficient and compact high power systems. There are requirement for L-Band microwave sources for systems which are in excess of the highest power single tube source. Achieving the required levels requires the coherent power combining of multiple sources. The combining process requires phase locking of the sources. Techniques presently exist for phase locking magnetrons; however, there is theoretical evidence that phase locking can be achieved much more efficiently and conveniently by means of injecting the locking signal into the magnetron via a separate dedicated port. This method is also advantageous for phase modulating magnetron to achieve high power amplitude modulated outputs. The method of approach will be to modify an existing magnetron by the addition of a coupling port that is on the order of -30dB (decibel) from the main output port. The phase locking signal will be injected through this dedicated port. The addition of this port will have a virtually negligible size, in contrast to the size of the existing phase locking methods. In addition the phase locking command signals for an assembly of power combined magnetrons will be generated by a single low power source. In effect this will be a MOPA configuration and will operate more reliably than existing multi-cross coupled methods. In addition, existing methods become increasingly awkward and less efficient as the number of magnetrons is increased; whereas this MOPA method does not.

The effectiveness and range of high power L-Band microwave anti-improvised explosive device (IED) systems depend upon power levels much higher than existing or anticipated source; thus this MOPA approach will be a significant benefit.

The microwave hearing effect as applied to ADT, requires a high power L-Band source that can be modulated. Magnetron sources can provide this need when both power combined and phase modulated. The phase modulation can be efficiently converted to AM by standard microwave components. Magnetrons are the highest efficiency sources and will proved the smallest and most efficient ADT microwave hearing effect system.

PHASE I: Modification of an existing magnetron by the addition of the dedicated phase locking input port is required, either by the magnetron original equipment manufacturer or a qualified contractor. Standard L-Band unit modification is not complex. Characterization will then be accomplished.

PHASE II: Phase II will implement a pair of the modified magnetrons in a magic tee power combining circuit and demonstrate and validate the power combining and phase to amplitude modulation capability.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Improved, anti-IED systems, microwave hearing ADT applications, and other high power microwave (HPPM) applications requiring very high L-Band power with or without modulation.

Commercial Application: Deep space and terrestrial communications, materials processing and long range radar.

REFERENCES:

1. Collins, George B., et al, “Microwave Magnetrons,” MIT Radiation Laboratory Series Vol. 6, 1946.

2. Bostick, Winston, et al, “Parallel Operation of Magnetrons,” Technical Report No.14, September 14, 1946, Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT.

3. Van der Pol, Balth, “The Nonlinear Theory of Electric Oscillations,” Proceeding of the IRE, Vol. 22, No. 9, September 1934.

4. US Patent 6,587,720; ";Apparatus for audibly communicating speed using the radio frequency hearing effect.";

5. US Patent 6,470,214; ";Method and device for implementing the radio frequency hearing effect.";

KEYWORDS: Phase Locked Magnetrons, Injection Phase Locking of Magnetrons, L-Band High Power Microwaves, Microwave High Power Directed Energy

AF103-015 TITLE: KW Fiber Pump Combiner with Polarization Maintaining Feed Through

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative, bi-directional fiber laser/amplifier pump coupler/combiners for use in high power fiber laser weapon systems, extending the efficiency, reliability and power handling beyond 1kW.

DESCRIPTION: High energy lasers (HELs) are required for a number of military applications including long range sensing, target designation and illumination and missile defense. Electric lasers are considered the laser of choice in the long term since the energy supply is rechargeable and clean. The preferred type of electric laser is the semiconductor diode-pumped fiber laser, which integrates well with other sensors and electro-optic elements in an aerospace environment. This topic seeks proposals for demonstration of concepts and hardware which would enable high-brightness, high-power scaling of fiber lasers/amplifiers. Cladding pumped (double clad) fiber lasers can utilize a range of laser diode pump sources which are themselves rapidly advancing to higher levels of power and brightness. Pump combiners are used to transport the pump light between the high-brightness laser diode pump sources and the double clad gain fiber in an all-fiber amplifier. Pump combiners are essential for development of all-fiber architecture to maximize ruggedness and reliability. The ideal pump combiner minimizes the loss in brightness between multiple pump diodes and the gain fiber. It also has minimal loss for signal and polarization preservation both for efficiency and power handling capability. Coherently combinable fiber laser systems inherently require a narrow line width, polarized output master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. Couplers are needed that are compatible with double clad fibers (DCF), polarization-maintaining (PM), large mode area (LMA) fibers. These fibers are typically low numerical aperture and may not be strictly single mode, making them sensitive to external stresses and deformations both contributing to bend loss and conversion to higher order mode guiding. In addition, couplers for photonic band gap or photonic crystal fibers (PCF) are needed for power handling and reliability. Coupler designs are targeted for lasing of Ytterbium (Yb) ~1064nm and Thulium(Tm) ~2000nm. Optical efficiency of the pump combiner and scalability of the number of fibers, total power, bi-directionality and polarization preservation will be used as metrics for all phases.

PHASE I: KW power combiner designs and packaging for pump coupling to DCF Yb and Tm are sought. Criteria for the design include brightness preservation, bi-directional power handling capability, polarization preservation and robust packaging. Designs compatible with LMA and PCF gain fibers are sought.

PHASE II: Based on Phase I designs and models: build, test, and demonstrate multi-kW capable bi-directional prototype hardware and conduct in-depth characterization of hardware to show a maturity of technology toward potential commercial and military applications. Delivery of packaged devices for Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RDLA) evaluation is required.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Air Force directed energy applications include illuminators, infrared countermeasures and secure communications.

Commercial Application: Communications, medical, printing and materials processing (welding, marking, cutting).

REFERENCES:

1. F. Gonthier, ";All-Fiber Pump Coupling Techniques for Double-Clad Fiber Amplifiers,"; Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2005. CLEO/Europe. 2005 Conference, pp. 716-716.

2. F. Gonthier et al, ";High-Power All-Fiber Components: The Missing Link for High-Power Fiber Lasers,"; Proc. SPIE 5335 (2004).

3. C. Headley et al, ";Tapered Fiber Bundles for Combining Laser Pumps,"; Proc. SPIE 5709, pp. 263-272, (2005).

4. A. Wetter et al, ";Tapered Fused-Bundle Splitter Capable of 1 kW CW Operation,"; Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530I (2007).

5. M. Nielsen et al, ";High Power PCF-Based Pump Combiners,"; Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532C (2007).

KEYWORDS: Fiber Laser, Pump Combiner, Double Clad Fiber

AF103-016 TITLE: Tactical Optical Inertial Reference Unit (OIRU)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a small optical inertial reference unit for tactical use in aircraft-based, tactical, high energy laser systems.

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is exploring and developing several aircraft mounted high energy laser (HEL) systems for precision strike and self- defense missions. All HEL systems require accurate pointing and precise stabilization of the laser beam to be effective. Laser systems hosted on aircraft platforms pose an additional challenge to beam stabilization efforts due to the harsh vibrational environment inherent in such platforms. A key element of the stabilization system is the optical inertial reference unit (OIRU). The OIRU provides a stable optical reference beam (ORB) that is transmitted down the length of the optical beam path. The ORB is inertially stabilized against the aircraft motion so that it provides a virtual star as a reference for the line-of-sight (LOS) of the optics train. The optics system then locks itself to the stable ORB thereby stabilizing its LOS. The OIRU, if equipped as a traditional IRU, with a complement of gyros, can also be the reference for open-loop pointing to the target. For tactical systems it is anticipated that this function will be provided by the gimbal with enough accuracy for acquisition in a wide field-of-view (FOV) sensor which is incorporated into a course track loop. Given the noisy vibrational aircraft environment in which it will operate, the OIRU should be relatively insensitive to linear vibration. Current state-of-the-art OIRUs are too big for tactical use and typically demonstrate large sensitivity to linear vibration which is detrimental to system operation. The tracker bandwidth may be influenced by both the atmospheric distortion and the OIRU bandwidth and noise characteristics.

For the purposes of this topic the following system, performance and environmental parameters are to be used:

• 30-50 cm beam director aperture

• Target cueing by radar derived vector or other on-board instrumentation

• 50 milliradian Wide Field-of-View (WFOV) acquisition sensor

• Operator-in-the-loop target designation

• Inertial attitude knowledge (IAK) minimal (3 millliradians rms from DC-1 Hz, 1-axis, 1-sigma)

• Platform jitter, 500 nanoradians, 2-1000 Hz

• Size Goal = 3 inch cube

• Alignment beam diameter, 3-5 millimeters

• Linear and angular base motion power spectral densities (PSD) to be provided by the government

PHASE I: Develop a preliminary design review (PDR)-level design of the OIRU device, addressing the overall system jitter performance and architecture implications. Design should include the overall design concept, as well as size and performance predictions.

PHASE II: The goal of Phase II is to complete the OIRU design, then build and test an engineering development unit. Develop preliminary design of a flight-qualifiable version of the OIRU that can be field tested. Unit will be delivered to the government for testing in a government testbed.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Beam stabilization is required for any laser system to be effective. A tactical OIRU is a key component in achieving this effectiveness.

Commercial Application: The OIRU developed here could also be used in airborne and spaceborne laser communications applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Luniewicz, M.F., Gilmore, J. P., Chien, T. T., et. al., “Comparison of Wide-Band Inertial Line-of-Sight Stabilization Reference Mechanisms,” Proc. SPIE International Symposium on Aerospace/Defense Sensing, Conference 1697, Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing VI, pp. 378-398, April 1992.

2. Luniewicz, M.F., Murphy, J.H., O’Neil, E., Woodbury, D.T., and Schulthess, M., “Testing of the Inertial Pseudo-Star Reference Unit,” SPIE-Acquisition, Pointing and Tracking VII, Orlando, FL, April, 1994.

3. Gilmore, J.P., Luniewicz, M.F., Sargent, D.G., “Enhanced Precision Pointing Jitter Suppression System,” Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4632, Laser and Beam Control Technologies, San Diego, CA, January, 2002.

4. Sebesta, H.R., Rost, M., Burkhard, K., Gabbrielli, M., “Test Experiences in Verification of Precision Inertial Reference Units,” 9th Annual AIAA/BMDO Technology Conference, July 2000.

5. Eckelkamp-Baker, D. and Merritt, P., “Inertial Reference Unit for the Tactical High Energy Laser (HEL) Fighter,” 9th Annual AIAA / BMDO Technology Conference, July 2000.

KEYWORDS: optical inertial reference unit, line-of-sight stabilization

AF103-017 TITLE: Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Algorithms for Daylight and Strong

Turbulence Imaging

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop and implement the next generation of multi-frame bind deconvolution approaches that are tailored to work under daylight and strong turbulence imaging conditions. These approaches will push beyond the standard imaging model of a single channel electro-optical system with statistical independence between frames collected.

DESCRIPTION: Multi-frame blind deconvolution (MFBD) algorithms have been in use for years for ground to space image enhancement applications. These algorithms generally use a conventional single channel electro-optical imaging model with the assumption of independence between frames. Past algorithms have typically been developed to support imaging from astronomical observatories in low turbulence conditions during the terminator period of the objects orbit. Atmospheric turbulence distorts the incoming wave front and causes a corresponding degradation in the image plane. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are employed to remove a significant amount of the distortion, but they have limitations in the amount of turbulence that can be effectively mitigated. MFBD algorithms can be used without an AO system or in addition to an AO system for additional mitigation of higher order aberrations. MFBD algorithms use the assumption that the object remains the same over a set of images and the relationship between the frames can be used to extract the distortions from each image frame and thus reconstruct the object. With higher frame-rate cameras becoming available, the interframe correlation is increasing and one can no longer assume independence between frames. Research and development efforts are required to push the envelope of high resolution ground to space imagery operating conditions beyond low turbulent conditions and into full daylight. During daylight the heat from the sun increases the atmospheric turbulence. This leads to a significantly more turbulent environment compared to normal night time operations. As the turbulence increases, new constraints might be found that increase the performance of MFBD algorithms to reconstruct the object. Potential constraints could be additional optical channels using embedded information in the photon data such as polarization or using non-standard imaging models that leverage interframe statistical dependence. Past MFBD algorithms using the conventional model have been shown to be mathematically optimal under a certain set of assumptions via Cramer-Rao lower bound information theory. It is expected that this research topic will use similar techniques to identify and implement MFBD constraints to the strong turbulence problem. The effects of the new constraints on the image model should show the ability of that constraint to improve on the algorithms ability to mitigate the increased atmospheric turbulence. Some basic research has been conducted in this area. Additional review of MFBD algorithms in other fields and the constraints used should be made for potential leverage. This topic looks to expand previous findings and increase their technology readiness level and will enable better space situational awareness (SSA).

PHASE I: Develop the mathematical basis for new MFBD approaches and constraints that are tailored to daylight imaging in strong turbulence. Use Cramer-Rao bound analysis on new constraints or imaging system models to identify the most appropriate approaches.

PHASE II: Implement algorithms discovered in Phase I in a high performance computing-based MFBD software package and demonstrate its performance with real and simulated data. The Air Force Research Laboratory will provide access to real data test cases and associated benchmarks for comparative purposes at no cost to the contract.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: New approaches will address increased atmospheric turbulence degradation in electro-optical (EO) imaging as capabilities push toward daylight imaging and thus will enable better SSA.

Commercial Application: The ability to use EO imaging in higher turbulence regimes has applicability in the astronomy community as well as other imaging technologies such as medical imaging.

REFERENCES:

1. Matson, C.L., et al, “A fast and Optimal Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Algorithm for High-Resolution Ground-Based Imaging of Space Objects,” Applied Optics, Vol. 48, No.1, Pages A75-A92 (2009).

2. Doug Hope, Stuart Jefferies and Cindy Giebink, “Fourier Constrained Blind Restoration of Imagery Obtained in Poor Imaging Conditions,” Proc. AMOS technologies Conference, Maui, HI, 2007.

KEYWORDS: MFBD, Image Enhancement, Daylight Imaging, Turbulence, High Performance Computing

AF103-018 TITLE: Integrated Adaptive Optics System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop an integrated inexpensive, compact, user-friendly adaptive optics system. This system should consider using a number of cutting edge technologies in an integrated system.

DESCRIPTION: The military uses adaptive optics for a wide range of imaging, surveillance, reconnaissance and laser applications, including space situational awareness (SSA) and laser radar (ladar). To be extensively used, the adaptive optics system should be compact, lightweight and inexpensive. Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMs) devices have the potential to meet these requirements. We are seeking devices that can be used on a variety of platforms, so we are seeking integrated systems designs that have size, weight and power (SWaP) configurations for such platforms. Such systems should have decreased power consumption and high temporal (20 kHz or better) and spatial frequencies. We are seeking to extend the capabilities of adaptive optics by a factor of 10 over the current state-of-the-art for adaptive optics. The integrated system should be able to use a variety of different wavefront sensor technologies and should be adequate for use with both laser and imaging applications.

PHASE I: Design an adaptive optics system to be integrated into a single package. This system should be factor of 10 or better in optimized SWaP and should include systems (MEMs) for high temporal and spatial frequencies.

PHASE II: Model and simulate designed adaptive optics systems. Prepare and test prototype integrated adaptive optics system with high bandwidth, high temporal frequency and high spatial frequency. Determine operational speed and system aberrations.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: space surveillance and space situational awareness, directed energy laser weapons.

Commercial Application: microscopy, astronomy, lithography, ophthalmology, laser machining.

REFERENCES:

1. Clara E. Dimas, Julie Perreault, Steven Cornelissen, Harold Dyson, Peter Krulevitch, Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano, “Large-scale polysilicon surface-micromachined spatial light modulator,” Proc. of SPIE 4983 (2003).

2. C. Dimas, P. Bierden, T. Bifano, J. Perrault, and G. Riemann, “High speed, compact, adaptive optics using MEMS silicon deformable mirrors,” Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2002. CLEO '02. Technical Digest.

3. Justin Mansell, Robert Praus, Morris Maynard, Mark Praus, and Stephen Praus, “Progress on Compact Low-Cost Adaptive Optics Systems for Enhanced Imaging and Laser Wavefront Control,” DEPS Beam Control Conference, March 2006.

4. L.F. Rodriguez-Ramos, A. Alonso, F. Gago, J.V. Gigante, G. Herrera, T. Viera, “Adaptive Optics Real-Time Control Using FPGA,” IEEE Field Programmable Logic and Applications, 2006.

5. J. Mansell et al., ";High Power Deformable Mirrors,"; SPIE Conference Mirror Technology Days 2007.

KEYWORDS: adaptive optics, deformable mirror, actuator density, imaging, high energy lasers, MEMs

AF103-023 TITLE: Rapid Reprogramming Technologies for Electronic Warfare Training

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Human Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Define and develop technologies for rapid integration and validation of Electronic Warfare (EW) models and supporting data into Warfighter training, allowing training systems and supporting simulations to maintain valid, concurrent representations of evolving and reprogrammable hostile threats.

DESCRIPTION: Training systems, such as high-fidelity manned flight simulators, constructive computer generated forces, and embedded Electronic Warfare training capabilities in actual combat systems, are unable to accurately represent the anticipated Electronic Warfare threat in many potential theaters of conflict. In the near future, enemy threats will have the capability to rapidly adapt to counter US electronic systems. For example, an enemy radar or jammer may have “intelligent” wartime reserve modes that allow it to change its transmit characteristics significantly from expected parameters. This agility makes training against the anticipated threat difficult, since its characteristics can literally change in seconds. Even a robust flight simulator or training system’s Electronic Warfare training capabilities can be obsolete overnight. Current databases and training system architectures that are designed to represent less agile, less variable threat parametrics and capabilities are unable to perform rapid reprogramming to match new threat characteristics that may arise. If an anticipated threat changes frequency, modulation, scan pattern, or other output characteristics, for example, activates a wartime reserve operational mode, training devices require time consuming and expensive hardware and software changes to allow concurrent representation of the threat’s new characteristics.

This research effort will define, develop, and demonstrate innovative technologies that allow training systems to rapidly and accurately represent agile, reactive, and adaptable threats. The training systems of interest include, but are not limited to, high fidelity flight simulators, constructive threat simulations, computer generated forces, and embedded training capabilities in actual systems. The researchers will be required to perform an investigation of the Electronic Warfare data needed to meet future Warfighter training requirements in a selected domain or class of systems. Determine a method that allows a training system to accurately represent a dynamic theat. Prototype architectures for both the database used to represent threat information and its rapid integration into a training system will be defined. A methodology to validate the content of the data and the representation of the threat in an actual training system will be developed. If possible, a real training device should be modified to use the new threat representation methodology and an evaluation of the training improvement due to the new capability should be performed. Finally, a prototype standard that will allow data sharing and re-use among training system developers will be proposed.

To assist the small businesses for both Phase-I and Phase-II, government owned flight simulators and computer generated forces software can be made available.

PHASE I: Develop an innovative to solve the challenge of representing rapidly adaptable threats in training systems. A conceptual system design concept for demonstration and evaluation should be accomplished.

PHASE II: Develop a prototype system for a single class of weapons system (remotely piloted aircraft, fighter, bomber) based on the Phase-I design. The system should allow training research and assessment of the training utility of the concept. Construct a prototype and conduct an end-to-end demonstration of a US Electronic Warfare system reacting to a rapidly changing threat. Demonstration within an actual training system or simulator is highly desired.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Ability to rapidly reprogram training simulators and supporting counter-threat training while maintaining correlation with actual threat characteristics.

Commercial Application: Technologies developed can support simulations for civilian communications and FAA training systems. Example – software programmable radios for disaster response and commercial aviation simulations.

REFERENCES:

1. N. Ikram, S. J. Shepherd, A Cryptographically Secure EW Database With Selective Random Access, University of Bradford, Electrical Engineering Department, MILCOM 97 Proceedings.

2. Hooper, J D, Description of Objects Used in the Data Fusion and Correlation Techniques Testbed (DFACTT) DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT OTTAWA (ONTARIO), Dec 1992.

3. David W. Galloway, Patrick G. Hefferman, E. Allen Nus and Charles M. Summers, Electronic Combat Simulation in a Networked, Full Mission Rehearsal, Multi-Simulator Environment, TRW Avionics and Surveillance Group, Warner Robins Avionics Laboratory, ITSEC 1993.

4. Linda Viney A1, Tom McDermot A2, Craig A. Eidman A3, Susan McCall A4 , Networked Electronic Warfare Training System (NEWTS), The Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Volume: 2007.

5. Michael R. Graham A1 and Glenn D. Cicero, Validating the Electronic Combat Environment in Aircrew Training Devices, The Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Volume: 2007.

KEYWORDS: ELECTRONIC WARFARE, RAPID REPROGRAMMING, EMBEDDED TRAINING, FLIGHT SIMULATION, AIRCREW TRAINING

AF103-024 TITLE: Modeling and Simulation Technologies to Support Physics Based Active

Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar Models in Training Systems

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Human Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Define, develop, and demonstrate innovative modeling/simulation approaches and solutions that will allow accurate representation and interactions of Active Electronically Scanned Arrays and other scanning radar technologies in Distributed Training Simulations and networked training systems.

DESCRIPTION: The Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) is becoming the new hardware standard for modern military aircraft radars. AESA radars have the ability to both rapidly scan for targets and form multiple, simultaneous detection beams, without mechanically moving the antenna. AESA radars can also be employed as a sensor or, in the future, as an electronic attack capability. Current simulation architectures and standards used in flight simulators, constructive simulations, and Distributed Mission Training were constructed around the need to model mechanically scanned radars and are far too slow to interactively represent an electronically scanned antenna. Modern AESAs can manipulate the radar beam significantly faster that current distributed simulation standards and accompanying software/modeling approaches can represent. These current technical approaches cannot model the AESA’s multiple beams and rapid scans in real time, making accurate replication of the AESA interactions with other simulators’ threats, jammers, and computer generated forces impossible. This makes physically accurate interactive training between a simulated friendly system employing AESA radars and a simulated enemy system employing countermeasures, technically challenging. The USAF requires an innovative approach to representing AESA technologies and their interaction with other systems to allow realistic, accurate Warfighter training with these capabilities.

This effort will define and develop innovative modeling approaches and solutions to the problem of accurately representing AESA radars, active phased array radars, and other rapidly scanning radar technologies in interactive training simulations. Specifically, these methodologies should allow physics-based or highly accurate representations of advanced radar jamming systems, especially Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM), as they interact with an AESA system. It should also provide methods that allow the training system to accurately represent an AESA capability for passive detection and direct electronic attack. Explore and develop a system that provides a generic capability to model AESA radars and countermeasures supporting Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) and Distribute Mission operations (DMO) training technologies and networks. Prototype interactive standards and methodologies should be identified which allow realistic distributed training between these systems. The solution should allow interactions between a single AESA radar model and up to 3 simultaneous targets/jammers over a typical training network. The model should respond to changes in the targets/jammers at a minimum rate of 60HZ in a close looped test.

PHASE I: Identify an innovative approach to solving the problem of modeling AESA radars in distributed simulations. Determine the technical feasibility of modeling an AESA system’s interactions with a threat environment and running the simulation in real time. Develop an initial concept AESA model design or prototype constructive simulation for interactive demonstration and test of the proposed approach. If possible, identify prototype interactive standards for these simulations.

PHASE II: A prototype system will be developed based on the Phase-I concept and preliminary design. A feasibility demonstration at the end of Phase-II is highly desired.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Ability to train against advanced threats in a distributed manner.

Commercial Application: Technologies developed for military training systems can support simulations for civilian communications systems and FAA training systems and civilian standards and protocols.

REFERENCES:

1. Modern digital simulation of airborne sensor performance and vulnerability. Harkness, L.L.; Bach, J.K.; Stephenson, C.R.; Telesystems Conference, 1991. Proceedings. Vol.1., NTC '91., National Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/NTC.1991.148025,Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 241 - 246

2. Reprogrammable threat radar emitter simulations using real-time, closed-loop software models. Kuechenmeister, D.R.; Brown, R.C.; Elliott, C.P.; Fuss, S.R.; Juliano, M.S.; Sitterle, J.J.;Aerospace and Electronics Conference, 1997. NAECON 1997., Proceedings of the IEEE 1997, National Volume: 2, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/NAECON.1997.622700, Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 571 - 579 vol.2

3. Implementation of a Behavioral Model of SSPAs taking into account mismatches for efficient System Simulation of Modern AESA, Estagerie, F.X. Bennadji, A. Reveyrand, T. Mons, S. Quere, R. Constancias, L. Le Helleye, P. UMR CNRS n6172, Univ. of Limoges, Limoges. This paper appears in: Microwave Conference, 2007. APMC 2007. Asia-Pacific, Publication Date: 11-14 Dec. 2007, on page(s): 1 - 4, Location: Bangkok, Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-0748-4, INSPEC Accession Number: 10056528, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/APMC.2007.4554909, Current Version Published: 27 June 2008

4. AESA-Based Radar Performance in Complex Sensor Environments, SBIR Topic N06-123, Contract No. N68335-07-C-0022, Phase I Option Final Report, Contractor/Key Person, Kevin J. Sullivan, Toyon Research Corporation, 6800 Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117-3021, Government Technical Liaison Oliver Allen or Mark Strayer, Naval Air Warfare Center Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD 20670.

KEYWORDS: Keywords: Radar Modeling and Simulation, Electronic Warfare Training, Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Modeling, Active Phased Array Radar Modeling, Distributed Simulation

AF103-026 TITLE: Pilot Wrist Computer System (PWCS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems, Human Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop wrist computer system with multimodal controls, flexible communication and power options, and novel sensors suite for tasks ranging from imaging to monitoring wearer physiology or environment.

DESCRIPTION: Recent advances in a variety of component technologies have established a technology base that enables a multimedia wrist computer system (WCS) with significant stand-alone (organic) capability that synergistically interfaces with avionics and supports emerging warfighter needs. The technical challenge is to create a personal computer (PC) capability in the form-factor of a watch or forearm band using emerging processor and operating systems with various navigation, sensing, communication, multimodal control, and visualization technologies. Prior efforts have topped out at the capability of a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) and cannot support more demanding PC applications; innovations based on open operating systems, software and hardware are needed. Novel displays are becoming available based on developments in miniature near-eye imaging engines and flexible substrates that provide resolution comparable to notebook computers with drastically reduced space, weight, and power. A miniature display designed for near-eye applications may be use in the watchface as a direct-view display; a rollable display or pico-projector may be used to obtain a larger viewing area when needed. Efficient microprocessors and solid-state drives are emerging that maximize battery life and enable energy-harvesting power options. Sensors, antennas, and radio-frequency (RF) analog circuits have become so small that they may be integrated with the digital electronics or embedded into structural elements. Candidate sensor suites (cameras, accelerometers, geo-positioning, and a digital compass) enable the development of advanced multimodal user control interfaces including gesture in addition to touch, voice and mouse. Creativity and innovation are still lacking in the development of multimedia interfaces to allow a given task to be executed by two or more control modalities. Warfighter needs may expand this sensor list to include processing & communication support for skin-in (physiological) and skin-out (chem/bio environment) status monitoring; a wrist-mounted approach has been postulated by these two research communities. Navigation functionality may variously be based on GPS/INS or the nascent video image processing technologies. Piloting functions to be addressed include the generation of complex formats for digital helmet mounted display (HMD) systems. Discriminating factors will include power, cabling, and antenna options as they are integrated to provide the overall usability of the pilot wrist computer system (PWCS). An open architecture (hardware and software) is required to affordably optimize all space, weight, ergonomic, power, performance, and integration (SWEPPI) issues in variants tailored to each piloting or other aerospace warfighting mission. Functionality suites must be tailorable to pilots, aircrew, warfighters in dismounted operations, or ops-center team coordination. Success in achieving acceptable SWEPPI should be initially demonstrated via the use of the prototype WCS devices by personnel at the performing research and development organization, who would wear their WCS devices all day long while doing their own jobs in their facilities with a documented quantitative increase in productivity. The goal for the topic is an on-the-move, glance-able, cannot-forget stand-alone capability for warfighters that also interacts synergistically with other electronics gear when it is available.

PHASE I: Design wrist-wearable system to provide organic battlespace visualization capability to pilots and other warfighters. Novel displays, multimodal user interface, energy harvesting, and diverse sensor suites should be included or enabled via an open architecture approach. Develop SWEPPI roadmap.

PHASE II: Fabricate WCS and demonstrate organic capabilities provided when used alone in support of flight operations. Perform evaluation experiments representative of flight preparation, execution, and debrief scenarios.

Demonstrate synergistic capabilities of WCS in support of HMD systems and other gear now worn or used in cockpits. Evaluate potential of WCS to include skin-in/skin-out sensors.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications include pilots, flight engineers, mission crew, ground crew, battlefield airmen, security police, personnel in ops centers for air, outer & cyber space.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include road warriors, police, commercial and private aviation pilots, and homeland security personnel.

REFERENCES:

1. Priya Ganapati, “HP Designs Flexible, Solar-Powered Wrist Display for Combat,” WIRED, 15 Apr 2010, /gadgetlab/2010/04/hp-flexible-wrist-display

2. M. Noda et al., “A Rollable AM-OLED Display Driven by OTFTs,” SID 10 Digest paper 47.3, pp. 710-713 (2010), ISSN 0097-966X/10/4102-0710, .

3. (a) Chandra Narayanaswami, M. T. Raghunath, Noboru Kamijoh, Tadonobu Inoue, George Tatomyr, John Nobert, “Challenges and considerations for design and production of a purpose-optimized body-worn Watch PC,” in Defense, Security, and Cockpit Displays XI, Darrel G. Hopper, Editor, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5443, 1-12 (2004), incorporates high resolution microdisplay, touch screen, Bluetooth, and full PDA functionality; (b) Fred M. Meyer, Sam J. Longo, and Darrel G. Hopper, “Wrist display concept demonstration based on 2-in. color AMOLED,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 257-268 (2004), demonstrated running live streaming video from a UAV.

4. David Huffman, Keith Tognoni, and Robert Anderson, Flexible Display and Integrated Communication Devices (FDICD) Technology, Volume II, Technical Report Number AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2008-0072, 56 pp (June 2008). Approved for public release and available from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). Integrate PDA functionality with with GPS into wrist form factor.

5. Cl. Argenta et al., “Graphical User Interface Concepts for Tactical Augmented Reality,” Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7688 (2010), .

KEYWORDS: wearable electronics, glanceable situational awareness, wrist computer system, Dick Tracy watch, WatchPad

AF103-027 TITLE: See-through Transparent Displays

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a wide field of view transparent display, for symbols and imagery that can be applied to curved surfaces such as aircrew helmet's visors and/or aircraft canopies/windshields.

DESCRIPTION: The goal of this effort is to produce a head- or helmet-mounted see-through capability with the ability to display synthetic imagery. The primary customer is a pilot in an aircraft cockpit (e.g., C-130, F-35, or F-16) but the technology may have applications for dismounts such as the battlefield airman or special operations. See-through display technologies, particularly on curved surfaces, have advanced to the point of being viable, and possibly invaluable, in many different Air Force situations. Being able to superimpose computer-generated imagery onto one’s view of the real world has been a goal of researchers for years but, until recently, has been impractical outside of a controlled environment.

Many piloting and warfighting tasks could be greatly enhanced by large field of view displays that overlay the outside world with data and symbology applicable to that outside scene; as well as weapon and sensor status, own ship data and battlespace awareness information. This requires that not only the display area be transparent, but also any grid lines or thin film transistors be transparent and that any necessary wires be minimized. Most of the functions of the head up display (HUD) can be performed by this display, but the new capabilities of this concept can be best utilized by offering information on the location of friendlies, foes, targets of interest, and way points in a larger than ever available field of view.

There are several key performance parameters for this effort:

1. The transparency of the display should be 90% or higher but not less than 70%.

2. The display should be full-color and should appear on the aircrew helmet's visors and/or aircraft canopies/windshields.

3. The outside view should focus to infinity.

4. The application is not meant for HMD (Helmet Mounted Displays) only, though it can be used for HMD. It is a concept that cannot be easily supported by some of the current technologies such as LCD which needs a backlight that makes it hard to be transparent unless it is edge-lighted.

5. The pilot must have the capability to turn the display on and off and adjust the brightness.

6. The ability to move the display to any part of the viewing surface, at the aircrew’s discretion, would also have value.

7. The display should meet the performance requirements such as environmental, vibration, sunlight-readability, and night vision compatibility.

Recent advances in display technology, display concepts, and displays materials have led to applications such as holographic displays, immersive displays, 3-D displays, flexible displays, displays that are low cost, small size, and low power consumption. There is a good possibility that a see-through transparent display can be developed which can superimpose important information on an out-the-window scene.

There is a moderate amount of risk involved in this research. It is possible that the technology/process proposed may not perform as intended or not work at all. The technology/process proposed should be new, viable, innovative, and should contain a risk reduction plan. The selected proposer must be willing and capable of completing Phase II and Phase III efforts, if selected to do so. This type of display has not been attempted before or, if attempted, has not met the stated objectives for the Air Force application. The proposer has the option of choosing the technology or the technique to be used to meet the stated objectives.

Besides aircraft transparencies and helmet mounted displays for the Air Force, Navy, and Army, there are many other areas where such a display could be useful such as displays for commercial, automotive, medical, industrial, and entertainment applications.

PHASE I: Develop an innovative design concept for a full-color see-through or transparent display and demonstrate its feasibility for Air Force application.

PHASE II: Fabricate, demonstrate, and deliver a full-color see-through or transparent display breadboard subsystem at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5, as defined in the DoD Defense Acquisition Handbook. Four such breadboard prototypes shall be delivered to Air Force.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: An Air Force application includes transparent display for pilot’s helmet. Develop a TRL 6 system/subsystem model or prototype. TRL 6 requires successful testing in a relevant environment.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include a transparent display on the windshield of a car. Such a display can show the speed of the car, the engine revolutions, or some unsafe condition such as an open door. Another application is for a surgeon performing an operation. The vital signs of the patient can be displayed on the surgeon's helmet while the operation is going on.

REFERENCES:

1. “Flexible transparent display by plastic MEMS”, Higo A. Fujita, Proceedings of the 12th International Display Workshop in Conjunction with Asia Display 2005, p 2021-2034.

2. “See-through transistors allow messages on eyeglasses, windshields”, CBS News, Wednesday, June 27, 2007; 6:47 PM ET.

3. “Transparent transistors to bring future displays, ‘e-paper’ “, Sanghyun Ju ,Yi Xuan, and Peide Ye in Purdue’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Antonio Facchetti and Jun Liu in the Department of Chemistry at Northwestern University; Fumiaki Ishikawa and Chongwu Zhou in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Southern California;and Marks and Janes.

4. “Cheap, transparent, and flexible displays”, Kevin Bullis, Technology Review, Monday, October 23, 2006, page 1 and 2.

KEYWORDS: See-through, transparent, transmissivity, sunlight-readability, night-vision-compatibility, HUD

AF103-028 TITLE: Evaluating the Environmental Impact of New Bio-Fuel Additives

This topic has been removed from the solicitation.

AF103-029 TITLE: Digital Flight Gloves

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop digital gloves to replace switches and annunciator panels, enable typing via simple finger motions, and provide capability to annotate real world with geo-registered icons via hand gestures.

DESCRIPTION: Warfigher productivity is limited by the need to operate equipment via physical keys, switches, and buttons and to coordinate 3-D events viewed from different perspectives via time-consuming voice communications. Pilots and flight engineers need a means to replace the functionality of dozens of switches and buttons on annunciator panels lining cockpits with a digital glove that processes sensor outputs into computer inputs to drive physical switches and buttons without touching them. Pilots and mission crew need a means to annotate the real world out the cockpit or helicopter door with hand motions that become geo-registered icons on the displays of all air crew and ground team members simultaneously. All airmen need an ability to type commands, reports, etc. by simply moving their fingers in air. Gesture recognition technology has matured to the point that it is now possible to make real computer display interfaces based on gestures such as those depicted in recent science fiction movies and to extend action annotation technology from touch screens in near-real time, to touch-less annotation of the real world in real time with geo-registered icons shared through a low-bandwidth battle network with all blue players. Current flight gloves contain no electronics and are fabricated from fire-resistant material manufactured to military specification, MIL-G-181188B. All mission critical functionality in this specification must be maintained while introducing sensors and electronic read-out components. Recommendations for the revision of this MIL-G-181188B to accommodate digital flight gloves should be developed.

PHASE I: Design flight gloves with embedded sensors to detect finger motions and hand gestures. These digital gloves must retain all current comfort and usability features and include the computer interface to process sensor outputs for switch activation, typing, and gesture annotation.

PHASE II: Fabricate digital gloves suitable for laboratory evaluation and field testing. Demonstrate capability to select and activate annunciator panel switches/buttons with finger and/or hand motions; add interrogation of switch status if tactile/aural feedback is included. Demonstrate capability to annotate real world with geo-registered icons. Demonstrate accuracy of 99% in typing via finger motions.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Develop recommendations for the revision of MIL-G-181188B to accommodate DFG for aerospace flight crews. Design and fabricate production prototypes; demonstrate improved crew productivity.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include airline and general aviation pilots, police, border security personnel, and, especially, road warriors and computer gamers.

REFERENCES:

1. GestureTek, Inc. .

2. Iron Will Creations LLC, iGlove , /intro/iGloveIntro.wmv.

3. Triggerfinger Software, Inc., www.t.

4. RallyPoint, Handwear Computer Input Device, .

5. Flight glove specifications available at, e.g., and /gloves.

KEYWORDS: flight gloves, gesture control, iGlove, geo-registered icons, real-world annotation, handwear computer input device

AF103-030 TITLE: Shareable Game-Based Objects Gateway for DIS and HLA Integration

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop a gateway that permits game-based objects to be integrated with Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High-Level Architecture (HLA) environments.

DESCRIPTION: Over the past 10 years, the DoD has invested heavily in computer-based games as a medium for military training. At the same time, the DoD has continued and grown its investment in modest to high-fidelity networked simulation systems based on DIS and HLA. The Services have separately demonstrated significant capabilities to conduct mission critical training using these simulation systems, even to the point of giving up flying hours to fund continued development and advancement of the simulation systems and their components. Further, and most recently, the Services have been exploring and demonstrating the capability to bring live, operational systems and high fidelity distributed simulation together to accelerate learning of complex tactical, operational, and strategic concepts and objectives. At the present time, there is no mechanism for integrating the advances and investments made in both gaming and training into a common capability that leverages the best capabilities and functionality of each (e.g., games and distributed simulation) for the common goal of accelerating military, training, rehearsal, and exercise. The goal of this effort is to explore the utility and practical efficiency to be gained with the integration of games with high fidelity, distributed simulation. What’s missing today is a practical and seamless way to share the capabilities of games with the capabilities of high fidelity simulation to increase the training and operational utility of both. This effort will identify the common and unique data requirements and specifications for these environments and will develop methods that facilitate the two-way interaction and sharing of data between games and high fidelity simulations. In addition, this effort will examine the separate and combined contribution of games and high fidelity simulation for training a ‘to-be-determined’ set of criterion tasks. Finally, the effort will demonstrate a capability to seamlessly train military personnel operating in either the gaming environments and in distributed high fidelity simulation environments simultaneously. The impact of this simultaneous interaction will be evaluated in terms of both its instructional efficiency and in terms of its impact on individual and team learning.

PHASE I: Identify key common unique data and interface requirements for gaming and distributed simulation interaction. Develop and validate specifications for interaction between these environments. Demonstrate interaction in a single criterion task involving gaming and training simultaneous participation.

PHASE II: Develop robust methods and tools for interaction btween gaming and distributed sim envir.Validate and refine data specs and interfaces required for interaction.Develop and validate methods for tracking data exchanges btw envir.Conduct trng efficiency studies using the envir for simultaneous and interactive trng, rehearsal, and ex.Develop final specs and gateway tech for routine interaction.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Provide standards & architecture to allow games & other M&S based sys to integrate & interoperate simultaneously.Expands military’s trng options & distributes msn oriented trng rehearsal & ex content.

Commercial Application: Opportunity to bring games, distributed sim, & live ops together in seamless environment w/out discounting the investments & capes of each envir separately.

REFERENCES:

1. Burgeson, J.C., et al., “Natural effects in military models and simulations: Part III – Analysis of requirements versus capabilities,” Report No. STC-TR-2970, PL-TR-96-2039, (AD-A317 289), p. 48, August 1996.

2. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office homepage: www.dmso.mil.

3. “Distributed interactive simulation systems for simulation and training in the aerospace environment,” Proceedings of the Conference, Orlando, FL, Apr 19-20, 1995. Clarke, T. L., ED. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, vol. CR 58) 338p.

4. Brown, B., Wilkinson, S., Nordyke, J., Riede, D., and Huysson, S. (1997). Developing an automated training analysis and feedback system for tank platoons (RR-1708; ADA328445). Army Research Institute.

5. Goldsberry, B.S. (1984). The Effects of Feedback and Predictability of Human Judgment. (TR-84-3; ADA145744). Office of Naval Research.

6. Additional information from TPOC in response to FAQs about AF103-030. Contains 16 sets of Q&A. (Posted in SITIS 8/10/10.)

KEYWORDS: Shareable courseware objects, high fidelity gaming, distributed simulation, integrated gaming and training

AF103-031 TITLE: Modeling of Nano Effects on Major Human Organs in the Body

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Materials/Processes, Biomedical

OBJECTIVE: Develop and characterize suitable in vitro or in vivo models that can be used to predict biological outcomes of various nanoparticles or emerging contaminates on biological pathways.

DESCRIPTION: The DoD has focused on enhancing current materials through the addition of engineered nanoparticles to existing military systems used to sustain technological superiority. These materials exhibit unique chemical and physical properties which raise concerns on the potential human health risks of nanoparticles used in military products. This effort would investigate present modeling tools used to predict biological outcomes of various toxic chemicals since current modeling systems are inadequate in predicting the mechanistic routs of toxicity for nanoparticles. The final outcome will involve developing a novel software program or modify an existing modeling program to address the toxicity of chemicals at the nanoscale. Specific attributes of the program may include entry into the cell, routes of exposure, specific toxicological affects on biological systems. This model will be used to further comprehend novel human health risks which will lead to defining new exposure levels or regulations to protect our workforce.

PHASE I: The initial investigation will provide a concept or framework for a model (including anticipated statistical analysis/modeling methodology) that will investigate one or more case studies on the human health interactions of specific nanoparticles.

PHASE II: Develop the model, validate and market the product to obtain acceptance, plan the implementation of the product while expanding the model to include additional nanoparticles.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This tool will serve as a decision making tool in developing new regulations or assist in the design of novel materials that will enhance our current DoD systems.

Commercial Application: Assist industry in developing novel materials or application that are less toxic or harmful to the environment.

REFERENCES:

1. Saber M. Hussain, Laura K. Braydich-Stolle, Amanda M. Schrand, Richard C. Murdock, Kyung O. Yu, David M. Mattie, John J. Schlager, and Mauricio Terrones (2009) Toxicity Evaluation for Safe Use of Nanomaterials: Recent Achievements and Technical Challenges, Adv. Mater. 21, 1-11.

2. Daniel B. Miracle (2009) AFRL NanoScience Technologies Application, Transitions and Innovations (see PDF posted in SITIS /sitis).

3. Tommi Tervonen, Igor Linkov, Jose Figueira, Jeffery Steevens, Mark Chappel, Myrian Merad (2008) Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials, J Nanopart Res doi: 10.1007/s11051-008-9546-1.

4. Linkov I, Satterstorm K, Kiker G, Batchelor C, Bridges T (2006) From comparative risk assessment to multi-criterria decision analysis and adaptive management: recent development and applications. Environ Int 32:1072-1093. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2006.06.013.

KEYWORDS: Modeling Systems, Nanoparticles, Toxicity, Mechanistic Pathways, Biological Pathways, Human Health Risks, Novel Materials, DoD Systems, Military

AF103-032 TITLE: Multi-camera real-time Feature Recognition, Extraction & Tagging Automation

(McFRETA)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop an open and scalable framework/tool to perform automated feature recognition of multiple streaming sources and to extract metadata and make available for both ongoing operations and forensics.

DESCRIPTION: Burgeoning numbers of battlespace video sensors require machine assistance and warfighter interface engineering to enable identification of important features including behavior, faces, vehicles, and construction activities. These cameras are located on vehicles and fixed placements with data feeds often available on a “post before process” basis. Currently, all this video information inundates without illuminating battlefield decision-makers. The ability to incorporate all sources into an orchestrated event processing system, referenced to archival military “YouTube” databases, will necessitate real-time extraction and metadata tagging of features. While there are many existing algorithms that can be applied to individual feature extraction tasks, there is no way for operators to perform ad-hoc queries on what entities are within the real-time field of regard of a sensor or sensor set. New algorithms need to be developed that will point out possibly important activities from the multitude of live sensors in real-time. Invariants in space, time, illumination, sensor resolutions/bands must be extracted—automatically—to account for varying perspectives, distances, transmission latencies, and sensors. Novel live video information processing techniques such as adaptive multi-spectral sensor fusion, viewpoint invariant matching (VIM), and inter-camera image point cloud correlation need to be refined and extended, and new techniques suitable for dynamically moving multiple cameras need to be invented. The user interface in this architecture is critical—a human cannot look at all the information from a multi-camera plus archival yottabyte surveillance system and pull out what is important. Presentation to the operator might be a 3D space rendered in 2D screens comprising animated graphics, cartoons, and avatars for tracked objects (person, vehicle, or group) with embedded fused video coming up by mouse-over on dynamic symbols. Bandwidth and connectivity considerations may argue for pre-processing on or near collection platforms with salient information transmitted but with live video available on demand.

Existing tools are almost exclusively based on off-line processing and are not adequate for real-time execution. The tool sought in this topic comprises definition of an open framework for integration of real-time feature recognition and extraction algorithms, generation of a stream of standardized metadata associated with the content source, and design and demonstration of an open, scalable system that supports queries and event/alert notification based on rule sets. Operators enabled with automatic extraction and posting of features could perform machine queries regarding features of interest, vs. the current time-consuming error-prone procedure of asking individual sensor operators what they see or have seen recently. Additionally, through event processing, a rule set could be defined. The metadata needs to be in a consistent format (e.g., Community of Interest defined schemas). The methodology proposed must enable diverse sensors and the integration of feature recognition and extraction algorithms with an asynchronous event and querying capability. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the content capture and storage systems as well as the operations (or forensics) systems, the integrating framework must be open and user-friendly so as to enable queries in a broad manner.

PHASE I: Identify algorithms for feature recognition and extraction suitable for realtime application; identify suitable metadata tags that allow for human and machine devices search criteria; devise a framework that would function in orchestration and event processing frameworks. Design a prototype system.

PHASE II: Prototype and demonstrate automated identification, tagging, and tracking of humans and vehicles from multiple realtime video feeds. Develop test framework and demonstrate how existing and new algorithms can be incorporated and tested. Show how an operator can develop queries and rules that assist assessment and execution. Demonstrate scalability from tactical to regional areas of interest.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications include high-value target location, improvised explosive device detection and prevention, and automated generation of alerts based using rules on metadata.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include homeland security, police, and industrial site surveillance.

REFERENCES:

1. Meichun Hsu and Tao Yu, “An In-Database Streaming Solution to Multi-camera Fusion,” in Data Management in Grid and Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 5697, pp. 136ff (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2009); /content/2ql0052m32633116/

2. M. Andriluka, S. Roth, and B. Schiele, “People-tracking-by-detection and people-detection-by-tracking,” IEEE Conf on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, (2008).

3. Workshop on Multi-camera and Multi-modal Sensor Fusion Algorithms and Applications, The 10th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), http://www.elec.qmul.ac.uk/staffinfo/andrea/dwnld/Abstracts.M2SFA2.2008.pdf (2008).

4. Mike Hanion, Panoptic C-Thru 3D Video Surveillance System, provides an example 3D graphical/animated cartoon presentation of multi-sensor & video fusion (accessed 7 December 2009).

5. A. Senior, “An Introduction to Automatic Video Surveillance,” Chapter 1, Protecting Privacy in Video Surveillance (Springer, London, 2009).

KEYWORDS: realtime video surveillance, people and vehicle tracking, multi-camera multi-sensor fusion algorithms, automated identification and tagging, animated graphical interface, metadata, extraction, framework, database, query, event, asychronous

AF103-033 TITLE: HMD-Compatible Mission Performance Measurement System and Tools

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Human Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a measurement capturing and assessment system compatible with Helmet Mounted Displays and Cueing Systems.

DESCRIPTION: As the United States and our Allied partners move to more sophisticated 4th generation and advanced 5th generation aircraft systems, they are incorporating advanced targeting and visual cueing systems into helmets and visors. In fact the F35 will be the first 5th generation fighter to exclusively use a Helmet Mounted Display or HMD as the primary instrument and sensor display. This display offers unique advanced display characteristics not available with current heads up displays (HUDs) including aircraft graphical displays and sensors tied to the pilot’s head view rather than displayed separately in the HUD and flat panels in the cockpit. HMD systems and their application in tactical combat aircraft and potentially in simulation environments that support them have significant implications for training and for after action review and assessment. Historically, it has challenging to measure the performance and effectiveness of human operators with enhancements to environmental realism and sensor fusion. This is due to our inability to capture, in real time, important interactions between the human and the displayed information, what specific information is being attended to, the actions taken by the operator, including targeting details, and mode changes in sensor data to better identify targets and to build a tactical picture of the battlespace. The lack of instrumentation and tools to capture this kind of information needs to be addressed. What is needed in this effort is innovative research to develop and demonstrate practical tools and instrumentation to better capture important data that is presented in the HMD, the interaction of the human with the data, and reactions and actions taken based on the data, for real time assessment and performance monitoring of pilot performance, for training evaluations and assessments of pilot proficiency, and for after action review and debriefing. While the results of this effort will dramatically improve performance monitoring and assessment in simulation environments, we also see a substantial benefit in doing the same kind of assessments with operators in live operational systems, in tactical engagements, in the real world.

PHASE I: Review current HMD applications in tactical aircraft to identify common and unique data presentation and data transmission capabilities. Develop a taxonomy that delineates these data and the expected operator interaction and actions with respect to the data. Develop specifications for data capturing and monitoring alternatives for application to HMD enabled environments.

PHASE II: Using the taxonomy and specifications developed in Phase I, develop exemplar tools to capture and report HMD-based data and the interaction of operator with the data. Develop a criterion set of 4 scenarios for a simulation-based or actual aircraft demonstration of the tools and the captured data. Evaluate quality of data capture and utility for monitoring operator performance and for after action review and assessment. Refine tools, taxonomy and specifications based on these evaluations.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Provide integrated methods, tools, and technologies to develop, deliver and evaluate HMD based tactical trng. It is applicable to trng & integrated evaluation involving sim based design and acq.

Commercial Application: Military and civilian agencies are using HMD-based approaches to augment the real world with real time data and to provide human operators with actionable information for a variety of uses such as humanitarian assistance, common operating picture development and distribution, and search and rescue operations. Toolset and metrics also have potential value in human operator assessments in games and multi-verse environments where interactions among humans and the synthetic environments can be monitored for a variety of feedback and interoperability assessments.

REFERENCES:

1. Burgeson, J.C., et al., (1996). Natural effects in military models and simulations: Part III – Analysis of requirements versus capabilities. Report No., STC-TR-2970, PL-TR-96-2039, (AD-A317 289), 48 p., Aug.

2. Joint Strike Fighter Program Office Homepage: http://www.jast.mil.

3. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office homepage: www.dmso.mil.

4. Distributed interactive simulation systems for simulation and training in the aerospace environment. Proceedings of the Conference, Orlando, Fl, Apr 19-20, 1995. Clarke, T. L., ED. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, vol. CR 58) 338p.

5. Additional information from TPOC in response to FAQs about AF103-033. Contains 19 sets of Q&A. (Posted in SITIS 8/10/10.)

KEYWORDS: Helmet Mounted Display instrumentation and assessment, human-machine interaction monitoring, simulator fidelity evaluations, augmented reality assessment and after action review

AF103-035 TITLE: Airspace Management and Deconfliction Training Environment for Manned and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAs)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors, Human Systems

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a high fidelity, immersive environment for training airspace management and deconfliction in manned and RPAs.

DESCRIPTION: Current overseas contingency operations are dependent on an increasing number of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAs) that are supposed to operate in airspace shared with manned systems. The increasing use of unmanned systems in close proximity with manned systems poses a serious and potentially deadly problem in terms of airspace management and deconfliction. Management today involves keeping the systems separated by airspace block and geographic location of operation. Of critical importance is the development of greater understanding in ops personnel of the potential dangers, appropriate and necessary communication, asset management, and coordination discipline and guidelines, airspace picture building and management, and cooperative use of common airspace and altitude among the various assets in theater. This problem is further exacerbated with poor weather conditions, navigation failures, and where there is contested airspace and communications. The growing sophistication of the current generation and planned future capabilities of the unmanned systems places them in direct competition for the same operational airspace and mission altitudes as manned systems. There is no easy way for current air battle management systems such as Air born Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) and Critical Reporting Centers (CRCs) to manage and control the airspace with so many small vehicles in the air at lower altitudes. While many of the unmanned systems cannot easily be detected and tracked by these air battle management systems, due to the size, speed, and composition of the unmanned systems, they are substantial enough to cause a catastrophic mishap if they collide with a manned system. Interestingly, there is no current training for unmanned system operators to enable them to understand airspace sharing and operational picture building of the variety of systems operating in the same airspace at the same time. To achieve the desired training capability, several important research activities need to be accomplished: Demonstrating streamlined authoring and management of realistic scenarios for training identified tasks; integrating agents that can behave and communicate in a manner that supports the training objectives; embedded coaching or support functions that facilitate learning within the actual scenario; and a capability to monitor activity and performance while in the training scenario and to subsequently play back the activity for debriefing and after action analysis. The technology challenge is the development of a high fidelity, engaging, and instructionally valid environment and content to substantially improve airspace and situation awareness under realistic conditions.

PHASE I: Examination source data such as near misses and hazardous aircraft transit reports will be accomplished to identify scenario content. A training environment design document will be developed and example tools to create realistic and interactive portrayals of the airspace, and communications and coordination problem spaces for training the various players in the airspace of relevance will be developed and demonstrated.

PHASE II: Develop, evaluate, refine and demonstrate methods, tools, and an interactive training environment based on recommendations and designs from Phase I. Phase II includes development of exemplar representation and interactive components to facilitate training and awareness development within a realistic airspace environment.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Addresses training shortfalls related to identified operational airspace issues in combat areas of relevance around the world. Will develop a high fidelity learning and practice environment to develop proficiency in airspace management, communications, and control for military operations.

Commercial Application: Addresses current operational issues in homeland security where unmanned systems are patrolling borders and other areas, transiting through controlled, commercial airspace on a routine basis. Fills a significant gap in current civilian training related to the interoperation of manned and unmanned systems in commercial airspace.

REFERENCES:

1. Baker, D., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., and Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3(2), 143-156.

2. Cannon-Bowers, J.A., and Salas, E. (1998). ";Making decisions under stress: Implication for individual and team training"; Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association.

3. Taylor, G., Miller, J., and Maddox, J. (2005). Automating Simulation-Based Air Traffic Control. In Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC).

4. Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap, 2009-2034, U.S. Department of Defense.

5. JIPT/JIST USAF, UAS Airspace Integration Technologies, AFMC/303ASEN, March 2007.

6. Endsley, M.R. (1995), “Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems,” Human Factors, 37(1), 32-64.

7. Thomas, C.A., and Ciaramella, K.M. (2000, October), Test and Evaluation of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) II Logic Version 7.

8. Ibraham, D. (2008). “Aircraft Pilot Situational Awareness Interface for Airborne Operations of Network Controlled Unmanned Systems”, Naval Postgraduate School Thesis, Monterey California.

9. Hoffman, J.C. and Kamps, C.T. (2005). ”At the Crossroads: Future “Manning” for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.” Air & Space Power Journal, Vol. 28, pp. 31-37.

10. Rahmani, A., Kosuge, K., Tsukamaki, T., and Mesbahi, M. (2008). ";Multiple UAV Deconfliction via Navigation Functions,"; AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit, Honolulu, HI.

11. Additional information from TPOC in response to FAQs about AF103-035. Contains 40 sets of Q&A. (Posted in SITIS 8/10/10.)

KEYWORDS: airspace management, crew coordination, team communication, air traffic control, airspace deconfliction, navigation communication and coordination, airspace situation awareness, remotely piloted systems, remotely operated systems, unmanned aerial systems

AF103-036 TITLE: Multi-Modal Interactions for Multi-RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft) Supervisory

Control

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate techniques for allowing naturalistic, multi-modal human-machine interactions which includes a shared understanding about plans and goals in a multi-RPA supervisory control environment.

DESCRIPTION: As RPA operations continue to mature and expand into a variety of operational contexts, traditional ground control station technologies may be inappropriate for dismounted warriors. Today RPA operators must navigate multiple complex menu structures, memorize keystroke sequences, and visually search for interface control elements such as icons and buttons. This leads to potential mode confusion as well as increased workload, error rates and response times. New interface technologies are required to enable efficient human-machine interactions, because man-portable systems may be limited to PDA’s, ruggedized laptops, or mobile devices. This issue is exacerbated by the push for multi-RPA supervisory control by a single operator. Some research suggests that interfaces based on a natural language approach may enhance the effectiveness of traditional input devices, such as keyboard and mouse.

Complete natural language understanding and fully natural, human-like interactions have long been unachievable goals in human-machine interactions. While progress has been made in speech recognition, natural language understanding, and sketch and gesture recognition, the state of the art still falls well short of complete, natural multi-modal human input, robust and deep machine understanding of human instructions, and human-like system response. Most current systems (a) emphasize one modality or form of interaction to the exclusion of others (with consequences for the speed and ease of human interaction), (b) require the human to learn and use a specific vocabulary of utterances and/or gestures (with consequences for training, naturalistic interaction and possibly for human-machine error rates), (c) require extensive system training where the system learns the human’s unique behaviors (with consequences for ease and speed to utility, as well as brittleness and lack of transferability of the system to different users or contexts) and/or (d) restrict themselves to an extremely narrow set of operations (with a highly restricted set of vocabulary, utterances, and gestures).

The reason for this lack of broader success in integrated, multi-modal interaction understanding is not so much the failure of interpretations of the individual recognition techniques in alternate modalities, as it is the lack of an integrative framework around which to organize what is understood from the alternate modalities. Even humans, if they are untrained in RPA operations, will have trouble understanding, in any deep sense, what is being discussed or requested of them due to the range of implicit domain knowledge about plans, operations, constraints, and restrictions in the RPA domain.

If multi-modal human-machine interaction systems are to advance to the next level of robust and extended functionality, it is critical that they be able to understand and clearly convey the operational implications of communications between the human and machine. In order to accomplish this, multiple modes of communication must be integrated into a framework of knowledge about RPA operations. The multi-modal interaction system must be aware of the operational domain such that the operator’s input may be naturalistic yet reliably interpreted by the system to match the operator’s intent. The R&D challenge is to develop a framework for multi-modal human machine interaction that enables reasonable, yet restricted, inferences for a wide range of contexts and alternate multi-modal inputs/responses. The outcome should be more natural (i.e., resembling human to human) and efficient interaction resulting in reduced errors, operator workload, and time to perform tasks for RPA planning, monitoring, and/or decision aiding systems.

PHASE I: For a representative RPA mission planning, control, or ISR application, develop an architecture for integrated plan-aware multi-modal interaction recognition. Demonstrate aspects of the component technologies and illustrate how they will be integrated to provide enhanced benefits in Phase II. Develop an experimental plan to establish improvements in usability in Phase II.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype system for integration with a representative application domain simulation. Evaluate the human-machine interactions to demonstrate payoffs in interaction speed, error reduction, workload, training time reduction, and/or interaction flexibility.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Successful enhancements in multi-modal human-machine interaction would have application in a variety of complex military and commercial monitoring, planning and control domains.

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: RPA control and Air Operations Center operations are immediate application areas, but utility would also be present for domains such as commercial air traffic control, complex manufacturing operations, and smart grid power generation and distribution.

REFERENCES:

1. Allen, J., et al., (1994). The Trains project: A case study in building a conversational planning agent. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical AI, 7:7-48.

2. Carberry, S. (2001). Techniques for plan recognition. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 11(1-2).

3. Goldman, R. P., Geib, C. W., & Miller, C. A. (1999). A new model of plan recognition. In Proceedings of the Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, pp. 245--254.

4. Jaimes, A. & Sebe, N. (2005). Multimodal Human Computer Interaction: A Survey. In Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 108(1-2). 116-134.

5. Lesh, N., Rich, C., & Sidner, C., (1999). Using Plan Recognition in Human-Computer Collaboration, In Proceedings of the Conference on User Modelling, Banff, Canada, NY: Springer Wien.

6. Rouse, W., Geddes, N., & Curry, R. (1987). An architecture for intelligent interfaces: Outline of an approach to supporting operators of complex systems. Human-Computer Interaction, 3, 87-122.

7. Sharma, R., Yeasin, M., Krahnstoever, N., Rauschert, C., Brewer, I., MacEachren, A., and Sengupta, K. (2003) Speech-gesture driven multimodal interfaces for crisis management. Proceedings of the IEEE 91: 1327–54.

8. Rowe, A. J., Liggett, K. K., and Davis, J. E. (2009). Vigilant spirit control station: a research testbed for multi-UAS supervisory control interfaces. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Dayton, OH: WSU.

KEYWORDS: multi-modal interaction, human-machine interaction, plan recognition, intent inference, supervisory control, RPA, gesture and sketch recognition

AF103-037 TITLE: Terahertz Spectrum Analyzer

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop a prototype that can measure frequency and intensity of a tunable Terahertz (THz) source for THz bioeffects research studies.

DESCRIPTION: One primary research objective at RHDR is to investigate the interaction of biological systems with directed energy sources. The majority of previous work accomplished at RHDR has been conducted in the radio frequency range, 3KHz-300GHz. However, more recent laboratory research efforts have begun to examine the effects of radiation in part of the Terahertz (THz) frequency range, 0.1 to 10.0 THz. Given the recent development of numerous applications using THz radiation, such as full-body image scanners now being used at airports, knowledge of THz specific bio-effects is an immediate issue. As the terahertz technology is growing, more high power sources are being developed. Both the Army and AFRL are developing sources used for battle field imaging ranging in 500mW of power. The current bioeffects data taken at ranges .05-.23 mW/cm2 (3&4) isn’t sufficient to predict the effects of these high power terahertz sources. These studies represent a small subset of the research needed to fully characterize the risks from these high power sources. To properly address this challenge sensitive tools are desired to accurately characterize the relationship between a delivered THz dose and the bioeffect. To understand the bioeffects of these systems, a coherent THz spectrum analyzer across a large span of frequency bands is needed for current research. Yokoyama et al. recently demonstrated a THz spectrum analyzer in high RF and low THz ranges (1), but comparable technologies do not exist for higher THz frequencies. The current imaging technologies under development demand an analysis of higher terahertz frequencies and for a larger frequency bandwidth. The source of the terahertz is generally assumed to be single frequency, but is likely to have other frequency content due to the laser generation of the signal. A spectrum analysis capability would be invaluable to research and field safety measurements. Most detectors are incoherent or spectrospic (2), which provide partial information needed for analysis. The difference between spectroscopy methods and a spectrum analyzer is that the spectrum analyzer gathers the frequency content of the signal, while spectroscopy provides information about the interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with a material. The work that RHDR is researching requires a .1 to 10THz frequency span with the potential to go to 100THz, and a measureable power level of 0-200mW. The resolution bandwidth should be approximately 10GHz. The prototype should include sensors, data processing and display capabilities, very similar to an RF spectrum analyzer with probes.

PHASE I: Determine the feasibility of a terahertz spectrum analyzer. Determine the sensor, data processing and display capabilities. Provide a design prototype to meet the requirements of the topic.

PHASE II: Develop, demonstrate and validate a system of probes, processors and software that can cover the desired frequency ranges and powers.

PHASE III: Dual-use Commercialization: Use by industry, academia and government to measure the quality of the Terahertz sources such as full body imagers.

REFERENCES:

1. Yokoyama S, Nakamura R, Nose M, Tsutomu A, Yasui T. Terahertz spectrum analyzer based on a terahertz frequency comb. OPTICS EXPRESS. 16(17). 13052-13061(2008)

2. Lee, Yun-Shik. Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology. New York: Springer-Verlag. 2008. p. 5-6

3. Zeni, O., et al., Cytogenic ovservations in human peripheral blood leukocytes following in vitro exposure to THz radioation: a pilot study. Halth Phys, 2007, 92(4): p. 349-357.

4. Korenstein-Ilan, A., et al., Terahertz radiation increases geonic instability in human lymphocytes. Ratiation Research, 2008: p. 224-234

KEYWORDS: Keywords: Terahertz, Spectrum Analyzer, Directed Energy, Radio Frequency Radiation, Power Detection, Intensity Detection, Frequency Processing

AF103-042 TITLE: Innovative Aids for Combat Identification

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Human Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the imagery analyst-aiding technologies for exploiting three-dimensional Laser radar (LADAR) data in the conduct of combat identification (CID)

DESCRIPTION: Rapid, accurate, high-confidence, and complete combat identification is a critical capability in holding adversary capabilities at risk. Fratricide must be avoided and collateral damage held to an absolute minimum. Laser radar sensor technology offers great potential in enhancing the USAF’s CID capability. Range, as well as two-dimensional reflectance / emittance target acquisition, data are collected. These three-dimensional data sets, in the visible through infrared (IR) spectra, may support enhanced capabilities in detecting and recognizing (partially) obscured ground targets, defeating adversary deception and denial practices, and otherwise enhancing combat effectiveness. These multidimensional data sets may support estimation of obscuration (i.e., tree crown height) which may be suppressed in display. Similarly, the viewer's eye-point may be translated, rotated and / or zoom with regard to the data set. The imagery analyst must be retained in the target assessment process to ensure human-in-the-loop control. 3D LADAR data is not normally viewed by an operator. Unique challenges are present in the display and exploitation of these data and applied research is required to address them. Analyst-aiding technologies are required to assist the imagery analyst in carrying out CID and other imagery exploitation tasks. Wide area surveillance sensors are likely sources of cuing the LADAR sensor to the locations at which possible targets of interest have been detected. Research is required to explore how this cuing information may best be combined with the resultant data sets to improve analyst confidence in the final target identification (or rejection) declaration. False color or other range-coding strategies must be explored to identify how best to make this information accessible by the analyst. Since assisted target recognition (ATR) is a logical complement to LADAR data collection, research is required to guide the design of the analyst-ATR interface. The ATR approach may include model-based vision algorithms and the research should include exploration of the combination of wire-frame and / or solid geometry models of target identification hypotheses with the sensed data. The possible combination of target cuing and ATR raise research questions regarding the establishment and maintenance of trust in these automated capabilities. Cognitive tasks analyses are required to identify analyst requirements in terms of cognitive demands. Capability-based measures of effectiveness, aligned with analyst cognitive demands, are required to support the evaluation of effects-based target assessment performance.

PHASE I: Conduct applied research to identify and define opportunities for inserting imagery analyst-aiding technologies appropriate to the exploitation of LADAR data sets in the context combat identification tasks.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate research-derived imagery analyst-aiding capabilities for the conduct of 3D LADAR-based combat identification. Conduct an example of capability evaluation by applying appropriate capability-based measures of effectiveness.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Highly feasible to the military intelligence community. Enhanced LADAR data exploitation capabilities would be integrated into future spirals of the Air Force Distributed Common Ground System.

Commercial Application: Commercialization of this research is highly feasible especially to the homeland security and homeland defense missions. LADAR exploitation would be applied against border surveillance requirements.

REFERENCES:

1. Air Force Doctrine Document 2-8, Command and Control, 16 Feb 2001

http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_pubs/afd2_8.pdf

2. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Combat Identification

http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/combatidentification.pdf

3. Combat Identification

/military/systems/ground/cid.htm

4. Pose Independent Target Detection and Recognition System Using 3D Ladar

http://www.csail.mit.edu/events/eventcalendar/series_exp.php?show=event&id=22

5. Automated identification and classification of land vehicles in 3D LADAR data

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004SPIE.5426...92S&db_key=PHY&data_type=HTML&format=

6. Automatic registration and visualization of occluded targets using ladar data

/products_services/vision/tech_papers/hsu_ladar_data.pdf

KEYWORDS: LADAR, combat identification, imagery analyst, cognitive task analysis, measures of effectiveness, analyst-aiding

AF103-043 TITLE: Cellular Gene and Pathway Regulation

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop novel materials and methods for the introduction of macromolecules to cells without the use of lipid or polymer carriers.

DESCRIPTION: Alternative methods are needed to introduce nucleic acids, peptides and proteins into various cell types. Current techniques include mechanical, electrical and chemical (i.e. use of as lipids and polymers) methods which have been developed to overcome the challenges of diminished cell entry, degradation by nucleases, and stimulation of an immune response. (1, 2) However, they often cause adverse reactions, off-target effects, and cellular toxicity. A robust and universal cellular transfection system is requested. These new techniques will enhance performance of systems and enable new strategies for genetic and pathway regulation. Introduction of nucleic acids will allow spatial temporal control over gene expression, modulation of cellular processes, and direct control over biological processes. These new methods would allow improvement in the health of deployed troops via minimally-invasive methods for medical treatment in the field, protection against biological and chemical threats by controlling gene expression and/or pathways. AFRL is interested in synthesizing, characterizing, and applying novel bio-inspired materials or biophysical methods for these purposes. Proposals are expected to be high risk/ high reward endeavors, and should combine aspects of materials science, nanotechnology, physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine for gene and pathway regulation.

PHASE I: Design and demonstrate materials and methods for delivery of various macromolecules into prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic cells. Approaches that can deliver more than one type of macromolecule are preferred. These should include a DNA vector capable of expressing a fluorescent protein, siRNA, peptides, and proteins (such as antibodies, nanobodies, or enzymes). Delivery should be validated using two orthogonal approaches that include microscopy and a molecular biological technique. Research will include an analyses of delivery and toxicity of the proposed materials, as well as a comparative study with biophysical and/or electrical methods using commercially-available transfection agents, including lipids and polymers.

PHASE II: Apply developed materials and/or methods for genetic and/or pathway regulation against 3 or more targets as determined by Phase I analyses and outcome. Approaches that are capable of delivering more than one class of macromolecule to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells will be given preference as will approaches that can target and modify function of more than one class of macromolecules. Delivery methods and materials should be modifiable to contain custom biomolecules including, nucleic acids, proteins, peptides and small molecules. Capabilities should be easily expanded to whole libraries of a specific class of molecule. Deliverables include materials which demonstrate ability to target cells of Air Force interest for improved human performance (including but not limited to immune, epithelial and neuronal cells).

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Fundamental study will lead to a transition path to military application including new defense capabilities.

Commercial Application: Technology developed will have direct impact at improving and maintaining human health or transforming current research approaches.

REFERENCES:

1. Pirollo, K. F.; Chang, E. H.Targeted delivery of small interfering RNA: approaching effective cancer therapies Cancer Res. 2008, 68, (5), 1247-1250.

2. Marques, J. T.; Williams, B. R. G. Activation of the mammalian immune system by siRNAs Nat. Biotechnol. 2005, 23, (11), 1399-1405.

KEYWORDS: cellular transfection, prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, lipids, polymers, biomolecules, non-invasive delivery of macromolecules, neuronal cells, immune cells, epithelial cells,

AF103-044 TITLE: Auto-configuring routers to support dynamically forming networks

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a capability for routing entities in an airborne network to automatically optimize configuration and performance and adhere to network policies by selection of appropriate routing protocols.

DESCRIPTION: The future Airborne Network will include airborne nodes on wide body platforms that will perform internet working between heterogeneous networks operating with various protocols and communication link technologies. It is envisioned that the RF links between hub nodes will be somewhat persistent allowing the formation of an Airborne Network core, or backbone, routing structure. In some cases an airborne network will be configured as a single autonomous system operating with a uniform interior routing protocol (e.g., Open Shortest Path First or OSPF Mobile Ad-hoc NETworking extension) throughout. In other, more complex cases an airborne network may be composed of several autonomous systems (i.e., composed of several service-specific administrative domains, each with its own individual routing policy). In any case, the network must be capable of being reconfigured rapidly and securely with little human intervention. One approach for rapid automatic network configuration for very large networks is reported in Reference 1.

Airborne network dynamics will result in changes to network link performance and topology. These dynamics will cause changes to routing peer neighbors and autonomous system boundaries. Multi-protocol routers should be capable of automatic configuration to optimize network performance based on the existing topology and available link conditions. Based on network policies, routers should be capable of automatically deciding whether to exchange routes as Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) peers between autonomous systems, or OSPF peers within an autonomous system. For OSPF peers, routers should decide whether their interconnections should form a link in the OSPF area 0 backbone or in a subordinate area. BGP interconnections should be capable of automated peer discovery and enforce routing policies on traffic between domains.

Certain radio terminals, such as Airborne and Maritime Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio Systems (AMF JTRS), employ (layer 3a) subnet routing protocols that operate below the Internet Protocol (IP) layer of the protocol stack. Based on network and connectivity conditions, the airborne network routing entity should be capable of automatically selecting an appropriate subnet routing protocol to operate in conjunction with the IP routing protocols, or to operate with only the standard IP routing protocol with options for link-metric performance feedback.

Innovative solutions are required to enable auto-configuring networks, and to ensure that the resulting networks adhere to established routing policies and are optimized for the available physical links. Analogous to Zero Configuration Networking (Reference 2), which defines a set of technologies to allow two or more computers to communicate with each other without any external configuration, mechanisms are needed to allow a policy-based network routing structure to form and adapt without the need for external configuration.

PHASE I: Identify the routing protocol family expected to be used for airborne networks and any shortfalls/modifications required. Define algorithms for automatic routing protocol selection in an airborne network environment. Analyze the performance of these algorithms through simulation.

PHASE II: Develop, test and demonstrate a prototype implementation of auto-configuring routers in an emulated dynamically forming network. Emulate expected link conditions in a multi-node airborne network. Stress performance by increasing node count and the number of policy-unique autonomous systems in the composite network. Determine technology transition targets and potential industrial collaborators.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Potential applications to joint-service airborne network operations. Commercialization path involves collaboration with DoD prime contractors developing IP-capable radio/satellite terminals.

Commercial Application: Applicable to airborne networks providing Internet access for passengers on commercial airliners. Potentially applicable to ad-hoc ground networks for first responders from varying departments.

REFERENCES:

1. A. McAuley et. al., Automatic Configuration and Reconfiguration in Dynamic Networks, 23 Army Science Conference, Dec. 2002

2. Internet Engineering Task Force Zeroconf working group /

KEYWORDS: airborne networks, routing, auto-configuring, policy-based

AF103-047 TITLE: Mission Assurance and Information Security

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Provide improved survivability in IP networks via technologies enhancing likelihood of mission continuity and completion, able to persist under conditions of extreme attack and/or degraded performance.

DESCRIPTION: DoD information systems, as well as civilian and commercial information systems that are connected to networks are likely targets for attack and possible compromise. Often, without these systems, an organization’s ability to perform its function may be severely limited. DoDI 8500.2 describes Mission Assurance Categories (MAC I – III) for DoD information systems. These mission assurance categories reflect the importance of the information system and its information relative to the achievement of DoD goals and objectives, particularly the warfighters' combat mission. This research will investigate the adaptation of mission-critical assets and/or the addition of capabilities to minimize the consequences of attacks on MAC I, II and III systems. Because we cannot protect fully against the advanced cyber threat or often even detect that we are under attack, it is risky to base defenses purely on a monitor, detect, and react approach. Instead, emphasis should be placed on architectural and operational strategies to ensure survivability, resiliency, and adaptability to “fight through” severe cyber degradation and compromise, and to make the adversary’s job harder and more costly. This effort aims to strengthen cyber readiness in a contested and degraded cyber operational environment, providing a set of automated capabilities to respond dynamically to escalating threats. Proposed techniques may include but are not limited to: • employment of application execution/database transaction sandboxes to check results before actual execution • business-unit failover to change entire suites of critical processes when compromise/failure occurs.

PHASE I: Identify and design techniques that could be employed to adjust, reconfigure or restore the network or its components to minimize the consequences and impact of attacks.

PHASE II: Prototype the designed adjustment/reconfiguration hardware and/or software and demonstrate its effectiveness in minimizing the consequences and impact of attacks.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Military application: Military operations through cyber attacks and the ability to quickly and efficiently reconstitute information systems after an attack.

Commercial application: The monitoring, continued operation and rapid reconstitution of critical infrastructure information systems during and after an attack.

REFERENCES:

1. C. J. Alberts, A. J. Dorofee, “Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP): Assessing Risk in Complex Environments”, CMU/SEI-2005-TN-032, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/reports/05tn032.pdf

2.A. Bargar, “DoD Global Information Grid Mission Assurance”, CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering, July 2008, http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crossTalk/2008/07/0807Bargar.html

3. “Information Assurance (IA) Implementation”, DoDI 8500.2, February 6, 2003, http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/850002p.pdf

KEYWORDS: mission assurance, critical infrastructure protection, operation through cyber attack

AF103-048 TITLE: Network Virtualization

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop virtualization technologies to provide innovative approaches for infinite horizontal network scalability via cloning, replication, expansion, as well as extra “spike-capacity”.

DESCRIPTION: Network virtualization aims to split up available bandwidth into channels, each of which is independent of the others, and each of which can be assigned (or reassigned) to a particular network resource, server, or device in real time. The goal of this project is to develop new virtualization technologies that would enable dynamic scaling of a virtualized network channel by combining it with other network channels on-the-fly. A single Ethernet port could support multiple virtual connections from multiple Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and networks, but they are virtually segmented using VLAN (";Virtual LAN";) tags. Every virtual IP connection over the one physical port is independent and unaware of the existence of other connections, but this research would provide a way to be aware of each unique connection and manage/combine each one independently. This research would also provide dynamic virtual routing to add spike capacity using virtual routing tables. Typically, a routing table and an IP network port share a 1:1 relationship, even though that single port may host multiple virtual interfaces (such as VLANs or the ";eth0:1"; virtual network adapters supported by Linux). The single routing table will contain multiple routes for each virtual connection, but they are still managed in a single table. Virtual routing tables would change that paradigm into a one:many relationship, where any single physical interface can maintain multiple routing tables, each with multiple entries. This provides the interface with the ability to bring up (and tear down) routing services on-the-fly for one network without interrupting other services and routing tables on that same interface.

Network virtualization is intended to optimize network throughput, reliability, flexibility, scalability, and security. Its goal is to provide every application exactly the bandwidth, security level, and availability it needs. Previously, network virtualization has consisted of deploying network services (VLAN, Virtual Private Network (VPN), etc) and today its scope has expanded to include deployment of multiple distinct networks over the same physical infrastructure. Network virtualization techniques allow network resource instances to actually migrate across different intranet and internet configurations to address different Quality of Service (QoS) and Information Assurance requirements. Different virtual networks may provide alternate end-to-end packet delivery systems and may use different protocols and packet formats. Each network instance requires a level of isolation from the other instances.

Research areas for this topic include development of new infrastructure virtualization architectures; new resource allocation algorithms to adapt to virtual network instances; strategies for resilient and reliable migration to virtualized network architectures; identifying/defining qualitative and quantitative metrics for evaluating scalability, performance, and security of proposed approaches; and network management techniques for managing and configuring the dynamic virtual networks.

Research topics also include characterizing types of virtualization with isolation levels; evaluating the tradeoffs between performance (latency and bandwidth) and security (isolation); and applicability of network virtualization for wireless Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), especially at the Tactical Edge.

PHASE I: Develop innovative and creative virtualization technologies that would enable dynamic scaling of virtualized network channels to satisfy bandwidth, security level, and availability requirements on the fly. Define metrics to evaluate efficacy. Document results in a written report.

PHASE II: Construct a working prototype, and model and simulation, of your proposed approach and evaluate effectiveness using metrics defined in Phase I. Provide a capability for network management and configuration of the virtual networks.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Improved performance and security of intranets and internets, including Tactical Airborne Networks. Dynamic reallocation of bandwidth and network resources to meet mission critical needs.

Commercial Application: Improving performance and security of enterprise networks. Providing dynamic bandwidth reallocation and individualized QoS per user. Setting the groundwork for the future internet and cloud computing.

REFERENCES:

1. http://n/state-of-the-art.

2. /en/US/solutions/collateral/ns340/ns856/ns872/virtualization_C11-521100-0Forrester.pdf.

3. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~jrex/virtual.html.

KEYWORDS: mission assurance, network virtualization

AF103-049 TITLE: Near-realtime Forensic Analysis Capabilities for Moving Target Indicator (MTI)

Data

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate near-real time capability to perform forensic analysis on movement data.

DESCRIPTION: Today’s persistent surveillance, whether RADAR-or EO/IR-based, can provide an “all-seeing eye” for movement over large areas of interest. Forensically, one can find out who is important in a network, where they live, where they get their support, and where their friends are. Established forensic analysis capabilities have evolved to automate the process of generating activity reports based upon detected movement. Activity events can be as simple as a vehicle stopping, as mundane as the increase or decrease in observed traffic over time, or as complex as a sequence of meetings with common participants. ";Pattern of life"; intelligence, such as this is considered crucial for analysts who are trying to discover and define an insurgent network. The objective of this SBIR topic is to explore, identify, and prototype innovative approaches that process multiple movement-based event streams to detect patterns and behavior in real time or near- real time. The ability to detect patterns in the flow of events will allow a proactive use of previously observed activity. The objective is to establish both motion and behavioral patterns over time employing both “dots” (detection) and track (correlated) data. Inferences can be made based on observed trends and prior historical data to catalog anticipated events. These events are intended to become the basis of a set of Indications and Warnings (I&W) to alert operators. The challenge is to provide I&W for continually emerging tactics. Innovative algorithms are desired that will monitor potential Moving Target Intelligence (MOVINT) data sources to generate alerts in an autonomous or semi-autonomous manner. Data sources can include surface or ground moving target indicator data (S/GMTI), geospatial and temporal event information, and coalition traffic patterns from Blue Force data, maritime data, e.g., Automatic Identification System (AIS), etc) Using historical data, algorithms should be analyzed for their ability to detect events from a point in time. For example, given what patterns exist to date, could we have predicted the event from last week? Algorithmic results are required that provide quantitative estimates of event or activity likelihood as well as both spatial and temporal locations of events. The emphasis of this research will be on the automatic alerting of activity based upon collected intelligence and event reporting.

PHASE I: Investigate existing technologies & methods that support MOVINT event detection and processing. Develop & apply near real-time event detection methodologies for a defined set of data and products. Evaluate the performance and viability of these methods using simulated data (demonstrate feasibility).

PHASE II: Implement algorithm prototypes in a realistic environment that enables thorough testing of algorithms. Incorporate applications to support testing, e.g., operator displays, decision support systems. Demonstrate and validate algorithm(s) effectiveness. Deliver an algorithm description document, engineering code and test cases. Explore and document other potential methodologies identified in Ph I.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Intelligence Community, Homeland Security.

Commercial Application: Emergency response organizations, border security.

REFERENCES:

1. Aggarwal, C. C. 2007. Data Streams: Models and Algorithms. New York: Springer.

2. Gaber, M., et. al. June 2005. “Mining Data Streams: A Review”. SIGMOD, vol. 34, no. 2.

3. Aggarwal, C. C. 2002. “Towards effective and interpretable data mining by visual interaction”. SIGKDD Explorations, vol. 3, no. 2, 11-22.

KEYWORDS: event-detection, near-realtime, GMTI, event-processing, patterns-of-life

AF103-050 TITLE: Application of Advanced Techniques to Multi-INT Information Association and

Fusion

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop domain agnostic robust advancements for information association, fusion, and knowledge enhancement from one or more advanced technical disciplines. Maximize ratio of intelligence to raw data.

DESCRIPTION: New disparate sensors are coming on line providing huge and unprecedented volumes of Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaisance (ISR) data in support of the global war on terror. Additional numbers of current sensors are fielded. Collection capability is effectively swamping intelligence analysts and systems in a sea of data. Analysis and exploitation tools are not keeping pace with this sensor development and deployment. The “copy and paste” approach to intelligence correlation and fusion is the norm, rarely revealing new intelligence information. Patterns are many times undiscovered or underutilized. Needed are new “cast-the-net” analysis/fusion capabilities that can draw from diverse information sources and associate the data thus creating intelligence from previously unrelated products.

Multi-INT Information Association is highly complex. The challenge is how to separate wheat from chaff; how to merge data that historically were separate. It spans numerous technical disciplines. The goal is innovative / creative approaches for application of here-to-for unutilized or underutilized disciplines to the problem. Advances have matured recently in the literature but many are not being applied to enhancements for multi-INT information association, fusion, and knowledge enhancement.

Examples of these disciplines include:

o Advancements in multi-level Bloom-based Filters

o Dempster-Shafer Theory

o Advanced functions for the JDL Fusion model

o Clustering/Classification

o Fusion Theory including Bayesian

o Patterns Theory for Stochastic Data

o Feature Extraction

o Linear and Nonlinear Dimension Reduction

o Abstract Data Fusion

o Digital Image Classification

o Automated relationship discovery & mining

o Exploitation advancements for semantics, metadata, ontologies

o Other advanced disciplines

What is sought is application of advanced techniques to increase the robustness of multi-INT information association, fusion, and knowledge enhancement. What is needed is (a) improved methodologies and performance; (b) inferences beyond collected data; (c) increased capabilities for robust knowledge enhancement tools that enable analysts to perform true all-source analysis; (d) combining / aggregating data to derive a more complete assessment of a specific action or activity. This R&D effort will be to research one or more of the above (or others not listed) for association, relationships, inference, and knowledge improvements.

Success metrics include high correct-association rate; low false-association rate; robustness (degree of data disparity and complexity of the incoming information); computational cost reduction, if possible; filtering capabilities provided to the operator; integrity of “degree of confidence” report for association computations;

While there are numerous Air Force, ISR, and DoD systems with multi-INT disparate data sources which need association and fusion, a typical example is the DCGS Family of Systems and programs/organizations which consume its ingested information. This program of record ingests massive amounts of information at an incredible rate. Examples of its disparate information sources include SIGINT, images, streaming video, streaming ASCII text, and others.

PHASE I: Conduct innovative research. Identify concepts and methods. Determine technical feasibility. Compare merits and tradeoffs of approaches. Develop initial concept design and model key elements. Develop and demonstrate a prototype. Give specific recommendations for applications of the techniques.

PHASE II: Complete the research. Finalize and validate the design from Phase I. Enhance the prototype with other capabilities and package them into service based applications for SOA. Exercise tool(s) built against realistic data in the laboratory. Write detailed Phase II final technical report with references.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Provide increased capabilities for robust Multi-INT analysis tools that enable analysts to perform true all-source ISR analysis for tactical operations.

Commercial Application: Search engines, knowledge inference, data mining, decision making, data filtering, Internet services, Air Traffic Control, medical industry, law enforcement, outcome predictions, economics analysis.

REFERENCES:

1. Self-organizing information fusion and hierarchical knowledge discovery: a new framework using ARTMAP neural networks, by Carpenter, Martens, Ogas. Neural Networks Volume 18, Issue 3 (April 2005). /citation.cfm?id=1085561.1085569.

2. International Society of Information Fusion (ISIF). /.

3. Information Fusion Journal, An International Journal on Multi-Sensor, Multi-Source Information Fusion

/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/620862/description#description.

4. Information Fusion in Signal and Image Processing, Isabelle Bloch (Editor), Wiley, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-84821-019-6. /WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1848210191.html.

5. Knowledge Information Fusion Exchange (KnIFE). http://www.jfcom.mil/about/fact_knife.html.

KEYWORDS: Multi-INT, ISR, fusion, association, inference, relationships, filtering, classification

AF103-051 TITLE: Enhance Situational Awareness by Capturing knowledge from Chat

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: To develop knowledge that can be provided to the right people by capturing the right information from multiple chat rooms and sessions and automating how that information is saved and delivered.

DESCRIPTION: Use chat to provide sniffer capability to chat tools, like Moo/Mu Internet Relay Chat (MIRC) and geek, and facilitate reporting. The sniffer device would capture relevant information to the particular user/ position in transparent approach; capturing at minimum- Source Internet Protocol (IP), Source port, message type, Requester ID and Keyword Profile ID; Destination IP, Destination Port, Date time stamp and classification level (XMPP) to allow validation of the source and information captured. The returned capture information should also highlight keywords in message in distinctive manner like BOLD, to identify keywords that triggered the capture of traffic. To facilitate reporting, feed more formal reporting software, such as Joint Automated Deep Operations Coordination System (JADOCS) through collection of relevant information, format it as needed, then present it to the user for editing and submitting. Not only would this replace the copy-paste activities that users currently perform, it would help prevent underreporting that is likely to occur during periods of intense activity. In addition, this activity would help insure that proper workflow is completed for any operational cycle currently in process. An example would be finding information in chat log transcript that could be ported for use with Moving Target Indicator (MTI) forensic analysis.

The chat extraction system would have profiles based on the users’ certificate and job performance description as described in current DOD chat Techniques, Tactics and Procedures (TTPs) matrix and set up by the user. Based on that composed profile, the chat extraction system would know what information is relevant to a user and automatically detect relevant information to a user that the user has not even detected. Exploring real -time chat and also chat transcripts through filters that automatically provide chat snippets to people who need them. These same documents could also provide information to boost the performance of various levels of information extraction.

The tools that are developed must consider that chat users are not text extraction experts or even aware of information extraction. The tools developed must be simple to use, and train for particular job requirements. The tool must also allow the user to modify search criteria if the system returns or saves incorrect information or performs incorrect workflow. The system will provide captured information to registered users based on developed profile(s) and search criteria. The system must contain Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server in order to send email messages to registered users.

The chat extraction tools should allow users to register their information interests in addition to current job requirements. The profiles developed should be used to help other chat users based on their roles and information needs as well as alert chat user to new job activity (like temporary Search and Rescue assignment) or important communication from another user. This would be particularly valuable for users that are coming into a new role, or even staying in a particular role but moving to a different Air Operations Center (AOC).

PHASE I: Conduct research and analysis of best technique(s) to extraction relevant information from chat operations. Phase I results should also include workflow reviews and determination of best manner to develop and incorporate user and job performance profiles.

PHASE II: Perform in-depth research and develop techniques for incorporating automated chat capabilities in non intrusive, transparent manner. Identify chat data for specific personnel positions to enable user to better understand their job requirements. Overtime, the tool develops list of known requirements for mission involvement. By understanding job, system identifies information the user did not know about

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Develop as an appliance with ports(IPv4 & IPv6) to operate as transparent sniffer to capture all instant message traffic from various sources and send captured information to users based on profile.

Commercial Application: Tool that analyze Chat log transcripts used as part of debriefing suite in training situational environment. Chat buddy as assistance in commercial chat rooms or social network areas like facebook.

REFERENCES:

1. DOD MTTP for CHAT USEAGE.

2. “Team Decision Making in Time-Sensitive Environments”; presented at 10th INTERNATIONAL COMMAND AND CONTROL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: THE FUTURE OF C2.

3. Taming Multiple Chat Room Collaboration:Real-Time Visual Cues to Social Networks and Emerging Threads by Lindsley G. Boiney and Bradley Goodman of Mitre Corporation.

KEYWORDS: Chat, Information Extraction, knowledge formation, facilitate reporting, TTP, AOC, CAOC-N, semi-supervised learning; IPv4, IPv6; sniffer; MIRC

AF103-053 TITLE: Reducing time for forensic analysis of multi sensor GMTI from Days to Hours

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Reduce the time from GMTI collection to Exploitation from several days to Near Real Time and improve information sharing among GMTI Systems.

DESCRIPTION: Current Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) Forensic analysis systems rely on databases populated manually by post mission upload. It often takes from several days to a week for data to flow from the Sensor to the Analyst. In addition, many “smaller” GMTI sensors never share their data outside their mission system. The purpose of this Initiative is to both reduce the time from GMTI data collection to Forensic Analysis and Exploitation from the current several days to Near Real Time and to improve information sharing among GMTI collection and exploitation systems. Innovative ideas are sought to produce an Improved GMTI Enterprise which facilitates these objectives. Innovations necessary include the ability to store the disparate GMTI source data in a common framework that enables rapid spatio-temporal querying to facilitate correlation, fusion, and exploitation. Novel data mining techniques are also sought to sift through the large volumes of data to find spatio-temporal data correlations and movement pattern cues to an analyst over specific named areas of interest (NAIs). Most Near Real Time (NRT) GMTI exploitation systems can only work with the data provided by their one dedicated or a small number of Sensors. The Data available in one system is not available to the others and the exploitation capabilities of each system differ greatly. In addition, the ability of systems to share their information is often either nonexistent or limited. The problems result from data format mismatches, connectivity issues, and limited interoperability requirements for the system in question. Other post processing and forensic analysis tools are hampered these problems as well. Timeframes from mission to data availability for post processing or forensic analysis are often from several days to a week. The data that is available tends to be from “National Asset” level systems and the data from smaller and more tactical systems often does not ever become available. The result of all of these contributing factors is that GMTI utilization and exploitation is much less effective than it needs to be because the operator is only able to work with the limited subset of data available to his system and cannot access the full breadth of GMTI data that is produced by various elements of the ISR community. The initiative will produce a system which makes GMTI Sensor data from several existing NRT and Historical GMTI data sources available to several existing GMTI exploitation clients that are currently unable to interoperate or share information. The system should eliminate the need for manual post-mission data uploads from systems capable of NRT streaming of mission data. The system should present all data as a single source.

The system should be able to consume data in MC-44, NATO-EX, STANAG-4607 and at least 2 other GMTI Formats. The system should be capable of delivering all GMTI data in formats supported by existing forensic analysis tools regardless of source data format. The system should also be able to provide automated cues to an analyst of specific movement patterns detected over a specific NAI.

PHASE I: Produce an architecture which provides multi-sensor GMTI clients with a single source for all data, streaming or archival. Investigate methods for reducing Time to Exploitation for multi sensor GMTI data. Identify metrics to evaluate improved response time and interoperability. Study data mining algorithms to extract movement patterns.

PHASE II: Design, develop, and demonstrate a system which integrates 3 GMTI Data sources which cannot currently interoperate into one source and provides that data to 3 clients, also not currently interoperable.

- Develop and demonstrate a data mining algorithm to provide automated cues to an analyst of movement patterns detected over a given NAI.

- Conduct simulations of several realistic scenarios and show usefulness of evaluation metrics identified in Phase I.

REFERENCES:

1. Aggarwal, C. C. 2007. Data Streams: Models and Algorithms. New York: Springer.

2. Gerald Bright, et al. July 2009. Review of MAJIIC CSD based GMTI Distribution. Air Force Research Laboratory Program Document.

3. Gerald Bright, et al. April 2006. “MAJIIC TWG-TIE 06 GMTI Interoperability Performance Report”, Air Force Research Laboratory Program Document.

KEYWORDS: GMTI, Sensor, ISR, NRT, Exploitation, Forensic analysis, interoperability

AF103-054 TITLE: Automatic Identification of Information Relevant to Anomalous Events

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop algorithms to automatically identify and extract information relevant to anomalous events to improve warfighter ability to assess emerging threats.

DESCRIPTION: Current model-driven intelligence analysis systems have the ability to detect and classify enemy events and activities as “normal” or “anomalous.” This saves tremendous amounts of time by quickly focusing analyst attention on the anomalous events that need review. Unfortunately, these models are limited to providing alerts to events, but do not help the analyst determine if the anomalous event is a threat. This determination can be difficult because other intelligence sources often have to be searched, read and processed manually to determine if the anomalous event can be readily explained by consideration of other data. The amount of data can be enormous. An additional challenge is how to correlate and link fundamentally different types of data, i.e. SIGINT, IMINT, HUMINT with other information to assist in the threat analysis.

Novel techniques for rapid retrieval of event relevant multi-INT data are needed as well as software algorithms that can automatically relate multi-source intelligence information to specific events to provide mission focused situational awareness and predictive battlespace awareness. For example, if signals intelligence (SIGINT) analysis identifies a seemingly inexplicable event involving a hostile air defense system or an event involving a possible covert precursor to a space attack, how does the analyst further assess the situation to determine the threat? Analysts must be able to quickly retrieve additional information related to the particulars of the event or to the event type, or on learned or computed similarities between the features of the event and concepts and relationships described within other data types (i.e. HUMINT). In this way, retrieval of information is quicker, more efficient, the volume of data is reduced because information presented to the analyst has been filtered to be relevant to situation. Related features would include the locations, organizations, equipment, individuals, times, activities and other aspects of the events involved.

Proposals should provide innovative approaches and solutions for the following:

1) Determination of appropriate representations of the anomalous events so that they can be used to focus queries or probes within net-centric intelligence repositories;

2) Development of algorithms that use the anomalous event representations to perform context based retrievals of data and related documents (reports, briefings, messages, etc.);

3) Development of algorithms to identify related features from the retrieved documents that can assist the analyst with understanding the threat potential of the event;

4) Propose metrics that measure the accuracy and/or confidence of the retrieved documents and facts with respect to the input event, compared against human subject matter expert judgment.

Technologies that might be used to implement these algorithms include natural language processing, geospatial and temporal reasoning, statistical correlation, semantics and cognitive modeling. Proposed approaches should reflect consideration of the level of effort needed to sustain them in dynamic environments where the types of anomalous events and available intelligence sources are subject to change.

PHASE I: Develop event representations and algorithms for identifying and retrieving information relevant to anomalous events. Identify and define requirements, usage scenarios, an architecture and metrics. Establish the feasibility, including technical risks, of the proposed approach.

PHASE II: Develop/demonstrate a prototype for implementation of Ph 1 objectives. Define an architecture for integration into a USAF target environment. The Phase II technology will be integrated in a lab or simulated environment with the characteristics of the target environment. Define and collect performance benchmarks. Use to validate the technology. Address information assurance planning and methods.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Efficient information search and retrieval for SA. Integrate algorithm technology into a Major Defense Acquisition Program of record such as AF Distributed Common Ground System or Integrated SSA.

Commercial Application: The technology is applicable in law enforcement (crime event detection), health (pandemic disease) and finance (improper transactions) and in any org requiring data search and retrieval capabilities.

REFERENCES:

1. P. Gonsalves and R. Cunningham. “Automated ISR Collection Management System,” ISIF Fusion 2001, Montreal, Canada, August 7-10, 2001.

2. R. A. Piccerillo and D. A. Brumbaugh. “Predictive Battlespace Awareness: Linking Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Operations to Effects Based Operations,” 2004 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, San Diego, CA, June 15-17, 2004.

3. F. Xu, H. Uszkoreit, H. Li. “Automatic Event and Relation Detection with Seeds of Varying Complexity,” AAAI 2006, Boston, MA, July 16, 2006.

KEYWORDS: anomalous events, predictive battlespace awareness, machine learning, natural language processing, semantics, statistical correlation, HUMINT, SIGINT

AF103-056 TITLE: Modular Antenna System for Tracking Satellites by adaptations of existing terminals

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Provide modular tracking antenna system which reduces the need to modify existing satellite communication terminal hardware/software for high rate Doppler effects and tracking.

DESCRIPTION: Many existing satellite communication terminals lack the ability to track and acquire satellites in highly-inclined orbits. This SBIR topic seeks to address the aforementioned capability gap for a limited number of EHF (Extreme High Frequency) data terminals employing the XDR (Extended Data Rate) waveform, such as SCAMP (Single Channel Anti-jam Man-Portable terminal) and SMART-T (Secure Mobile Anti-Jam Reliable Tactical Terminal) however, if successful, this concept could be extended to all SATCOM (Satellite Communications) terminals. A generic and modular system addressing this problem would increase the trade space of terminal selection options for program management decision making.

Innovations under this SBIR may use any feasible approach; however, a new modular tracking antenna system that eliminates or reduces the need for modifying existing satellite communication terminal system hardware and/or software for high-rate Doppler compensation and tracking capabilities, to the greatest extent possible, is desired. The notional tracking antenna system would follow satellites in highly-inclined orbits, compensate for Doppler effects, and provide an amplified RF signal to the front end of an existing SATCOM terminal. Such an approach would provide the government with development time and cost savings by avoiding changes to hardware, cryptographic boundaries, regression testing, and equipment recertification.

The system must be capable of supporting downlink transmissions and uplink transmissions at 20 GHz and 44 GHz, respectively. It is expected that solutions will not require conversion of SATCOM frequencies to baseband signals, as the primary objective is to avoid costly modifications of existing terminal hardware, while achieving the functional goals of this SBIR innovation topic.

PHASE I: Conduct a feasibility and concept study for a Modular Tracking Antenna System and adapt as necessary for application to current Satellite Communication system ground terminals while minimizing any changes to the hardware and software on the ground terminals.

PHASE II: Develop brassboard or prototype tracking antenna and any necessary adapter hardware to receive and transmit 20 GHz and 44 GHz signals; test against Engineering Model versions of existing DoD corporate additional environment constraints into design (e.g. may need weatherizing). Develop prototypes.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The Enhanced Polar System (EPS) Gateway data terminals could benefit from the research.

Commercial Application: Commercial SATCOM systems using gateway data terminals could benefit from this technology.

REFERENCES:

1. Xu, C.Q., Law, C.L., and Yoshida, S.: ‘On the Doppler power spectrum at the mobile unit employing a directional antenna’, IEEE Commun. Lett., 2001, 5, (1), pp. 13–15.

2. 8 Ng, W.T., and Dubey, V.K.: ‘Comments on ‘on the Doppler spectrum at the mobile unit employing a directional antenna’’, IEEE Commun. Lett., 2002, 6, (11), pp. 472–474.

3. Hilton, G.S. ; Hawkins, G.J. ; Edwards, D.J. ; “Novel antenna tracking mechanism for land mobile satellite terminals,” Mobile Radio and Personal Communications, 1989., Fifth International Conference on, pp 182-186, Dec. 1989.

KEYWORDS: High rate tracking, Doppler insensitive teminal, gateway terminal, SATCOM terminal, SCAMP, SMART-T, Antenna Group, Doppler Compensation, Highly-inclined Orbit, High-rate Tracking, Modular Terminal, Polar Orbit, SATCOM, Standalone

AF103-057 TITLE: E-band Radiation Hardened Low Noise Amplifier

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop Low Noise Amplifier operating from 81-86 GHz suitable for use in satellite communications applications.

DESCRIPTION: Expanding the availability of battlefield information for better situational awareness to the warfighter will require increased SATCOM (satellite communications) capacity. Due to the present frequency allocation restrictions in existing SATCOM bands, there is a continually increasing need to exploit frequency spectrum available in nontraditional bands such as 81-86 GHz. In order to access this spectrum, however, a new generation of space qualifiable transmitter and receiver microelectronics, such as LNA’s (low noise amplifiers), will be required, and the Air Force is interested in sponsoring LNA research to reduce power consumption, optimize NF (noise figure), and improve linearity to support bandwidth efficient modulation waveforms like 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation). This topic seeks E-band LNA research supporting high performance SATCOM links with long term (>15 year) MMD (Mean Mission Duration). Goals include NF <2 dB, small signal gain >30 dB, operating temperature range -40 to +80 deg. Centigrade, total dose radiation tolerance >1 Mrad(Si).

PHASE I: Develop innovative E-band LNA design with requisite NF, gain, bandwidth, operating frequency, and temperature range. Validate design through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Fabricate one or more prototypes and characterize performance in areas of NF, gain, bandwidth, operating frequency, radiation performance and temperature range.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications include terrestrial wireless communications, avionics and satellite communications.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include wireless communications, avionics and telematics.

REFERENCES:

1. Lo, D. C. W., et al. “A High-Performance Monolithic Q-Band InP-Based HEMT Low-Noise Amplifier,” IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 3, pp 299-301, 1993.

2. Kobayashi, K. W., et al. “A 44 GHz InP-Based HBT Double-Balanced Amplifier with Novel Current Re-Use Biasing,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., 1998.

3. Kobayashi, K. W., et al. “The Voltage-Dependent IP3 Performance of a 35-GHz InAlAs/InGaAs-InP HBT Amplifier,” IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 7, pp 66-68, 1997.

KEYWORDS: low noise amplifier, small signal gain, noise figure, satellite communications, E-band, satellite communications

AF103-058 TITLE: Computer Network Defense (CND) for Future Satellite Operations Center (SOC)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop methods and tools to enable identification and mitigation approaches of cyber

attacks on Satellite Operations Centers(SOCs) for mission assurance.

DESCRIPTION: Cyber Warfare has become a significant threat to DOD space operations due to increased connectivity and integration with other DOD networks and information infrastructure. While Computer Network Defense (CND) requirements are not unique to DOD satellite operations, the methods used to attack space ground systems can have unique consequences to satellite operations. These effects could include the total loss, hostile takeover, or denial of service affecting one or more space assets. Loss of space capabilities greatly impacts military operations, time to reconstitute could take years, and cost billions to replace. As space operations ground centers become more interconnected and also interface to larger classified and unclassified networks, the potential of attack on space operations increases. Therefore, there is a growing need to actively protect DOD satellite operations from Cyber Attacks in real-time to prevent disruption of operations, or worse yet, detrimental affect space assets and mission capabilities. This research seeks novel approaches that enable SOC operators to identify and characterize a cyber attack via wired or wireless RF links, determine the impact to the affected satellite, constellation, or across different constellations, and recommend courses of action to mitigate or eliminate the compromising event. As part of the solution, the capability must work in an environment likely connected to multiple networks with classic DOD 8500 controls (e.g. firewalls, guards, and privileged user access controls) that insufficiently protect real-time satellite operations from sophisticated cyber attacks. In addition, future SOCs systems will implement serviced-based[2] designs with open standards (e.g.[3]) and communication middleware technologies that enable: use of common services across multiple SOC missions, fusion of mission data across SOCs for situational awareness, and sharing of ground resources (e.g. antennas, signal processing and cryptologic hardware). This distributed approach poses unique challenges in providing information assurance mechanisms that protect authorization, confidentiality, integrity, and availability of SOC systems. Proposed solutions can focus on any or all combinations of detection, impact analysis, and correct action solutions. Novel mitigation solutions should be affordable, relatively easy to implement, and address various categories of vulnerabilities. Each cyber attack scenario should not only quantify impacts to authorization, confidentiality, integrity, and availability, but also quantify direct mission impacts and second order effects. Based on this thorough research into space operation specific cyber attack scenarios, novel approaches, concepts and prototypes would be developed for defending operation centers against these attacks. Computer Network Defense techniques developed and demonstrated should include both passive and active methods for countering cyber attacks, assessing mission impact, and proposing corrective actions appropriate for mission success.

PHASE I: Define various Cyber Attack Scenarios that would be the most harmful to Satellite Operation Centers and space operations. Propose methods to identify the attack, counter the threats defined by the scenarios, and determine mission impacts.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate proof of concepts for identifying and defending against the emerging and diverse Cyber Threats that could adversely affect networked DOD SOCs. Develop ability to determine mission impact and recommend corrective actions using a variety of different scenarios.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Computer Network Defense for DOD Satellite Control Centers.

Commercial Application: Commercial Satellite Operations would benefit from using this technology to safe guard commercial space assets from Cyber Attack. In a broader sense, apply to any service-based application.

REFERENCES:

1. DOD 8500-2, www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/850002p.pdf

2. Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). ";Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) Techguide."; http://metadata.dod.mil/mdr/ns/ces/techguide/main_page.html

3. Information on NASA’s Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) may be found at: /index.html.

KEYWORDS: Cyber Attack, Computer Network Defense (CND), Space Operation, Satellite Operations Center (SOC), Information Assurance (IA), Information System Security

AF103-059 TITLE: Extracting Location-stamped Events from Textual Data for Persistent Situational

Awareness

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop automated capabilities to extract & location-stamp events from unstructured open-source text, enabling geospatial event visualization, and persistent Situational Awareness.

DESCRIPTION: AF Intelligence analysts need the ability to more rapidly monitor, visualize and analyze event information in large volumes of unstructured textual data. For them, achieving and maintaining persistent Situational Awareness (SA) is not just desirable, it is critical for enabling decision-makers to make timely, well-informed responses. One important source of information contributing to persistent SA is the information gleaned from Open Source Intelligence (OSINT), and in particular from open source textual data. For example, the ability to stay apprised of the occurrences of certain types of domain-relevant events, along with their location, would be a valuable contribution to SA. The problem is that the amount of open source text available is well beyond what can be manually read and processed in the time available. This negatively impacts our ability to achieve timely and accurate assessments, and thus our ability to maintain persistent SA. What is needed is an automated capability enabling Intelligence analysts to rapidly extract information from large amounts of open source text, and put it into a structured such as data base records. Once the information has been captured in this structured form, it can be exploited as an input to automated analysis and visualization (A&V) tools, and existing tools for multi-INT fusion. From a technical perspective, the area of research being addressed is information extraction from unstructured text (and specifically, from open source text). The focus under this topic is event extraction, with the primary challenge being to advance the state-of-the-art of location-stamping of events (i.e., geocoding). Researching and developing a capability for more accurate location-stamping of events is the minimum required accomplishment under this topic. While research has been done in this area before, there is still a need for much higher accuracy extraction and geocoding of events. The state-of-the-art is not yet good enough to support operational-quality geospatial analysis and visualization of event information from unstructured text. Secondary challenges include, but may not be limited to, rapid customization to different sources/styles/formats of textual data, and rapid customization to various domains (areas of interest). While addressing these challenges in the proposal would be useful, it is optional since it should not happen at the expense of addressing the primary research challenge (geocoding events). Geocoding encompasses several component problems, such as location name ambiguity (Rochester NY vs Rochester Minnesota); location coreference (e.g., Utica is east of Rome. The city is 10 miles from...";); explicit spatial relations (e.g., in, at); implicit spatial relations (e.g., part-of); relative spatial expressions (e.g., ";south of the border"; vs ";south of equator";); implicit trajectories (e.g., ";the road goes by the market on the way to the market";); and even temporal inference (e.g., the car drove down the highway for 2 hours before stopping). Identifying and addressing key component problems for location stamping of events extracted from unstructured text is the core of this SBIR Topic.

PHASE I: Feasibility Concept. Research, develop and assess innovative techniques to perform location stamping of events extracted from unstructured text. Based on these results, develop an initial design for a prototype for extracting and location-stamping events from open source text, per the Description.

PHASE II: Research and develop a prototype capability to extract and location-stamp events from open source text, per the Phase 1 design. Demonstrate how the structured, location-stamped event information produced by this capability enables the use of an automated analysis and visualization tool or a multi-INT Fusion capability, to promote persistent Situational Awareness from open source text.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Supports Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB), provides complementary target information as an input to multi-INT fusion tools, and enables operational-tempo situation assessment.

Commercial Application: This capability has many commercial applications, including visual analytics for situation awareness in scientific research; SA of global infectious disease; and geographic information retrieval.

REFERENCES:

1. Martins, B. et al. ";Extracting and Exploring the Geo-Temporal Semantics of Textual Resources";. Semantic Computing, 2008 IEEE International Conference On. 4-7 Aug. 2008, pgs. 1-9.

2. Aragon, Cecelia R. et al, ";Using Visual Analytics to Maintain Situation Awareness in Astrophysics"; (November 4, 2008). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Paper LBNL-658E. /lbnl/LBNL-658E/

3. Mani, Inderjeet et al, ";Spatio-Temporal Information Extraction and Reasoning from Natural Language"; (2009). /news/events/exchange09/05MSR119.pdf

4. Keller, M et al. ";Use of Unstructured Event-Based Reports for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance";. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet], 2009 May. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/15/5/689.htm

5. Pan, C. and Mitra, P. ";FemaRepViz: Automatic Extraction and Geo-Temporal Visualization of FEMA National Situation Updates";. Visual Analytics Science and Technology, 2007. VAST 2007, IEEE Symposium on Oct. 30 2007-Nov. 1 2007, pgs, 11-18.

KEYWORDS: information extraction, geo-coding, location-stamping, geo-parsing, geospatial analytics

AF103-060 TITLE: Secure Web-Based Content Distribution System (CDS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

OBJECTIVE: Develop Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Content Distribution System (CDS) services that are deployable on forward operating C2 node infrastructures that ride on the Global Information Grid (GIG).

DESCRIPTION: Iraq and Afghanistan have demonstrated increasingly distributed operations and the need to integrate across the air, space and cyber domains. As the Air Force continues to migrate to the concept of distributed operations involving the forward deployment of smaller, more agile forces that have reach back capabilities to Continental United States (CONUS) based Operations Support Facilities (OSFs), Command and Control (C2) nodes such as Air and Space Operation Centers (AOCs) will have increased susceptibility to Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) communications. AOC command centers used to manage air combat operations will become smaller and rely upon centralized capabilities of geographically separated OSF systems. Back-end enterprise systems and the networks connecting distributed nodes may suffer overload from too many client requests for information.

The commercial industry has partially addressed this problem using Content Delivery/Distribution Networks (CDNs). A CDN is a system where redundant copies of data are placed at various computer nodes in the network so as to maximize accessibility to the data for clients on the network – clients access copies of data that are nearest to them as opposed to accessing data from a centralized server, thus serving to avoid bottlenecks near that server.

A problem with commercial CDNs is that they are typically built from proprietary content distribution solutions that are only available as “services” on the open internet – they are not available on the secure, segregated networks used by the DoD, and do not meet the verifiable trusted source access mechanisms and Quality of Service (QoS) needs that are unique to military C2 planning and execution.

Needed is a Content Distribution System (CDS) that is deployable on forward operating C2 node infrastructures that ride on the Global Information Grid (GIG). The GIG is defined as a globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing information on demand. The CDS will enable applications on a C2 Nodes to distribute content to each other as basic “web-based” information. This data will come in many forms such as imagery, text, web pages (HTML), Extensible Markup Language (XML) documents, Microsoft Office documents, etc. The CDS will appear as the originating web server on the local C2 Node in that Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) will remain consistent with the source, like a standard web caching system. The CDS will be able to subscribe to or periodically poll existing application servers or RESTful services for content or changes to content that need to be distributed to clients. The CDS will provide an Application Programming Interface (API) that affords “real-time” content delivery to GIG clients. The CDS must also ensure that payloads are transmitted securely to ensure that they are not intercepted or modified by unintended parties. The CDS must ensure only authorized users on the receiving nodes can access and view the content, and (to the extent possible) leverage industry standards to enable authentication and authorization and establish access control policies for distributed content, as well as promote loose coupling, interoperability, and extensibility.

PHASE I: Investigate, identify and design protocols and mechanisms suitable for a secure CDS that provides features amenable to distributed C2 planning and execution net-centric operations. Provide a proof-of-concept demonstration.

PHASE II: Based on the Phase I design, implement an advanced prototype and Air Force relevant scenario-based demonstration of a DIL resilient, secure service oriented CDS system that can support dynamic C2 planning and execution and Continuity of Operations (COOP).

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Secure high tempo Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) distributed operations supported by Operation Support Facilities (OSFs) that service the Component-Numbered Air Forces (CNAF) hosted on the GIG.

Commercial Application: Increased cost-effectiveness, profitability, and security for commercial CDN service providers. Dramatic improvement in the speed of web sites for CDN clients as their target audiences grow.

REFERENCES:

1. S. Saroiu, K. Gummadi, R. Dunn, S. Gribble and H. Levy, “An Analysis of Internet Content Delivery Systems” , Pp. 315-328 of the Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), Boston, MA, December 2002

2. R. Buyya, M. Pathan and A. Vakali (eds.), Content Delivery Networks, ISBN 978-3-540-77886-8, Springer, Germany, 2008

3. S. Majumdar; D. Kulkarni; C. Ravishankar, “Addressing Click Fraud in Content Delivery Systems”, Infocom, IEEE, 2007

4. United States Air Force Posture Statement 2009, Department of the Air Force, 2009

KEYWORDS: Content Delivery System, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Network Communication Protocols, Resource Allocation, Resource Management, Information Management, Continuity of Operations (COOP), Disconnected Intermittent Limited (DIL) Communications

AF103-061 TITLE: Condition-Based Health Management for Space Situational Awareness

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Materials/Processes, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop a system capable of autonomously managing a complex network of space-based assets to enhance situational awareness (SA).

DESCRIPTION: Today’s systems continue to grow in capability and complexity. The combination of multiple space-based assets controlled by an expansive array of ground based equipment represents a formidable challenge to monitor, maintain, and utilize efficiently. The challenge of managing the resources of such a diverse and dynamic system directly impacts the speed of operations and the system’s ability to provide timely information supporting space situational awareness.

Condition-based health management (CBHM) is the ability to manage and maintain a system using dynamic real-time data to prioritize and optimize maintenance and resource allocation. The subsystem and component level elements making up a diverse and distributed system of space and ground-based assets are capable of reporting basic status, health, and diagnostic data, but an approach is needed to make sense of this huge stream of data in real-time to facilitate CBHM techniques and therefore enhance the situational awareness mission of space-based systems.

For example, the utilization of raw health/status data is limited when such inputs are not taken in the context of what’s normal for the specific subsystem or component. The data is meaningless if it is not analyzed in the context of the other subsystems contained within the overall complex system and mission plan. Diagnostic streams that are “normal” for one asset may not indicate nominal operation for a similar asset, depending upon how they are utilized. An innovative approach is needed to process ever-increasing amounts of data to produce accurate and relevant system metrics about past, current, and future situations that can, in turn, be used to manage the system in real-time. The ability to process, analyze, and share data across individual system components promotes shared health and utilization awareness which enhances and optimizes the overall space situational awareness mission of the system.

This topic is searching for the development and application of advanced processing algorithms and network-centric software architectures capable of realizing Condition-Based Health Management across a network of space and ground-based assets. This advanced capability will promote more efficient utilization and increase quality-of-service of dispersed and disparate systems. The solution shall provide operators with enhanced real-time insight into the system’s current and projected operational state and be capable of making condition-based provisioning decisions in accordance with defined policies and mission plans either autonomously and/or with a man-in-the-loop. The resulting increased health and utilization based situational awareness afforded via CBHM will maximize the system’s utility, quality-of-service, and overall effectiveness.

PHASE I: Design a condition-based health management architecture for enhanced SA in both space-based assets and the supporting ground control system. Deliverables shall include a system architecture design, block diagram identifying planned SW components and interfaces, and a proof-of-concept demonstration.

PHASE II: Develop a prototype system based upon the Ph 1 architecture. Develop and implement a plan to demonstrate the condition-based health management and situational awareness capabilities of the prototype system. Information assurance planning and methods need to be considered for future potential transition/fielding.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The improved quality-of-service, asset utilization, and situational awareness enabled by condition-based health management is key to efficient operation of current and next generation space systems.

Commercial Application: Ability to maximize system up time and asset utilization of complex systems including server farms. Commercial space-based systems can benefit from the condition-based health management technology.

REFERENCES:

1. Rana, Abhishek, A Globally Distributed Grid Monitoring System to Facilitate High-Performance Computing at D/SAM-GRID.

2. J. Anderson. The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1983.

3. S. Das, R. Grey, and P. Gonsalves. Situation Assessment via Bayesian Belief Networks. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION-2002). Annapolis, MD. July, 2002. pp. 664-671.

4. ";Organic Computing,"; Anant Agarwal (MIT CSAIL) and William Harrod (DARPA IPTO), Self Aware Computing Concepts Paper, 3 August 2006.

KEYWORDS: Space Network Management, System Situational Awareness, Network Management, System Status Management, Cognitive Processing

AF103-062 TITLE: Network Defense for Mission Assurance Based on Priority

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop techniques and technologies for ranking and prioritizing network components based on the criticality in support of mission assurance.

DESCRIPTION: Today’s approach to network defense and information assurance is focused at the information level and treats all network components as being of equal value. Despite this approach of protecting everything equally, significant breaches and intrusions continue. Maximized defense of all network assets is impractical, prohibitively expensive, may constrain the mission, and often results in a lowest common denominator solution. One approach to remedy the situation is to focus resources on providing the best defense possible for those systems that will assure mission success, while other systems would receive nominal protection. This approach represents a paradigm shift, from a focus on Information Assurance (IA) to Mission Assurance (MA). The mission of the Air Force (AF) is to “Fly, fight and win...in air, space and cyberspace”. One might assume the solution as easy as protecting warfighters in key positions such as flight line maintenance and operations. But what about non-conspicuous activities not directly involved with “putting bombs on target?” If the payment service was compromised, how would the AF continue to procure fuel and other supplies? Without the personnel assignment system operating, how would the AF ensure the right people are at the right place at the right time? Most current methods for prioritizing missions are based on traditional scheduling algorithms (i.e. task based), Cost-Based Scheduling (i.e. resource-based), Temporal Calculus (i.e. event-based), Genetic Algorithms, and Simulated Annealing. These methods work very well in a highly structured environment with well-established command hierarchies. However, the combination of a net-centric environment and the cyber domain render all current methods ineffective. A major deficiency with current methods is once a mission has been assigned a priority, it cannot be changed without starting the process from the beginning. Various approaches to priority analysis should be considered, including but not limited to modeling (e.g. automated decision theory tools), data derivation and aggregation (e.g. human analysis), or mixed-initiative (e.g. the synthesis of the best aspects of humans and machines). Additionally, a distributed prioritization system would also have much higher transaction rates than current single actor, sequential models. Methods need to be developed to not only scale to simultaneous distributed prioritization, but also account for network latency (and possible failures).

The technologies must be robust enough to demonstrate the ability to prioritize collaboratively while: 1) identifying potential conflicts, constraints, and/or boundaries within a mission’s components, difficult both because of the exponential nature of constraint interaction and the need to predict where the interactions might occur; 2) developing links between and among missions and actions, complex due to the critical balance between component sequencing – a challenging scheduling task – and the achievement of key objectives with limited resources; 3) allowing multiple agents (human and/or machine) to work on portions of the priority (i.e., mission fragments) simultaneously, a highly complex coordination task that is poorly understood in mixed-initiative environments; and 4) supporting simultaneous prioritization, a nearly intractable problem in the face of highly uncertain and dynamic operating environments.

PHASE I: 1) Design and develop techniques and technologies for ranking and prioritizing network components in a representative scenario based on the criticality in support of mission assurance, 2) Conduct a complete comparative analysis, and 3) Proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling concepts.

PHASE II: 1) Develop and demonstrate a prototype that implements the Phase I methodology, 2) Identify appropriate performance metrics for evaluation, 3) Generate a cost estimate and implementation guidance for both a modest pilot project and fielding at the Air Force level or at a regional Network Operations and Security Center, and 4) Detail the plan for the Phase III effort.

PHASE III -- DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Computer and network defenses for the GIG and all other IT systems. DoD components and Department of Homeland Security can benefit from this research.

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: The growing importance of computers and networks to the nation's economic well-being and national security is dependent on a cyber defense strategy with the greatest opportunity for mission assurance.

REFERENCES:

1. Importance of mission assurance to the Air Force mission: /events/monthly-luncheons/bios-presentations/Schissler.ppt

2. “Global Operations and Mission Assurance in a Contested Cyber Environment”, 2008 GTISC Security Summit. Lt Gen Bob Elder. 15 October 2008, smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/1853/26300/2/presentation.pdf

3. “Mission, System, Information, Cyber Assurance”, Daryl R. Hild, Associate Department Heat, MITRE, Ground Systems Architectures Workshop, March 1-4, 2010.

4. “Mission Assurance—A Key Part of Space Vehicle Launch Mission Success”, Maj Gen Ellen M. Pawlikowski, USAF; http://www.nro.gov/articles/2_Pawlikowski.pdf

KEYWORDS: Mission prioritization, mission assurance, network defense, information assurance, resource, allocation, prioritization, priority, dependency, mission, assurance, Global Information Grid.

AF103-064 TITLE: Multi-Sensor Space Object Tracking

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop multi-sensor tracking and fusion (TAF) algorithms for radar and electro-optical (EO) sensors, to optimize the use of TAF algorithms for precise tracking of space objects orbiting Earth.

DESCRIPTION: Radar and EO sensors are planned to be integrated into a service oriented architecture (SOA) network. Detection and/or track data from those sensors will be available for exploitation. Data from multiple sensors can be combined/fused through multilateration techniques and innovative tracking and fusion algorithms to provide precise tracks and coordinates of space objects orbiting Earth. In the cluttered space environment, tracking and fusion algorithms need to be developed to support high probability of intercept and collision avoidance calculations for space objects, to include objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), Geo-synchronous Earth Orbit (GEO), Highly Elliptical Orbit (HELO) and High Earth Orbit (HEO). This effort will incorporate the use of data from multiple radar and EO sensors with novel algorithms to produce combined/fused tracks of space objects orbiting Earth, provide high-quality space object orbital coordinates, and robust space object maneuver detection. The methodology for assessing the predicted performance will include a comparison of multiple sensor network processor/simulators with the applied TAF algorithms to a single radar or EO processor/simulator without the applied TAF algorithms and use fundamental detection and tracking metrics (such as constant false alarm rate, total track lifetime, track purity, etc.). Scenarios should include radar and EO sensors at various elevation angles and various parameters with space objects operating at a range of real-world orbital velocities within different background environments. TAF algorithm elements should be developed using modular open systems architecture principles, to support system development, assessment and integration into larger systems.

PHASE I: Conduct feasibility demonstration of novel algorithms for tracking of space objects orbiting Earth. Mature concepts and define methodology to assess predicted performance and compare to basic tracking methods. Provide validated set of performance measures and techniques/tools for utility assessment.

PHASE II: Evaluate novel TAF algorithm modules within an operational radar and EO sensor network scenario, to include accurate models of radar background clutter. Incorporate other applications to support testing (e.g. displays). Conduct tests to characterize algorithm performance and utility. Deliver TAF algorithm description, test results.

PHASE III DUAL PHASE APPLICATIONS:

Military Application: Exploitation of Space Surveillance Network sensor data, satellite collision avoidance, detection of hostile space object maneuvers

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include such diverse fields as air traffic control, commercial satellite tracking systems, commercial space and missile launch control, and air and space collision avoidance applications.

REFERENCES:

1. D. L. Hall, Mathematical Techniques in Multi-sensor Data Fusion, Artech House, Norward, Ma, 1992.

2. Bar-Shalom, and T.E. Fortmann, Tracking and Data Association, Academic Press, New York, 1998.

3. J.W. Guan, and D.A. Bell, Evidence Theory and It’s Applications, vol 1. Studies in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence 4. R.P.S. Mahler, Statistical Multisource-Multitarget: Information Fusion, Artech House, Massachusetts, 2007.

KEYWORDS: multi-sensor, space, tracking, fusion, algorithm, radar, electro-optical

AF103-065 TITLE: Next-Generation Power Supply for Reentry Vehicles

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Space Platforms, Nuclear Technology

OBJECTIVE: Design and prototype a low-volume, long-life power supply for a reentry vehicle.

DESCRIPTION: The U.S. Air Force is interested in advancing power supply technologies in support of future arming and fuzing system designs where power supplies may reside in a dormant state for several years or decades (~20 years) and then be required to operate with very high reliabilities under severe environmental conditions. Environments associated with power supply storage and operation include temperature (-18°C to 66°C), mechanical shock, vibration, acceleration (tens of g’s), and high levels of radiation. Depending on system design, the power supply may be subjected to ambient atmospheric conditions, including humidity, throughout its storage life. Required characteristics associated with new power supply activation/functioning include: minimum activation time (seconds), maximum output voltage & voltage stability (nominal maximum voltage ~ 35V), minimum capacity as measured in amp-sec (~700 to 1000 amp-sec), and required duration of uninterrupted power as measured in tens of minutes. Other desired power supply attributes include improved energy density (peak specific power >10 kW/kg, specific energy >200 Whr/kg at the battery level) over currently available power supplies, reduced volume (goal of 164 cm3), and flexible form factor. Power supply concepts must consider both single output voltages as well as multi-voltage design at no more than 6 V max for each single voltage, including the option of providing one or more negative voltages. Additionally, power supply design concepts should also provide the ability to independently monitor the power supply state of health.

PHASE I: Identify design concepts for highly reliable power supplies that meet both size and environmental requirements for longer shelf life prior to use. Evaluate the potential power supplies for viability and reliability in a high-stress, hostile environment in a compact package.

PHASE II: Develop a prototype power supply based on the findings from Phase I. Conduct long-term manufacturability and reliability studies for the prototype given the environmental factors, to include the effects of long-term dormancy on the prototype.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Used as a replacement in the current strategic system or in a future system requiring a highly-reliable, long-shelf-life power supply.

Commercial Application: Low-volume, long-life power supplies could be applicable to emergency power applications for emergency personnel, such as disaster relief and contingency back-up power in a small package.

REFERENCES:

1. Linden, David and Thomas Reedy, ";Handbook of Batteries,"; 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

2. Kiehne, H. A., ";Battery Technology Handbook,"; Dekker, 1989.

KEYWORDS: power supply, reentry vehicle power supply, extremely long shelf life, primary power supply, robust power supply, nuclear

AF103-068 TITLE: Infrared Scene Generation for Wide Field of View (WFOV) Sensors

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop affordable infrared (IR) emitter array technology for representing complex IR scenes on a large-format IR focal plane array (FPA).

DESCRIPTION: IR sensing is moving to large-format, wide-field-of-view (WFOV) FPAs. DoD is investing large sums in developing the next generation of sensors designed for Satellite, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), Missile Warning Sensors (MWS), and Infrared Search and Track (IRST), but such systems involve the integration and development capability to support the hardware and software development campaign which now cannot represent the battle space. Current IR projection technology limits WFOV scene generation to a few degrees and WFOV sensors have a field-of-view over twenty degrees.

Current IR projection emitter technology is limited to 5 millisecond response times; too slow in rise-time and frame rate to represent the transient events and the frequency content of missile plumes. Technologies are needed that can support full-frame or multiple-target windowing to stimulate the sensor under assessment with high-speed, high black body apparent temperature while maintaining very low background radiance. While 1 milliwatt emitter black body equivalent emission (MWIR) for a typical 50 micron emitter pixel is sufficient to represent a 3000K degree transient for a 2-to-4 degree narrow-field-of-view imaging sensor, wide-field-of-view sensors may need 40 to 50 times, or more, equivalent radiance amount per pixel to produce the same effective response to a bright event. This technology challenge has not been addressed by the test community. No viable technologies that are producible, affordable and environmentally compatible have been identified to provide a high dynamic range and operate in both ambient test bench and low-background (<80K) cryogenic vacuum environments.

The objective of this effort is to develop an innovative technology capable of generating in software or projecting scenes onto a 2048 x 2048 pixel FPA, or larger, in fast wide-field-of-view cameras in the 2-6 and/or 6-15 micron wavelength region. This critical component technology should be capable of emitting independently controllable radiance in several sensor spectral bands per “pixel.” The technology should be easily integrated into a test bed typical of a UAS or spacecraft sensor test campaign. The proposal should specifically address the system level impacts and integration issues that may be involved in using this technology.

Scenes must be projected for relative sensor motions and projectors must be mountable on a five-axis motion simulator to replicate relative motion of the sensor and target. The target infrared scene simulator (IRSS) mounts to the outer two axis of the five-axis system and duplicates the azimuth and elevation movements of the target. Jitter mirrors or other technology to simulate high-frequency motion of the emitter array to simulate response to rocket firing, platform vibration, and aero turbulence are of interest.

Other topical interests are dynamic simulation of high-frequency image jitter due to sensor vibration , cryogenic and ambient ability for spectral control, dynamic polarization control on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and compatibility with high-speed infrared scene generation system modeling to provide more realistic modeling of space objects, structured backgrounds, etc.

PHASE I: Work should demonstrate component performance and viability of the technology proposed to represent the battlespace environment for persistent surveillance applications at a Critical Design Review (CDR) level. Create a development plan, schedule, transition assesment, and requirements.

PHASE II: Based on Phase I results, build and demonstrate a scalable IR emitter array component compatible with ambient and cryogenic background operation that can represent dynamic, high-speed IR events. The demonstration should cover the operational range to demonstrate speed, functionality, linearity, uniformity, and spectral stability. Validate the design for transition to the UAS and Space communities.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: IR sensor developers, IR test equipment provider to DoD and extend the spectral range and operational systems for customers such as the USAF, MDA, DoD, NASA and other government agencies.

Commercial Application: IR driving aid, medical IR tomography, earth resource satellite and mapping sensor calibration, industrial thermography, IR Photodynamic medical therapy and thermal printing engines.

REFERENCES:

1. Lowry III, H. S., D. H. Crider, W. H. Goethert, W. T. Bertrand, and S. L. Steely, “Scene projection developments in the AEDC space simulation chambers,” Proc. SPIE 5785, 140, 2005.

2. Mitchell, Robert W., “A composite pointing error analysis of a five-axis flight/target motion simulator with an infrared scene projector,” Proc. SPIE 6208, 620803, 2006.

3. Thompson, R. A., et al., “HWIL Testbed for Dual-Band Infrared Boost Phase Intercept Sensors,” Proceedings from 2002 Meeting of the MSS Specialty Group on Missile Defense Sensors, Environments, and Algorithms, 5-7 February, 2002.

4. Lawler, John V. and Joseph Curranoa, “Thermal Simulations of Packaged IR LED Arrays” /about/publications/Lawler%202008.pdf.

5. Solomon, Steve, and Paul Bryant, “Adventures in High-Temperature Resistive Emitter Physics,” SPIE Proc Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the- Loop Testing VIII, Orlando, FL, 2003.

KEYWORDS: IR emitter array, IR projector, wide-field-of-view (WFOV) sensors, large-format focal plane arrays (FPAs), test equipment, hardware in the loop (HWIL), missile warning sensor, persistent surveillance sensor, hostile fire sensor, IR light emitting diode

AF103-070 TITLE: Airborne Networking: Using Context-Awareness for Better Network Routing

and Management

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Development of complete prototypes that demonstrate the use of wide-area network states and user intents in a complex and uncertain environment to automatically enhance network routing and management.

DESCRIPTION: Solving the complex problems posed by large-scale mobile networks requires a new paradigm that goes beyond the reactive, localized network protocols and centralized operator-in-the-loop management techniques of today’s wired and wireless network. The topic solicitation investigates the use of context-aware and cognitive processes for managing the lack of topological scalability, ever-present dynamism, and the high level of operator interaction required by today's network. Research advances into incorporating an intelligent awareness of the network state will enable space-based, ground-based, and air-based networks to robustly react to emerging and unforeseen conditions.

A primary interest is the finding of efficient, effective and adaptive methods of dealing with dynamism, which therefore require context-aware and cognitive (the context of cognition here is defined as the ability to perceive the network level objectives, and then plan, decide and act on them) approaches to predicting network conditions in advance. This context awareness aids network management and operations in determining how best to react to changes in mission priorities and network conditions. Keys to the new design paradigm towards a network routing and management middleware system are advancements in the areas of intelligent network optimization, distributed networking monitoring, network visualization, and distributed routing algorithms that can better manage the flow of information-taking quality of service requirements, information priority, network conditions, and knowledge of planned mobility into account. Innovative solutions are sought for (a) efficient methods for changing network routing according to future knowledge and current network states; (b) mechanisms for visualizing the current network environment and for taking user feedback into account; and (c) real-time allocation of sensing and communication resources based on multiple priorities, non-deterministic tasks, and user preferences to enhance data flows and increase mission effectiveness. Solutions should operate in networks with High Assurance Internet Protocol Encryptors (HAIPEs); i.e., a HAIPE is typically a secure gateway that allows two enclaves to exchange data over an untrusted or lower-classification network. Thus, HAIPEs, that are often inserted between classified and unclassified networks, will help to encrypt classified or sensitive traffic. Finally, all the routing protocols, topology layers, and topology policies should also be developed such that they could easily be applied within a net-centric, service-oriented architecture (SOA) or inserted into the Net-Enabled Command Capability (NECC). NECC is the DoD’s new principal command and control program, providing command and control capabilities to support the National Military Command Center, Joint Force Commanders, and Service/Functional Components as well as unit-level commanders.

PHASE I: Develop fault-tolerant, distributed topology control, network architectures for sharing network state feedbacks and user preferences, and intelligent adaptation to network conditions to proactively ensure value-added information will be successfully delivered in a mobile tactical environment.

PHASE II: Refine the selected network architecture for cognitive intelligence, context-aware algorithms, routing and network management protocols. Build a prototype based on a communication network simulator, including terrestrial links, wired and mobile links, and intermediate satellite links. Validate a set of performance measures. Evaluate information sharing, status information, throughput, and latency.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: High-performance network routing & management will be a significant contribution to global sets of information available from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network and future DoD communications systems.

Commercial Application: Results could directly support cross-communications and high-connectivity requirements that make the routing/topology decisions that are necessary for properly managing diverse communications systems.

REFERENCES:

1. Ejigu, D., M. Scuturici, and L. Brunie, “Hybrid Approach to Collaborative Context-Aware Service Platform for Pervasive Computing.” Journal of Computers, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 40-50, 1 January 2008.

2. Chowdhury, K. R., and M. D. Felice, “Search: A Routing Protocol for Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks.” Computer Communications (Elsevier) Journal, In Press, 2009.

3. Miller, James G., ";A New Sensor Allocation Algorithm for The Space Surveillance Network,"; The 74th MORS Symposium, Working Group 5, 28 August 2006.

KEYWORDS: context-awareness, network routing and management middleware, information network optimization, knowledge networking, feedback, information-based quality of service, human-system interaction

AF103-071 TITLE: Innovative Technologies for Space Asset Management

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: To develop and demonstrate autonomous technologies to perform real-time monitoring of space assets, to include satellites, tracking stations, and communications links.

DESCRIPTION: Today’s DoD assets are largely monitored in an ad-hoc fashion, relying on archaic non-real-time methods with simplistic checklists and methods used to provide overall system status. The primary disadvantages are (1) delays in reporting events, (2) manpower-intensive operations required to provide situational assessment, and (3) increased difficulty in detecting and responding to new situations. The Air Force has a requirement to maintain ‘Blue Force Status’ of all of our assets. Automated tools are needed to quickly assess and report the overall status of DoD satellites, remote tracking stations, all communication links, and to provide a top-level, overall system status. Air Force satellites are largely monitored using limit checkers, which often fail to accurately characterize overall satellite system status. Intelligent systems techniques, to include machine learning, case-based reasoning, model-based reasoning, and genetic algorithms, are needed to convert satellite state-of-health data into overall top-level satellite system status. Similarly satellite-communication-link status is often monitored in an “up” or “down” fashion. Intelligent techniques are needed to monitor these links and capture subtle anomalous conditions. These communications links would include nodes on our Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), sensors within our Space Surveillance Network (SSN), as well as command-and-control reporting links within the DoD. At a top level, overall system status needs to be continually monitored using the information generated from the system status of each satellite resource and communication link. Due to the difficulty in characterizing system status because of the stochastic nature of the underlying information sources, more sophisticated techniques such as Bayesian, possibilistic, or case-based reasoning are needed. Of critical importance is the integration of all of these assets within a net-centric fashion, with specific compatibility with the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) program. Solutions should be modular in nature, with modules implemented as net-centric mission services. Overall system status should be automatically captured and disseminated in a publish-and-subscribe architecture. Orchestration and demonstration of new capability with existing Air Force JMS services would be highly desirable. Another desirable feature would be integration and demonstration of the developed capability within a JMS compatible User Defined Operating Picture (UDOP).

PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate a representative set of services, to include data from at least one satellite, several communication links, and several remote tracking stations. The ability to assess situations by non-deterministic means should be demonstrated.

PHASE II: Phase II should extend the work begun in Phase I and include an increased number of data sources implemented as net-centric modules. Scalability should be addressed. Demonstration of how this system could enhance the JMS program is desired. Validation of the reasoning techniques to include confidence levels should be included.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The technologies have the potential to transition to the Electronic Systems Command JSpOC Mission System. The effort would also support Space and Missile Systems Center's Blue Force Status initiative.

Commercial Application: The technologies that would evolve from this topic would also be applicable to NASA and commercial satellite missions, such as Iridium.

REFERENCES:

1. ESC JSpOC Mission Systems (JMS) Net-centric Architecture.

2. ESC 850/ELSG Strategic Technical Play version 3.0.

KEYWORDS: space asset management, data fusion, space situational awareness, net-centricity

AF103-072 TITLE: Improved Cryogenic Cooling Technology

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Improve jitter, mass and/or power aspects of space electro-optical payloads by improving components of the cryocooling system; e.g., by improvements in heat transfer within/among critical components.

DESCRIPTION: Next-generation, missile-midcourse-detection, infrared-sensing technologies and on-board cryogenic cooling needs will require improvements in component level technology that reduce payload jitter, mass, and power budgets through improved thermal management of cooling loads and rejected heat. The issues associated with gimbaled sensor systems are of particular interest. Specific areas of interest are: (1) pumped or wicked cryogenic cooling load transfer devices capable of transferring significant (2-10 W) cooling loads across a two-axis gimbal, flexible joint, or to multiple locations on a spacecraft; (2) cryocooler component improvements; (3) thermal control devices for high density microcircuits; and (4) the control electronics associated with any active devices. All devices must be capable of 10-years operation in a space environment, including 300 Krad total dose of radiation (ionizing and proton).

Some notional system within which the improved component will operate must be described. The nominal rejection sink of a usual payload is at 250-325 K, and the minimal continuous duty lifetime is 10 years. Two-axis gimbals operate across 0-359 degrees in azimuth and 0-90 degrees in elevation. High heat flux microcircuits of interest are the radiation-hardened versions of various Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and variants of the Power Personal Computer (PC) Central Processing Unit (CPU). Proposals concerned with waste heat rejection from, or cooling load transfer to, refrigerated cryogenic sensors must describe how the thermodynamic system notionally proposed supports 35 or 110 K focal plane cooling needs on the order of 2 or 12 W and 85 or 170 K optics cooling needs on the order of 20 W, or waste heat rejection on the order of 500 W. Multistage refrigeration is therefore an explicit requirement in these payloads. Showing how the component improvement would benefit currently available designs for space electro-optical (EO) payload, either as efficiency improvements or as reductions in payload budgets, must be discussed in the proposal.

Mass improvements for gimbaled payloads are currently assessed relative to the following payload trade budgets:

-- 0.3 kg/W of heat rejection for rejection radiator

-- 0.2 kg/W of power input

-- 30% of refrigerator mass and radiator for on-gimbal cooling

Consequently, moving a 100 W refrigerator of 10 kg mass off-gimbal would save 0.3 x [10+ (0.3 x 100)] = 12 kg of payload mass. An alternative to save this same 12 kg mass penalty would be to increase cooling efficiency on gimbal so that the power input would be only 45.5 W. It should be obvious from this analysis approach that controlling size (up to an upper linear dimension limit of 2 meters) or component intrinsic mass is not a primary objective of this topic; instead, payload mass savings in excess of 10 kg are the prime mass objective.

The applications of this technology could potentially be far-reaching, with large market potential due to the increased efficiency and. to a lesser extent, the expected reduction in mass for cryogenic coolers. The need for high-reliability cryocoolers for terrestrial applications includes cellular bay station cooling and magnetic resonance imaging.

PHASE I: Develop fundamental concepts for increased efficiency or reduced mass, jitter, or power input of space cryocoolers, via a process or fundamental physical principle. Offerors are encouraged to work with system, payload, and/or refrigeration contractors to ensure applicability of their efforts.

PHASE II: Design/develop/construct a breadboard device to demonstrate the innovation. Although not required to be optimized to flight levels, approach should demonstrate the potential of the prototype device to meet actual operational specifications, including potential improvements in efficiency or reduction in mass using commercially-available, high-heat-flux parts.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Transfer of cooling over gimbals, flexible joints, and to multiple payloads or loads from a single cooler; ability of the cooling system to rebalance loads vs. temperatures over system life; jitter.

Commercial Application: NASA and the commercial sector for space and airborne uses such as surveillance, astronomy, weather monitoring, and earth resource monitoring; efficient temperature control of computer processors.

REFERENCES:

1. Robert, T., and F. Roush, ";USAF Thermal Management System Needs";, Cryocoolers 15, the Proceedings of the 15th International Cryocooler Conference, 2008.

2. Davis, T. M., J. Reilly, and B. J. Tomlinson, ";Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development,"; Cryocoolers 10, R. G. Ross, Jr., Ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 21-32, 1999.

3. Roberts, T., and F. Roush, ";Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems as an Enabling Technology in Space Sensing Missions";, Proceedings of the International Cryocooler Conference 14, Cryocoolers 14, 2007.

4. Rich, Michael, Marko Stoyaniff, and Dave Glaister, ";Trade Studies on IR Gimbaled Optics Cooling Technologies,"; IEEE Aerospace Applications Conference Proceedings, v. 5, p. 255-267, Snowmass at Aspen, CO, 21-28 Mar 1998.

5. Razani, A., et al, “A Power Efficiency Diagram for Performance Evaluation of Cryocoolers”, Adv. in Cryo. Eng., v. 49B, Amer. Inst. of Physics, Melville, NY; p. 1527-1535, 2004.

KEYWORDS: cryocooler, cryogenic, infrared sensors, space systems, sensors, materials

AF103-073 TITLE: High-Power Satellite Communications Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop super-high-frequency (SHF) (20.2 - 21.2 GHz) high-power (>80W) Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) suitable for use in satellite communications applications.

DESCRIPTION: The availability of high-data-rate satellite communications (SATCOM) will likely be critical to future battlefield operations for the foreseeable future. The need for high-data-rate, intra-theater satellite communications for assured access of sensor intelligence for use by ships-at-sea, small units and forces-on-the-move operating in dense foliage areas will likely grow in significance. Sophisticated jamming and/or nuclear effects will pose an additional threat to the availability of in-theater satellite communications. To meet these challenges, the Air Force is interested in developing a high-performance traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) capable of operating in a space environment with sufficient output power to provide the high-data-rate links with small, disadvantaged terminals that will likely find increasing use in tomorrow’s battlefields. The TWTA should be light-weight, power-efficient, compact and capable of operating between 20.2 GHz and 21.2 GHz, with good linearity and intermodulation performance. The TWTA should be capable of delivering an output power >80 Watts, with a gain at rated power of 55 dB (min), and gain flatness of +/- 1.0 dB (max) at rated power. Additional goals include: input impedance of 50 ohms, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of 2.5:1 (typ), Load VSWR 2.0:1 (max), harmonic content of –3 dBc or less, spur suppression of –50 dBc (decibels reference to the carrier), saturated efficiency > 60%, gain stability +/-.25 dB/24 hrs, reliability consistent with 15-year satellite Mean Mission Duration (MMD), operating temperature range –40 deg C to +85 deg C, and radiation total dose tolerance > 1Mrad(Si).

PHASE I: Conduct feasibility and concept studies. Develop innovative design for SHF TWTA, meeting technical objectives for output power, gain, and linearity. Investigate fabrication techniques.

PHASE II: Fabricate prototype TWTA and characterize for output power, gain, linearity and power efficiency.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: DoD satellite communications using radio frequencies (RF) at 81-86 GHz would benefit from this technology.

Commercial Application: Wireless communications and commercial satellite industries would benefit from this technology.

REFERENCES:

1. Goebel, D., et al, ";Development of Linear Traveling Wave Tubes for Telecommunications Applications,"; IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 74-81, Jan. 2001.

2. Robbins, N. R., J. A. Christensen, and U. R. Hallsten, “Performance and reliability advances in TWTA high power amplifiers for communications satellites,” MILCOM 2005, pp. 1887-1890, Vol. 3, 2006.

KEYWORDS: satellite communications, traveling wave tube amplifier, S-band, power added efficiency, high power, high data rate

AF103-074 TITLE: E-band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifer with Carbon Nanotube Cathode

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) cathode E-band (71-76 GHz) space-qualifiable Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) suitable for use in satellite communications.

DESCRIPTION: While traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTA's) have long served as a primary technology in satellite communications, their use has largely been restricted to the ultra-high frequency (UHF), super-high frequency (SHF) and extremely-high frequency (EHF) bands. In order to exploit spectrum available in the millimeter wavelengths for high data rate battlefield communications, the Air Force seeks research into innovative TWTA designs utilizing CNT cathodes in the 71-76 GHz band. Advantages include access to the 5 GHz of spectrum to enabling satellite communications uplinks to operate at multi-gigabit per second data rates and well understood weather attenuation factors, such as rain fade, allowing link budgets to be effectively realized. The objective of this topic is to support the development of CNT-based E-band TWTA. Goals include: output power > 50 W, output frequency 71 to 76 GHz, power added efficiency > 20%, weight < 30 lb, and linearity to support Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), total dose radiation tolerance > 1 Mrad(Si), and operating temperature range -40 to +80 degrees Centigrade.

PHASE I: Develop design of CNT E-band TWTA and validate through modeling and simulation. Demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating CNT cathode.

PHASE II: Fabricate CNT E-band TWTA prototype and characterize for output power, operating frequency range, linearity, operating temperature range, radiation tolerance and reliability.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications include satellite communications and avionics.

Commercial Application: Small, compact E-band power amplifiers could create new markets in bandwidth-intensive commercial communication arenas such as cellular and wideband mobile communications and high speed data transfer.

REFERENCES:

1. Wong, Y. M., W. P. Kang, J. L. Davidson, B. K. Choi, W. Hofmeister, and J. H. Huang, ";Array geometry, size and spacing effects on field emission characteristics of aligned carbon nantobues";, Diamond & Rel. Mat., 14, 2078, 2005.

2. Manohara, H. M., M. J. Bronikowski, M. Hoenk, B. D. Hunt, and P. H. Siegel, ";High-current-density field emitters based on arrays of carbon nanotube bundles";, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 23, 1, 2005.

3. Spindt, C. A., C. E. Holland, A. Rosengreen, and I. Brodie, ";Field-emitter arrays for vacuum microelectronics,"; Trans. Electron Dev., Vol. 38, 10, pp. 2355-2363, 1991.

KEYWORDS: E-band, carbon nanotube, traveling wave tube, linearity, power added efficiency, satellite communications

AF103-075 TITLE: E-band Gimbaled Dish Antenna

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop an E-band (71-76 GHz) gimbaled dish antenna (GDA) suitable for the next generation of satellite communications.

DESCRIPTION: Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AISR) has been shown highly effective in support of multiple field operations, and the amount of satellite communications (SATCOM) bandwidth designated to support of AISR is likely to grow for the foreseeable future, particularly since SATCOM provides an ideal mechanism to transport data from BLOS focal planes to the continental United States (CONUS) for analysis of sensor-collected information. Current state of the art designs lack the necessary performance to meet the aggregate needs of mission operations. Due to the inevitable bandwidth restrictions on future generations of BLOS missions with high-resolution focal planes, the Air Force seeks innovative, lightweight and robust Gimbal Dish Antenna designs encompassing feed horns, reflectors, and gimbals, that are suitable for use in long-term geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) SATCOM applications in the 71-76 GHz band. Goals for the design of these items include: >20 years of design life in a GEO orbit; survive launch conditions; directivity >24dB; circular polarization; insertion loss < 0.5dB; >1MRad TID; -40C to +80C temperature range for operation; 300lbft² mass support; azimuth and elevation range excursion of > 10°; a slew rate of > 4 degrees/sec; position error < 0.005 degrees. Designs should also address interference issues with other spacecraft subsystems, including electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Designs concepts are not limited to any specific bearing or non-bearing technology for gimbal operation.

PHASE I: Develop familiarity with current and projected gimbaled satellite dish requirements. Develop preliminary two-axis design. Validate design through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Develop two GDA prototypes and characterize for slew rate, excursion angles, pointing accuracy, power consumption, and operating temperature range.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) and Wideband Global SATCOM programs could benefit from this research.

Commercial Application: Commercial satellite programs such as Iridium and Globalstar could also benefit from this research.

REFERENCES:

1. Schoob, R., and J. Bichsel, “Vector Control of the Bearingless Motor,” Proc. Fourth Int. Symposium of Magnetic Bearings, ETH Zurich, pp. 327-332, Aug. 1994.

2. de Maagt, P., and G. Crone, “(Sub)Millimetre Wave Antenna Technology for Upcoming ESA Missions,” AP2000 Millennium Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Davos, Switzerland, April 2000.

KEYWORDS: gimbaled dish antenna, reflector, gimbal, feed horn, slew rate, pointing accuracy, two-axis stabilized, satellite communications

AF103-076 TITLE: High-Power Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Optical Transceiver

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop programmable optical data receiver to convert optical signal to electrical data stream.

DESCRIPTION: Forward compatibility (i.e., the flexibility of a payload system to adapt to emerging requirements during a satellite’s mission lifetime) allows mission planners to alter satellite operational characteristics to meet new mission needs. In the case of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV)-to-satellite optical link, a reprogrammable optical transmitter could support multiple, free-space optical interconnects (such as UAV-to-satellite Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AISR) links) by using wavelength division multiplexing. Given that the useful operating lifetime of communication satellites can exceed twenty years, optical transmitter reliability is crucial to cost-effective delivery of bandwidth to the warfighter. This topic seeks to advance the state-of-the-art of optical transmitters that support satellite communications, particularly with respect to reliability and output power. Goals include: programmable wavelength (between 1450 and 1500 nm), output power greater than 10 Watts, power added efficiency (PAE) greater than 60%, operating temperature range between –40 degrees C and +80 degrees C, total dose radiation tolerance greater than 1 Mrad (Si), single event effect tolerance from heavy ions greater than 60 MeV, and dose rate tolerance greater than 109 rads/sec, wide optical bandwidth, high tolerance to external shocks, low size, low weight, and high sensitivity. It is also desired to reduce the number of required optical interfaces.

PHASE I: Evaluate programmable optical transmitter design options leading to enhanced reliability. Design an optical transmitter that meets goals, and simulate operation for the full range of radiation and temperature environments.

PHASE II: Fabricate prototype reprogrammable optical transmitters. Characterize power output, wavelength, mean-time-to-failure, operating temperature range, and radiation tolerance.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Military Application: Military applications include communication satellites and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include communication satellites and terrestrial optical links.

REFERENCES:

1. Watts, P., Glick, M., Waegemans, R., Benlachtar, Y., Mikhailov, V., Savory, S., Bayvel, P., and Killey, R.I., “Experimental demonstration of real-time DSP with FPGA-based optical transmitter,” IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008, Volume 1, pp. 202 - 205.

2. Matsuda, H., Miura, A., Irie, H., Tanakam S., Ito, K., Fujisaki, S., Toyonaka, T., Takahashi, H., Chiba, H., Irikura S., Takeyari, R., and Harada T., “High-sensitivity 10-Gbit/s APD/preamplifier optical receiver module,” presented at the OECC’2002, Paper 12A1-4, Yokohama, Japan, 2002.

3. Matsuda, H., Miura, A., Okamura, Y., Irie, H., et al., “High Performance of 10-Gb/s APD/Preamplifier Optical-Receiver Module with Compact Size,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 15, No. 2, Feb. 2003, pp. 278 – 280.

KEYWORDS: optical transceiver, satellite communications, communications link, wavelength division multiplexing, optical transmitter, optical receiver

AF103-077 TITLE: High-Data-Rate Radio-Frequency (RF) Crosslink Transceiver

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a high-data-rate Radio Frequency (RF) crosslink for insertion into a future satellite communications (SATCOM) Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) mission.

DESCRIPTION: In order to support bandwidth growth for warfighter battlefield communications, future military communications satellites must be capable of supporting intersatellite links (ISL) at ever-increasing data rates. The Air Force seeks innovative, high-capacity satellite crosslink implementations providing the capacity, reliability, and availability to meet the demands for the next generation of warfighter satellite communications. Design must be sufficiently robust, including error correction, to maintain a level of quality of service (QoS) consistent with warfighter networks like WIN-T (Warfighter Information Network-Tactical), while minimizing size, weight and power consumption. The purpose of this topic is to develop a cost-effective, space-qualifiable, RF crosslinks transceiver suitable for use in geosynchronous intersatellite crosslink communications, with the pointing accuracy and transmitter output power to close links between satellites located up to 44,000 miles apart (two times GEO) and reliability to support a 20 year satellite design life. Goals include: bit error rate less than 1E-11 errors/bit-day, and operating temperature range greater than -40 deg C to +80 deg C. Radiation survivability goals include: total ionizing dose immunity greater than 1 Mrad (Si), prompt dose immunity greater than 1E9 rads/sec, survivability greater than 1E12 rads (Si)/sec, single-event effect susceptibility less than 1E-10 errors/bit-day, and latchup immunity.

PHASE I: Investigate candidate transceiver designs offering sufficient reliability, operating temperature and radiation tolerance to sustain long-mission duration in geosynchronous orbit ISL. Design prototype ISL and validate through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Fabricate prototype ISL transceiver and characterize for all military satellite communications-related parameters, including operating frequency, frequency stability, data transfer rate at 2X GEO, bit error rate, operating temperature range, radiation tolerance, and reliability.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: High-data-rate RF crosslinks could find use in DoD communications satellites and Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance missions.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include future upgrades to telecommunications satellites.

REFERENCES:

1. Stadter, P.A., A. A. Chacos, R. J. Heins, and M. S. Asher, “Enabling distributed spacecraft system operations with the crosslink transceiver,” 2002 IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proc., Vol. 2, pp. 2-743-754, 2002.

2. Krueger, P., and J. Weitzen, “DBPSK signalling rates that maximize the performance of 60 GHz crosslinks in a doubly dispersive channel,” MILCOM '90 - IEEE Military Communications Conference, Monterey, pp. 339- 343, 1990.

3. LeLevier, R, et al, “Satellite Crosslink Communications Vulnerability in a Nuclear Environment,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 138-142, 1987.

KEYWORDS: crosslink, transceiver, radio frequency, terahertz, intersatellite link, quality of service

AF103-078 TITLE: Laser Transmitter Module with Integrated Thermal Management System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop laser transmitter with integrated thermal management system suitable for use in SATCOM (Satellite Communications) applications.

DESCRIPTION: In order to support warfighter Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AISR), optical communications payloads are being considered for communications links between future generations of UAV's (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) based military communications satellites. While diode-pumped, solid-state lasers are relatively compact, efficient and reliable, beam quality can degrade due to thermal effects when operating at high-output power levels. The purpose of this topic is to develop a laser transmitter module with integrated cooling system to thermally managing 'hot spots' associated with high power solid state laser components and that can be readily integrated into a UAV and/or satellite payload to provide reliable, high-data-rate optical communications over the entire mission life of a communications satellite. Design solution should be capable of withstanding long term (20 year) exposure to the geosynchronous earth orbit environment, including total dose effects of at least 1 Mrad(Si), and operating temperature range of at least -40 deg. C to +80 deg. C. Design solution should also be cost effective and minimize weight, power and size impacts to UAV and/or satellite payloads.

PHASE I: Develop innovative optical transmitter with optical communications cooling system meeting objectives. Validate laser transmitter thermal management design through modeling and simulation to provide a basis for design of prototype.

PHASE II: Develop prototype of optical transmitter with integrated cooling system, meeting UAV and/or communication satellite payload requirements.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military satellite communication systems, including Wideband Global SATCOM System, could benefit from this technology.

Commercial Application: Terrestrial optical fiber telecommunications could benefit from this development.

REFERENCES:

1. Kartalopoulos, Stamatios, ";Introduction to DWDM Technology,"; John Wiley and Sons, 2000.

2. Hainberger, R., Y. Komai, W. Klaus, K. Kodate, and T. Kamiya, “All-optical modules for compact free-space laser link transceivers,” Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Europe, 2000.

KEYWORDS: thermoelectric cooling, photodiode, pump laser diode, semiconductor optical amplifier, optical communications, laser communications

AF103-079 TITLE: Diode Lasers for Space-Based Cold Atom Clocks

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop diode lasers suitable for space-based Atomic Frequency Standards (AFS) applications.

DESCRIPTION: New cold atom Atomic Frequency Standards (AFS) technologies, which are under development at various national laboratories, have demonstrated significant improvement in frequency stability by attaining less than 2 x 10-13 / rt(Hz), or at least ten times better than that of the existing conventional technologies of rubidium gas cell standards or cesium beam standards. These advanced AFS technologies require diode lasers to cool, prepare, and interrogate the atoms. The “cold atom” approach involves slowing down the atom so more time is spent in interrogation of the atom, resulting in a larger signal-to-noise ratio and better inherent close-in frequency stability.

The diode laser market today is focused on the current needs of telecommunications, which has departed from the wavelengths of interest to AFS. These diode lasers also have different key performance parameters. The telecommunications designers are interested in diode lasers with higher output power levels and stable output power. The AFS designers are interested in diode lasers having low integrated phase noise with wavelengths at the D1 or (preferably) D2 spectral lines of Cs or Rb, that are stable and free of discontinuities (“mode hop”) within a given window of the operating wavelength (such as 1 nm) over temperature, and output power for > 15 years. Current laser diodes at the wavelengths of interest are not adequate; they do not provide the needed performance and single-mode operation, with no mode hops within the specified wavelength band. Investment in the development of both these laser diodes and the diode laser systems that utilize these diodes is necessary to enable the realization of advanced AFS in space.

Adaption of the cold atom diode lasers can also allow performance improvement of existing conventional technologies. Examples are the Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Tube standard, coherent population trap vapor maser or passive standards, and optically-pumped vapor cell standards. Other potential applications of such devices could be the production of Bose-Einstein condensates for atom-interferometer-based accelerometers, gravity gradiometers and rotation sensors.

PHASE I: Research the requirements placed on diode lasers by the potential cold atom clock technology, utilizing information obtained from government labs and AFS contractors.

PHASE II: Develop laser diodes for the 894.593 nm or 852.357 nm wavelengths (D1 and D2 lines of Cs), and the 794.7 nm and 780 nm wavelengths (the D1 and D2 lines of Rb).

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Diode lasers developed under this SBIR will enable advanced AFS that provides new capabilities or enhances existing capabilities for Global Positioning System (GPS) and other military systems.

Commercial Application: Although the success of GPS has dried up much of the demand for high-performance commercial AFS, there are still markets remaining (such as the frequency references for in-house testing of clocks).

REFERENCES:

1. Klehr, A., et al., “High power DFB lasers for D1 and D2 rubidium absorption spectroscopy and atomic clocks,” Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers VIII Session, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7230, 72301I (2009); doi:10.1117/12.805858, 26 Jan 2009.

2. Drullinger, R., C. Szekely (NIST), and J. Camparo (The Aerospace Corp.), ";Diode-Laser-Pumped, Gas Cell Atomic Clocks,"; IEEE FCS, pp, 104-107, 1992.

3. Camparo, J. (The Aerospace Corp.), ";Influence of Laser Noise on the Optically Pumped Atomic-Beam Clock,"; 33rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting, pp. 525-534, 2001.

4. Deninger, et al., ";Rubidium spectroscopy with 778-780 nm distributed feedback laser diodes,"; SPIE, 2005.

5. Camparo, J. (The Aerospace Corp.), ";Reduction of Laser Phase-Noise to Amplitude-Noise Conversion in the Gas-Cell Atomic Clock,"; IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition, pp. 476-479, 2002.

KEYWORDS: cold atom, atomic frequency standard, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom interferometry, diode lasers, atomic clocks

AF103-080 TITLE: Radiation-Resistant, High-Efficiency Direct Current-Direct Current (DC-DC)

Converters For Spacecraft Loads

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop high-efficiency, low-output-voltage DC converter capable of satisfying variable local power demands for various spacecraft bus and payload systems.

DESCRIPTION: Delivery of power to satellite subsystems requires efficient DC-DC down converters that can support multiple spacecraft loads at decreasingly low output voltages. These loads may include sensors, communication modules, and bus systems with several voltage requirements and highly dynamic power demands. The converters must be tolerant to radiation, support loads of 25 watts or more, waste a minimum amount of power during the conversion, and provide reliable operation for up to 15 years.

This topic focuses on developing innovative space system power converter topologies to improve the efficiency of conversion in one step from 80 volts direct current (VDC) to 1.2VDC, provide flexibility through additional intermediate voltage outputs (e.g., ±5VDC, ±15VDC), and insure radiation tolerance and reliability for multi-year operation. Where possible, this effort should leverage commercial components and manufacturing processes, yet be capable of surviving high-radiation exposure, either at the component or package level.

Converter efficiency, a critical parameter for space systems, is heavily dependent on the load and averages approximately 80%. Converter efficiency of > 90% (over 90%) of the operational range is desired. In addition, these devices need to support output low voltage (< 1.2VDC), low-noise sensor applications, and be capable of supplying output voltages as high as 15 volts. Input voltages for commercial and defense spacecraft range from 22 to 80VDC. Output power of 5 to 25 watts at 1.2VDC is anticipated for small footprint devices, with a power density goal of greater than 25 watts/in3 (10x state of the art). The technology should be capable of supporting a 15-year mission in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) or Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and 5 years in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) after 5 years of ground storage. Combining these parameters (efficiency, high input/low output voltage, peak power, power density, and radiation tolerance) is well beyond the state of the art and requires innovative architecture and packaging solutions.

Converter concepts should minimize the need for external-supporting circuits, such as filtering, ground isolation, synchronization and protection features, which would degrade system-level specific performance parameters.

PHASE I: Perform preliminary analysis and conduct trade studies to validate innovative converter concepts. Acquire test results and related performance information to support payoff estimates.

PHASE II: Fabricate and deliver engineering demonstration unit. Show the flexibility of delivering reliable power with variable loads. Identify radiation-sensitive components and methods of shielding for spacecraft applications.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Increased performance and improved mass and volume constraints enabled by these new components will increase the utility and performance of satellite systems for military applications.

Commercial Application:

Commercial communications satellites and NASA interplanetary missions could use this technology.

REFERENCES:

1. Reuters, “VPT Introduces More Than 50 New DC-DC Converter Modules for Use in Space Power Systems”, /article/pressRelease/idUS176958+01-Apr-2008+PRN20080401.

2. Button, R. M., P. E. Kascak, and R. Lebron-Velilla, “Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters,” Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2000 IEEE, Big Sky, MT, Volume: 5, Pages: 355-362, ISBN 0-7803-5846-5, March 2000.

3. International Rectifier, “Hybrid - High Reliability Radiation Hardened DC/DC Converter,” M3G2803R312T, , 21 Feb 2007.

KEYWORDS: DC-DC converters, spacecraft power system, power management and distribution, point-of-use power, down conversion, power management, power conversion, DC/DC, space power, electrical power system, EPS, PMAD

AF103-081 TITLE: Advanced Compression Algorithms for Image Exploitation of Space Imagery

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a suite of processor and bandwidth-efficient, lossless or near-lossless image compression algorithms that maximize the exploitation of mission data from space-based, electro-optical sensors.

DESCRIPTION: Space-based space situational awareness (SSA) will play a significant role in the surveillance and reconnaissance of deep space (DS) resident space objects (RSOs). Current capabilities that fulfill this mission utilize a staring imager that operates in the visible plus near-infrared (IR) electromagnetic radiation bands (0.4 µm – 1.0 µm). The ground stations receive point-source sub-images, which have been culled using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) thresholding, along with associated ephemeris and pointing data to register the point images. Due to downlink availability and bandwidth limitations, gross loss compression is performed prior to mission data downlink. Current nominal compression rates are 1000-to-1.

The on-board image processing methods currently used in space are unsuitable for SSA applications for a number of reasons. First, current processing methods use lossy compression which results in the loss of too much image data for meaningful image exploitation on the ground. Efforts are underway to increase satellite’s downlink bandwidth by a factor of 10 in order to allow use of lossless or near-lossless compression methods; however, it is expected that more bandwidth efficient compression methods (that are lossless or near-lossless) will need to be devised in order to transfer more of the raw imagery to the ground for processing.

Secondly, most space platforms are both communication and processor limited. As a result, new image compression algorithms are required to maximize the limited computer processing capability that is available on-board a spacecraft. The need for more processor efficient compression algorithms is also driven by the increased use of remotely-deployed ground systems in recent years, which has made it is necessary to perform more processing on-board the spacecraft itself. In general, new image compression algorithms must be able to maximize the amount of exploitable image information that can be sent to the ground, using limited communication and processor resources.

The desired product from this research topic is a suite of bandwidth and processor efficient, lossless or near-lossless image compression algorithms that maximize the exploitation of mission data from space-based, electro-optical sensors. It is also desired that the algorithms suite is tunable, based upon dynamic background levels, noise levels, and viewing geometries of the images being processes. Additionally, new compression methods are encouraged to combine/merge the filtering, thresholding, and culling algorithms with the compression techniques to maximize the lossless delivery of the relevant portions of the SSA “images.” Both sidereal stare and rate track modes produce specific target features that may be exploitable using various filtering and transform techniques. The desired net result is to (1) improve detection capabilities on very faint objects that may not otherwise be detected using current thresholding methods, (2) improve upon metric accuracy, which will improve the ability to resolve closely-spaced objects in deep space and, if possible, (3) improve tracking and estimation of fast-evolving scenarios using innovative velocity-matched filters and other predictive algorithms.

PHASE I: Investigate candidate synergistic compression methods and image exploitation algorithms. Demonstrate viability in compression and image exploitation algorithm improvements through non-optimized (for processing speed and efficiency) software on training data to be provided by the government.

PHASE II: Tune compression and image exploitation algorithms for better performance. Performance in compression will be measured by compression rate and the fidelity of the decoded data. Performance in image exploitation will be measured by the level of improvement in the detection and tracking of objects on test data. Performance in processing speed and efficiency will be characterized by rates to be provided by the government.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The software suite will be integrated into an operational satellite ground station. If necessary, parallel processing will be implemented to reduce processing times.

Commercial Application: The image exploitation algorithms developed for the space-based SSA may also be used for the detection of objects against any number of terrestrial backgrounds.

REFERENCES:

1. Staroloski, Roman, “Simple Fast and Adaptive Lossless imge Compression Algorithm,” Software-Practice and Experience, 2007, 37(1):65-91.

2. Sahni, Vemuri, Chen, Kapoor, Leonard and Fitzsimmons, “State of the Art Lossless Image Compression Algorithms,” IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing,Chicago, Illinois, pp. 948-952, Nov. 1998.

3. Perez, Goirizelaia and Iriondo, ";Reversible, embedded and highly scalable image compression system";, Enformatika International Journal of Signal Processing, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 73-77, June 2005.

KEYWORDS: image exploitation, signal processing, lossless image compression, near-lossless image compression, algorithms, space situational awareness, graphic compression, SSA, software, coding

AF103-083 TITLE: Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for CubeSats

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Design, develop, and fabricate an all-in-one, packaged ADCS prototype unit to provide pointing accuracy ± 0.2º, or better, for a 3U CubeSat with maximum mass of 8 kg, within half of 1U volume.

DESCRIPTION: Cubesats are quickly becoming a low-cost platform for hosting research and development (R&D) experiments. The CubeSat units are 10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm, and are commonly combined into two (2U) or three (3U) packages. California Polytechnic University (Cal Poly) developed a standard Poly-Picosat Orbital Deployer (P-POD) that is capable of deploying up to a 3U Cubesat package. Many of the launch vehicle providers are involved in incorporating P-PODs as auxiliary payloads on their launch. This is providing a significant increase in access to space for organizations that want to utilize Cubesat buses for R&D and operational activities.

Currently, Cubesats have limited 3-axis stabilization and will not provide adequate pointing to meet experimenters' data requirements. This has driven Space Test Program (STP) to acquire rides on larger bus spacecrafts or purchase a larger bus that has pointing accuracies that meet the experimenters' requirements. There for Developing a Cubesat ADCS capability that meets the goal of ± 0.2º pointing ability would provide a low-cost platform for R&D experiments and more rapid launch opportunities.

This proposal is looking for innovative means for providing an all-in-one, packaged ADCS for Cubesats to meet R&D experiment-pointing requirements in the execution of collecting valid science data. The packaged ADCS should be developed as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware unit such that a 3U satellite developer can interface the ADCS to their CubeSat structure/bus with minimal effort. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on well document mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces are equally in addition to satisfying desired pointing requirements.

PHASE I: Design a packaged ADCS that shall provide ± 0.2º (3-sigma) or better pointing accuracy in all three axes for a 3U Cubesat operating for one year in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Identify all hardware, interfaces, and testing required for validating the system. Provide a development plan, schedule, budget, and draft interface control document (ICD) required for a flight prototype unit.

PHASE II: Develop and fabricate a prototype unit for integration onto a 3U Cubesat. The prototype unit shall include a finalized ICD, instructions for spacecraft integration, all required hardware, software (as needed), and post-assembly test requirements. Provide modeling & simulation and empirical test documentation demonstrating that prototype unit meets desired pointing requirements. The packaged ADCS should be able to operate for at least one year at LEO.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Successful demonstration would provide both R&D and operational systems a stable platform for conducting experiments crucial to future development of warfighter products.

Commercial Application: Successful demonstration of this product will result in its use for future government and commercial missions as a standard CubeSat ADCS operating in LEO or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO).

REFERENCES:

1. Leve, Frederick, Vivek Nagabhushan, and Norman Fitz-Coy, ";P-n-P Attitude Control System for Responsive Space Missions,"; Proceedings from 2009 Responsive Space Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 2009.

2. Leve, Frederick, Andrew Tatsch, and Norman Fitz-Coy, ";Three-Axis Attitude Control Design for On-Orbit Robotics,"; Proceedings 2007 Conference and Exhibit, Rohnert Park, California, May 7-10, 2007.

3. Toorian, Armen, Emily Blundell, Jordi Puig Suari, and Robert Twiggs, ";Cubesats As Responsive Satellites,"; Proceedings from 2005 Responsive Space Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 2005.

KEYWORDS: space vehicle, satellite, ADCS, CubeSat, pointing accuracy, miniature control moment gyroscopes, miniature CMGs, miniature reaction wheels, miniature RWs, miniature spacebourne GPS, miniature star trackers, MEMS course sun sensor, MEMS inertial measurement unit, MEMS IMU, MEMS inertial reference unit, MEMS IRU, MEMS magnetometer

AF103-085 TITLE: Agile Space Radio (ASR)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop agile multiband radios/transceivers that can automatically find and use the most efficient frequencies, modulation waveforms, protocols, etc., for communications satellites.

DESCRIPTION: To realize Information Superiority and Interoperability described in Joint Vision 2020, our National Security Space (NSS) communication satellites must be able to provide flexible, protected, assured, and interoperable communications. However, today NSS satellite communication (SATCOM) satellites are designed to operate at specific frequencies which cannot be altered after launch. In addition, different waveforms and interface parameters preclude connectivity even if identical frequency bands are used. As such, there is a lack of interoperability and flexibility in the use of today’s SATCOM capabilities. By incorporating technologies such as spread-spectrum and frequency-hopping, satellite communications could become jam-resistant and more robust. In addition, our communication satellites could have the ability to adaptively and dynamically establish effective communications links across a diversity of situations by developing communication subsystem capable of sensing the signal characteristics and then reconfiguring themselves automatically to use the correct frequencies, modulation characteristics, and protocols.

The proposed task is to exploit advances in terrestrial communication (i.e agile-frequency allocation, spread-spectrum techniques, advanced communication protocols, dynamic bandwidth allocation, software-defined radios, and adaptive signal-processing), satellite command and control, and others, to develop an Agile Space Radio (ASR). The ASR should be a small, lightweight radio that can be hosted on any satellite from CubeSats to larger spacecraft and serve as the communications interface between the host satellite and ground terminals, airborne platforms, or other satellites. It should aware of its internal state and environment (i.e location and RF frequency spectrum utilization) and be capable of automatically reconfiguring itself to allow end-users to make optimal use of available frequency spectrum and wireless networks with a common set of radio hardware.

PHASE I: During Phase I of the SBIR, the objective is to identify critical enabling technologies that are essential in the development of an ASR capability, identify technology gaps and develop a set of target requirements based upon those technologies.

PHASE II: In SBIR Phase II, the objective will be to address any technology gaps, integrate the necessary technologies into a design, develop, and fabricate a flight-qualified ASR prototype that can be used for operational testing and commercialization.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Advanced Extremely High Frequency (EHF), Wideband Gapfiller System (WGS).

Commercial Application: Civil and private sector communications satellites.

REFERENCES:

1. Joint Chiefs of Staff, “DoD Joint Vision 2020,” (Available at /fire/doctrine/genesis_and_evolution/source_materials/joint_vision_2020.pdf).

2. IEEE Spectrum, ";Radio Gets Smart";, (Available at /consumer-electronics/standards/radios-get-smart) 2010.

3. IEEE, ";Spectrum Agile Radio: Radio Resource Measurements for Opportunistic Spectrum Usage";, Mangold, Zhong, Chilapolli, Chou, Phillips Research/Univ. of Michigan, 2004.

4. Ian F. Akyildiz, Won-Yeol Lee, Mehmet C. Vuran, and Shantidev Mohanty, ";NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey,"; Computer Networks, Volume 50, Issue 13, Pages 2127-2159, 15 September 2006.

5. Wireless Innovation Forum,”Defining CR and Dynamic Spectrum Access” (/page/Defining_CR_and_DSA )

KEYWORDS: Space communications, interoperability, spectrum management, frequency agility, cognitive radios, software defined radios, satellite communications, network protocol identification, dynamic spectrum access networks, spectrum mobility

AF103-086 TITLE: High Compliance Thermal Interface Material for Space Applications

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a flight-qualifiable, reworkable, reliable, easy to handle, conductive, high compliance thermal interface material (TIM).

DESCRIPTION: Current spacecraft integration plans require considerable time to mount electronic units to the spacecraft structure. Typically, electronic baseplates are aluminum, while spacecraft structures can be either aluminum or graphite epoxy. Present methods for mounting electronic units use room temperature vulcanizing (RTV), which can be hazardous, time-consuming, and difficult to rework when required. A safe, reworkable TIM is sought that meets the following mechanical and thermal requirements in vacuum, reduces cost and cycle time, speeds the manufacturing process, leading to large benefits during spacecraft integration.

The top-level thermal requirement for this TIM would be to achieve > 575 W/m2-K, with minimum compression pressure. The maximum allowable pressure is < 1.5 psi due to concern over panel insert pull-out or creep, and this pressure must be maintained under maximum compression of the TIM (up to 0.011”). One lifetime of on-orbit thermal cycling equates to approximately 32,000 cycles with a deltaT = 15 C anywhere between -20 C to +100 C. Additionally, out-gassing and foreign object debris (FOD) are critical concerns for space applications. Out-gassing is limited to 1.0% of the original mass specimen, excluding percent water vapor recovered (WVR), and a maximum collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) content of 0.10 percent of the original specimen mass.

PHASE I: Identify several possible TIM design concepts and perform a preliminary evaluation of stress-strain and thermal performance under varying loads, in vacuum. Assess feasibility and likelihood of the TIM samples meeting all requirements.

PHASE II: Optimize TIM design concept based on test data obtained during Phase I, produce samples of best possible product for test evaluation in real world application. Address all FOD and out-gassing concerns if they become issues.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: TIMs are required for virtually any high power electronic components used on military systems. These include computer processors, transmit/receive modules, and power amplifiers.

Commercial Application: High conductivity, compliant TIMs have applications for computer processor heat sinks and other computer components, commercial electronics, and personal/portable electronics.

REFERENCES:

1. Gilmore, David G., ";Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook Volume I: Fundamental Technologies,"; 2nd Ed, The Aerospace Press, El Segundo, CA, 2002.

2. Karam, Robert D., ";Satellite Thermal Control for Systems Engineers,"; Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol 181. 1998.

3. Hakkak, F. and F. Farhani, ";Thermal Resistance in Satellite Bolted Joints,"; Proceedings International Conference on Mechanical Engineering 2007 (ICME2007), Dhaka, Bangladesh, 29- 31 December 2007.

4. Sloan, Joel L., ";Design and Packaging of Electronic Equipment,"; Van Norstrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1985.

5. Steinberg, Dave S., ";Cooling Techniques for Electronic Equipment,"; 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991.

KEYWORDS: Thermal management, thermal interface material, RTV, thermal control, spacecraft, rapid AI&T

AF103-087 TITLE: Single Event Transient Effects for Sub-65 nm Complementary Metal-Oxide

Semiconductor (CMOS) Technologies

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Characterize and mitigate single event transient effects in sub-65nm microelectronic technologies.

DESCRIPTION: As microelectronic technologies shrink in feature size, the ionization effects caused by single energetic particles grow increasingly difficult to deal with. Less energy is required to cause a logic glitch or memory upset, and a larger number of sensitive circuit nodes will be contained within the area of influence of a single particle strike. In the space environment, where electronics are not protected by the earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field, this has been a significant problem even at micrometer scales. Below 65 nanometers, the problem in space is much worse, and single event effects are beginning to be seen even terrestrially, particularly at high latitudes and high altitudes.

Transient pulses generated by single energetic particle events are affected by the nature of the semiconductor material that the particle passes through and interacts with, and the resulting circuit perturbations are dependent on the physical characteristics of the active circuit elements (generally transistors) and the circuit topology that implements the desired logical functions.

Research is needed to understand and model how charge is generated by energetic particle events, how transistor structures might be engineered to be less susceptible to single event charge deposition and collection, and how circuits might be architected to contain the effects of these spurious charges, at the 65nm and below technology nodes. Proposals outlining effective solutions to one or more of these three areas are solicited. Solutions proposed should be feasible within the technical and economic context of modern microelectronics fabrication processes. Applicability at a foundry having or pursuing Trusted Foundry status would be a significant benefit.

PHASE I: Define a strategy to address single event modeling and/or mitigation, and develop evidence via demonstration or analysis of its probable effectiveness.

PHASE II: Implement the strategy outlined in Phase I and demonstrate its effectiveness in a relevant semiconductor technology.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Space and military systems requiring high-reliability, trusted microelectronic devices.

Commercial Application: Commercial space, commercial aerospace, high confidence computing. At 32 nm and below, increasing error rates from stray environmental particles will benefit from these mitigation techniques.

REFERENCES:

1. Holmes-Siedle, Andrew, and Len Adams, ";Handbook of Radiation Effects,"; 2nd edition, New York, Oxford University Press, 2002.

2. Baumann, R.C. Radiation-Induced Soft Errors In Advanced Semiconductor Technologies; IEEE Trans Device and Materials Reliability; 2005 V5 #3 P305.

3. NASA Radiation Effects and Analysis Home Page http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov/radhome/see.htm.

4. 19th Annual Single Event Effects Symposium, Apr. 2010; http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov/radhome/SEE/index.htm.

5.Trusted Foundry Program Office (TAPO). http://www.nsa.gov/business/programs/tapo.shtml.

KEYWORDS: single event effects, SEE, single event transient, single event upset, SEU, radiation hardened electronics

AF103-088 TITLE: Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative technologies that enable satellites to detect orbital debris and other threats.

DESCRIPTION: Our nation’s commercial and military satellites are expensive assets that provide essential capabilities. The country is very reliant upon satellites for weather and communications so commercial assets need to be protected as well as military assets. This need was demonstrated by the Iridium-Kosmos collision (ref. 1). Senior leadership at AF Space Command, AF Space & Missiles System Center, National Reconnaissance Office, and the Defense Science Board report (ref. 2,3) all state this vital need to protect our space assets. It is imperative that we protect these satellites from various threats, whether targeted or by accidental collisions from orbital debris or other satellites. However, in order to protect these satellites, first any threats must be detected.

The threats to be detected include collisions with orbital debris or other satellites, and other threats. These threats may be intentional or unintentional. Threat detection is an entirely new capability for space assets, so there is significant technical risk. However, commercial manufacturers are already working on proximity sensors and collision avoidance systems (ref. 4,5,6,7) for land and air systems. Such technologies may prove to be adaptable for space assets and will mitigate the technical risk, but not eliminate it since there are significant differences. Differences include: (1) detection system must address three dimensions instead of just two, (2) the satellite and the colliding object may be travelling at a high relative speed, (3) the natural space environment necessitates the use of special designs and space-qualified parts, and (4) the size weight, and power requirements on the satellite by adding additional sensors.

The proposed task is to develop and demonstrate a small, lightweight, multifunctional Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS) that can be hosted on satellites to detect and alert the operators to physical and directed energy threats to the host. General requirements for TASS include: (a) provide situational awareness of both physical as well as directed energy threats, (b) easily integrated into current and future military, civil, and commercial satellites, and (c) provide the operators with sufficient advance warning.

TASS is a key enabler for development of a small, space qualified collision avoidance system that can be hosted on satellites to identify the presence of nearby objects within the proximity of the host satellite and provide direction/speed information of the potential incoming object.

PHASE I: Identify critical enabling technologies and investigate innovative concepts for TASS. Evaluate these technologies for their effect on the host satellite’s size, weight, and power. Analyze the TASS concepts for detection range and warning time.

PHASE II: Incorporate the necessary technologies into the design, development, and fabrication of prototype of a TASS system.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This SBIR effort will lead to a dual-use technology that is applicable to both military as well as commercial business sectors. TASS will provide situational awareness to the satellite operators so they can take corrective action to protect their satellite. In the military sector, this technology is applicable to all National Reconnaissance Office and DoD space assets.

Commercial Application: For the commercial sector, this technology can be used by commercial communication satellites (e.g. IntelSat), commercial imaging satellites (eg. Space Imaging), as well as space probes (e.g. Gallileo). If a TASS system had been installed on the Iridium 33 satellite, it may have been able to avoid the Kosmos 2251 satellite.

REFERENCES:

1. Wikipedia, ";2009 satellite collision"; (/wiki/2009_satellite_collision).

2. DUSD/ATL, “Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons,” (Available at www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/2007-12-Directed_Energy_Report.pdf).

3. Wilson, T., ";Threats to United States Space Capabilities,"; US Space Commission, (Available at /space/library/report/2001/nssmo/article05.pdf).

4. Electronic Manufacturers Assoc, ";Proximity Sensors";, (Available at http://www.elect/products/sensors-transducers-detectors/proximity-sensor/).

5. Bishop, Richard, ";Intelligent Vehicle Applications Worldwide,"; Intelligent Transportation Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2000, (/intelligent/articles/intelligent_vehicles.htm).

6. Knipling, R. R., ";IVHS technologies applied to collision avoidance: Perspectives on six target crash types and countermeasures,"; In Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting of IVHS America: Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society. Washington, D.C., April 14-17, 1993, (http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/jpodocs/repts_te/51901!.pdf).

7. Young, S. K., Eberhard, C. A., and Moffa, P. J., ";Development of Performance Specifications for Collision Avoidance Systems for Lane Change, Merging, and Backing, Task 2 Interim Report: Functional Goals Establishment,"; (TRW Space and Electronics Group Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, February 1995, (Available online at: http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/jpodocs/repts_te/2w101!.pdf).

KEYWORDS: space protection, space situational awareness, directed energy, space threats, space environment, space object identification, survivability, collision avoidance, proximity sensor

AF103-089 TITLE: Improved Solar Cell Power for Cubesats

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative, low-impact solar cell power for 3U Cubesat to provide at least 30 watts on-orbit average power, maximum total Cubesat weight 8 kg standard P-POD and provide one year of operation.

DESCRIPTION: Cubesats are quickly becoming a low-cost platform for hosting research and development (R&D) experiments. The Cubesat units (1U) are 10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm, and are commonly combined into two (2U) or three (3U) packages. California Polytechnic University (Cal Poly) has developed a standard Poly-Picosat Orbital Deployer (P-POD) that is capable of deploying up to a 3U Cubesat package. Many of the launch vehicle providers are involved in incorporating P-PODs as auxiliary payloads on their launch. This is providing a significant increase in access to space for organizations that want to utilize Cubesat buses for R&D and operational activities.

This proposal is looking for innovative means for increasing Cubesat power to at least 30 watts of on-orbit average power. Current designs do not provide adequate power to support the R&D communities’ experiments. A potential approach is to use a deployable structure to increase the surface area available for solar cells. Increased power available to the Cubesat would provide more capability to support payloads and the bus subsystems in conducting the mission objectives.

PHASE I: Design/develop concept to meet objective in Low Earth Orbit. Identify all materials/parts, how to activate the system, means of interfacing with the spacecraft, and support equipment/testing required for validating the system. Provide development plan, schedule and budget required for a flight unit.

PHASE II: Deliver a flight-ready unit for integration onto a 3U Cubesat. The unit shall include complete instructions for spacecraft integration, all hardware, software (as needed), and post-assembly test requirements. Provide documentation to show the unit completed qualification testing with appropriate margins. The solar cell system should be able to operate for at least one year on orbit.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Successful demonstration would provide much needed power for effectively utilizing CubeSats for R&D and operational payload missions.

Commercial Application: Successful demonstration of this product will result in its use for future government and commercial missions as a standard power system and a standard component.

REFERENCES:

1. Space Test Program (STP), Experimenters' User Guide, 2004.

2. Public Law 106-65, Congressional Direction, Appendix G, ";Space Technology Applications,"; Space Test Program, Oct 5, 1999.

3. DoD Instruction 3100.12, ";Space Support."; www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/310012p.pdf

4. Heidt, et al., ";CubeSat: A new Generation of Picosatellite for Education and Industry Low-Cost Space Experimentation";, 14TH Annual/USU Conference on Small Satellites.

5. Galysh, I., et al, ";CubeSat: Developing a Standard Bus for Picosatellites";, The StenSat Group, 9512 Rockport Rd, Vienna, VA 22180, .

KEYWORDS: space vehicle, satellite, solar cell, Cubesat, power system, orbital average power, deployable structure

AF103-090 TITLE: Light-Weight, High-Gain Receive/Transmit Navigation/Communication

Antennas

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a light-weight, foldable/collapsible antenna to take advantage of the high-gain and shield from sources of interference for GPS user equipment and communication applications.

DESCRIPTION: Interference and/or signal attenuation due to foliage, buildings, etc., cause loss of performance in the Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment (UE). The loss of performance manifests itself in longer time-to-first-fix, higher bit-error-rate for data demodulation, etc. A high-gain antenna, such as a parabolic dish, pointed up into the sky at most any azimuth and elevation could have enough beamwidth to view at least one GPS satellite. Once one satellite is acquired with the high-gain antenna, then subsequent satellites can be acquired faster or with higher interference using the standard antenna on the UE based on the acquisition results from the first satellite. The high-gain antenna could also be used to transmit the user’s location to communications satellites or equipment, or otherwise be used for other communications applications. To make carrying the antenna palatable to a person on foot, the antenna must be light-weight and compact. Designs to achieve these goals are also required.

PHASE I: The offerer will determine what antenna beamwidth is necessary to view at least one GPS satellite when an antenna with that beamwidth is pointed at almost any azimuth and elevation. Also, antenna designs must be light-weight (under 6 oz), foldable/collapsible and achieve the desired gain (4 dBic without ground plane) and beamwidth.

PHASE II: Build five prototype antennas and demonstrate their use with GPS UE in both high interference and low signal strength situations. Also demonstrate the ability to use the antennas for communication.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military search and rescue operations in high interference environments.

Commercial Application: Civil search and rescue operations in high interference environments.

REFERENCES:

1. Son, W. I., W. G. Lim, N. Q. Lee, S. B. Min, and J. W. Yu, ";Design of Compact Quadruple Inverted-F Antenna with Circular Polarization for GPS Receiver,"; IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Volume PP, Issue 99, DOI 10.1109/TAP.2010.2044344, page 1, 2010.

2. Shilo, S.A., and Yu B. Sidorenko, ";Variable Beam Width MMW Band Antenna,"; Physics and Engineering of Mocrowaves, Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves and Workshop on Terahertz Technologies, MSMW ";07, The Sixth International Kharkov Symposium, Vol. 2, DOI 10.1109/MSMW.2007.4294781, page 696-698, 2007.

3. Hoque, M., M. Hamid, A. Rahman, and A. Z. Elsherbeni, ";Radiation pattern of a parabolic reflector antenna from near field measurements of a coupled reflector,"; Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, AP-S Digest, DOI 10.1109/APS.1988.94286, Vol. 13, pp. 1110-1113, 1988.

4. /patents/7423609/description.html.

5. Bernhard, J. T., N. Chen, M. Feng, C. Liu, P. Mayes, E. Michielssen, R. Wang, and L. G. Chorosinski, ";Electronically reconfigurable and mechanically conformal apertures using low-voltage MEMS and flexible membranes for space-based radar applications,"; Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, 2001.

KEYWORDS: GPS receiver antenna, communication antenna, compact antenna design, foldable antenna design, high gain antenna, GPS time-to-first-fix (TTFF), data bite error rate, GPS signal acquisition, reconfigurable antenna, extendable antenna, flexible structures

AF103-091 TITLE: Miniaturized Star Tracker for Cubesats

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop flight-ready cubesat star tracker, complete with onboard-processing capability and plug-and-play interfaces.

DESCRIPTION: Space weather missions have become increasingly dependent on small spacecraft, in particular the cubesat of volume 4” x 4” x 4”. The small size and low mass of the cubesat makes accurate attitude and location information problematic. Existing star camera systems are large, heavy and costly, incompatible with the cubesat concept. Given the restrictions, it is imperative that a star tracking system be developed which will (1) satisfy the size limitations; and (2) provide precise orientation and attitude information in real time. This SBIR requires development of a cubesat star camera of maximum size = two-unit (2U) cubesat, which can provide a precision better than 0.02º attitude determination, with maximum mass = 1kg, power requirements = 2W, and onboard real-time processing capability.

It is also required that a prototype star tracker be delivered to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), suitable for possible flight as a test project, after the end of the contract period. The unit must be compatible with plug-and-play interface technology for rapid integration into Air Force systems.

Space Plug and Play Avionics (SPA) Specifications, 2005-2008, are available upon request by U.S. persons. Requests should be made to AFRL/RVSE, 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 or by emailing the technical POC of this SBIR topic.

PHASE I: Develop design of rugged, flight-ready star camera, satisfying the requirements on size, mass, power and precision.

PHASE II: Develop and build a prototype star tracker, complete with on-board real-time processing capability and plug-and-play interface technology. Unit is to be delivered to AFRL at the end of the contract period.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Space missions are increasingly dependent on small satellites. This star tracker will be an essential part of future USAF spaceborne technology.

Commercial Application: As with the military, there is increasing use of nanosats and cubesats in government and commercial space projects. This technology will be in high demand in future missions.

REFERENCES:

1. Shumway, A., Whiteley, M., Peterson, Jim, Young, Q., Hancock, J., and Peterson, James, “Digital Imaging Space Camera (DISC) Design and Testing,” 21th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, UT, SSC07-VIII-2., August 2007.

2. Puig-Suari, J., Turner, C., and Ahlgren, W., “Development of the standard CubeSat deployer and a CubeSat class picosatellite,” presented at P-302, IEEE Aerospace Conference, March 2001.

3. Toorian, A., CubeSat Design Specification Revision 9, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California, 2005.

KEYWORDS: star tracker, cubesat, plug and play, on-board processing, flight ready

AF103-092 TITLE: Radiation-Hardened, Analog-to-Digital Converter with High-Bit Precision

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a radiation-hardened, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with high-bit precision for use in low bit error rate (BER) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) demodulator applications.

DESCRIPTION: In order to bring the best affordable satellite communications support to the battlefield, the Air Force is pursuing finding innovative ways to use commercial technologies for bandwidth-efficient modulation alternatives, like QAM, to maximize satellite communications (SATCOM) capacity in the face of limited spectrum availability. Processing of these higher modulation waveforms will require greater fidelity during digital conversion under the constraints of space (limited available power, restricted temperature control and heat removal strategies, and moderate to severe radiation environments), and the Air Force seeks the development of an ADC with requisite conversion fidelity for low bit error rate demodulation of bandwidth efficient waveforms like QAM. The objective of this topic is to solicit innovative approaches to develop a high-precision, radiation-hardened ADC for 16-QAM waveform processing, with a minimum 2 GSPS (giga-samples per second) conversion rate, with minimal device power consumption, Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of at least 10 bits, accuracy of +/- .5 LSB, linearity of .5 LSB, gain flatness < .1 dB, channel-to-channel isolation > 80 dB, operating temperature range –40 to +80 deg C., and total dose tolerance of at least 300 krad(Si). State-of-the-art for ADCs meet only a fraction of these parameters. An understanding of the effects of other radiation threats (dose rate, single particle (protons, cosmic rays)) should be described to demonstrate understanding.

PHASE I: Research bandwidth-efficient SATCOM ADC requirements and develop an innovative ADC design consistent with high-data-rate, high-effective-resolution bandwidth. Investigate transition path to radiation hardened design implementation as described above. Validate design performance through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Fabricate ADC prototype and characterize for linearity, throughput, power consumption, operating temperature range, and total dose radiation effects.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The technology could benefit a broad range of military satellite applications, such as the Transformational Satellite Program and the Advanced Extremely High Frequency (EHF) program.

Commercial Application: The technology could also benefit commercial satellite programs such as Globalstar™ and Iridium™.

REFERENCES:

1. Guan, Zhi-yuan, and S. N. Hulyalkar, “Bit-Precision requirements on the A/D converter in a QAM receiver,” IEEE Tran. Consumer electronics vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 692-695, Aug. 1993.

2. Wilson, Stephen G., “Digital Modulation and Coding,” Prentice Hall, 1996.

3. Tan, L. K., J. S. Putnam, and et al, “70-Mb/s Variable Rate 1024 QAM Cable Receiver IC with Integrated 10-b ADC and FEC Decoder,” IEEE J.S.S.C, Vol. 33, No. 12, pp. 2205-2218, Dec. 1998

KEYWORDS: analog to digital converter, bit precision, QAM, demodulation, SNR loss, bit error rate, ADC, rad hard electronics, space electronics

AF103-093 TITLE: Radiation-Hardened, Resistive Random Access Memory

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) device suitable for long-term geosynchronous satellite missions.

DESCRIPTION: In order to provide future generations of warfighters with the best affordable satellite communications, the Air Force seeks research towards a new generation of high density nonvolatile memory devices suitable for use in military and commercial satellite applications. Recent research in oxide film resistive random access memory (RRAM) suggests that it has several attributes, such as relatively fast switching times, and relatively low programming voltage levels, along with satisfactory endurance and retention, that make it attractive for use as a next-generation, non-volatile data storage device. In order to find use in future space missions; however, RRAM must be shown capable of withstanding the full range of natural and manmade threats encountered in a long-term, geosynchronous space environment. This includes tolerance for total ionizing dose radiation effects, transient radiation effects, including heavy ions and gamma radiation, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects. Goals of this research include non volatile memory device with a single low voltage supply (less than or equal to 3.3 V), extended operating temperature range (-40 to +80 deg. C), a minimum of 20 years data retention, endurance of at least 1 billion read/write cycles, access time of 10 ns or less, total dose radiation tolerance greater than 1 Mrad (Si), transient dose radiation tolerance of at least 1E9 rads/sec and single event effect tolerance for heavy ions greater or equal than 60 MeV.

PHASE I: Investigate design architecture trade-offs and process integration issues concerned with developing reprogrammable, nonvolatile memory RRAM devices. Develop preliminary design for reprogrammable, nonvolatile RRAM, and validate through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Develop one or more prototype RRAM devices and characterize for endurance, retention, radiation tolerance from total dose and single event effects, storage density, power consumption, and access time.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications for RRAM include avionics, satellite payloads and terminals.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications for RRAM include consumer electronics, automobiles and commercial space.

REFERENCES:

1. I. G. Baek, et al., Highly Scalable Nonvolatile resistive memory using simple binary oxide driven by asymmetric unipolar voltage pulses, Tech. Dig. IEDM (2005), p. 750.

2. A. Chen, S. Haddad, Y.C. Wu, T.N. Fang, Z. Lan and S. Avanzino et al., Non-volatile resistive switching for advanced memory applications, IEDM Tech Dig (2007), p. 746.

3. Sánchez, M. J., M. J. Rozenberg, and I. H. Inoue, ";A mechanism for unipolar resistance switching in oxide nonvolatile memory devices,"; Applied Physics Letters, Volume 91, Issue 25, id. 252101 (3 pages) 2007.

4. ";Transition-metal-oxide-based resistance-change memories,"; IBM Journal of Research and Development Archive, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages: 481-492: 2008 ISSN:0018-8646, July 2008.

KEYWORDS: nonvolatile memory, resistive random access memory, endurance, retention, data storage, access time

AF103-094 TITLE: Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System

(GNSS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Design and test innovative Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas (CRPAs) for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).

DESCRIPTION: The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) includes a modernized Global Positioning System (GPS), the European Galileo, Russian Glonass, and the Chinese Beidou systems. At present, most systems are GPS only, but new GNSS receivers will use some of the additional GNSS systems becoming available to improve accuracy and availability. Polarization of GNSS signals is Right-Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). A Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) is an antenna which provides a means to electronically control and change the received antenna pattern. Existing CRPAs are typically small arrays, whereby the pattern can be controlled by changing the phase and amplitude from each radiating element by using digital beam forming (DBF), but the offeror is not limited to this approach to design a CRPA. The CRPAs are used for receive-only. The GNSS frequencies span from 1164 MHz to 1300 MHz and also 1559 MHz to 1611 MHz. The CRPA should be able to provide a good signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) from the GNSS satellites at all above frequencies. This is achieved by maximizing gain towards the satellites, while minimizing antenna losses before the low-noise amplifier (LNA). Cross-polarization response should be minimized to reduce multipath. A ground plane is sometimes used but not always available. The above frequency bands should be covered at all times, no additional frequency data will be available from the receiver for tuning adjustments. The antenna will not be used from 1300 MHz-1559 MHz, so the gain at those frequencies is of no interest, it can be high or low.

The CRPA will be used to mitigate or null interfering signals such as jammers or multipath, while maintaining good reception and S/N for the GNSS satellite signals from the rest of the sky. The jammer polarization is usually approximately RHCP. The bandwidth of nulls created by the CRPA should be able to mitigate interferers and improve S/N over the bandwidths of the GNSS signals. The CRPAs may also be used to increase gain or S/N in the direction of the GNSS satellites, or for direction finding of an interfering source. In addition, the CRPA should also be capable of providing a “Reference” or omni pattern which maximizes RHCP gain over all of the sky from zenith down to about 5 degrees elevation. For the ";Reference"; pattern, the RHCP pattern would ideally be uniformly as high gain as possible over that region of the sky, at all the GNSS frequencies.

The antenna electronics (AE) or DBF or computational algorithms to use the CRPA antenna are not required to be developed under this topic. Radio frequency (RF) connectors for interfacing the CRPA to the AE should be included in the design.

The CRPA size should not exceed 14” diameter and 4” height; lower height is strongly preferred for airborne applications. Much smaller diameter CRPAs are also of interest. Weight should be minimized. The number of antenna elements or ports or degrees of freedom (DoF) available for nulling should be 2 to 12, although 3 to 7 DoF is preferred, and 7 DoF is especially preferred.

PHASE I: Design and develop an innovative GNSS CRPA. Antenna performance should be demonstrated using electromagnetic computer modeling and/or measurements, or by some other means.

PHASE II: Prototype CRPA should be built, and performance meeting the above objectives demonstrated by measurements.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: U.S. and allied military users will be interested in GNSS CRPAs with interference mitigation.

Commercial Application: Commercial GNSS technology is a growing industry; many next-generation receivers will include GNSS.

REFERENCES:

1. Moernaut, Gerald and Daniel Orban, “Innovation: GNSS Antennas – An Introduction to Bandwidth, Gain Pattern, Polarization, and All That”. GPS World, pp. 42-48, February 2009.

2. Granger, R., P. Readman, and S. Simpson, “The Development of a Professional Antenna for Galileo”. ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, Fort Worth, TX, pp. 799-806, 26-29 September 2006.

3. ION, “GNSS Market to Grow to $6B to $8B by 2012”. GPS World, Sept.19, 2008.

4. Kaplan and Hegarty, “Understanding GPS, Principles and Applications”, 2nd Edition. Chapters 6 and 9. Artech House, 2006.

5. Ly, Hung, Paul Eyring, Efraim Traum, Huan-Wan Tseng, Kees Stolk, Randy Kurtz, Alison Brown, Dean Nathans, and Edmond Wong, ";Design, imulation, and testing of a miniaturized GPS dual-frequency (L1/L2) antenna array,"; STAR. Vol. 44, No. 13, 5 July 2006.

KEYWORDS: GNSS, GPS, Global Navigation Satellite System, Global Positioning System, Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna, CRPA, satellite navigation systems, antenna arrays

AF103-095 TITLE: Reconfigurable Encoder and Decoder for High-Data-Rate Satellite

Communications

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop high performance and/or reprogrammable encoder/decoder for future satellite communications (SATCOM) missions.

DESCRIPTION: Encoding and decoding are essential steps in modern digital communication. Channel coding enhances error-rate performance by requiring less transmitter power to achieve a given data and bit-error-rate (BER). Many successful coding schemes, such as convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes, have been used in the past. Unfortunately, encoders and decoders used in SATCOM today do not provide the flexibility needed to accommodate future warfighter demands for high-data-rate satellite communications. A reprogrammable hardware solution will provide the capability to update channel coding algorithms used on long-term space missions (lasting 15 years or more) with new channel coding requirements. Additionally, increasing demands on SATCOM performance have created a need for research into programmable algorithms, such as turbo codes that increase coding gain. The purpose of this topic is twofold: first, to develop space worthy encoders and decoders that support over-the –air reprogramming; and second, to develop the next generation of channel code(s) meeting increases in SATCOM encoding/decoding performance standards.

PHASE I: Develop innovative reprogrammable hardware/software solutions providing performance in accordance with current military standards (MIL-STD-188). Alternatively, develop and simulate encoding and decoding hardware and/or software solutions that optimize transmission power, data rate and BER performance.

PHASE II: Finalize design/develop/build prototype(s) of decoder(s) of the selected code(s) and demonstrate (mutual government/contractor agreed) functionality.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications for programmable coding reserach include Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) and Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) programs.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include Spaceway™, Iridium™, and Globalstar™ programs.

REFERENCES:

1. Thul, M. J., N. Wehn, and L. P. Rao, ";Enabling High-Speed Turbo-Decoding Through Concurrent Interleaving,"; in Proc. 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '02), Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 897-900, 2002.

2. Benedetto, S., D. Divsalar, G. Montorsi, and F. Pollara, ";Soft-output decoding algorithms for continuous decoding of parallel concatenated convolutional codes";, The Telecommunication and Data Acquisition Progress Report 42-124, October- December 1995, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, pp. 63-87, February 1996.

3. Giulietti, et al, ";Parallel turbo code interleavers: Avoiding collisions in accesses to storage elements,"; Electron. Lett., Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 232- 234, Feb. 2002.

KEYWORDS: encoder, decoder, satellite communications, channel coding, turbo coding, bit error rate, coding gain, programmable encoder/decoder

AF103-096 TITLE: High-Efficiency Optical Transmitter Module

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a parallel optical transmitter module suitable for satellite communications.

DESCRIPTION: Optical communications in space could significantly increase in channel capacity through the use of parallel transmitters. Due to the transmission distances involved, geosynchronous satellite communications cross-links require greater output power than is typically available in commercially available and space-qualified, optical amplifiers. Developing a capability to combine multiple optical transmitters would ameliorate the risk of qualifying components and enhance high-data-rate cross-links. For future systems operating at 40 Gbps, the solutions will be single-integrated circuits that encode the maximum number of discrete phases and still achieve a high sensitivity. In addition, the optical receiver power level should remain below (for example, 200 mW) at 10 Gbps. The thrust of this topic is twofold. First, it seeks to combine directional couplers, optical thresholding, and detection devices with clock and data recovery. Second, it seeks new architectures for coherent signal recovery that operate seamlessly on the optical data stream with extendibility to greater than 100 Gb/s. This single-integrated circuit should have clock recovery, phase data (in digital form) recovery, and digital multiplexing functionality, using a format compatible with ground-based fiber networks and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) multiple access configurations. The proposed technology should be space-qualifiable for the GEO environment.

PHASE I: Develop innovative conceptual design for robust, lightweight and high-data-rate optical transmitter suitable for use on a GEO communications satellite. Validate performance through modeling and simulation and create detailed design, meeting goals identified above.

PHASE II: Create a prototype of optical transmitter from Phase I design. Characterize for relevant performance capability including operating wavelength, data rates, and demonstrate suitability for satellite applications (e.g., total dose tolerance, operating temperature range, reliability, and bit error rate).

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: High-data-rate optical cross-links could find use in DoD communications satellites and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance missions.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include future upgrades to telecommunications satellites.

REFERENCES:

1. Guelman, M., A. Kogan, A. Kazarian, A. Livne, M. Orenstein, H. Michalik, and S. Arnon, “Acquisition and Pointing Control for Inter-Satellite Laser Communications,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 40, No. 4, Oct. 2004.

2. Mulholland, J. E., and S. A. Cadogan, “Intersatellite Laser Crosslinks,” Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1011-1020, July 1996.

KEYWORDS: optical transmitter, laser diode, laser array, optical link, optical transceiver, optical crosslink

AF103-097 TITLE: Satellite Optical Backplane

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop space-qualifiable, board-to-board optical interconnect suitable for high-data-rate satellite communications applications.

DESCRIPTION: In order to bring high-data-rate satellite communications (SATCOM) support for battlefield communications to the warfighter, the Air Force is planning to develop a new generation of communications satellites with the capability of processing data at significantly higher rates. To achieve this goal with minimal signal distribution weight and power overhead, the Air Force seeks innovative small business research in the area of space qualified optical interconnects supporting high data rate signal distribution across backplanes as well as subsystems located in the satellite bus and payload. The purpose of this topic is to develop a high-speed backplane capable of accommodating both relatively ";short haul"; payload processing, such as multiple processors with shared memory, and relatively 'long haul' signal distribution across bus and payload subsystems. Goals include serial data transfer rate of at least 10 Gbps, operating temperature range between –40 deg C and + 80 deg C, radiation hardened to total dose level greater than 1Mrad (Si), and reliability consistent with 20 years geosynchronous earth orbit satellite mission, including single point failure immunity.

PHASE I: Develop innovative preliminary designs for use in a high-data-rate backplane for space communications applications, paying particular attention to the radiation hardness, operating temperature range and reliability as outlined in description. Validate design using modeling and simulation tools.

PHASE II: Apply the results of Phase I to the final design, fabrication and validation of an optical backplane, and validate performance.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Virtually all military satellites and avionics data processing subsystems could benefit from this research.

Commercial Application: Virtually all commercial satellites and avionics data processing subsystems could benefit from this research.

REFERENCES:

1. Haney, M. W., Thienpont, H., and Yoshimura, T., “Introduction to the issue on optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 347–349 and other papers in the volume, 2003.

2. Kim, G., Han, X., and Chen, R. T., “An 8 Gb/s optical backplane based on microchannel interconnects: Design, fabrication, and performance measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1477–1486, 2000.

3. Moisel, J., Guttman, J., Krumholtz, O., and Rode, M., “Optical backplanes with integrated polymer waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 39, 673–679, 2000.

4. Cho, I.-K., et al., “Board-to-board optical interconnection system using optical slots,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1754–1756, 2004.

KEYWORDS: interconnect, waveguides, optics, polymers, backplane, signal distribution

AF103-098 TITLE: Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Signal Monitoring

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Design and test innovative high-precision antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) monitoring.

DESCRIPTION: The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) includes modernized Global Positioning System (GPS), the European Galileo, Russian Glonass, and the Chinese Beidou systems. At present, most receivers are GPS only, but many next-generation receivers will include additional GNSS satellite signals to improve accuracy and satellite availability.

Innovative GNSS antennas are needed that provide high-precision, geodetic-grade performance as described below. The antennas are for receive-only. The polarization of GNSS signals is Right-hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). The GNSS frequencies span from 1164 MHz-1300 MHz and also 1559 MHz-1611 MHz. The RHCP gain at these frequencies should be maximized over all or most of the sky, from zenith down to about 5 degrees elevation. Ideally the RHCP gain would be uniform over that region of the sky. Cross-polarization (especially near the horizon) and backlobes should be minimized to reduce multipath. The above frequency bands should be covered at all times; no additional frequency data will be available from the receiver for tuning adjustments. The antenna will not be used from 1300 MHz-1559 MHz, so the gain at those frequencies is of no interest, it can be high or low.

Two different diameter antennas are desired, offerors may propose solutions for one or both of: (a) 7” diameter or less. (b) 15” diameter or less. These diameters must include the antenna and any special ground-plane structures. Geodetic-grade GNSS antennas often use a choke-ring or corrugated type of ground plane to reduce backlobes and low-angle multipath from reaching the antenna, but offerors are not limited to that approach. If the offer is recommending a specific ground plane and/or radome, it should be described. The antennas should achieve good performance without any ground plane that exceeds the above diameter, although the government user may or may not elect to place the 7” or 15” antenna onto a larger flat metal ground plane (51” for example) to further improve performance.

The antenna (and ground plane if used) will usually be mounted on a pole several feet high above the immediate surroundings. Antenna height above the pole is not restricted--it may exceed the antenna diameter; however, other things being equal, a lower-height antenna would be preferable. Also, the phase-center location should be stable with frequency and pattern look angle under various weather conditions. Cost (including support structure) may become an issue for a very expensive or heavy design.

The highest priority requirements are: Maximize RHCP gain and received signal-to-noise ratio over all GNSS frequencies (1164-1300 MHz and 1559-1611 MHz) over the region from zenith down to 5 degrees elevation (ideally, uniform gain over this region). Avoid loss of gain (gain dropouts) at any angle above 5 degrees elevation.

PHASE I: Design and develop one or more innovative GNSS monitoring antennas. Antenna performance meeting the above objectives should be demonstrated using electromagnetic computer modeling and/or measurements, or by some other means.

PHASE II: Prototype antennas should be built, and performance meeting the above objectives demonstrated by measurements.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: U.S. and allied military users will be interested in GNSS use. Commercial GNSS technology is a growing industry.

Commercial Application: Numerous commercial applications will require precision or geodetic-grade GNSS antennas; e.g., surveying, precision approach landing, and seismology.

REFERENCES:

1. Moernaut, Gerald, and Daniel Orban, “Innovation: GNSS Antennas – An Introduction to Bandwidth, Gain Pattern, Polarization, and All That”. GPS World, pp. 42-48, February 2009.

2. Kunysz, Waldemar, “A Three Dimensional Choke Ring Ground Plane Antenna”. ION GPS/GNSS Conference, Session F4: Antenna Technology. pp. 42-48. pg. 1883. Sept. 9-12, 2003. Also see /Documents/Papers/3D_choke_ring.pdf.

3. Scire-Scappuzzo, Francesca, and Sergey Makarov, “A Low-Multipath Wideband GPS Antenna With Cutoff or Non-Cutoff Corrugated Ground Plane”. IEEE Trans. Antenna Prop., V. 57, N 1, pp. 33-46. January 2009.

4. Granger, R., P. Readman, and S. Simpson, “The Development of a Professional Antenna for Galileo”. ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, Fort Worth, TX, pp. 799-806, 26-29 September, 2006.

5. ION, “GNSS Market to Grow to $6B to $8B by 2012”. GPS World, Sept.19, 2008.

KEYWORDS: GNSS, GPS, Global Navigation Satellite System, Global Positioning System, GPS, geodetic antennas, geodetic grade antenna, surveying antenna, precision approach

AF103-099 TITLE: Miniature GPS Receiver to Support Operationally Responsive Space Missions

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Orbit (GEO)-based miniature Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver design and prototype for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) satellites.

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is interested in the developmental pursuit of small to nano-scale satellites with the necessary functional capabilities to perform responsive space missions. Small satellites are lower in cost relative to larger configurations and provide a range of launch and deployment alternatives to meet the operationally responsive demand. To make this vision a reality, miniature-scale satellite components must be developed and designed to facilitate integration with similar components to form a fully functional small satellite system. Small plug-and-play Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are critical to supporting the full range of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. To support Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), and Geostationary Orbit (GEO), small GPS receivers must be radiation hardened and capable of operating with weak, short duration signals.

Additionally, small GPS receivers can be used to collect more neutral density data to correctly calibrate prediction models. Currently the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center (CMOC) tracks more than 10,000 objects greater than 10 cm in diameter. The number of objects is increasing at an exponential rate. This problem is exacerbated by limitations in current LEO space weather models, such as the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM). These models are capable of accurately predicting the track of LEO satellites for just 24-48 hours. Current requirements are to increase this predictive capability to 72-100 hours to keep up with the increasing number of LEO space objects. More LEO neutral density data is needed to better calibrate these models. Data from the Constellation Observing Systems for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have shown that GPS-based satellite measurements, alone or in concert with accelerometer data, are a good neutral density metric and thus a potential source of data.

In addition, if small GPS receivers could be put on Geostationary Orbit (GEO) assets, these systems could broadcast their positions, thus eliminating the need to locate and track these assets.

Proposed concepts should strive for designs that will eventually achieve a component fabrication and system integration time of a few days for the widest range of relevant satellite capability. In the near term, these techniques should significantly shorten integration time of the receiver to the satellite. Concept design goals are a weight of less than 350 grams, 1 Watt of power, and roughly 10x5x5 cm in size. Analysis showing a path to a radiation hardened design (approximately 30 KRad total dose) is also desirable.

PHASE I: Develop a LEO-based and GEO-based miniature GPS receiver concept design that weighs <350 grams, uses 1 Watt of power and is roughly 10 by 5 by 5 cm in size. Examine dual and single frequency systems and trade that capability versus size and cost. Provide analysis showing path to radiation hardening.

PHASE II: Develop preliminary designs of a miniature GPS receiver for the LEO and GEO environment that weighs <350 grams, uses 1 Watt of power and is roughly 10 by 5 by 5 cm in size. Finalize on a particular frequency method and build a prototype system. Provide analysis proving radiation hardening and conduct testing if necessary.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Responsive Space has a high need for mini-GPS receivers for imaging, communications, and space superiority missions. Mini-GPS receivers will also enable data collection to improve prediction models.

Commercial Application: A small GPS receiver can be used for commercial imaging applications such as EarthWatch. Geostationary commercial communication satellites could also use these systems for accurate beam positioning.

REFERENCES:

1. Liou, Y. A., et al, “FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation Mission: Preliminary Results”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, To be presented in future issue.

2. Tapley, B. D., et al, “Neutral Density Measurements from the GRACE Accelerometers,” AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference and Exhibit, AIAA 2006-6171, August 2006.

3. Lightsey, E. G., and R. B. Harris, “Spacecraft Navigation Using the Modernized GPS Signal,” AAS F. Landis Markley Symposium, AAS 08-307, July 2008.

4 Moreau, M., ";GPS Receiver Architecture for Autonomous Navigation in High Earth Orbits,"; Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, July 2001.

KEYWORDS: GPS receiver, miniature receiver, neutral density data, radiation hardened, responsive space, plug and play

AF103-100 TITLE: Low-Power, Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Communications

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Algorithm development and analysis of Chaotic Waveforms enabling remote communications and networking, especially for sensor and information processing applications. The development can consider a wideband network of multiple spacecraft that can navigate to higher accuracy and determine positions even when fully GPS denied.

DESCRIPTION: Chaotic communications currently offers the greatest potential for Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) communications. This effort will focus on signal processing characteristics for chaotic modulations. Various signal processing algorithms and implementations, such as the number of multipliers, need to be analyzed to determine the architectural realization. Additional effort in defining the devices and their required voltages may also be included as a part of this effort. The output will be a demonstrable model proving the flexibility, as well as technical soundness of the communications, and leading to product commercialization in the next stages.

PHASE I: The objective of Phase I is to analyze signal processing algorithms used in processing chaotic modulations to select and develop revised algorithms that can be implemented in a form that reduces their computational complexity while considering SWAP.

PHASE II: The objective of Phase II is to implement the algorithm developed in Phase I in low-power, programmable capability to demonstrate the performance of the revised algorithms.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The proposed technology has high relevance for specialized communications in a noisy environment.

Commercial Application: This technology holds the potential for manufacture of better communication equipment for first responders with electro-magnetic (EM) interference concerns.

REFERENCES:

1. Yu, Jin (Berkely Varitronics Systems, Metuchen, NJ), Li, Hanyu, Yao, Yu-Dong (Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ), and Vallestero, Neil J. (U.S. Army RDECOM, FT Monmouth, NJ), ";LPI and BER Performance of a Chaotic CDMA System Using Different Detection Structures,"; handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA481615.

2. Nikolai F. Rulkov, Mikhail M. Sushchik, Lev S. Tsimring, and Alexander R. Volkovskii, ";Digital Communication using Chaotic-Pulse-Position Modulation";, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - 1: Fundamental Theory and Applications, Vol. 48, No 12, December 2001.

KEYWORDS: chaotic modulation, FPGA, programmable logic, algorithms, power reduction, battery size, battery capacity, LPI communications

AF103-102 TITLE: Spacecraft Integrated-Power and Attitude-Control System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and fabricate an integrated attitude-control system and energy-storage subsystems for more efficient power storage.

DESCRIPTION: To maximize the effectiveness of the spacecraft’s electrical power subsystem, it is desirable to minimize the size and weight of the batteries, and the Air Force would like to supplant the energy storage of batteries with energy stored in reaction wheel assemblies, providing the attitude control functions of the spacecraft. Actuators for the attitude-control system, including the Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMG’s), Reaction Wheels (RWs) and Momentum Wheels (MWs), can supplant solar-generated electrical energy during periods in which a satellite is in eclipse. The purpose of this topic is to support the development of technologies related to energy-storage, attitude-control systems, including RW’s, MW’s, CMG’s and related components such as spherical motor bearings. Attitude-control-related technologies must be capable of supporting 15-year Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) space missions, be capable of supplying a minimum of 1 KW of useable power, provide three-axis stabilization, and operate over a temperature range between -40° and +80° Centigrade. Additional goals include Total Dose tolerance >1 Mrad (Si), Single Event Upset immunity > 60 MeV.

With the exception of the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) CMGs developed by Honeywell under AFRL/RV for the Flywheel Attitude Control and Energy Transmission System (FACETS), no commercially available hardware exists that provides a combined attitude control and energy storage capability. Essentially only theoretical, non-realized results have been produced.

The goal of this research is to produce/actualize combined attitude control and energy storage hardware technology that can be transitioned and eventually be made commercially available to military and commercial satellite systems. In addition, potential researchers are encouraged to utilize and test current state-of-the-art algorithms derived for variable speed CMGs and IPACS. State-of-the-art hardware and algorithm for this technology are documented in the references for this research topic.

PHASE I: Develop spacecraft integrated-power and attitude-control system design, meeting objectives identified, and establish feasibility for long-term GEO space missions. Validate design through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Fabricate fully-operational prototype and demonstrate capability to meet all appropriate performance specifications. The prototype should be fully scaled to the size GEO communication satellite (e.g. Wideband Global System, Iridium).

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications include Advanced Extremely High Frequency (EHF), Transformational Satellite and Wideband Gapfiller Satellite programs.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include communication satellite programs like IRIDIUM and Globstar.

REFERENCES:

1. Fausz, J. and Richie, Capt. David, “Flywheel Simultaneous Attitude Control and Energy Storage Using a VSCMG Configuratio”, Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications Anchorage, Alaska, USA September 25-27, 2000.

2. Guyot, P., Barde, H., and Griser, G., “Flywheel Power & Attitude Control Systems (FPACS)”, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control, Netherlands, 18-21 October 1999

3. Tsiotris, P., Shen, H., and Hall, C., “Satellite Attitude Control and Power Tracking with Energy/Momentum Wheels”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol 24, (1), Jan-Feb 2001

4. Schaub, H.P., and Junkins, J., “Singularity Avoidance Using Null Motion and Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyros”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol 23, (1), Jan-Feb 2000

5. Kirk, J. A., and D. K. Anand, “Satellite Power Using a Magnetically Suspended Flywheel Stack,” Journal of Space Power, Vol. 22, Issue 3 & 4, Mar/Apr 1988.

KEYWORDS: spacecraft, attitude control, energy storage, gyro, reaction wheel, control moment gyro, integrated power attitude control, battery

AF103-103 TITLE: Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) Sensor with Improved Solar Exclusion

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop techniques to improve stray light rejection and reduce the solar exclusion angle for space-based optical observation of satellites using a wide field-of-view (WFOV) sensor.

DESCRIPTION: Optically observing other satellites from a spaceborne platform often results in a situation where the observed satellite is positioned such that the sun falls either near or within the sensor field-of-view (FOV). In the first scenario, energy from the sun enters the optical train as stray light and, due to scattering and diffraction effects, overwhelms the signal from the satellite. In the second scenario, the sun falls within the FOV, presumably saturating and potentially damaging the sensor.

In order to address the first scenario and optimize use of the limited sensor dynamic range, space-based sensors typically incorporate a baffle into the overall optical design. The combination of imaging optics and baffle is designed to maximize stray light rejection for a given set of sensor parameters. One recent example is the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI), which was launched 6 January 2003 onboard the CORIOLIS spacecraft. The combined FOV of the SMEI sensor (composed of 3 CCDs) is 170 degrees x 3 degrees, and the SMEI specifications require a 10^-15 reduction in stray light relative to the solar disk; two-thirds of this reduction is met by the baffle, with the remainder provided by the imaging optics. The SMEI design results in a solar exclusion angle of approximately 20 degrees, and a shutter is activated if the sun comes within 7 degrees of the edge of the FOV. To some extent, the impact of unwanted stray-light can be minimized by use of additional post-processing steps. However, additional post-processing (especially on-board) is a non-optimal solution, especially with a trend toward smaller platforms. Furthermore, SMEI frames may also be rendered unusable by light from the moon or a bright planet such as Venus.

Astronomers have also developed and utilized coronagraph techniques for solar astronomy and exoplanet detection, which suppress the signal from a bright object in order to detect and analyze a nearby faint source. However, most of these concepts have been implemented for narrow FOV systems. Furthermore, ground-based, whole-sky imagers have been created for daytime imaging of a large portion of the sky. These systems typically use a mechanical apparatus to track and occult the solar disk where it lies within the FOV. However, a mechanical solution is not desirable for a spaceborne system due to robustness and other considerations.

In summary, the purpose of this SBIR is to develop a WFOV sensor that can detect and track multiple satellites as their lines-of-sight from a spaceborne platform approach the line-of-sight to the sun. More specifically, the goal of this work is to improve stray light rejection and reduce the solar exclusion angle for WFOV sensors, and thereby minimize the portion of the total FOV rendered unusable due to stray light and saturation. Potential research avenues include, but are not limited to, the following: 1) incremental improvements to baffle and optical designs; 2) extension of astronomical coronagraph and related techniques to WFOV space surveillance systems; and 3) non-traditional techniques such as the use of non-linear optical materials to create a spatially adaptive amplitude mask.

PHASE I: The objective of Phase I is to provide a detailed analysis of the problem described, parameterize potential solutions, and propose a WFOV design which would optimize tracking multiple satellites as their lines-of-sight approach the sun.

PHASE II: The objective of Phase II is to extend the work performed in Phase I and to provide a detailed design for, and demonstration of, the chosen concept.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The proposed technology is highly relevant to Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) and Space Situational Awareness (SSA).

Commercial Application: Incorporation of the concept into camera systems would be useful for certain machine vision and terrestrial and airborne surveillance applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Serabyn, E., ";High-contrast Coronagraphic Techniques,"; EAS Publications Series 42, pp. 79-90 (2010).

2. Kawano, H., et al., ";Solar-light shielding using a near-hemispherical lens for a star sensor,"; Opt. Eng. 45(12), 124403 (Dec 2006).

3. Buffington, A., Jackson, B.V., and P.P. Hick, ";Space performance of the multistage labyrinthine SMEI baffle,"; in Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation, SPIE Proc. vol. 5901 (2005).

4. Buffington, A., et al, ";Calculations for, and laboratory measurements of a multistage labyrinthine baffle for SMEI,"; in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, SPIE Proc. vol. 4853 (2003).

5. Arnoux, J., ";Star sensor baffle optimization: some helpful practical design rules,"; in Optical System Contamination V, and Stray Light and System Optimization, Proc. SPIE vol. 2864 (1996).

KEYWORDS: off-axis rejection, stray light reduction, solar exclusion, baffling, wide field-of-view optics, space optics, coronagraph

AF103-104 TITLE: Severe Space Weather Satellite Protection

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop hardware and/or software measures suitable for protection of Air Force satellite assets from severe space weather.

DESCRIPTION: The ability to operate through the full range of natural and man-made threats is a critical requirement of military satellite communications (SATCOM), as warfighters must have full-time access to command, control and communications assets. Recent research by the Academy of Sciences holds out the prospect of an exceptionally large solar event causing catastrophic failure of commercial and military space assets. High-energy-charged particles produced by the sun can lead to geomagnetic storms in the earth’s upper atmosphere, creating current surges that overstress instruments and microelectronics and threaten space assets. The goal of this topic is to pursue innovative research into advanced protection measures for modern space electronics that ameliorate the effects of extreme space weather phenomena (defined as a 1000-year worst-case, solar-storm event and either natural or man-made) in satellites and that can be incorporated with minimal impact to future designs. Goals for the design solution include less than 30% increase in size, weight, and power for circuits and systems, and less than a 1 generation penalty for electronic components. Where applicable, design solutions should be compatible with Air Force, Department of Defense (DoD), and other government satellite control and space weather agencies, such as the U.S. Air Force Space Forecast Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

PHASE I: Develop hardware and/or software satellite protection design solutions consistent with objectives identified above. Designs should strive for compatibility with existing satellite design approaches, where practical, to minimize integration risks.

PHASE II: Fabricate and demonstrate materials and/or designs that improve spacecraft space weather protection. Characterize for impact, such as overhead (weight, size, power consumption) and performance.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Many DoD space and avionics systems, including communications and navigation satellites, could benefit from increased protection from the effects of space weather.

Commercial Application: Space, avionics and terrestrial commercial systems, including satellites, aircraft avionics and automobiles, could benefit from severe space weather protection systems.

REFERENCES:

1. Anon., ";Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report,"; The National Academies Press, 2008.

2. Garrett, H. B., and C. P. Pike, eds., ";Space Systems and Their Interactions with Earth's Space Environment,"; New York: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1980.

3. Barnes, P. R., and J. W. Van Dyke, “Economic consequences of geomagnetic storms,” IEEE Power Engineering Review, Vol. 10, No. 11, Nov 1990.

KEYWORDS: space weather, satellites, solar flares, shielding, charged particles, geomagnetic storms, high energy particles

AF103-105 TITLE: Space-Based Distributed Cooling System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a distributed cooling system suitable for use in satellites.

DESCRIPTION: Thermal management promises to be a key enabling technology for future generations of satellite payloads. The challenges of maintaining microelectronics junction temperatures within suitable ranges will largely result from a near-exponential growth in payload performance associated with meeting objectives for warfighter support for satellite communications, navigation, and surveillance. One study [2] found that a distributed cooling system could provide a two-fold increase in efficiency by addressing non-uniform heating in chips through a combination of thermal management devices, temperature sensors, actuators, and controllers. By monitoring the temperatures of the surrounding Printed Wire Board (PWB) area, a controller can make informed decisions as to actuating the appropriate mix of thermal hardware to efficiently transfer waste heat away from PWB hot spots. The purpose of this topic is to support a system-level design and development of an integrated, distributed cooling system suitable for removing waste heat in satellite payloads, including the sensor, control and actuators. Design goals include:

• Minimize the board area and mass dedicated to cooling

• Ensure compatibility with current and near-term PWB practices for military satellite payloads

• Maintain IC hot spots less than 86 ºC (threshold) and 76 ºC (objective)

• Accommodate component heat load up to 100 W/cm^2

• Provide cooling capacity 50 W (threshold) and 200 W (objective) per PWB

• Support a broad range of board layouts

• Provide reliable operation for >15 year life-time in geosynchronous earth orbit

All aspects of the thermal control system must be compatible with the space environment and conform to space qualification requirements including high vacuum, microgravity, radiation, atomic oxygen, low outgassing, and high launch loads. Proposed technologies will be judged based on their thermal performance, reliability, cost, and mass, as well as on the integration complexity/cost with respect to current board/box/component designs. Proposers are encouraged to team with system integrators and payload providers to ensure applicability of their efforts and to provide a clear technology transition path.

PHASE I: Design distributed thermoelectric cooling system suitable for use in space-based payloads and validate through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Fabricate a prototype distributed system, including sensors, actuators, controller, and devices, and characterize for cooling capacity, efficiency, weight, power, reliability, radiation tolerance and operating temperature range.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military products that benefit from lightweight cooling systems include space electronics like digital, analog and mixed mode assemblies.

Commercial Application: Commercial entities that benefit from cooling systems include the automotive industry where weight and thermal management are becoming increasingly important in the manufacture of hybrid vehicles.

REFERENCES:

1. Gilmore, David G., ";Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook Volume I: Fundamental Technoliges,"; 2nd Ed., The Aerospace Press, El Segundo, CA, 2002.

2. Walker, D. G., K. D. Frampton, and R. D. Harvey, “Distributed Control of Thermoelectric Coolers,” ITHEM ’04, 2004.

3. Snyder, G. J., M. Soto, R. Alley, D. Koester, and B. Conner, ";Hot Spot Cooling using Embedded Thermoelectric Coolers,"; 22nd IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, Nextreme Thermal Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, 2006.

4. Steinberg, Dave S., ";Cooling Techniques for Electronic Equipment,"; 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991.

KEYWORDS: thermoelectric, satellite, payload, cooling, junction temperature, thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, thermal management, refrigeration, controller

AF103-106 TITLE: Radiation-Hardened, Deep-Submicron Application Specific Integrated Circuit

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop microelectronics designs leading to higher performance Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). Circuits of interest include SATCOM waveform digital processing such as demodulation, filtering and encoding and ASICs incorporating these functions.

DESCRIPTION: Rapidly expanding warfighter demands for capacity and connectivity will make it increasingly difficult to provide desired performance within satellite size, weight and power (SWAP) limitations. Few payload technologies offer the potential to increase performance within the bounds of SWAP and budget as do Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). Advantages of advanced, radiation-hardened ASICs include reduced acquisition risk, reduced costs, reduced power consumption, increased processing throughput and gate count, enabling greater performance and functionality. The purpose of this topic is to support the development of deep submicron Radiation-Hardened-by-Design (RHBD) ASICs capable of operating over the temperature and radiation environments associated with a long-term geosynchronous satellite mission. Goals include operating temperature range -40 deg. C to +80 deg. C, Gate count in the multi-million gate range, Total Ionizing Dose > 1 Mrad (Si) and demonstrated reliability over a 15 year mission lifetime. Particular emphasis is placed on the commercialization potential of proposed solutions. Proposed solutions must demonstrate a feasible path to success, given existing and upcoming infrastructure and economic cost environments including but not necessarily limited to deep submicron commercial CMOS processes.

PHASE I: Explore radiation-hardened microcircuit designs leading to high-density, low-power, radiation-hardened ASICs. Where possible, simulate design using Computer-Aided Design and simulation tools.

PHASE II: Fabricate one or more prototypes of ASIC and characterize for throughput, power consumption, reliability and radiation hardness.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications include Global Positioning System (GPS), Transformational Satellite (TSAT), and Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS)–High programs.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include Spaceway™, Iridium™, and Globalstar™ programs.

REFERENCES:

1. Wilton, S. J. E., N. Kafafi, J. Wu, K. Boseman, V. Aken'Ova, and R. Saleh, “Design considerations for soft embedded programmable logic cores,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 485-497, Feb 2005.

2. Vaida, T., “PLC advanced technology demonstrator testchip,” Proc. Custom Integrated Circuits Conf., pp. 67-70, May 2001.

3. Hutton, M., R. Rose, J. Grossman, and D. Corneil, “Characterization and parameterized generation of synthetic combinational benchmark circuits,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Design, Vol. 17, No. 10, pp. 985-996. Oct 1998.

KEYWORDS: ASIC, gate count, waveform digital processor, encoder/decoder, digital tuner, transceiver, digital filter

AF103-107 TITLE: Thermal Control for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Satellites

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop modular, reconfigurable thermal control for ORS-class satellite.

DESCRIPTION: The Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) program has been developed to meet the space-related urgent needs of the warfighter in a timely manner. The ORS operational concept calls for small satellites to augment or reconstitute existing ";big space"; systems. However, to be operationally responsive; i.e., timely, ORS space systems must be launched on smaller launch vehicles with limited payload weights and size. At present, the ORS-class satellites are targeted at ~400 Kg. The ORS vision calls for achieving responsive exploitation, augmentation or reconstitution of space capabilities through rapid assembly, integration, testing and deployment of small, low-cost satellites. More specifically, ORS seeks to enable on-orbit mission capability under 6-days from initial call up. Payload system components will be stored in a depot environment, rapidly assembled, rapidly tested, and mated to a host spacecraft bus for deployment.

One aspect that poses an obstacle to achieving the goal of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) and the six-day satellite is the thermal control system (TCS). Traditionally, the TCS must be vigorously designed, analyzed, tested and optimized from the ground up for every satellite mission. This ";reinvention of the wheel"; typically requires 3 - 6 months to complete. To accommodate the ORS timeline, this process must be reduced to less than 4 hours. In addition, ORS satellite thermal management must be robust, modular and scalable in order to cover a wide range of applications, orbits and mission requirements. The thermal management system must be able to accommodate loads varying from 50 W to 400 W without the need for survival heaters. Critical elements that must be advanced include flexible thermal-control mechanisms, insulation blankets, modular deployable radiators, and panel thermal transfer mechanisms.

PHASE I: Conduct feasibility studies, technical analysis and simulation, and scale proof-of-concept demonstrations for modular, rapidly-fabricated thermal controls.

PHASE II: Using the results from Phase I, construct and demonstrate a modular, reconfigurable thermal control for an ORS satellite.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: A modular, reconfigurable thermal control system is envisioned for inclusion in future military satellites and eventually ORS operational satellites.

Commercial Application: This capability may be useful to the “cubesat” market, as well as the high-end commercial market.

REFERENCES:

1. Williams, Andrew D., Lyall, M. Eric, Hengeveld, Derek W., and Young, Quinn E., “Thermal Control Subsystem Requirements and Challenges for a Responsive Satellite Bus,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol 7330, 2009.

2. Lyall, M. Eric, Williams, Andrew D., Hengeveld, Derek W., and Young, Quinn E., ";Thermal Subsystem Design Methodology for Responsive Space Missions,” Responsive Space Conference, Paper number RS7-2009-3009, 2009

3. Williams, Andrew D., and Palo, Scott E., “Issues and Implications of the Thermal Control Systems on the 'Six Day Spacecraft,', AIAA-RS$-2006-6001.

4. Hafer, William T., and Vitale, Nicholas G., “Design and Use of a Variable Thermal Layer (VTL) for Rapid Satellite Component Integration,” AIAA-RS6-2008-4004.

KEYWORDS: modular thermal control, reconfigurable thermal control systems, responsive space, small satellite, thermal management, insulation blankets, deplolyable radiators, spacecraft

AF103-113 TITLE: All Sky Electro-Optical Proximity Sensor for Space Situational Awareness

(SSA)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop an all sky electro-optical sensor for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) capable of proximity detection in all solar lighting conditions.

DESCRIPTION: Future spacecraft in geosynchronous (GEO) orbit may be required to detect all objects in their local environment to avoid potential conjunctions. Because resident space objects (RSOs) could create a conjunction from any angle relative to the GEO spacecraft, future proximity sensors will require an all sky or 4 pi steradian surveillance capability. Passive electro-optical sensors often have great difficulty achieving 4 pi steradian coverage as the intensity of the sun can blind or damage sensor systems. Furthermore, most space sensor systems have a well-defined solar exclusion zone that creates a region next to the sun where stray light drastically limits or completely eliminates imaging.

All sky sensor systems would likely be employed as secondary payloads on GEO satellites and thus must be small in terms of size, weight and power (SWAP). Current conceptual proximity sensor architectures require both active and passive sensors to achieve 4 pi steradian surveillance capabilities. The necessity to use active sensors may significantly increase SWAP of the total system. Significantly mitigating or completely eliminating solar effects on electro-optical sensors could reduce or eliminate the need for active sensor technologies. RSOs must be detected at large ranges to allow ample reaction time to mitigate the threat. A detection range greater than a few 100 km for objects greater than 30 cm is desirable in all lighting conditions. Offers should focus on developing and demonstrating the novel technologies and techniques required to mitigate or eliminate solar effects rather than design a complete sensor system (i.e. focus on one area like a telescope, focal plane area, electronics, etc.). The solution space may include both hardware and software. This topic is not interested in addressing techniques associated with detection and tracking through clutter such as earth or moon backgrounds.

PHASE I: Develop an initial concept design for an all sky proximity sensor system and model key elements of the proposed optical system.

PHASE II: Based on Phase I modeling, design, fabricate and demonstrate key elements of the all sky SSA proximity sensor system.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The technology developed under this program may be utilized in any application requiring high dynamic range imaging.

Commercial Application: High dynamic range imaging may be particularly important in machine vision applications where the sensors must maintain continuous observation.

REFERENCES:

1. Richards, Austin A., and Shariff D'Souza, “A Novel NIR Camera with Extended Dynamic Range,” Proceedings of SPIE 6205: 62050G-1 - 62050G-13, 2006.

2. Lowman, Andrew E., and John L. Stauder, “Stray Light Lessons Learned from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Optical Navigation Camera,” Proceedings of SPIE 5526: 240-248, 2004.

3. Green, Joseph J., and Stuart B. Shaklan, “Optimizing Coronagraph Designs to Minimize Their Contrast Sensitivity to Low-Order Optical Aberrations,” Proceedings of SPIE 5170: 25-37, 2003.

4. Shelton, Willie, ";Space Superiority,"; Proceedings of AIAA 2602: 1-4, 2003.

KEYWORDS: Space Situational Awareness (SSA), optics, proximity sensing

AF103-114 TITLE: Strategically Radiation-Hardened Star Tracker

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and build prototype unit of a strategically radiation-hardened star tracker.

DESCRIPTION: Current state-of-the-art star trackers exhibit a susceptibility to damage from space environment radiation and may be incapable of surviving the natural radiation environment for the projected design-life of Space-Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS), the Space-Based Surveillance System (SBSS), and the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). The desire is for continued, high performance following accumulation of 300 kRad (Si) of dose (proton and ionizing) and following a high dose rate from a man-made event. Additionally, the current trackers have problems maintaining high precision during a spacecraft slew.

The projected radiation environment for these devices is 300 kRad(Si) total dose (proton and ionizing radiation) over the expected mission life. The device design goal is to minimize total degradation to less than 30% in star tracker performance from beginning-of-life values (i.e., End of Life > 0.70 * Beginning of Life performance). The end-of-life performance goal is to provide inertial pointing measurement error of less than 1 arc-second. Maintaining performance with a high-dose rate of radiation must also be considered. In addition to radiation, other space environmental effects, like extreme temperature fluctuations, must be tolerated while providing required performance.

Also sought in this solicitation is the development of an agile star tracker that can continue to operate at “track” rate slews up to 2 degrees per second while tracking. This will require either a “lost in space” feature to rapidly recover from higher rate “acquisition slews” when the star tracker will be unable to operate, or an ability to acquire data from on-board gyros to provide an initial estimate of position upon completion of the acquisition slew and system transitions to track rate slews when the star tracker will have to operate again.

This solicitation focuses on innovative concepts that trade component-level issues in space qualification for more complex and innovative system architectures. New ideas such as interferometric methods, innovative shielding techniques, and even night vision technologies have shown some promise at trading component-level issues, such as focal plane arrays for more complex optical or optical component designs/system. Any proposal submitted must focus on an integrated unit.

PHASE I: Identify and investigate novel sensor architectures resulting in significant improvement in the intrinsic radiation resistance, including resistance to dose rate. A proof-of-concept demonstration is strongly encouraged.

PHASE II: Develop/demonstrate a design unit or full-scale prototype demonstrating the feasibility and efficacy of intrinsic radiation hardening of star trackers. The contractor is required to have radiation testing performed to verify hardening to protons and total dose of 300 kRad (Si) is established and damage is minimized. Data proving performance after a high-dose rate event is also required.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Radiation-hardened star trackers are absolutely essential for a variety of military surveillance satellites, including SBIRS, SBSS, and STSS.

Commercial Application: Radiation-resistant star trackers enable commercial satellites to stay operational longer and therefore provide a substantial cost savings to the space industrial sector.

REFERENCES:

1. Bezooijen, R. W., “SIRTF autonomous star tracker,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 4850, p. 108-121, Mar 2003.

2. Mainzer, A. K. and E. T. Young, “On-orbit performance testing of the pointing calibration and reference sensor for the Spitzer Space Telescope,"; Proc. SPIE Vol. 5487, p. 93-100, October, 2004.

3. Airey, P., G. Bagnasco, M. Barilli, S. Becucci, G. Cherubini, and A. Romoli, “Extreme Accuracy Star Tracker in Support of Hyper Precision Cold Atom Interferometry,” Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Volume 113, American Astronautical Society, 2003.

4. Airey, P., L. Giulicchi, D. Procopio, and D. Uwaerts, “Miniature Star Tracker for Harsh Environments,” Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Volume 118, American Astronautical Society, 2004.

5. Samaa, Malak, Daniele Mortari, and John Junkins, “Compass Star Tracker for GPS Applications,” Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Volume 118, American Astronautical Society, 2004.

KEYWORDS: satellite, star tracker, radiation hardening, visible sensor, strategic, high slew rate

AF103-116 TITLE: Optimization of Satellite Ground Truth for Space Situational Awareness

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Conceive and develop methods for representing satellite ground truth, using a heterogeneous set of imagery, diagrams, and measurements collected prior to launch; develop and optimize algorithms for visualizing data & fingerprinting satellites.

DESCRIPTION: Achieving space situational awareness (SSA) requires detailed understanding of on-orbit spacecraft operational health, status, capabilities, and activities. Supporting this goal requires collecting as much knowledge as possible of a satellite prior to its launch, including measurements of satellite geometry, materials, reflectance, and other operational parameters. Metadata such as calibration information, sensor characteristics, sensor geometry corresponding to each data collection, and so forth, must be integrated with the data itself to form a satellite ground truth knowledge repository. In addition to measurements, the repository must contain simulated data developed as a result of parametric studies in which viewing angles, illumination conditions, component articulation angles, and other parameters are varied to complete the observational description.

As more data is aggregated, the satellite ground truth knowledge repository will grow to contain overwhelming amounts of information. Novel visualization techniques are required, as well as algorithms and data representations that distill the voluminous information into the salient nuggets which constitute the satellite’s fingerprint. This fingerprint’s representation must be suitable for comparison with real, on-orbit SSA observations collected with various sensor modalities, including imaging and spatially unresolved photometry, narrowband and wideband radar, visible, infrared, multi-spectral, hyper-spectral, and polarimetric sensing. These comparisons will be used to provide confirmation of SSA data-prediction capabilities, define future SSA sensor modalities, develop techniques for SSA identification and discrimination, and detect on-orbit changes to the satellite’s health, status, or configuration.

The Air Force Research Laboratory currently maintains and operates a pair of laboratory facilities capable of measuring a variety of phenomenological data from satellite components, test coupons, and complete satellites prior to launch. Several data sets are already available to be processed as part of this effort, and more data will be generated as the effort proceeds.

This SBIR topic solicits innovative approaches for fusing (e.g., compiling, interpreting, data mining) diverse, pre-launch data sets to achieve highly-observable attributes that facilitate on-orbit characterization. These data sets will include, but are not limited to, existing data collected from AFRL ground-truth test facilities. Development of a method and prototype system for representing satellite ground truth, derived from a heterogeneous collection of imagery, diagrams, and measurements collected to characterize a spacecraft in detail prior to launch, and developing techniques and algorithms for visualizing and distilling the information to create a satellite fingerprint, are the ultimate end goals. The contractor shall develop algorithms for generating and storing parametrically-varied, simulated data, and shall develop techniques for distilling the information into a satellite ground-truth fingerprint and visualizing the information.

PHASE I: The contractor shall define innovative methods for data representations for storing collected ground-truth imagery, measurements, diagrams, associated metadata, and any other information associated with a satellite prior to its launch, and tools for fingerprinting & visualizing salient observables.

PHASE II: In Phase II of this SBIR effort, the contractor will verify, test or extend a prototype satellite ground-truth knowledge repository to collect and assemble various types of satellite ground-truth data. The contractor shall implement or simulate prototype visualization, processing, fusion, extraction, and distillation techniques to develop a satellite fingerprint.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This technology can monitor the health and status of military spacecraft, autonomous robotic vehicles, unpiloted aerial vehicles, and objects or vehicles that are well-characterized prior to use.

Commercial Application: This technology can monitor the health and status of commercial spacecraft, autonomous robotic vehicles, and objects or vehicles that are well-characterized prior to use.

REFERENCES:

1. Glass, William, Michael J. Duggin, Raymond A, Motes, Keith A. Bush, and Meiling Klein, ";Multi-spectral image analysis for improved space object characterization,"; Proc. SPIE 7467, 74670K, 2009.

2. Duggin, Michael J. and Mark L. Pugh, ";Data fusion: a consideration of metrics and the implications for polarimetric imagery,"; SPIE 5888, 588813, 2005.

3. Duggin, Michael J., ";Factors controlling the manual and automated extraction of image information using imaging polarimetry,"; Proc. SPIE 5432, 85, 2004.

4. LeVan, Paul, ";Closely-spaced objects and mathematical groups combined with a robust observational method,"; 2009 AMOS Conference.

KEYWORDS: space situational awareness, satellite, ground-truth, data mining, data fusion

AF103-117 TITLE: Ultra-Lightweight and Low-Cost Space Telescope Mirrors

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop an ultra-lightweight mirror architecture and an associated low-cost manufacturing process.

DESCRIPTION: Lightweight mirror development has traditionally pursued larger apertures to obtain higher levels of spatial resolution at greater ranges. However, several Air Force missions, such as Operationally Responsive Space and laser communications, may not require ultra-large apertures to fulfill current and future mission requirements. On the other hand, rising launch costs and shrinking program budgets may become one of the primary factors influencing technology decisions in Air Force programs. Telescope optics have traditionally required significant program investments due to the complex manufacturing processes necessary to produce these precision components. Furthermore, procurement cost and timeline typically increases as the degree of light weighting and the size of the optic increases. The primary mirror of a telescope system not only dictates the maximum resolving power of the system but also drives many of the opto-mechanical structural requirements. A large primary mirror mass will, in turn, necessitate larger and more massive structural elements to survive the harsh environment of launch. Low areal density mirrors enable low-mass telescopes and satellite bus structures, thus offering the potential to utilize smaller and less expensive launch vehicles.

Several Air Force missions require primary mirror diameters greater than 15 cm but less than 1 meter. These high-quality optics must maintain a precise geometric shape or figure and minimize light scattering from surface roughness. Typical surface accuracy requirements for primary mirrors are between lambda/10 to lambda/20 root mean squared (RMS) and surface roughness requirements between lambda/200 to lambda/500 at lambda equal to 633 nm. Areal densities less than 5 kg per meter squared over the size range of interest and first mode fundamental frequencies greater than 100 Hz are desirable. Primary mirrors of this type may employ either spherical or aspheric (i.e. parabolic or hyperbolic) mirror prescriptions that are on- or off-axis. Lightweight mirrors must minimize thermal distortion over a wide temperature range that may extend from -30C to 55C to maintain near-diffraction limited performance. An order of magnitude reduction in both recurring and non-recurring manufacturing costs is desirable.

A variety of novel mirror architectures and associated manufacturing processes are desired. However, proposers are encouraged to follow a rigorous scale-up process that retires technical risk early in the development lifecycle. For example, new mirror architectures and manufacturing processes should be demonstrated on small flat mirrors prior to attempting spherical, aspherical, or larger mirrors. Full aperture interferometric measurements under vacuum and over the relevant temperature range are encouraged to validate the design approach.

PHASE I: Develop an ultra-lightweight, low-cost mirror concept design and model/breadboard key elements of the proposed optic.

PHASE II: Using the results from Phase I, design, manufacture, and test an ultra-lightweight, low cost, subscale mirror prototype.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: These mirrors could be used in future responsive space and laser communication satellites that are severely mass constrained by the desire to use smaller launch vehicles.

Commercial Application: Telescopes utilizing this class of mirror may be used as high-end portable astronomy telescopes.

REFERENCES:

1. Kishner, S. J., G. J. Gardopee, M. B. Magida, and R. A. Paquin, “Large stable mirrors: a comparison of glass, beryllium and silicon carbide,” Proceedings of SPIE 1335: 127-139, 1990.

2. Chen, Ming Y., Lawrence E. Matson, Heedong Lee, and Chenggang Chen, “Replication of Lightweight Mirrors,” Proceedings of SPIE 7425: 1-9, 2009.

3. Matson, Lawrence E., and David Mollenhauer, “Advanced Materials and Processes for Large, Lightweight, Space-Based Mirrors,” Proceedings of IEEE: 4_1681 - 4_1697, 2003.

4. ";Mirror Technology Days"; in the Government Website - http://optics.nasa.gov/tech_days/index.html.

KEYWORDS: telescope, optics, mirrors, lightweight mirrors

AF103-118 TITLE: Rapid Assembly and Alignment of Electro-Optical Sensor Payloads

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Establish novel approaches for cost-effective, rapid assembly and alignment of electro-optical sensor payloads.

DESCRIPTION: Electro-optical payloads are employed for a variety of space applications and represent a significant investment, from concept development through system fielding. The development of these instruments is accomplished by applying opto-mechanical design principles that precisely maintain the shape and position of the system’s functional elements. In optical systems not employing adaptive optics schemes, the accuracy and quality of processes employed to manufacture and align the product ultimately dictate the highest achievable system performance. The designer has the freedom to specify a system where final optical alignment can be achieved either through adjusting the individual components into position, fabricating parts with tight tolerances to enable alignment without further adjustment during assembly, or a combination of both. Incorporating large numbers of adjustments adds system complexity and can create significant iterative work for the alignment technician in order to achieve the desired system performance. On the other hand, specifying extremely tight tolerances on every component of the system may significantly increase cost and time to manufacture but enable a “snap-together” system.

A variety of novel approaches are sought, however, these approaches may be loosely compiled into two broad categories: 1) manufacturing multifunctional assemblies to reduce the number of payload interfaces, and 2) developing methodologies that address assembly and alignment timelines that result from multiple payload component interfaces. These approaches may be applied to either a modular payload architecture that is comprised of a few critical and standardized interfaces or within a more traditional payload architecture. In the first category, monolithic packaging and hybrid fabrication schemes that combine optical and electronic circuits, may enable smaller size, weight and power (SW&P), and rapid assembly of complete payloads due to reduced interfacing requirements. In the second category, more deterministic assembly and alignment processes that rapidly identify the location and magnitude of adjustments required may reduce overall fielding timelines. Category two could also include such approaches as improved design for manufacturability and assembly (DFMA) techniques and active alignment capabilities inherent in the payload system.

PHASE I: Develop approaches and demonstrate technical feasibility for rapid assembly and alignment of electro-optical payload.

PHASE II: Implement the best approach from Phase I into hardware and software, and demonstrate rapid assembly and alignment of an electro-optical payload.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Electro-optical systems with this type of capability are envisioned for inclusion in future operational satellites.

Commercial Application: Modular sensor systems will inevitably lower the cost to the high-end commercial astronomy market.

REFERENCES:

1. Eldada, Louay, “Toward the Optoelectronics ULSI: Drivers and Barriers.” Proceedings of SPIE 5363: 1-15, 2004.

2. Palumbo, Loius J., et al, “Automated Alignment of Complex Optical Systems Using a Simple Optimization Algorithm,” Proceedings of SPIE: 88-99, 1996.

3. Rimmer, Mathew P., “A Computer Aided Optical Alignment Method,” Proceedings of SPIE 1271: 363-368, 1990.

4. Leclerc, Scott, and Ganesh Subbarayan, “A Design for Assembly Evaluation Methodology for Photonic Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology: 189-200, 1996.

KEYWORDS: optics, optical alignment, electro-optical, optoelectronics

AF103-122 TITLE: GPS Degraded and/or Denied Precision Navigation for Munitions

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop algorithmic methods, suitable for small munitions, for providing precision navigation in an environment where GPS signals are degraded and/or GPS satellite constellation is destroyed or disabled.

DESCRIPTION: Modern weapons require accurate estimates of position and orientation in order to successfully prosecute their target sets. Usually this navigation problem is initialized by a hand-off from the platform delivering the weapon to the battle-space, and then the navigation is performed by fusing measurements obtained from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) with the position data from a GPS receiver. In situations where GPS is degraded or denied, it becomes difficult for weapons to guide themselves with high-precision towards a successful target intercept.

Precision navigation in GPS-denied environs for munitions might be accomplished through the fusion of several emerging low-cost, light-weight, and low-power sensing technologies; for example a collection of IMUs used together with an optic-flow based sensor and a pressure sensor might bound the navigation solution’s rate of drift to an acceptable degree. Exploiting the combination of several different affordable sensing modalities might enable enough estimation accuracy to achieve a successful target prosecution when employed by a non-loitering weapon, even in the absence of GPS. Low-cost, low-power, and small solutions are preferred due to the constraints of modern munitions.

The jamming of GPS signals by adversaries has the potential to cause serious or critical degradation of a weapon’s navigation system. Several methods can be used to help mitigate hostile GPS jamming environments.

The problem is not limited to the weapon; in some situations it is possible that the platform delivering the munition to the battle-space would have a degraded GPS signal which might lead to a bad transfer of alignment and/or faulty initialization of the weapon’s navigation filter. New algorithms and techniques are needed to address this scenario.

More generally, GPS might be denied for reasons other than adversarial jamming. Sensing and navigation systems that allow for precise weapon guidance and navigation are needed; this might include EO/IR imaging systems, novel RF sensing technologies, or some other technology for providing accurate position updates to a weapon navigation filter when GPS is offline.

Although not limited to these areas, RW is interested in the following technologies:

(a) Navigation-aiding sensors in adverse weather.

(b) Sensors/algorithms/technologies for correcting faulty initialization or faulty transfer of alignment.

(c) Methods for controlling/guiding multiple coordinated munitions such that their joint navigation solutions are improved via inter-weapon communication.

(d) Novel estimation algorithms that could exploit partially degraded GPS signals in conjunction with other new sensor technologies.

RW currently has several programs developing navigation solutions using signals of opportunity (e.g. radios, televisions, etc.) and optical methods that use optical flow and structure from motion. Therefore proposals taking these approaches will not be strongly considered unless they are complimentary; enhancing the existing work.

PHASE I: Contractor will develop models, code, and simulations to adequately demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed technology. A final report is required, wherein the novel technology is compared to state of the art weapon navigation.

PHASE II: Demonstrate the proposed technology. Deliverables include a functioning proto-type and supporting documentation that characterizes system performance against some reasonable baseline. RW has state-of-the-art facilities for testing and validating navigation components and systems in both static and dynamic environments. The offeror is highly encouraged to use these facilities to ensure transition.

PHASE III Dual Use Applications:

Military application: Many military systems have come to rely on GPS for precise navigation, so this technology would have multiple paths for transition into military platforms.

Commercial application: Unintentional jamming of GPS receivers in commercial airlines is becoming more prevalent. This technology could be used in hand-held, aircraft or automotive applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Bar-Itzhack, I.Y.; Mallove, E.F.; ";Accurate INS Transfer Alignment Using a Monitor Gyro and External Navigation Measurements,"; IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol.AES-16, no.1, pp.53-65, Jan. 1980

2. Spencer Ahrens, Daniel Levine, Gregory Andrews, and Jonathan P. How, ";Vision-Based Guidance and Control of a Hovering Vehicle in Unknown, GPS-denied Environments,"; 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Kobe, Japan, May 12-17, 2009.

3. Esha D. Nerurkar, Stergios I. Roumeliotis, and Agostino Martinelli, ";Distributed Maximum A Posteriori Estimation for Multi-robot Cooperative Localization";, 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics

and Automation.

4. Jonghyuk Kim, Salah Sukkarieh, ";SLAM aided GPS/INS Navigation in GPS Denied and Unknown Environments,"; 2004 International Symposium on GNSS/GPS, Sydney, Australia, 6-8 December 2004.

5. D. Fox, W. Burgard, H. Kruppa, and S. Thrun, ";A probabilistic approach to collaborative multi-robot localization,"; Autonomous Robots, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 325-344, 2000.

6. W. L. Myrick, J. S. Goldstein, and M. D. Zoltowski, ";Low complexity anti-jam space-time processing for GPS,"; in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, (Salt Lake City, UT), pp. 2233--2236, May 2001.

KEYWORDS: Global Positioning System, anti-jam, space-time adaptive processing, sensor fusion, navigation, transfer-of-alignment, tightly-coupled state estimation

AF103-123 TITLE: Hypervelocity Aerodynamic Interaction of Ballistic Bodies (AIBB)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Model interactions and trajectories of multiple projectiles dispensed at high Mach number. Include physical effects from payload design, and key flow field phenomena. Predict ground impact patterns.

DESCRIPTION: Continuum mechanics codes can predict the detonation and expansion of densely packed projectile arrangements and tabulate the initial dispersal and fragment velocities. The question remains though, how these early-time predictive results are influenced by numerous environmental and operational realities in the employment phase of a complex dispense system. How does the dispense system interact with the projectiles during break-up? How do the expanding objects interact with each other as they become directly influenced by the severities of launch environments and flight conditions.

There are sets of random uncertainties and phenomenological realities that are not modeled in the time domains of the hydrocode results, but which could have significant effect on the projectile states as they’re dispersed from the carrier vehicle, and more importantly, the overall fragment distribution at the ground impact plane. This modeling effort is intended to develop an efficient and accurate engineering predictive methodology that can provide at least 80% confidence estimates on the impact location and kinematic state of projectiles dispensed from a properly considered flight vehicle traveling over the range of Mach numbers from Mach 1 to Mach 6. The methodology would need to consider how the aero phenomenology alters for a wide range Mach number and dispense altitudes (sea-level to 100,000 ft) and establish the key influence drivers that would modify spatial distributions, orientation, and velocity of the multitude of projectiles involved in the event. This methodology would also have to address scalability of the projectile dispense design ( numbers, and size of projectiles and carrier vehicle configuration).

This modeling will be focused on this essential intermediate state of the employment phase: from exit of the vehicle until projectiles travel beyond the influences of the other dispensed bodies or the carrier vehicle. This phase will be highly influential in establishing final fragment patterns on the ground. Some examples of modeling capabilities that should address this intermediate phase of fragment states and employment uncertainties follow:

1. Inherent mitigation effects when projectiles are rapidly expelled from within a missile airframe or glide body.

2. Body-on-body collision and near-field flow effects on initial dispersal patterns of projectiles.

3. Sensitivities of the general design (explosive properties, fragment packing design) to far-field (far away from vehicle) fragment distribution.

4. Shock and wake/aero flow-field effects on long range fragment flight trajectories. Do fragments eventually spread out uniformly or do they remain agglomerated?

PHASE I: Develop a prototype engineering/physics model that can address a range of Mach numbers and altitudes. A notional hypersonic vehicle carrying from several large or numerous small projectiles is proposed. The model should predict ground impact patterns with statistical distributions.

PHASE II: Model should be extended to consider aspects of the dispense design and vehicle integration. Model should address scalability and computational efficiency to model the ballistic trajectories to the ground plane. A Design of Experiments should be constructed to prove at least 80% confidence level in the simulation results for both the intermediate state and ground impact state of projectiles.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Model will help make informed evaluations of technology and concept maturation that can deliver dispensed payloads. Integration design for hypersonic and lower Mach airframes will be considered.

Commercial Application: Air dispense of payloads benefit from reliable predictive techniques. The methodology will help predict payload ground-impact distributions for flight regimes intended for commercial applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Lloyd, Richard M. Physics of Direct Hit and Near Miss Warhead Technology, Vol 194 Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, AIAA 2001.

2. Zipfel, Peter Modeling and Simulation of Aerospace Vehicle Dynamics, AIAA Education Series 2007.

3. Nixon, David Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamics, Vol 120, Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, AIAA 1989.

4. Black, S. “Aerodynamic Development of a Spinning Submunition Dispenser”, AIAA-83-2082, 1983.

5. Watson, K.P., Neaves, M. D. , Nguyen T. C. “ Development of a 6-DOF Model for Mine Clearing Darts”, AIAA 2006-672, 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Jan 2006 Reno NV.

KEYWORDS: dispense, hypersonic, payload, store separation, ground impact distribution

AF103-125 TITLE: Cumulative Structural Damage from Multiple Weapons

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative High-Fidelity Physics-Based Fast-Running Models that simulate the cumulative component damage to Bunker and MOUT structures from multiple weapons.

DESCRIPTION: The primary objective of this topic is to develop innovative High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) Fast-Running Models (FRM) that predict the damage, secondary debris mass & velocity distributions, and subsequent residual strength of hardened reinforced concrete walls & slabs used in bunkers as well as the structural components of MOUT (Military Operations in Urban Terrain) targets impacted by multiple weapon detonations. The DoD needs the ability to assess incremental damage of target components when subjected to multiple strikes with consideration to airblast, gas pressure, and fragment loadings. A new, fourth type of loading to be considered is impulse loading from secondary debris fragments. This loading is different from primary weapon fragment impulse loading, i.e. casing fragments; secondary debris fragments are generally more massive with lower strengths and travel with lower velocities. An incremental definition of residual capacity is extremely important for weaponeering multi-layered targets, and could be exceptionally helpful in planning protection from sequenced terrorist attacks.

Current requirements specify the need for FRMs that predict structural damage to hardened bunker-type RC structures subjected to multiple weapon detonations. Blast & fragment loads from current & future penetrator weapons are of particular interest. Current single weapon models include the quantification of modeling uncertainty and a representation of the models’ predictive accuracy based on that uncertainty [1, 2]. In cumulative damage models, modeling uncertainty is expected to grow with cumulative damage from multiple weapons. Thus, the cumulative damage models should also reflect cumulative uncertainty when assessing their predictive accuracy.

Multiple strikes by smaller weapons are of interest because they cause less collateral damage than a single larger weapon, giving the weaponeer greater latitude in planning the defeat of urban targets. Unlike multiple strikes on hardened structures where the goal may be to breach a very thick hardened wall with repeated detonations, the goal in defeating urban structures is more likely the collapse of the structure due to sequential damage from repeated detonations. Walls, columns, beams, and slabs not in the immediate proximity of the weapon can still sustain partial damage. A subsequent strike could then cause failure of those components and partially damage components even further away so that the effect of multiple strikes would be to incrementally expand the zone of damage leading to the eventual collapse of the structure. The residual capacity of structural components under repeated loading, including impulse loading from secondary debris, is of interest here.

The response FRM(s) should address both air-backed and soil-backed walls, roofs and floors, including soil-structure interaction effects. In addition, the FRM(s) should be able to handle the different room configurations typically found in Bunker & MOUT type facilities. The resulting FRM(s) will be integrated into the AFRL MEVA architecture and have execution times similar to current FRM(s). They should accommodate data/information from bomb damage assessments whenever available. The loads acting on the structural components will be provided as input from MEVA to the FRM(s).

PHASE I: Demonstrate feasibility of using HFPB models to simulate the effects of multiple weapon strikes in a room of a hardened RC Bunker & a room of a typical MOUT steel framed structure with masonry walls. Demonstrate feasibility of developing FRMs that capture important characteristics of the problem.

PHASE II: Develop HFPB models that simulate effects of multiple munitions on the structural components of Bunker & MOUT structures. Develop FRMs that capture the important characteristics of the problem for the desired parameter space. Validate the HFPB models with experimental data & quantify the accuracy of the FRMs. Implement FRMs in AFRL’s MEVA and standalone codes, & support code verification efforts.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Adapt FRMs for use by other services and for use in anti-terrorism activities where model predictions must be survival conservative as opposed to kill conservative for weaponeering solutions.

Commercial Application: Industrial and commercial applications for cumulative damage include machine wear, reliability assessment, earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural & man-made hazards.

REFERENCES:

1. Wathugala, G.W. and T.K. Hasselman, “ARCWALL-LP: Load Parameter Based Fast Running Model For Predicting Reinforced Concrete Wall Response To Cased Weapons,” Proceedings of the SAVIAC 77, Monterey, CA, October 2006.

2. Wathugala, G. W., Hasselman, T. K., and Bogosian, D., “ARCWALL: Fast Running Model For Predicting Reinforced Concrete Wall Response To Cased Weapons,” SAVIAC 75, Oct. 2004, Virginia Beach, VA.

3. Crawford, J.E., and H.J. Choi, “Development of Methods and Tools Pertaining to Reducing the Risks of Building Collapse,” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Structures Response to Impact and Blast, November 2009, Haifa, Israel.

KEYWORDS: Structural Response, MOUT, Urban Targets, Weapon Lethality, Target Vulnerability, Engineering Models, Fast Running Models, Finite-Element Models, Debris Modeling, Bunkers, Cumulative Structural Damage,

AF103-130 TITLE: Non-GPS Dependent Method for Accurate UAS Navigation and Orientation

Determination

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop non-GPS-dependent solutions for the geolocation of targets from a long-loiter DoD Unmanned Aerial System (UAS).

DESCRIPTION: A long-time-of-flight UAS might serve as a surveillance, reconnaissance, or weapon-delivery platform. For any of these functions, the mission requires the ability to determine precise ground coordinates of items of interest. The UAS maintains target geolocation by combining knowledge of the UAS location with range and angles from the UAS to the target. The UAS derives its knowledge of its own location through a GPS-aided Inertial Navigation System (INS). Without GPS, the INS accumulates errors which may not allow precision geolocation to occur. The possibility that GPS services may not be available or may be degraded requires that alternative methods for accurate navigation be developed. This project shall explore the possible methods which may be used to insure that long-loiter UAS’s can maintain precise target geolocation even when GPS is denied or degraded.

Precision navigation in GPS-denied environs for an unmanned aerial system (UAS) might be accomplished through the fusion of several emerging low-cost, light-weight, and low-power sensing technologies. For example, a collection of Inertial Navigation Systems with an optic-flow based sensor and a pressure sensor might bound the navigation solution’s rate of drift to an acceptable degree. Exploiting the combination of several different affordable sensing modalities might enable enough estimation accuracy to achieve mission success for the system. UAS’s with a long time-of-flight (due either to distance of travel or loiter time) could face long periods of time without GPS, and thus need more accuracy of the non-GPS navigation solution than a shorter duration system. Considerable research is currently being done in vision-aided navigation, but the altitude requirements of some UAS missions may severely challenge this current research. Proposed solutions shall consider mission level requirements, cost as well as size, weight and power constraints.

New sensors and technologies are needed to address this scenario. Although not limited to these areas, the Air Force is interested in the following technologies:

(a) Integrated estimation filters that leverage a variety of low-cost sensing technologies to produce a combined precision navigation solution.

(b) Novel and efficient geo-referenced image matching methodologies.

(c) Small, possibly non-gyro, with few or no moving parts, Inertial Reference Units (IRUs)/Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs).

(d) Techniques to use existing UAS sensors to aid in navigation.

PHASE I: Develop models, code, and simulations to adequately demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed target geolocation technology. Successfully compare the proposed design to the navigation performance of one or more long-time-of-flight surveillance, reconnaissance, or weapon-delivery platform.

PHASE II: Build and demonstrate a prototype system. Deliverables include a functioning prototype system, supporting documentation and a report that characterizes system performance against a reasonable baseline.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Military application: Precise navigation is a requirement for many military applications. The accuracy required for lengthy exposure to GPS-denied areas would also suffice for short exposure scenarios. Commercial application: Many civilian aircraft scenarios (piloted or unmanned) have the potential for sensitivity to GPS loss; for example, emergency response missions. Ground vehicles and even hand-held devices could also be a transition opportunity.

REFERENCES:

1. W. L. Myrick, J. S. Goldstein, and M. D. Zoltowski, ";Low complexity anti-jam space-time processing for GPS,"; in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, (Salt Lake City, UT), pp. 2233--2236, May 2001.

2. J. Touma, T. Klausutis, and A. Rutkowski, “Integrated Multi-Aperture Sensor and Navigation Fusion,” in Proceedings of the 2009 Joint Navigation Conference.

3. M. Jun, “State Estimation for Autonomous Helicopter via Sensor Modeling,” Journal of the Institute of Navigation, vol. 56, no. 2, 2009.

4. Markiel, “Feature-based Navigation by Tightly-Coupled Integration of Multiple Sensors,” in Proceedings of the 2009 Joint Navigation Conference.

KEYWORDS: GPS, reference system, UAS Global Positioning System, anti-jam, space-time adaptive processing, sensor fusion, navigation, transfer-of-alignment, tightly-coupled state estimation, IMU

AF103-131 TITLE: Predicting Structural Debris and Secondary Air-Blast

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) Fast-Running Models that simulate the interaction of weapons with structural components of buildings.

DESCRIPTION: The secondary debris generated during the breakup of walls and slabs interacts with the high pressure gases passing through cracks in the separated material. This interaction causes a reduction of blast/gas loads in the blast room and acceleration (and sometimes further breakup) of secondary debris that can be lethal to personnel and equipment in adjoining rooms. The secondary debris can also impact walls and windows in adjoining rooms causing additional damage. Current High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) Fast-Running Models (FRM) ) that are used to predict weapon effectiveness do not model these coupled, interactive physics yet data from current operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, etc. demonstrate that this secondary debris is an important damage mechanism. Ignoring this will have a negative impact on collateral damage estimation and weaponeering activity. It is important to model this coupled behavior in order to accurately predict the mass and velocity distributions of secondary structural debris, as well as air blast and fragment loading in adjoining spaces. Physics-based models critical for weapon concept development and operational use could then be validated for the full range of desired applications.

The primary requirement is to determine if HFPB models can be used to simulate the effects of air-delivered weapons against building structures and the resulting structural response, disintegration of the structure and projection of structural debris and leaking air blast into adjoining spaces. Currently, very little HFPB modeling in this area exists. The models must consider the structural types and materials typical of Air Force targets and Air Force weapons, for existing as well as planned future munitions. The HFPB models must be able to capture the coupled nature of the problem, including air blast moving through fractured walls, calculate the response and break-up of the target material resulting from the primary blast and case fragment loading and predict the amount of structural debris, including probabilistic debris fragment size and velocity (vector) distributions and debris end-states (quantity and spatial distribution of the debris on the ground). The models must be validated against available experimental data with recommendations for additional testing where sufficient data do not exist for adequate validation.

The fast-running models must be capable of predicting the probabilistic secondary structural debris and air blast loads in adjoining rooms. The models must cover the parameter space of weapon type and size, building geometry, and structural materials including reinforced concrete, CMU, and brick/adobe/tile masonry. The predictive accuracy of the models must be quantified, based on comparisons with experimental data and HFPB calculations.

These FRM(s) should address air-backed walls, roofs, and floors. They should be able to handle the different room configurations typically found in Bunker & MOUT type structures, accommodate data/information from bomb damage assessments whenever available, and have execution times similar to current FRMs. The loads acting on the structural components, the room details, and the weapon parameters will be provided by AFRL’s Lethality & Vulnerability (L&V) codes. Finally, the criteria and procedures for implementing the FRMs into AFRL’s L&V codes need to be defined during this effort.

PHASE I: Demonstrate feasibility of HFPB models simulating effects of weapons on structures, resulting structural response, reduction of blast/gas loads in blast room, and projection of debris & air blast into adjoining spaces. Demonstrate ability of FRMs to capture important characteristics of the problem.

PHASE II: Develop HFPB models that can simulate the effects of weapons on structures and the resulting structural response, specifically projection of debris & secondary air blast into adjoining spaces. Develop FRMs that capture the important characteristics for the desired parameter space. Validate the HFPB models with experimental data and quantify the accuracy of the FRMs. Implement FRMs in AFRL’s codes.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Military application: These Analytical models will be used to assess weapon effectiveness, collateral damage from weapons used against structures or personnel inside structures, and weaponeering tools for the Unified Combatant Command. Phase-III enhancements may include expanding the FRMs building geometry, structural materials, and weapon parameter spaces to cover new and/or future structures and weapons.

Commercial application: Enable building designers, safety personnel, and homeland defense personnel to assess structural and human vulnerability risk from structural debris due to accidental explosions or terrorist.

REFERENCES:

1. Wathugala, G.W. and T.K. Hasselman, “ARCWALL-LP: Load Parameter Based Fast Running Model For Predicting Reinforced Concrete Wall Response To Cased Weapons,” Proceedings of the SAVIAC 77, Monterey, CA, October 2006.

2. Wathugala, G. W., Hasselman, T. K., and Bogosian, D., “ARCWALL: Fast Running Model For Predicting Reinforced Concrete Wall Response To Cased Weapons,” SAVIAC 75, Oct. 2004, Virginia Beach, VA.

3. Wathugala, G.W., W. Gan, J. Chrostowski, T. Hasselman, D. Zhang, X. Ma, Q. Zou, and B. VanderHeyden, ";Applications of CartaBlanca for Simulation of Blast and Fragment Effects,"; Presented (extended abstract published) at the 17th Army Symposium on Solid Mechanics, Baltimore, MD, April 2007.

4. Wathugala, G.W., G.M. Lloyd, J. Magallanes, and K. Morrill, "; Fast Running Model for Response of Brick Walls Due to Explosion of Cased Weapons,"; Proceeding of the 79th Shock and Vibration Conference, Limited Distributions CD, Orlando, FL Oct. 2008.

5. Lloyd, G., Wathugala, W., Hasselman, T., Bogozian, D., ";Issues in the Development of, and Quantification of Modeling Uncertainty in a Physics-based Nonlinear Network Model for a Blast-effects Classification Problem";, in proceedings (CD) of the 77th Shock and Vibration Symposium, October 2006, Monterey, California.

KEYWORDS: Structural Response, MOUT, Urban Targets, Weapon Lethality, Target Vulnerability, Engineering Models, Fast Running Models, Finite-Element Models, Bunkers, Debris Modeling, Blast Through Failed Surfaces

AF103-132 TITLE: Strapdown Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) Closed Loop Guidance

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop strapdown (no-gimbal), wide-field-of-view (WFOV) closed loop guidance of small and agile weapons to provide target engagement, situational awareness, and obstacle avoidance capability.

DESCRIPTION: Current and future military operations in urban terrain as well as the desire for controlled damage effects requires improved levels of situational awareness, responsiveness and weapon precision. Small (<50lb net weight) and agile munitions require precision guidance capable to maneuver in obstruction rich and highly cluttered urban terrain for engagement of soft fixed and mobile targets. The loss/degradation of GPS and communications encountered in urban environments and intermittent line of sight to the target adds additional guidance system challenges. Precision guidance is tightly coupled to lethality where small weapons must achieve exceedingly small circular area probable (CEP) needs of small warheads. For this reason, the weapon may need to enter complex engagement geometries such as fly over and shoot down or entering windows and small openings. The tactical nature of these small weapons make man-in-the-loop operation desirable, allowing for in flight target designation updates using seeker sensor information while the weapon autonomously guides to its target. In addition to providing great capability, the guidance subsystem must be small. The payload available on small weapons creates a challenging tradespace for the size, weight, and power (SWaP) of each weapon subsystem. Solutions, including the seeker, the avionics processor, power and navigation system, should target the smallest SWaP possible but should not exceed 6in diameter, 5lb, and 50W power consumption.

One way to minimize SWAP of is to eliminate mechanical gimbals in favor of strapdown wide-field-of-view (WFOV) sensors. This approach allows for the same field of regard enjoyed by gimbaled seekers while offering improved situational awareness by staring into a larger FOV. WFOV sensors have also been shown to provide a means of ego-motion estimation important for control stability and GPS denied environments. Despite the advantages, strapdown seeker systems have unique sensitivities to body motion and closed loop guidance system parameters requiring novel and innovative solutions. Therefore, the scope of this topic is to conduct applied research on systems and enabling technologies for low SWaP, WFOV seekers including sensors, image processing, avionics processing, navigation algorithms, and hardware in-the-loop test technology for WFOV closed loop guidance.

Prospective areas of research are, but not limited to:

Sensors & signal processing: Variable acuity super-pixel imagers (VASI), innovative WFOV RF apertures, resolving target features/navigation aiding with active/passive WFOV sensors, multi-discriminant/nature inspired WFOV sensors.

Avionics processing: Small and capable processors, computing architectures, control/actuation and data link interfaces needed to host the processing burden of multi rate control, navigation solutions for global reference/airframe stabilization, image processing of WFOV sensor data, state estimation of targets, and networked data.

Control: Adaptive FOV (i.e. optical/electronic zoom with variable acuity array) with control law interaction, processing hardware for augmenting small autopilot systems with multi-mode image processing, datalink for man-in-the-loop in flight target designation.

Test Technology: Dynamically stimulating WFOV systems with hardware-in-the-loop, multi-band WFOV scene generation (e.g. short wave infrared (SWIR), mid-wave infrared (MWIR), possibly ultraviolet (UV)), simultaneous scene projection of visible and infrared.

PHASE I: Identify innovative technologies for development and testing of low SWAP, WFOV seekers that will lead to meeting the described goals. Develop a conceptual design and analyze the performance and limitations of the technologies.

PHASE II: Produce a system design and prototype of a seeker capable of closed loop guidance.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Small weapon/aircraft systems engaged in combat and ISR missions.

Commercial Application: Surveillance activities in law enforcement, search and rescue, border control, homeland security. Machine vision for manufacturing, robotics, or vehicle situational awareness/safety systems.

REFERENCES:

1. R. I. Emmert and R. D. Ehrich, ";Strapdown Seeker Guidance for Air-to-surface Tactical Weapons,"; AFATL-TR-78-60, 1978

2. Vladimir I. Ovod, Christopher R. Baxter, and Mark A. Massie, ";FPGA-Based Processor for High Frame-Rate Target Detection on Cluttered Backgrounds Using LVASI Sensors,"; in SPIE: Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, vol. 6206, 2006

3. Robert L. Murrer Jr., Rhoe A. Thompson, and Charles F Coker, ";Recent Technology Developments for the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulator (KHILS),"; AD#: ADA355943, 1998.

4. W. E. Green, P.Y. Oh, G. Barrows, ";Flying insect inspired vision for autonomous aerial robot maneuvers in near-earth environments,"; 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004.

KEYWORDS: Closed Loop Guidance, Seeker, Strapdown, Sensor, Multi-band, Multi-spectral, Guidance, Navigation, Control, Image Processing, Tracking, Datalink, Weapon Guidance, Scene Projection, Wide Field of View, Hardware-in-the-loop, Immersive Display Solutions

AF103-134 TITLE: Munitions Effects on Building Infrastructure Components

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative modeling techniques and response algorithms for predicting the probable effects of munitions on building infrastructure components.

DESCRIPTION: In an effort to better model the effects of munitions on buildings, AFRL needs to be able to model building infrastructures and the effects of munitions on them. This will provide the capability to model functional kill verses the current ability to model structural kill of a facility. This is an extremely challenging problem due to the diverse aspects of the various items that fall under the heading of “infrastructure” and the wide variety of potential damage mechanisms with some unique to a specific item. In addition, the paucity of data for the thresholds of damage for items must be mitigated. The majority of industrial testing on these items is only up to anticipated environmental levels that would be typical in shipment and operation.Thus, infrastructure equipment is almost never tested to levels analogous to that typical of weapons. A method to determine “damage” from weapon effects must be found. To start with, these new modeling techniques must be capable of being integrated with the Smart Target Model Generator (STMG) software [1]. STMG can automatically generate 3D building models which include the building structural components and a limited set of infrastructure components. STMG can also be used to manually place and edit components. These 3D Engineered Building Models are used to perform weapon effectiveness studies. Current weapon systems analyses focus on damage to structural elements and to a lesser extent damage to critical equipment inside the building. Newer weapon systems require a more detailed description of the building internal layout which includes more of the building components such as the HVAC system, plumbing, electrical wiring & components, and computer systems. Therefore, smart modeling techniques to create and place internal infrastructure and internal non-structural walls and rooms for a variety of building types (bunkers, offices, hotels, warehouses, etc.) are needed.

In addition, algorithms for predicting response of these components (e.g. HVAC, pipes, wires, etc.) and other misc components (e.g., windows, latches, door handles, etc.) to weapons are not currently available. Consequently, the second part of this topic is to develop High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) Fast-Running Models (FRM) that predict the response of infrastructure and other misc components to munitions (cased and uncased) and secondary structural debris. The munitions may be at or near the target. Innovative aspects of this topic include addressing issues of extreme variability due to position uncertainty in the weapon and using tools (including high-fidelity physics-based models) to compute the response of these small components. The FRMs should be developed with the outputs from the first half of the topic in mind.

These infrastructure modeling techniques should handle the different room configurations typically found in Bunker & MOUT type facilities. These models will be integrated into AFRL’s MEVA & standalone codes and have execution times similar to current Fast Running Models (FRM). They should accommodate data/information from bomb damage assessments whenever available. The loads may be provided as input from MEVA. The description and layout of these building components will be provided by STMG to MEVA for the FRMs.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility to model building infrastructure and use HFPB models to simulate effects of munitions & structural debris on infrastructure and other misc components. Demonstrate feasibility of developing FRMs to model component damage, effect on building functionality, and uncertainty.

PHASE II: Develop building infrastructure modeling techniques for STMG. Develop HFPB models that simulate the effects of munitions & structural debris on building infrastructure and other misc components. Develop FRMs that capture the important characteristics of the desired parameter space. Validate the HFPB models with experimental data and quantify the predictive accuracy of the FRMs.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Adapt infrastructure modeling techniques & FRMs for use by other services & for use in anti-terrorism activities where model predictions must be survival conservative as opposed to kill conservative.

Commercial Application: This capability would enable building designers, safety personnel, and homeland defense personnel to assess risk to infrastructure due to accidental explosions and terrorist use of explosive devices.

REFERENCES:

1. Verner, D., and D. Parsons, “Smart Target Model Generator,” Applied Research Associates Report, AFRL-MN-EG-TR-2001-7076, Albuquerque, NM, July, 2001.

2. Marquis, J.P., Morrison, D. and Hasselman, T.K., “Development and Validation of Fragility Spectra for Mission-Critical Equipment,” Technical Report No. PL-TR-91-1017, prepared by the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM for The Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Advanced Weapons and Survivability, Air Force Systems Command, Kirtland AFB, NM, August 1991.

3. Lloyd, G., Hasselman, T., Wathugala, W. and Bogosian, D., “Issues in the Development of and Quantification of Modeling Uncertainty in a Physics-based Non-linear Network Model for a Blast-effects Classification Problem,” Proceedings of the 77th Shock and Vibration Symposium, Monterey, CA, October, 2006.

KEYWORDS: Bunkers, MOUT, Urban Targets, Weapon Lethality, Target Vulnerability, Engineering Models, Fast Running Models, Finite-Element Models, Debris Modeling, Infrastructure, Component Vulnerability, Component Response,

AF103-135 TITLE: Innovative Micro-munition Electrical Interface Physical Interconnection

Alternatives

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Electronics, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Investigate and establish potential viability of improved interconnection methods for electrical interfaces to micro-munitions.

DESCRIPTION: Evolving smart micro-munitions are planned for carriage and employment from a variety of unmanned and manned aircraft platforms, either directly or via intermediate carriage systems. Pre-release initialization (targeting, inertial alignment, fuze setting, etc.) associated with the employment of such munitions requires the transfer of power, data, and selected safety interlocking signals between the platform or carriage system and the munitions. Electrical interfacing techniques used with current munitions for these functions are generally based on conventional quick-release electrical connectors, which have been an ongoing source of reliability and maintainability issues over the years. The release forces of such connectors are also typically significant for small, light stores, which precludes or significantly constrains some desired release/ejection techniques. New physical interconnection approaches for coupling interface signals between platforms/carriage devices and munitions could provide many logistic and operational advantages for future small stores such as micro-munitions. This effort is to investigate candidate non-conventional coupling techniques for the transfer of required signals between platforms or carriage systems and small stores, and establish the feasibility of an improved approach. This approach could be based in whole or in part on wireless technologies (radio frequency or optical), schemes using non-connector-based contact points on munition and carriage platform surfaces, specialized interconnection techniques such as low force tear-away connectors, or other innovative techniques identified by the contractor. It should support equivalent interface functionality to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) AS5726 Interface for Micro Munitions, which supports transfer of power, bi-directional high speed digital data, and discrete safety interlock signals. It should also take account of safety considerations for the arming and release of stores. The footprint of the interface on the store surface should be minimized to the extent feasible along with any associated separation forces (to facilitate store release), and compatibility with the airborne store carriage and release environment should be maintained. Attention should also be paid to minimizing the cost of interface implementation, particularly on the side of the expendable stores. One or more preferred approaches should be defined in detail and implemented in prototype form to demonstrate basic feasibility. The ultimately selected interface approach should be defined in such a manner as to support interoperable independent implementations of platform- and store-side interfaces by various platform (or carriage system) and store manufacturers, consistent with open system architecture principles.

PHASE I: The Phase I effort will identify and evaluate feasibility of improved physical interconnection techniques for transfer of required signals across interfaces between micro-munitions and their host platforms.

PHASE II: A laboratory breadboard system will be developed to demonstrate and verify successful operation of the preferred interface approach defined in Phase I. A final interface definition (including any necessary modifications/improvements identified in the demonstration) based on the preferred technologies will be documented to facilitate subsequent interoperable implementations of compliant interfaces.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This topic addresses technologies that could lead to improved release approaches for micro-munitions which are to be used to attack high value targets with minimum collateral damage.

Commercial Application: The interface technologies could be used to support easy integration of removable internal or external electronic subsystems on commercial manned and unmanned airborne platforms.

REFERENCES:

1. Information on Air Force research Laboratory Munitions Directorate activities related to munitions technology and development may be found at www.eglin.af.mil/units/afrlmunitionsdirectorate/.

2. Information on Society of Automotive Engineers Avionics System Division activities which support development/implementation of interoperable store (including munitions) interfaces may be accessed via /standardsdev/aerospace/aasd.htm.

KEYWORDS: micro-munitions, stores, store interfaces, wireless communication, wireless power transfer, electrical interconnection

AF103-136 TITLE: Layered Sensing Bio-Signatures for Dismount Tracking

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop remote biometric sensing, fusion and exploitation algorithms that utilize multi-layer sensing networks to track, identify, and analyze behavior of dismount targets.

DESCRIPTION: Recent world events have clearly illustrated the need to develop means of recognizing and tracking dismounts (such as personnel departing a vehicle) in very complex environments such as an urban center. Remote bio-signatures is a new area of research that addresses the tracking of dismounts and providing a means of uniquely identifying individuals through remote sensing. Current bio-signatures include information such as retina patterns or fingerprints. However, this type of bio-signature is considered “cooperative” in that an individual must agreeably come in contract or near contact with a sensor to measure individual unique information. This form of bio-signature is not applicable to the more general problem. Innovative research is required to identify “non-cooperative” techniques that can be developed for implementation under modern battlefield conditions.

Multi-layer sensing has been proposed as a means to track and identify critical object/targets over extended periods of time and to provide robust identification. Beyond individual identification and tracking, it is desirable to infer intent through behavioral analysis and situational context. Multi-layer sensing networks include standoff wide field of view sensors (such as radar and EO/IR) to detect and track objects/targets. This information also provides global context from scene structure. Close in sensing assets provide more robust information for identification and local behavior analysis. Typical close in sensors include EO/IR.

Sensors for Remote Bio-signatures & Information Processing: Techniques to fuse multi-layer sensor network data to provide extended track and identification of dismounts are required. The fusion and recognition techniques applied to multi-layer sensing networks will provide a remote bio-signature capability. Association techniques are needed to combine standoff tracking and global scene structure with local sensor identification data. This data association is fundamental in providing a means for extended tracking with little track corruption. Furthermore, the track information in conjunction with the scene context will provide a means for behavioral analysis.

Other novel sensing methods for remote bio-signatures are of interest and can be included beyond the video and radar modalities mentioned above.

Human Signature Scene Generation: The ability to generate representative synthetic scenes is important for development and testing of autonomous and man-in-the-loop target acquisition and identification algorithms. To support existing synthetic scene generation tools, the capability to generate thermal and optical models for humans in a wide variety of conditions (environmental, clothing etc.) is required. The tools and models developed should support operation in a range of optical bands and modalities. For example, visible, infrared, ultraviolet, and polarization signatures within these bands are desirable to meet the need for testing future algorithms. Models are required that allow the simulation of enemy combatants in battlefield scenarios as well as for civilians in urban environments.

Although not limited to these areas, RW is interested in the following technologies:

(a) Novel remote bio-signature sensors

(b) Sensor modeling and testing

(c) Signature and scene modeling

(d) Layered sensing fusion of remote bio-signatures

(e) Layered sensing feature aided tracking and track association for dismounts

(f) Context exploitation

(g) Behavioral analysis

(h) Integrated sensing and control for layered sensing networks

PHASE I: Investigate layered sensing networks to determine feasibility of using sensor types and topologies to provide remote bio-signatures. Prototype system to fuse standoff track data and local ID sensor data.

PHASE II: Refine track fusion algorithms for multi-layer, multi-modal sensor networks. Develop behavioral analysis algorithms to infer target intent from local sensor data analysis and scene context. Define and compute performance metrics characterizing remote bio-signatures for urban environments. Deliverables are detection, tracking, recognition and fusion algorithms and performance data.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The resulting remote bio-signature fusion system would have applicability in both civilian and military markets including security, surveillance, and guided submunition systems.

Commercial Application: Commercial application: The resulting algorithms would have application to surveillance, security and border patrol.

REFERENCES:

1. Stephane Lafon, Yosi Keller, Ronald R. Coifman, ";Data Fusion and Multicue Data Matching by Diffusion Maps,"; IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence ,vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1784-1797, November, 2006.

2. A. T. Ihler, J. W. Fisher III, and A. S. Willsky. Nonparametric hypothesis tests for statistical dependency. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 52, August 2004.

3. John W. Fisher III and Trevor Darrell. Speaker association with signal-level audiovisual fusion. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 6(3):406-413, Jun 2004.

KEYWORDS: Weapons, fusion, remote, biometrics, targets, prototype, layer sensing network, algorithms

AF103-139 TITLE: Automated, On-Wing Engine Airfoil Inspection

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate an automated inspection capability for compressor and turbine blades, providing system maintainers the capability to quickly and accurately characterize turbine blade health.

DESCRIPTION: Air Force turbine engine systems operate under challenging thermal and dynamic load conditions and often experience damage and material degradation due to the ingestion of foreign debris and chemical species.This damage is especially critical in the turbine section where operating temperatures often exceed the melting temperatures of the superalloy material. In order to protect the turbine blades from the effects of these temperatures, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied to the superalloy substrate [1]. During engine operation, foreign debris is ingested by the engine and results in particle impingement on combustor and turbine airfoils resulting in TBC spallation, dents, notches, and even bends in engine airfoils. Engine fuel additives or salt from sea air or de-icing treatments result in corrosive effects on combustion and turbine blade and vane materials [2]. Particle damage, corrosion effects, and blade tip wear are critical for turbine blades because they all result in erosion or complete removal of the critically needed TBC. Ingested particles such as sand can lead to constricted or blocked cooling holes resulting in higher metal temperatures which reduce component life [3].

The primary goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate an automated inspection technology that can be used for on-wing field and depot engine inspections through boroscope holes such as a laser shearography technology [4]. The concept of operations of this technology would include acquiring an initial digital ‘image’ of the blades after initial engine validation tests and performing automated comparisons using subsequent inspection images. The technology should be capable of detecting and quantifying dents, notches, bends, tip wear, corrosion and TBC coating spallation of sizes as small as 1 mil (0.001”) and should also be capable of detecting constricted air cooling holes in turbine blades. Because this approach will rely on a comparison of images, it will be critical that the digital information from the images be compressed or minimized for efficient digital data storage. The data storage format should be such that it is acceptable to original equipment manufacturer (OEM) partners and should be compatible or have the potential to be converted to a file type that is compatible with life prediction models. Because integration of quantified damage data into life prediction models is a long term goal and the inspection technique should be compatible with on-wing inspections through engine boroscope holes, collaboration with an original engine manufacturer(s), field inspection unit and/or Air Logistics Center will be an important part of this effort.

PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate an automated blade inspection technology capable of identifying and quantifying dimensional anomalies, corrosion, and constricted cooling holes on compressor and turbine blades.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate an automated prototype blade inspection system capable of quantifying 1-mil dimensional defects, corrosion, and constricted cooling holes on turbine engines through engine boroscope holes with minimized digital date file sizes.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: An on-wing inspection capability for compressor and turbine blades is a pervasive technology that can be used in land, sea and air based military systems with turbines engines.

Commercial Application: An on-wing inspection capability for compressor and turbine blades is a pervasive technology that can be used in land, sea and air based commercial turbine engines.

REFERENCES:

1. Padture, Nitin P. et al, “Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engine Applications,” Science, 296 (5566), p. 280-284, April 2002.

2. Carter, Tim J., “Common Failures in Gas Turbine Blades,” Engineering Failure Analysis, 12, p. 237-247, 2005.

3. Maldague, X. et al., “Thermographic NonDestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Turbine Blades: Methods and Image Processing,” Industrial Metrology, 1, p. 139-153, 1990.

4. Harvey, G. and J. Jones, “Small Blade Inspection Using Laser Strain Techniques,” Insight, 51 (3), p. 137-139, March 2009.

KEYWORDS: compressor blade, damage imaging, engine health management, on-wing inspection, turbine blade

AF103-140 TITLE: Powder Coating

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop material compositions of high-performance ultraviolet cure powder coatings (UVCP) that cure to a flat (nongloss) finish on military weapon systems.

DESCRIPTION: UV-cured powdered coatings (UVCPC) have been very successful in reducing air pollutants (HAP/VOC) and waste streams; however, they generally cure to a medium to high gloss finish. Most military weapon systems specify a flat matte finish. There have been studies where polymeric microspheres or other constituents have been employed as flattening agents in other powder coatings. What is needed is the development of a UVCPC that when cured produces a flat matte finish. This effort would be to develop a flat finished UVCPC that satisfies the military requirement.

PHASE I: Develop formulations of UVCPC which have a flat matte finish (60 deg gloss <10). These formulations would also need to demonstrate both high durability and adhesion.

PHASE II: Advance the Phase I formulations to add additional performance metrics such as corrosion resistance and other metrics consistent with MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85285 and or MIL-PRF-32239 performance specifications. Demonstrate that these UVCPC formulations can be used as a drop-in replacement for current solvent-based coatings being used.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Evaluate selected formulation vs. currently approved and used coatings in ops environment; perform chemical agent resistant coating testing and verify CARC capability; revise formulation as necessary.

Commercial Application: Flat matte coating finishes are generally not found in the commercial aerospace sector.

REFERENCES:

1. Low Reflectance Chemical Resistant Coating Compositions, USPTO 6,649,687, 11/2003, Sherwin-Williams.

2. Low Gloss Powder Coatings, USPTO 6,737,467, 5/2004, E.I. du Pont.

3. Low Gloss Free Radical Powder Coatings, USPTO 6,852,765 B2, E.I. du Pont.

KEYWORDS: coatings, flat, matte, powder coatings, ultraviolet, UV, UV cured, ultraviolet cured powdered coatings, UVCPC

AF103-141 TITLE: Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Impact on

Material Performance

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop models to predict material performance based on defects and damage as quantified via nondestructive evaluation.

DESCRIPTION: Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are an emerging class of materials that are being considered for a variety of high temperature structural applications in turbine engines and elsewhere. CMCs constitute a family of materials with a range of properties, temperature capability, and suitable application environments, but in general they offer higher temperature capability, reduced weight, and improved durability compared to conventional materials. CMC technology in general is immature. This is especially the case as it relates to understanding and modeling the impact of a given flaw or damage on the performance of a given material.

This topic seeks development of material models with sufficient resolution, detail, and flexibility to predict the impact of a range of flaws and damage on material performance. Insight into the characteristics of the flaw (size, type, location, etc.) will come from nondestructive evaluation (NDE), so it is essential that the flaw/damage description be derived from and consistent with the output of NDE technique(s). Development of this technology will require models to predict material performance with a range of defects and damage, and fabrication and testing of samples with controlled flaws to validate the model’s capability. Major aspects of the problem include development of a materials model, linking of NDE data to the material model to predict the impact of a given flaw, understanding of environmental degradation (oxidation, moisture) and development of suitable methods to describe it. The Phase I model(s) should focus on the one or two flaw types which are anticipated have the greatest impact on the properties of the CMC which will be examined. Possibilities include delaminations, localized porosity (voids), and global porosity (low overall density). Phase II should expand the effort to modeling of the range of flaws and damage which are expected.

This topic is highly interdisciplinary, including material evaluation, NDE, and modeling at various levels, the small business is highly encouraged to form a team with strengths in multiple areas. The participation of an engine prime and a CMC manufacturer is encouraged to ensure focus on materials and applications of interest and evaluation of realistic flaws and damage.

PHASE I: Develop material models to evaluate the impact of the selected flaw type, as characterized by NDE, on material performance. Both the NDE and modeling aspects of the problem must be addressed, but the focus is on the latter. Correlate defects to material properties to validate the predictions.

PHASE II: Optimize the material modeling and NDE correlation technology from Phase I. Expand the models to include all expected flaw types and service induced damage mechanisms and ensure that the NDE approach can characterize them. Produce, model, and test materials with a range of defects and service induced damage/degradation to validate the predictive capability of the models.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: CMCs are planned for use in military engines. Limited analytical modeling capability and poor correlation of NDE to defects and damage, are major technology weaknesses and application risks.

Commercial Application: CMCs are being considered for a variety of commercial applications including engines, hot structures, wear, and corrosion control. The technology developed here will be broadly applicable.

REFERENCES:

1. 25th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: B, Cer. Eng. & Sci. Proc., V22, n4 (2001).

2. 26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: A, Cer. Eng. & Sci. Proc., V23, n3 (2002).

KEYWORDS: ceramic matrix composites, CMC, damage, defects, life prediction, modeling, nondestructive evaluation, NDE

AF103-142 TITLE: Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Implications for

Component Life Prediction

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop life prediction models for CMC components which account for the components operating environment (thermal, structural, and chemical) as well as processing and service induced defects.

DESCRIPTION: CMCs are an emerging class of materials that are being considered for a variety of high temperature structural applications in turbine engines and elsewhere. CMCs constitute a family of materials with a range of properties, temperature capability, and suitable application environments, but in general they offer higher temperature capability, reduced weight, and improved durability compared to conventional materials. CMC technology in general is immature. This is especially the case as it relates to life prediction.

This topic seeks development of life prediction technology for CMC components which can account for the components operating environment (thermal, structural, and chemical) in conjunction with processing flaws and service induced damage. Major aspects of the problem include development of the overall life prediction framework/methodology, linking material performance models to component geometry and stress state, and appropriate implementation of chemical degradation mechanisms. The Phase I modeling may need to focus on one particular aspect of the operating environment, given resource constraints. Validation of the life prediction capability will admittedly be difficult, but validation of some aspect will be required to demonstrate feasibility in Phase I.

This topic is highly interdisciplinary, including life prediction framework development, modeling at various levels, and material testing at a minimum; the small business is highly encouraged to form a team with strengths in multiple areas. Participation of an engine prime and a CMC manufacturer is encouraged to ensure focus on materials and applications of interest and evaluation of realistic flaws and damage.

PHASE I: Develop a CMC life prediction technology framework built on material performance modeling which can account for the component operating environment (thermal, structural, chemical) in the context of realistic defects and damage. Demonstrate the applicability to a specific flaw or damage mechanism.

PHASE II: Expand the life prediction framework and model(s) from Phase I to include the range of environmental conditions/effects in the context of processing defects and service induced damage. Produce, model, and test materials with a focus on severe environmental conditions and a range of defects to validate the predictive capability of the life prediction methodology.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: CMCs are planned for use in the JSF engines. Limited life prediction capability is a major technology weaknesses and application risks. This topic seeks to address this weakness.

Commercial Application: CMCs are being considered for a variety of commercial applications including engines, hot structures, wear, and corrosion control. The CMC life prediction technology developed will be applicable.

REFERENCES:

1. 25th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: B, Cer. Eng. & Sci. Proc., V22, n4 (2001).

2. 26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: A, Cer. Eng. & Sci. Proc., V23, n3 (2002).

KEYWORDS: ceramic matrix composites, CMC, defects, environmental degradation, life prediction, modeling

AF103-143 TITLE: Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Enhanced Composite Structures

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Explore possible benefits to typical and atypical aircraft structures made possible by the use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) technology in composite structures.

DESCRIPTION: UAS are taking advantage of the strength and weight saving properties made possible by carbon composites. New and exciting work is being done exploring the possible applications of the unique characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). Although CNTs also have very unique electrical properties and are being investigated for use in electrical components and integrated devices, they also have application in composite structural materials. This project will explore the possible benefits to typical and atypical aircraft structures made possible by the use of CNT technology in composite structures. The primary objective of this effort is to improve the structural properties of existing composites used in UAS construction. A secondary goal is understand how the unique electrical properties of a CNT composite could apply to UAS operations. This could be demonstrated by embedding antenna, wire, or sensor structures into the composite. Also the ability to electrically alter the electromagnetic properties of a section of the composite would be of interest.

PHASE I: Design and proposed a proof-of-concept demonstration for the composite samples that exhibit the benefits described above. The new composite must provide a clear advantage for UAS over currently available technology.

PHASE II: Build and demonstrate the new composite structures. Identify potential application of the technology within DoD UAS as part of transition planning.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: DoD UAS, Manned Aircraft, Satellite Systems, Ground Vehicles, NASA.

Commercial Application: Automotive Industry, Sporting Goods, Commercial Airlines, Commercial Satellites.

REFERENCES:

1. “Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Program” DoD. Director, Defense Research and Engineering. April 26, 2007.

2. Harris, C. E.; Starnes,; M. J. Shuart J. H. “An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in the Design and Manufacturing of Large Composite Structures for Aerospace Vehicles”, NASA/TM-2001-210844 Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia.

3. “Material Qualification and Equivalency for Polymer Matrix Composite Material Systems” DOT/FAA/AR-00/47 Office of Aviation Research Washington, D.C. 20591 April 2001 Final Report.

4. /wiki/Carbon_fiber

5. /wiki/Carbon_nanotube

KEYWORDS: Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Composites, Carbon Matrix Composites, Carbon Composite Structures

AF103-144 TITLE: Fault Tolerant Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) Detector

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this effort is to develop fault tolerant circuitry for large format mid-wave infrared (MWIR) focal plane array (FPA) detectors.

DESCRIPTION: Air Force tactical and reconnaissance platforms rely on high performance, multifunctional optical sensor systems. The primary optical sensor in these systems is a MWIR FPA because it combines high resolution imagery with day/night operation. In order to obtain high resolution imagery, FPA designers have pushed to larger and larger format arrays. The improvement in FPA performance has been dramatic, but these large format arrays FPAs are more difficult to manufacturer. The lower yields of these large format arrays result in higher FPA costs.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of including fault tolerant circuitry into MWIR FPAs. Explore different detector and read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) architectures for increasing FPA yield.

PHASE II: Optimize fault tolerant circuitry designs for MWIR FPAs. Build MWIR FPA with fault tolerant circuitry, and demonstrate performance with prototype testing in a lab environment. The prototype MWIR FPA shall be delivered to the government for additional testing.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: MWIR FPAs are found in every Air Force tactical and reconnaissance system. This program will increase MWIR FPA yield and therefore lower cost.

Commercial Application: There are numerous academic, medical, and scientific applications for MWIR FPAs. The technical improvements for large format FPAs made under this program will benefit these applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Readout electronics for infrared sensors; J. Vampola; The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook. Electro-Optical Components, Volume 3, Chapter 5, 1993.

2. Standardized high-performance 640x512 readout integrated circuit for infrared applications; Naseem Y. Aziz; Robert F. Cannata; Glenn T. Kincaid; Randal J. Hansen; Jeffery L. Heath; William J. Parrish; Susan M. Petronio; James T. Woolaway II; SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3698 Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, 1999, pp.766-777.

KEYWORDS: fault tolerant circuitry, focal plane array, FPA, mid-wave infrared, MWIR, MWIR detector

AF103-145 TITLE: Novel Analytical and Experimental Methods for Evaluating Repairs in

Composite Honeycomb Structure

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate approaches that can be used to successfully design, analyze, and test composite honeycomb (H/C) structures subjected to damage and subsequent repair.

DESCRIPTION: Composite H/C structure is now widely used in airframe and propulsion (nacelle) structure. However, it is highly susceptible to both manufacturing and field service damage and is not as reliable or durable as solid laminate structures. The most common location for manufacturing and in-service damage to these structures is in the core-to-skin bondline, facesheet ramp termination, and core nodes. In addition to the multiple failure modes present in H/C structure, repair options are crude and heavy (defeating the H/C structure’s main virtue), and analysis methods and design allowables either very conservative or non-existent. Thus, all of these factors lead to costly and time consuming scrap, rework, and repair of composite H/C structure. Industry current lacks a strong empirical database of disbonded core-facesheet, core node, and facesheet ramp-termination flaws, associated repair concepts (mostly resin-injection) and associated advanced analysis methods to verify the full strength capability of such flawed or repaired structure. The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate approaches that can provide the information necessary to support the design, analysis, and verification testing of composite H/C structure with both existing unrepaired damage (core/facesheet disbond, nodal disbond, and ramp termination disbond) and a parametric range of repair configurations (various resin injections, double-flush fasteners, core splices, facesheet patches, doublers, etc.). Test methods that exercise each possible failure mode as well the other influencing factors are also of interest. To this end, it is the intention of this topic to solicit both experimentally derived methods as well as analytically derived methods.

PHASE I: The supplier shall develop methods and approaches for the both the above-noted effects of the unrepaired defects and noted repairs. Experimental methods shall focus on the development of test techniques to exercise the possible failure modes and to feed/validate the analytical methods.

PHASE II: Phase II should build on the results in Phase I and include development and demonstration of appropriate analytical methods. The analytical approaches must consider the empirically-derived ultimate strength capability of the relevant defects and repairs. Experiments using the techniques developed in Phase I shall be conducted to validate the analytical methods.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Any airframe/system utilizing composite honeycomb materials would benefit from increased survivability of the structure due to good repair techniques.

Commercial Application: The processes developed should be readily applicable to commercial aerospace where both propulsion and airframe applications are seeking to utilize more composite structure to lower cost and weight.

REFERENCES:

1. Composite Materials Handbook-MIL 17, Volume 2: Polymer Matrix Composites: Materials Properties.

2. JSSG-2006, DOD JOINT SERVICE SPECIFICATION GUIDE, AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES 2006.

3. ASTM Test Methods C273, C297, C365, and C393.

KEYWORDS: composite, composite repair, honeycomb, modeling, repair, sandwich construction

AF103-146 TITLE: Novel Analytical and Experimental Methods for Evaluating Bolted Joint Repairs

in Composite Structure

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate approaches that can be used to successfully design, analyze, and test composite structures subjected to bolted joint damage and subsequent repair.

DESCRIPTION: Composite structure is now widely used in airframe and propulsion (nacelle) structure. The most common location for manufacturing and in-service damage to these structures is in the bolted joints. In addition to the multiple failure modes present in such a joint, margins of safety are usually very low for at least one or two bolt locations in every part, repair options are limited (mainly bushings and over-size fasteners), and analysis methods and design allowables either very conservative or non-existent. Thus, all of these factors lead to costly and time consuming scrap, rework, and repair of composite bolted joints. Industry currently lacks a strong empirical database of bushed-hole joint configurations and associated advanced analysis methods to verify the full strength capability of such joints. In addition, the effects of certain defects themselves, such as burned holes, are not well understood either, thus leading to very conservative disposition decisions. The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate approaches that can provide the information necessary to support the design, analysis, and verification testing of composite bolted joints with both existing unrepaired damage (burned, elongated, delaminated, etc.) and a parametric range of repair configurations (various bushings, inserts, repair fasteners, flush doublers, etc.). Test methods that exercise each possible failure mode as well the other influencing factors are also of interest. To this end, it is the intention of this topic to solicit both experimentally derived methods as well as analytically derived methods.

PHASE I: The supplier shall develop methods and approaches for the both the above-noted effects of the unrepaired defects and bolted joint repairs. Experimental methods shall focus on the development of test techniques to exercise the possible failure modes and to feed/validate the analytical methods.

PHASE II: Phase II should build on the results in Phase I and include development and demonstration of appropriate analytical methods. The analytical approaches must consider the empirically-derived ultimate strength capability of the relevant defects and repairs. Experiments using the techniques developed in Phase I shall be conducted to validate the analytical methods.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The processes developed should be readily applicable to military aerospace where propulsion and airframe applications are seeking to utilize composite structure to lower cost and weight.

Commercial Application: The processes developed should be readily applicable to commercial aerospace where propulsion and airframe applications are seeking to utilize composite structure to lower cost and weight.

REFERENCES:

1. Composite Materials Handbook-MIL 17, Volume 2: Polymer Matrix Composites: Materials Properties /web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=710

2. JSSG-2006, DOD JOINT SERVICE SPECIFICATION GUIDE, AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES.

3. ASTM test methods for FHT/C (D6742), bearing (D5961), and bearing/by-pass (D7248).

/Standards/D6742.htm

/Standards/D5961.htm

/Standards/D7248.htm

KEYWORDS: bolted joint damage, composites, composite repair, modeling

AF103-147 TITLE: Peel-and-Stick Nutplates

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a nutplate installation process that requires no preparation of nutplate before installation to structure.

DESCRIPTION: Nutplates are used on few military aircrafts to secure fasteners when there is limited or no access to the backside of the fastener at the time of installation. A bonded nutplate is a metal nut with a base plate attached in which adhesive is applied to bond the plate to a surface. A long rubber tube inserted in the nutplate helps to correctly orient the nutplate properly on the outside of a fastener hole, as well as to hold the nutplate in place while the adhesive cures.

Currently, bulk quantities of nutplates are available for use in consumable racks, organized by part number. They are exposed to the shop air environment for any length of time until needed for a particular job. Nutplates have a protection peel ply adhered to the base plate that protects the surface from contaminants. Before use, operators must remove ply, solvent clean with acetone to remove any residue from the peel ply, and wait until that surface is dry before applying adhesive to the base plate of each nutplate and inserting onto the back side of structure hole. Recent improvements effective in 2010 include individually bagging nutplates in a nitrogen-filled bag, eliminating the protection peel ply, and allowing immediate application of adhesive to nutplate preceding installation on structure once bag is opened. The purpose of these bags is to prevent oxidation and the exposure to other contaminants on the surface of the nutplate.

Amount of adhesive applied to nutplate just prior to installation is operator dependent, as the adhesive is applied with a handheld applicator gun and small mixing tip. There is a 360-degree squeeze out around the nutplate base plate requirement for the adhesive application. Amount of adhesive applied to each nutplate is a critical variable in the process when considering added weight to the aircraft when thousands of nutplates are installed, as well as critical in the potential for adhesive to enter the fastener hole, therefore decreasing hole diameter and/or creating a barrier that makes fastener installation more difficult and less efficient. When adhesive gets into the actual fastener hole it must be reamed out of the hole, thus creating foreign object debris (FOD) with the potential of getting pushed back into the nutplate and affecting the performance. Ideal process would be a controlled amount of adhesive already on the nutplate, ready for installation at time of removal from bag. Adhesive application to the nutplate would be a step integrated into the pre-prepared nutplate bag assembly process.

This effort will focus on refining the nutplate installation process to be more efficient and increase consistency of performance of nutplate bond to various structure substrates, including both metal and composite. During the program, create a process in which the adhesive can be pre-applied to nutplate before bagging. Adhesive must not be activated until nutplate is removed from bag and installed on structure. Adhesive must have all strength properties that it currently has, as well as improvements of life cycle when nutplate is removed and reinstalled multiple times on specific panels.

PHASE I: Demonstrate a prototype nutplate/adhesive combination that will meet the above requirements. Perform preliminary testing to ensure equal or better performance to current solution. Create a plan for the entire peel-and-stick solution with a preliminary cost estimate and transition plan.

PHASE II: Further develop system and demonstrate in a production representative environment on production representative parts. Perform testing on the adhesive to include strength, shelf life, and other properties. Provide a detailed cost comparison over the current product and a manufacturing/transition plan that includes the future planning of any required qualification efforts.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: In production of military aircraft as well as future military air vehicles.

Commercial Application: Pervasive technology that will find utility in both military and commercial aircraft in the joining of components.

REFERENCES:

1. Clickbond

KEYWORDS: adhesive, consistency, nutplate, nutplate bag

AF103-149 TITLE: Coating Removal for Surface Preparation

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop an automated system of removing coating materials and bonded elastomeric sheet materials without damage to substrate materials while minimizing and capturing waste material.

DESCRIPTION: The current methods of removing coatings and bonded materials to gain access to seams and fasteners for removal of panels and for periodic recoating of low-observable aircraft surfaces involve manual abrading and use of media blast techniques. These processes are slow, produce toxic waste, risk damage to the vehicle, and are operator intensive. In addition, media blast techniques have potential to cause migration of particles that are a foreign object debris (FOD) risk. Alternative methods for removing these coatings that can be integrated into an automated system are necessary to meet the production schedule and rate requirements for advance military aircraft fighter.

Highly successful offerors will demonstrate an understanding of military aircraft application (types of elastomeric materials and coatings to be removed) as well as the constraints the technology solution will be under in terms of production environment, cost, labor time, and production schedule. The solution proposed should be designed to exceed the strip rate of the current processes, and be able to operate in a hangar environment during concurrent operations. If successful, implementation of this technology should reduce the current process cycle time by a minimum of fifty percent over the current process. The ideal process would also allow selective material removal (i.e., each layer in a bonded and coated stackup separately). Also, it should completely contain all hazardous material to include the materials removed from the work surface, preferably with the ability to separate the removed coating from any media/effluent/etc. that may be used to assist in coating removal for reclamation.

Phase I should demonstrate in a laboratory environment using handheld equipment the ability to remove coating without damaging the underlying representative substrate and have at a minimum developed concepts for automation of the process and the waste collection solution. A preliminary system cost estimate should be developed, as well as a preliminary manufacturing plan for how the system will be produced. Phase II planning and preliminary transition planning should also be completed.

Phase II should result in a prototype automated solution that can be demonstrated in a production/hangar representative environment with a working waste collection system, including movement of the coating removal system along an area representative of an aircraft skin surface with a representative coating/material stackup. A detailed cost estimate, manufacturing plan, and transition plan should be in place. Offerors should utilize guidelines for Manufacturing and Technology Readiness Levels to assist in this effort.

PHASE I: Demonstrate new processes and equipment for removing coatings/bonded materials, without damage to substrates. Demonstrate solution in a lab environment. Develop concept for automation and collection of waste material. Develop preliminary cost estimate and manufacturing/transition plans.

PHASE II: Conduct process optimization and evaluate scale-up issues associated with the process. Perform tests to demonstrate material removal rates, safety, and process control. Demonstrate system for translation, positioning of the work head, and containment of waste produced as part of the process in a production/hangar representative environment. Detail cost, manufacturing, and transition plans.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Applications include aircraft production as well as field and depot operations. A selective, environmentally friendly coating removal system would find wide acceptance in the community.

Commercial Application: Commercial aircraft production as well as maintenance operations. A selective, environmentally friendly coating removal system would find wide acceptance in the community including vehicles.

REFERENCES:

1. Baker, James, et.al. ";Conceptual Design of An Aircraft Automated Coating Removal System";. http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/234695-I1N8DV/webviewable/

2. Southwest Research Institute Automated Coatings Removal Brochure http://www.swri.edu/3pubs/brochure/d10/AutoCoat/autocoat.htm

3. AFRL/RX Tech Milestone - ";Handheld Laser Designed to Eliminate Costly Waste Streams"; http://www.ml.afrl.af.mil/tech_milestones/RXS/afrl_ws_06_1389.html.

KEYWORDS: automated system, coating materials, coating removal, hangar environment, manual abrading, media blast, robotic system, toxic waste

AF103-150 TITLE: Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of Holes in F-35 Structure

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a certifiable process for EDM hole drilling military aircraft structures resulting in cost and time savings by improving the current multistep, conventional pilot-ream-countersink process.

DESCRIPTION: Hole preparation for aircraft manufacturing is the one of the highest manufacturing costs at approximately 30 percent. The current manual method for hole preparation is to drill a pilot hole (typically 0.128-inch diameter) then perform multiple reaming steps to achieve final diameter. Military aircraft and certain areas of commercial aircraft utilize thick, exotic materials to achieve strength-to-weight requirements. The current manual, multistep process is time consuming and ergonomically difficult.

The EDM process has evolved to show potential for aiding in the hole drilling process. Benefits include ability to drill large diameter holes through thick, exotic, multiple material stacks (including mixes of composite and metal) with minimal force and process steps. Innovative methods need consideration for the challenging requirements for hole roundness, diameter, surface finish, burr size, material types and thicknesses. The solution must also be robust to accommodate a manufacturing environment, be hand-held, assist in hole angularity, start-and-stop conditions, and produce a clean hole without degrading the durability and fatigue performance.

PHASE I: Demonstrate feasibility of drilling various materials (including multiple, dissimilar material stacks) and thicknesses using proposed solution. Perform initial testing using ASTM methods to military requirements. Provide initial cost estimates for the system and consumable items.

PHASE II: Demonstrate a prototype system in a production representative environment on representative structures. The portable, hand-held device should be capable of integration with drill jigs as well as free-hand location drilling. Clearly define operator/user interfaces. Refine system cost predictions and manufacturing/transition plans.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: EDM hole drilling is applicable to a wide range of military aircraft using multiple materials. In addition, the technology can be modified to support rapid fastener removal for depot repairs.

Commercial Application: Commercial aircraft are advancing to exotic, thick materials to support future affordability and environmental goals and this technology may be applicable.

REFERENCES:

1. /articles/100012.html.

2. /.

3. <>.

4. Material data sheet for CYCOM 5250-4 Prepreg composite material system, 17 pages (uploaded in SITIS 8/19/10).

5. Material data sheet for CYCOM 977-3 Toughened Epoxy Resin material system, 5 pages (uploaded in SITIS 8/19/10).

KEYWORDS: aerospace, aircraft assembly, automation, drilling, electrical discharge machining, EDM, F-35, reaming

AF103-151 TITLE: Laser-Assisted Fiber Placement for Improved Bismaelimide (BMI) Lay Down

This topic has been removed from the solicitation.

AF103-152 TITLE: Concrete Joint Sealant for High-Temperature Applications

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a low cost, concrete joint sealant that allows the construction of high temperature vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) pads for the future advanced aircraft.

DESCRIPTION: The U.S. Air Force and other services have a material requirement to solve the problem of damaged aircraft operating surfaces (pavements) joint sealants due to high-temperature jet exhaust, which has increased the mean time between failure (MTBF) of joint sealants from years to an individual event. Conventional concrete pavements, such as aircraft runways, taxiways, and ramps, incorporate joints between concrete slabs to accommodate expansion and contraction caused by external environmental conditions. These joints must be sealed to prevent solids from becoming entrapped in the joint and causing cracking and spalling as the slabs expand. These distresses decrease the service life of the pavement and potentially creating foreign object debris (FOD) that can be ingested into aircraft engines. A joint sealant acts also as a moisture barrier between the constructed slabs slowing the intrusion of water through the joint and into the pavement foundation. Thus, joint sealants play an important role in the performance of concrete pavement by decreasing the amount of FOD and improving the life span of the engineered structure.

A joint between two concrete slabs is a harsh environment; joint sealants on airfields are typically exposed to wide range of temperatures and corrosive chemicals such as JP-8 and aircraft hydraulic fluid. Thus, a joint sealant material must be resilient, maintain its chemical composition, and have adequate mechanical strength when exposed to these conditions. Through testing, the Departments of Defense and Transportation have developed a series of American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) tests for a joint sealant material to ensure that it has the necessary durability and resiliency to survive in a concrete joint. Commercial joint sealants are typically organic polymers such as neoprene or polyurethane. These materials perform well under ambient conditions and are relatively inexpensive. However, they can degrade rapidly and are vulnerable to damage when exposed to jet blast from aircraft with downward pointing aircraft exhaust. Since approximately 1990 the Department of Defense has been investigating joint sealants for high temperature applications, and the Navy’s work indicates that most joint sealants fail quickly at elevated temperatures (many at temperatures below 300 deg F). Some joint sealants, such as fluorocarbon, continue to perform at temperatures reaching nearly 650 deg F without substantial degradation. While these temperatures are acceptable for aircraft such as the F-4, F-18, and B-2, no joint sealant material has been identified that retains its structural integrity at temperatures above 650 deg F.

Future aircraft may subject joint sealants to temperatures exceeding 1700 deg F with exhaust velocities exceeding 1100 ft/sec during VTOL operations. Currently, there are no known joint sealants that can retain the needed deformation properties and resiliency required once the material is exposed to expected temperatures and pressures. This provides a difficult problem for pavement design engineers, because to design a pavement without a joint sealant forces the designers to either continually reinforce or post tension the pavement. Both of these methods are considerably more expensive to construct and require more capital and experienced personnel to maintain and repair. Therefore it would benefit the Air Force and complement the RXQD Aircraft Operating Surfaces Initiative if an economical joint sealant material could be developed that displayed similar mechanical and physical properties to commercially available sealants at ambient conditions, but also displayed similar properties and retained its chemical and mechanical composure at temperatures and pressures that may be produced by future aircraft systems.

PHASE I: Develop and formulate a joint sealant material that would retain the material integrity at repeated exposures to temperatures to 1700 °F, while maintaining a concrete joint sealant’s needed mechanical strength and physical strengths at ambient conditions.

PHASE II: Further develop the material, ensuring that the material can withstand long term environmental conditions, chemical exposure, and repeated cycling from jet blast. Eventually demonstrate the ability to commercialize the technology by synthesizing enough material to seal a 10 feet by 10 feet concrete slab and provide samples for testing by the Air Force Research Laboratory.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Construction of vertical takeoff and landing pads but could also be used to retrofit runways that are exposed to high-temperature exhaust from conventional take off and landing aircraft.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications for the material include use of the material as a highway joint sealant, or for use in high temperature areas such as blast furnaces, rocket pads, or ovens.

REFERENCES:

1. ";Concrete Pavement Joint Sawing, Cleaning, and Sealing,"; Concrete Paving Workforce Reference No. 3, PCC Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, Nov. 2004, /publications/references/Ref3Joints.pdf (New, added in SITIS 7/26/10.)

2. ";Best Practices for Airport Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction (Rigid Airport Pavement),"; Report IPRF-01-G-002-1, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Washington, DC, April 2003, /products/JP007P%20-%20Airport%20Best%20Practices%20Manual.pdf (New, added in SITIS 7/26/10.)

KEYWORDS: concrete pavements, high temperature, joints, joint sealant

AF103-153 TITLE: Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Creation,

Detection, and Quantification

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop nondestructive evaluation technology to quantify the location and characteristics of defects and damage so as to be usable in material performance models.

DESCRIPTION: CMCs are an emerging class of materials that are being considered for a variety of high temperature structural applications in turbine engines and elsewhere. CMCs constitute a family of materials with a range of properties, temperature capability, and suitable application environments, but in general they offer higher temperature capability, reduced weight, and improved durability compared to conventional materials. CMC technology in general is immature. This is especially the case as it relates to the cause and effect of manufacturing defects and service-induced damage and the impact that these have on the performance and life of the material.

Various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are routinely used to examine CMC panels and components, both for quality control during manufacturing and for life management when the component is in service. However, quantification of the NDE signal in terms of flaw location, type, size, orientation, and severity is often missing. This is particularly the case as it relates to localized porosity/variations in porosity, matrix-rich regions associated with densification problems or ply layup errors, and the depth of delaminations or the presence of multiple delaminations through the thickness of a component. This understanding is necessary in order to determine the impact of the flaw(s), via component modeling, to determine if the processing should continue or, in the case of in-service evaluation, if the component should be removed from service.

This topic seeks flaw detection and signal quantification in terms of flaw characteristics which can be input to a material model which are sufficient to allow modeling of the impact of the flaw linking of NDE data to a material model to predict the impact of a given flaw in a given material. Development of entirely new NDE techniques is not anticipated, although new or modified collection and/or processing of the NDE data may be necessary.The detection limits of the NDE technique for various types of flaws should be quantified and the implications of smaller flaws, which are not detected by the technique, considered. An understanding of the flaw parameters needed by a suitable material model will be required, and demonstration of the ability to provide that level of flaw description will be required to demonstrate feasibility in Phase I. The Phase I effort should focus on the one or two flaw types which are anticipated have the greatest impact on the properties of the CMC which will be examined. Possibilities include delaminations, localized porosity (voids), global porosity (low overall density), and fiber distribution. Phase II should expand the effort to consideration of the range of flaws which are expected. It is anticipated that thorough destructive characterization of multiple samples containing flaws will be needed to validate the NDE results in Phase I. Development of the technology to fabricate controlled flaws both as NDE standards and for validation of models and predictions will ultimately be required, but is beyond the scope of Phase I; Phase II should include this.

This topic is highly interdisciplinary, including material processing, NDE and NDE data analysis, and material modeling at a minimum: the small business is highly encouraged to form a team with strengths in multiple areas. The participation of an engine prime and a CMC manufacturer is also encouraged to ensure focus on materials and applications of interest and evaluation of realistic flaws and damage.

PHASE I: Develop technology to quantify NDE output in terms of parameters that material models can use as input to predict the impact of a given flaw. Both the NDE and material modeling aspects of the problem must be addressed. Correlate the defects to the NDE and validate the performance prediction.

PHASE II: Optimize and expand the NDE and material modeling correlation technology from Phase I. Develop NDE process specifications and standards as necessary. Produce, model, and evaluate materials with a range of defects and environmental damage. Test samples and characterize the flaws/damage to validate the modeling capability.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: CMCs are planned for use in engines and other military platforms. Immature NDE, poor understanding of defects, damage, and limited material modeling is a technology weakness and application risk.

Commercial Application: CMCs are being considered for a variety of commercial applications including engines, hot structures, wear, and corrosion control. The technology developed here will be broadly applicable.

REFERENCES:

1. 25th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: B, Cer. Eng. & Sci. Proc., V22, n4 (2001).

2. 26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: A, Cer. Eng. & Sci. Proc., V23, n3 (2002).

KEYWORDS: ceramic matrix composites, CMC, damage, defects, life prediction, modeling, nondestructive evaluation, NDE

AF103-154 TITLE: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Tools for the Management of Bulk

Residual Stress

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop robust computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to predict & manage the formation of bulk residual stress during manufacturing operations. Endorsed by 577AESG (Propulsion Technology Office).

DESCRIPTION: Aircraft engine and airframe structural components that are machined from forgings represent a significant cost of both military and commercial aircraft. The buy-to-fly weight ratio, which is the ratio of the forged material weight to the finished part weight, is typically between 4 and 10 for such components. The excess material is removed by various machining operations, which are a major contributor to the cost of forged components. These components tend to distort both during heat treatment and subsequent machining operations. These distortions are often caused by the material bulk stresses resulting from heat-treating operations.

Residual stress analysis has developed over the past several decades using a combination of experimental and finite-element methods that include the determination of heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) during quenching and a finite-element analysis to calculate the thermal and stress fields. The current method of determining HTCs for furnace heat-up, transfer, and quench uses thermal data from a quenching experiment. This method involves a number of subjective decisions that can significantly impact the accuracy of the results. Although these methods of heat transfer coefficient determination represent a reasonable engineering practice, it introduces uncertainty into subsequent residual stress calculations. When part shape and coolant flows are complex or deviate from the assumptions made during design of the quench experiment, the practical number of thermocouples is insufficient to capture part thermal history during quench. Further, while inverse or optimization methods can often find a set of heat transfer coefficient functions that provide a good match between data and predictions they too often yield a non-unique solution or fail to converge to a satisfactory answer.

An alternative method is to use CFD to predict coolant flow and obtain HTCs using well-established correlations to fluid flow. CFD has only been used occasionally for this purpose due to its complexity and lack of accuracy for boiling heat transfer in oil or water quench.

The aerospace industry needs robust CFD tools that can accurately quantify the real-world processing characteristics that have significant influence on residual stresses. Specifically we seek the development of methods to apply CFD to estimate quenchant flow fields and thereby guide the residual stress analyst in discretizing the forging surface into heat transfer coefficient zones.

PHASE I: Develop a method to apply CFD to estimate quenchant flow fields and thereby guide the residual stress analyst in discretizing the forging surface into HTC zones for a complex aerospace component. Demonstrate using published or internal data to show the life benefit in comparison to current practice.

PHASE II: Develop and validate a CFD driven method to guide location of thermocouples on complex aerospace components during heat treatment. In coordination or collaboration with an aerospace original equipment manufacturer or supplier, validate the model by comparing the set of heat transfer coefficient functions generated using this approach versus conventional quench experimental designs of components.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The technology developed will be applicable to the manufacture of more fuel efficient and durable gas turbine engines and lighter weight unitized airframe structure.

Commercial Application: Commercial ships, airliners, and military transports have similar engines and airframes, and thus the technology will be applicable to the design of more fuel efficient engines and lighter structure.

REFERENCES:

1. Banka, A., Franklin, J., Li, Z., Ferguson, B. L., and Aronov, M., “CFD and FEA Used to Improve the Quenching Process,” Heat Treating Progress, September, 2008, pp. 50-56.

2. Penha, R. N., Canale, L. C. F., Totten, G. E., Sarmiento, G. S., and Ventura, J. M., “Simulation of heat transfer and residual stresses from cooling curves obtained in quenching studies,” Journal of ASTM International (Online), 2006, p. JAI13614.

3. Rist, M. A., Tin, S., Roder, B. A., James, J. A., and Daymond, M. R., “Residual Stresses in a Quenched Superalloy Turbine Disc: Measurements and Modeling,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 37(2), 2006, pp. 459-467.

4. Springmann, M., Kuhhorn, A., “Coupled Thermal-Multiphase Flow Analysis In Quenching Processes for Residual Stress Optimization in Compressor and Turbine Disks,” Proceedings of PVP2008, 2008 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, July 27-31, 2008, Chicago, Illinois, USA, PVP2008-61126.

KEYWORDS: airframe structure, bulk residual stress, computational fluid dynamics, CFD, CFD models, gas turbine engines, heat transfer coefficient

AF103-155 TITLE: Passive, Wireless Sensors for Extreme Turbine Conditions

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate improved wireless sensor materials and concepts that can be used for >2,300°F applications.

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is seeking new and novel sensor capabilities that will enable the measurement of system environmental conditions as an input parameter to life prediction models of critical engine components and for the detection of in situ damage. Engine health monitoring (EHM) sensor capabilities are needed to monitor the health of aircraft structures, avionics, turbine engines and other subsystems[1]. To be of value for long-term EHM applications, the sensors need to have self- calibration capability, high reliability, fast response, low sensor drift, and high accuracy.

The overall objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate reliable sensor technologies that will provide operational condition information and material damage status of engine turbine systems exposed to high-temperature environments. The sensors will provide operational environment information that will serve as inputs for diagnostic and life prediction models, and will provide a determination of the need for accurate timing of engine inspection and maintenance. The potential for great savings in depot costs are expected to be significant. Therefore, wireless temperature measurements on a low-pressure turbine blade is the primary target of this effort.

Advanced materials need to be identified in addition to the application of novel sensor concepts to develop and demonstrate a passive, wireless temperature sensor capability at extreme temperatures (>2,300°F). These materials should be conformal, resistant to corrosion, electrically resistive and conductive (where needed), and thermally compatible to low-pressure turbine blade materials at 2,300°F. Potential materials would include, but not be limited to, high-temperature oxides and refractory metals. Delamination of the advanced material at high temperature needs to be investigated to reduce reliability risks. The total thickness of the coatings should be reasonable for turbine blade conditions. Composite thickness variations of the sensor material, however, should be 10 microns or less across the blade. Overall sensor thickness should not create significant changes in boundary layer or aerodynamic flow over the low-pressure turbine blade airfoil. Because of the future integration of novel sensor materials with high-temperature turbine engine materials, collaboration with an engine original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is encouraged.

PHASE I: Demonstrate a passive, wireless high-temperature device at a minimum of 2,300°F (1,260°C) in a laboratory environment.

PHASE II: Demonstrate and test mature materials and sensor electronics. Demonstrate accurate temperature measurements using RF wireless sensors conformally fabricated onto actual commercially available low-pressure turbine blade at temperatures of at least 2,300°F.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Wireless, passive high-temperature sensors, and minimal sensor drift coupled with reliable attachment methodologies is a pervasive technology that can be used in high-temperature military systems.

Commercial Application: Wireless, passive high-temperature sensors, and minimal sensor drift coupled with reliable attachment methodologies is a pervasive technology that can be used in high-temperature commercial systems.

REFERENCES:

1. McConnell, Vicki P., “Commercial: Engine Prognostics,” Avionics Magazine, 1 August 2007.

2. U. Kaiser and W. Steinhagen, “A low-power transponder IC for high-performance identification Systems,” IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 30, 3 March 1995, p. 306.

3. E. Funk et al., “Logging device with down-hole transceiver for operation in extreme temperatures,” United States Patent 7450053.

KEYWORDS: Passive, wireless, extreme temperature sensor

AF103-156 TITLE: Wavelength-Tunable Solid-State Mid Wave Infrared (MWIR) Attenuator

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Development of an MWIR optical attenuator with high off-state transmission and wavelength agile rejection when activated.

DESCRIPTION: MWIR sensors operating in the wavelength range of 3 to 5 microns are important in industry and defense for chemical sensing, surveillance, and other applications. One application of MWIR sensors is spectral discrimination to allow accurate identification of chemical species. We seek novel concepts of polarization-insensitive active-spectral attenuators which can be placed within the optical train of the sensor. The optical attenuator should have high MWIR transmission at normal scene irradiance levels. When switched on, either actively or passively, it should provide high attenuation via either reflection or absorption over a wavelength band. The attenuation band must be wavelength tunable and should have a nominal bandwidth while allowing imagery of the scene to continue.

PHASE I: Identify novel concepts and designs for tunable attenuation in the 3- to 5-micron wavelength regime. Develop a model to predict device performance and optimize the design to maximize the dynamic range of attenuation and wavelength tuning.

PHASE II: Based on the optimized design determined in Phase I, fabricate, test, and deliver devices of 1-inch diameter clear aperture. Based on test results and validation, fabricate, test, and deliver devices scaled to a clear aperture diameter of 3 inches or greater.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This technology has application in DoD sensor systems.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications of this technology include wavelength agile laser systems, telecommunications, and dense wavelength division multiplexing.

REFERENCES:

1. Agayeva, A., V. Salmanov, et al., ";Electric-Field-Controlled Attenuator for Near IR Laser Radiation,"; International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves 20(1) 1999, pp. 71-76.

2. Rosenberg, K. P., K. D. Hendrix, et al., “Logarithmically variable infrared etalon filters,” Optical Thin Films IV: New Developments, San Diego, CA, USA, Proc SPIE, 1994, p. 2262.

3. Cui, H. Y., Z. F. Li, et al., ";Modulation of the two-photon absorption by electric fields in HgCdTe photodiode,"; Applied Physics Letters 92(2) 2008, 021128-3.

KEYWORDS: mid-wave Infrared, MWIR, optical attenuation

AF103-157 TITLE: Three-Dimensional (3-D) Crack Growth Life Prediction for Probabilistic Risk

Analysis of Turbine Engine Metallic Components

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop, validate, and incorporate 3-D crack growth models into mechanism-based probabilistic life prediction of advanced metallic turbine engine materials and structures.

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is currently placing an increased emphasis on probabilistic methods for quantitative prediction of design reliability of fracture critical components including metallic turbine engine blades and disks [1]. Currently, U.S. Air Force engines are required to satisfy both crack initiation (safe life) and fatigue crack growth and inspection (damage tolerance) design criteria under the engine structural integrity program (ENSIP) [2]. This approach typically includes a significant amount of conservatism in crack initiation and fatigue crack growth and inspection design criteria due to uncertainties in the analysis including but not limited to material properties, fatigue performance, crack growth analysis, stress analysis, residual stresses, damage mechanisms, and nondestructive inspection (NDI). A mechanism-based probabilistic risk analysis of a fracture critical component can allow these sources of uncertainty to be quantified in a life prediction analysis to calculate the probability of failure over the life of the component [3]. Any action that reduces the uncertainty in the life prediction analysis can then be used to reduce the calculated component probability of failure or extend the allowable component life and inspection interval while maintaining a constant relative probability of failure. A reduction in life prediction uncertainty can be accomplished through improved data characterization, more accurate life prediction models, as well as model validation. For this topic, we seek a 3-D crack propagation model that will enable more accurate component life prediction and probability of failure analyses with reduced uncertainty. This model should incorporate 3-D fracture mechanics calculations. The proposed model should include the analysis of crack growth at complex 3-D structural features, complex multi-axial stress states, mixed-mode crack growth, surface-treatment-induced residual stress fields, and bulk component residual stress fields. The proposed model should focus on application to metallic fracture critical turbine engine components. A sensitivity analysis should be included to identify the important model parameters. Since the implementation of an advanced component life prediction model requires integration with the operation of engines, close technical collaboration with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) is strongly recommended in all phases.

PHASE I: Identify efficient 3-D fracture mechanics models that can incorporate the desired crack growth drivers in an advanced turbine engine material. Demonstrate feasibility of a 3-D crack propagation model incorporated into a probabilistic life prediction of a component.

PHASE II: Demonstrate, verify, and validate the 3-D life prediction models developed in Phase I that can be used for component probability of failure calculations, including demonstration of the reduction in uncertainty due to improved models. Demonstrate and validate each level of 3-D crack growth prediction including effects of residual stress, complex geometry, and stress state.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Offeror should pursue follow-on activities to transition the developed capabilities into the life management practices or software tools of military turbine engine original equipment manufacturers.

Commercial Application: Commercial benefits include improved reliability analysis of components for commercial aircraft and land-based turbines.

REFERENCES:

1. Lykins, C., Thomson, D., and Pomfret, C., “The Air Force’s Application of Probabilistics to Gas Turbine Engines,” AIAA-94-1440-CP, 1994.

2. Engine Structural Integrity Program (ENSIP), MIL-STD-1783 (USAF), 30 November 1984.

3. Enright, M.P, Hudak, S.J, McClung, R.C., and Millwater, H.R., “Application of Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics to Prognosis of Aircraft Engine Components,” AIAA Journal, 44 (2), pp. 311-316.

KEYWORDS: three-dimensional, 3D, crack growth, fatigue, fracture mechanics, gas turbine, life prediction, metals, uncertainty analysis

AF103-158 TITLE: Nonlinear Dielectric Materials and Processing for High-Energy-Density

Capacitors

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a nonlinear dielectric mat'l system & processing to fabricate enhanced performance nanoscale dielectrics for capacitors w/energy densities >4 J/cc, high breakdown strength, & low loss <0.005.

DESCRIPTION: The overarching goal is to provide significant improvements in the electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of dielectric materials for high-energy-density capacitors and for compact pulse-forming networks. These are required by the Air Force both for traditional electrical power applications such as the more electric aircraft and for pulsed-power applications. Lightweight, compact, high-energy-density capacitors capable of operation at several megajoules per pulse and repetition rates on the order of 100 pps bursts are needed. Nonlinear dielectric materials systems with unique chemical and physical properties have the potential to make revolutionary advances in the area of advanced dielectrics for these applications, and two material approaches have proven to be promising. Nanostructured dielectric materials approaches may include ceramic or nanocomposite materials. Nanocomposites offer the opportunity to tailor the dielectric material on the nanometer scale, resulting in effects and potential opportunities not seen when traditional dielectric materials are used, while novel dielectric ceramics offer some of the highest dielectric properties reported in the literature.

The ability to synthesize, functionalize, process, and characterize nonlinear nanodielectric composite materials provides the key to being able to successfully utilize nonlinear materials systems in energy storage capacitors if material processing techniques are successfully developed. Efforts should advance a fundamental understanding of how the resulting nanoscale morphology and chemical composition impact dielectric characteristics, such as their polarization behavior including remnant and saturation polarization, breakdown strength, and electric field distribution. This will subsequently dictate new methodologies to design and engineer new materials and nanoscale architectures to take full advantage of these opportunities. A key part of this program will be the interaction between experimental and theoretical approaches. The development and utilization of models and simulations to provide a fundamental understanding of how the enhancement of the macroscopic properties such as dielectric constant, losses, breakdown strength, and mechanical stability arise from engineering the nonlinear material systems on the nanoscale, and a validation of these models with experimentation will be essential to a successful program.

Materials development of nonlinear dielectric films and material systems must include a variety of tasks including materials synthesis, fabrication, and processing. Topics of interest include a variety of ceramic and nanocomposite materials approaches, but are not limited to, ceramic materials development including defect control, examination of ceramic pore-to-pore interaction along with pore-to-electrode interaction under various thermal conditions, anti-ferroelectric materials, and ferroelectric materials systems, nonlinear nanoparticle-filled systems (organic and/or inorganic), unique approaches to control nanoparticle dispersion, multilayer deposition, quantum confinement, and space charge polarization effects.

PHASE I: Demo understanding and control of fabrication, processing, and characterization of improved novel nonlinear nanodielectric materials. Demo and test the feasibility of capacitors with improved energy densities 4 J/cc, low losses (<0.01), high breakdown, and suitable mechanical/thermal properties.

PHASE II: Further develop and demonstrate improved nonlinear dielectrics, processing and device fabrication capabilities. Demonstrate and deliver six packaged, prototype high-energy-density, high-performance capacitors with energy densities of 4 J/cc or greater and low losses (<0.005) fabricated from optimized nonlinear dielectric materials.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Power conditioning for compact, high-power electrical system for manned and unmanned aircraft, pulsed-power applications, insulation for highly efficient electric machines, aircraft ignition systems.

Commercial Application: Power conditioning, uninterrupted power supply, utility distribution substations, insulation for compact and highly efficient electric machines, medical defibrillators, and aircraft ignition systems.

REFERENCES:

1. Colin Kydd Campbell, Jacobus Daniel van Wyk, and Rengang Chen, “Experimental and Theoretical Characterization of an Antiferroelectric Ceramic Capacitor for Power Electronics,” IEEE Trans. On Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 25, No. 2, June 2002, pp. 211-216.

2. X. Qi, Z. Zheng, and S. Boggs, “Engineering with Nonlinear Dielectrics,” IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, DEIS Feature Article, Dec/Nov 2004, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 27-34.

3. Zhicheng Zhang and T.C. Mike Chung, “The Structure-Property Relationship of Poly(vinylidene difluoride)-Based Polymers with Energy Storage and Loss under Applied Electric Fields,” Macromolecules, 21 Nov 2007.

4. K. Yamakawa, S. Trolier-McKinstry, and J.P. Dougherty, “Reactive Magnetron Co-Sputtered Antiferroelectric Lead Zirconate Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67 (14), 2 Oct 1995, pp. 2014-2016.

5. M.L. Fre’chette, M.L. Trudeau, H.D. Alamdari, and S. Boily, “Introductory Remarks on Nanodielectrics,” IEEE Trans. on Diel. & Elect. Insul., 11 (5), (2004) pp. 808-818.

KEYWORDS: anti-ferroelectric, dielectrics, ferroelectric, high-energy-density capacitors, nanocomposites, nanodielectrics, nanostructured dielectrics, nonlinear materials, passivation, power conditioning, pulsed forming networks

AF103-159 TITLE: Intelligent Robo-Pallet

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes, Electronics

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Increase cargo airlift SORTIE rate and optimize cargo management by incorporating advanced technology into military airlift cargo handling, providing: load self-propulsion; load self-location/navigation; load self-weighing/distribution; load item self-inventory; and interoperable communication with operators, load-masters, and cargo management systems.

DESCRIPTION: Current cargo on-load/off-load operations are rate limited by availability of qualified man-power and cargo handling equipment at both garrison and contingency airbases. As such, steps to move to an automated cargo handling system are necessary.

To this end, we are asking for the development of a military-aircraft, cargo container/platform with the following required capabilities:

• Self-propulsion, self navigation (autonomous)

o On-off cargo aircraft (tight-quarter, aircraft interface)

o In and around flight-line areas and equipment (obstacle avoidance)

o To and from cargo staging areas (route planning)

• Self-assessment (continuous)

o Load item inventory (history)

o Load weight and distribution (3-axis)

o Load location (relative: aircraft, navigation pathways, cargo staging area)

• Interface compatibility

o Military cargo aircraft

o Aircraft operating surfaces (flight-line terrain)

o Load-master personnel

• Command and control

o Local communications (wireless)

o Aircraft On-load, off-load (command)

o Load-data download (data output)

o Flight-line destination (data input)

The data collected and calculated by the intelligent pallet would be used to optimize cargo management by the loadmaster for aircraft aerodynamics as well as shipping and receiving operations.

PHASE I: Develop a concept and design an intelligent pallet that satisfies the objective and description above. Perform any necessary preliminary experiments to support concept design. Deliverables include: Conceptual Design; Experimental Test Results; Detail Phase II Proposal, includes: Preliminary Design, Estimated Costs, Schedule, and Milestones.

PHASE II: Fabricate and build a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrate requirements of objective and description above. Deliverables include: Mechanical, Electrical, and Software (Logic) Design Drawings; Demonstration Plan; Demonstration Report; Monthly Status Reports; and Final Report.

PHASE III: Additional capability would be developed and integrated in this phase, including: unimproved roadway (off-road) navigation; logistics network integration; container/platform scaling; and interoperability communications. In addition to military cargo handling, the technology developed by this effort will have direct application to commercial air-cargo handling, shipping and receiving, and warehousing.

KEYWORDS: KEYWORDS: CARGO HANDLING SYSTEM, CARGO AIR TRANSPORTATION, MILITARY TRANSPORTATION, MILITARY SUPPLIES, LOGISTICS, SUPPLY DEPOTS, AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS, RFID, WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, 463L PALLET, AIR TRANSPORT CONTAINER

AF103-163 TITLE: High Density and Input Rate Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Materials

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop/demo manufacturing scalability of TES materials with a system goal of equal to 68 kJ/kg at 20 to 70 °C, which can store heat loads at a rate of equal to 2 kW/kg in high-capacity TES devices.

DESCRIPTION: High-rate, high-capacity, novel thermal energy storage materials for managing transient heat loads are needed which are compatible with designs of high-rate thermal energy storage systems. The objective of this SBIR is to demonstrate the use and scalability of novel thermal energy storage materials for one or more military weapons systems applications, including fiber lasers, satellite systems, and propulsion systems. The specific goal of this program is to develop and scale-up thermal energy storage materials which operate near room temperature, at a heat class of 100 to 1000 kW, and provide thermal energy storage of at least 68 kJ/kg as a packaged thermal storage and rejection system at 20 °C for laser applications, and at 70 °C for high-power microwave applications. The system shall also have a volumetric thermal energy storage requirement of at least 120 kJ/liter. The material(s) chosen shall allow for a high thermal input rate, operate for the number of cycles required (at least hundreds), be easy to maintain (no contamination or coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch issues), and be lightweight. Depending on the specific application, cycle times may be relatively short, with thermal load input rates of 2.0 kW/kg or greater, and a volumetric thermal load input rate of 4 kW/liter.

The thermal energy storage materials under consideration are solids in at least one of the useful phases, which demonstrate the ability to store heat through chemical, magnetic, electrical, morphological, or thermodynamic phase changes or reactions. Materials based on the latent heat of melting, e.g., paraffins and low melting point alloys, are not considered novel materials and will not be considered for this SBIR topic. Similarly, liquids which absorb energy based on the heat of vaporization, e.g., water, ammonia, etc. are not considered as novel materials. However, solid materials undergoing phase changes or chemical reaction transitions while absorbing thermal energy will be considered, including ones which release gaseous products. Although the complete system recycling/recharging while in the air is desirable, materials with an open cycle which may discharge gas or other phases formed during thermal absorption will be considered if they meet the storage density criteria and are rechargeable on the ground and are therefore reusable. However, if a system/material is chosen which is intended to be recharge on the ground, the thermal energy storage capacity must be significantly greater than the minimum program goals stated above.

PHASE I: Synthesize novel TES materials, evaluate physical/chemical properties, determine the chemical/physical changes during storage reaction, demonstrate feasibility of meeting requirements, evaluate material scalability and packaging options in real systems, and explore candidate demos for Phase II.

PHASE II: Optimize and evaluate one or more TES materials, demo energy density/input rates criteria are met, select/fabricate a demo application and packaging/combination configuration, integrate materials in a high-energy-density storage system or realistic simulation and test, and provide system-level storage characteristics; determine performance of the TES material(s) in the demo application.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Integration and packaging of the high-capacity, high-rate thermal energy storage systems into high-power, solid-state laser or high-power, microwave thermal management systems.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications for improved thermal management, both in the aerospace and nonaerospace markets, include actuator cooling and hybrid automotive applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Du, J., Chow, L.C., and Leland, Q., ";Optimization of High Heat Flux Thermal Energy Storage with Phases Change Materials,"; ASME IMECE, 5-11 Nov 2005.

2. Wierschke, K.W., Franke, M.E., Watts, R., and Ponnappan, R., ";Heat Dissipation with Pitch Based Carbon Foams and Phase Change Materials,"; 38th AIAA Thermophysics Conf., Toronto, Ontario, 6-9 June 2005.

3. Baxi, C.B. and Knowles, T., “Thermal Energy Storage for Solid-State Laser Weapon Systems,” Journal of Directed Energy, Vol. 1, pp. 293-308, Winter 2006.

4. Park, C., Kim, K.J., Gottschlich, J., and Leland, Q., “High Performance Heat Storage and Dissipation Technology,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference & Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005.

5. Gopal, M.R. and Murthy S.S., “Studies on Heat and Mass Transfer in Metal Hydride Beds,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 20, pp. 911-917, 1995.

KEYWORDS: high-capacity thermal energy storage, high input rate thermal energy storage, thermal energy storage materials, thermal energy storage systems, thermal management

AF103-164 TITLE: Plasmonic Beamsteering

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: To develop and construct a miniature fast laser beamsteering device that utilize electro-optically active plasmonic structures.

DESCRIPTION: Miniaturization of optical and infrared (IR) sensing, and integrated chip scale information system components, continues to be of particular importance in development of the future generation of Air Force smart and compact systems. The drive towards smaller but more capable systems creates a demand for new exotic nano devices for integration on the chip scale.

Recently there has also been strong interest in the use of optical frequency plasmonics for a variety of applications in nanophotonics. Plasmonics seeks to integrate the advantages of surface plasmon wave physics into the technology base. This is typically accomplished engineering metallic structures on the nanoscale in order to achieve some sort of enhanced functionality.

Since metals can also be used as an electrode material, it then makes sense to combine plasmonics with the engineering of electro-optic photonic devices. Of particular importance here is to use a combination of metal plasmonic engineering with electro-optic organic and inorganic materials to create high speed nanoscale laser beamsteering devices.The high field localization inherent within plasmonic structures and large ability to control light waves should make it possible to design devices with reasonable angles of regard (+/- 5 degrees). Since very fast scan times are also wanted (submicrosecond full angle scanning) the electro-optic material must also have a fast response. The recent organic electro-optic polymers, or some of the higher performance crystalline materials may be useful in that aspect. The primary challenges will be achieving the high scan angle that has full two axis scanning and controlling the inevitable optical losses that will be present within any plasmonic device. Any proposal to pursue this technology should address the issue of optical losses and demonstrate that figures of merit will result in practical usable devices.

These chip scale scanning devices will be coupled with embedded chip scale laser sources for full integration with miniature high performance sensors and processing hardware. Since this source may not be available, a demonstration coupling with another type of waveguide light source may be attempted. This could involve using a fiber optic source. Plasmonic engineering of this type has not been undertaken on any large scale to this date.

PHASE I: Design a theoretically satisfactory device and perform feasibility experiments with passive plasmonic structures. Demonstrate the ability to work with and obtain the chosen electro-optic material.

PHASE II: Fabrication and optimization of active waveguide coupled electro-optic scanners that demonstrate electro-optic beam scanning using plasmonics. Delivery of device for testing at AFRL would be required with the following: Collimation to 10 milliradians (may be negotiable), 2-axis +/- 5 degree angle of regard, scan over angle of regard < 1 microsecond. Wavelength from 0.4 to 4 microns.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Miniature laser detection, imaging, and ranging (LADAR/LIDAR) sensors, free space data communication links, and high performance data and image processing.

Commercial Application: Wireless chip-to-chip communication routers and links.

REFERENCES:

1. Nanfang Yu et. al., “Multi-beam multi-wavelength semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics Letters (2009).

2. Federico Capasso, Nanfang Yu, Ertugrul Cubukcu, and Elizabeth Smythe, “Using plasmonics to shape light beams,” Optics and Photonics News 0, 22 (2009).

3. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).

KEYWORDS: electro-optic beamsteering, laser detection and ranging, LADAR, light detection and ranging, LIDAR, nanophotonics, optical sensing, plasmonics

AF103-165 TITLE: Airborne Network Trusted Code (Assurance) Involving the Anti-Access

Environment

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop capabilities that 1) detect complex embedded system software vulnerabilities, 2) measure their associated severity 3) provide a trust/assurance index for all collaborative network elements.

DESCRIPTION: Critical to achieving mission assurance relative to the collaborative data exchange between multiple network nodes (comprised of both avionics and sensor systems) is the trustworthiness associated with the supporting system/subsystem software, emphasizing embedded vulnerability identification and its associated exposure to threats. This research initiative will seek to identify, develop and demonstrate processes, tools, and mechanisms that can be used to assess and measure the trustworthiness of a system from an assurance perspective and to contribute to the generation of a trust (or assurance) index for nodes who attempt to join and communicate over a network. Tools envisioned for off-line processing are required to successfully detect software vulnerabilities and to facilitate in the automatic generation of trust assessment metrics through code examination. The assessment performed from various software code analysis tools, penetration and/or upcoming software assurance tools could jointly contribute to an initial assurance value, leading potentially to the critical component of the ultimate trust index value. This value along with values determined from on-line trust mechanisms such as intrusion detection and monitoring mechanisms could be used to aggregately provide the measure of system trustworthiness. The measurement of software components against established trust metrics will support collaborative exchange within the airborne networking environment, enabling integrated systems and aircrews (decision makers) to determine the reliability and integrity associated with actionable data emanating from multiple airborne sensor nodes operating within a heterogeneous network.

Trust metrics can be distilled and conveyed, augmenting generated sensor/system software with supporting trust benchmarks and emphasizing assured functional performance and the identification of software code vulnerabilities, to help support established trustworthiness processing criteria and supporting assessment mechanisms. Sensitivity discriminators, emphasizing risk and other relevant variable considerations will be established, enabling software trustworthiness to be readily assessed and compartmented according to predetermined trust index levels for action-level consideration.

Multi-function Advanced Data Link (MADL) system capabilities, being fielded for insertion into low observable platforms to facilitate robust force structure collaboration (emphasizing warfare tenets), mandate that trust mechanisms be put in place throughout the established network to facilitate timely data transfer, fusion and redistribution, and also to detect and quantify associated software code vulnerabilities aligned with identified or potential threats. Required collaborative utilities and/or mechanisms must be in place to identify software vulnerabilities, compartmented according to trust level thresholds involving predetermined characteristics, for disposition aligned with evolving threat conditions and/or battlespace opportunities. As an example, a representative solution element could be an on-line detector algorithm to help identify and isolate vulnerabilities in a timely manner, emphasizing threat considerations and mission tasking priorities. Timely, relevant network collaboration demands more than just high bandwidth connectivity. Trust mechanisms (applying pre-established trust metrics) must be in place throughout the network in order to better detect and mitigate identified vulnerabilities.

There are a number of different aspects to this effort. Offerors are encouraged to select only those portions to the solution space that will provide achievable and successful methods and/or technology implementation for transition.

PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate the feasibility of prototype assured software assessment capabilities that compare software against an established trust measurement matrix, which can be later scaled up and applied in an interactive airborne network environment to help sense and filter data at all nodes.

PHASE II: Scale up and implement deterministic trust mechanisms, incorporating established scoring metrics based on relevant assured software trustworthiness features. Using the same mechanisms, demonstrate determining actionable and/or filter information for selected response consideration within a distributed network populated with diverse sensors and nodes generating data at different fidelity levels.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Offeror expected to incorporate validated mechanisms into the planned multiservice MADL airborne network, providing platform nodes with relevant layered sensing software trustworthiness features.

Commercial Application: Facilitate unconstrained collaboration within distributed environments, equipping participants with tools to gage and to assess software trustworthiness and/or vulnerability identification.

REFERENCES:

1. National Research Council, ";Trust in Cyberspace,"; Committee on Information Systems Trustworthiness, 1999, http://www.nap.edu/reading room/books/trust/index/htm

2. Bryant, M.P. Johnson, B.M. Kent, M Nowak, S. Rogers, ";Layered Sensing";, White Paper, Version 6, 1 May 2008

3. United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), Report on Defending and Operating in a Contested Cyber Domain, SAB-TR-08-01, Aug 2008.

KEYWORDS: trust, assurance, assessment, sensors, network, airborne, data link, measurement, metrics, net centric

AF103-166 TITLE: Methods for interfacing broad bandwidth data links to airborne ISR systems

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop standards based methods to interface broadband (1.5 Gb/s and greater data rates) data links to existing and planned ISR Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).

DESCRIPTION: With the continued growth of airborne high-output sensors, communicating sensor data to ground exploitation facilities has become challenging due to limited communication capabilities. This has resulted in unacceptable latency in the generation of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) information and product. Continuing sensor improvements generate greater amounts of data, taxing the capabilities of current data links and available spectrum. In addition, the use of air-to-air relays to supplement current air-to-ground and air-to-overhead-to-ground architectures has not materialized. Both radio frequency (RF) and hybrid RF-laser communications techniques have been demonstrated and programs are being pursued by the DoD to make high speed data links operational. These new systems must increase data rate capability without requiring growth in link spectrum space requirements. This Small Business Innovative Research seeks to define, model, develop, build, and prototype flexible sensor-to-link and link-to-ground exploitation system interface which can demonstrate current and planned sensor suites communicating without adding additional latency. This initiative can include but is not limited to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based solutions that will provide an interface as well as software development tools to allow use of new Input/Output (I/O) technologies. Modeling must use Very-High-Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to be compatible with existing DoD communications data models. Interfaces should be defined to support interfacing to DoD Common Data Link (CDL) terminals with router based architectures supporting a Multi-Stack Packet Transfer Frame Format (MS_PTFF). A prime concern is addressing the number and type of interfaces necessary to support the up-to 8 MS-PTFF sub-channels and the segregated aircraft control channel (required for FAA safety).

PHASE I: Define interfaces based on typical UAS sensor payloads and produce a VHDL behavioral level simulation model through the router architecture and MS-PTFF structure.

PHASE II: Further refine MS-PTFF multi-streaming concept VHDL simulation model and build and demonstrate a bench model to emulate sensor data through the CDL system through the MS-PTFF. Design a complete behavioral level simulation through the complete Bandwidth Efficient CDL (BE-CDL) and standard CDL data link from sensor input through the router. Propose specific updates to current DoD CDL specifications.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The technology is applicable to larger reconnaissance platforms and to the Army, Navy, and Air Force CDL systems.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications of this technology include law enforcement, border patrol, and search and rescue.

REFERENCES:

1. Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd addition by Bernard Sklar, Published by Prentice Hall PTR, 2001 ISBN 0130847887, 9780130847881

2. Miniature CDL Transceiver (Mini-CDL-200) data sheet

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3. AN/USQ-167 Common Data Link System (CDLS) (United States), Communication systems - Maritime, Jane's C4I Systems, 29 Jun 2009 4. BE-CDL REV A, Std CDL Rev H.

KEYWORDS: data links, interface, ISR systems, UAS, airborne

AF103-167 TITLE: Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Based Electronic Components for Unmanned Aircraft

Systems (UAS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate efficient, linear, high-bandwidth CNT based technology in UAS electronic components, for Radio Frequency (RF) airborne communication.

DESCRIPTION: Carbon Nanotube (CNT) materials can function as conductors or semiconductors. There is potential to build integrated multi-mode electronic sensing devices and systems completely out of CNT material based components. CNT materials show significant potential for energy storage and electro-mechanical energy conversion devices and sensors. In addition to radically improving electronics performance, CNT has the potential to reduce Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of electronic components onboard Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The technology is expected to greatly enhance reliability and efficiency of several UAS electronic components while focusing on meeting critical UAS SWaP constraints. The high strength to weight ratio and close material similarity of CNT to carbon fiber composite aircraft skin makes this is technology an attractive candidate for UAS avionics and sensor improvements. The purpose of this topic is to demonstrate highly efficient, highly linear, high bandwidth, high frequency, CNT based RF components for use in existing UAS electronic systems. The types of electronics systems of interest are airborne networking and communication, electronic warfare, and multi-mode wide-band sensing. Candidate components are Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA), Power Amplifiers (PA), and RF Switches.

PHASE I: Design a component feasibility concept for devices as described above. Devices must provide a clear advantage for UAS electronics over currently available technology.

PHASE II: Refine the Phase I results to develop the device into a commercially manufacturable prototype. The prototype must demonstrate either a new capability or improve existing capabilities for UAS electronic systems.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Sat-Com, Mobile Sat-Com, UAS, Soldier Wearable Systems, and Airborne Network Data Links.

Commercial Application: Portable computers, cell phones, WIFI, remote security systems, video phone.

REFERENCES:

1. “Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Program” DoD. Director, Defense Research and Engineering. April 26, 2007.

2. Harris, C. E.; Starnes,; M. J. Shuart J. H. “An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in the Design and Manufacturing of Large Composite Structures for Aerospace Vehicles”, NASA/TM-2001-210844Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia.

3. http://www.darpa.mil/MTO/programs/cera/

4. /wiki/Graphene

5. /wiki/Carbon_nanotube

KEYWORDS: Carbon Nanotubes, Multi-Mode Sensors, Carbon Based Electronics, Carbon Nanotube Devices, Carbon Nanotube RF Devices, Nano-Electronics

AF103-168 TITLE: Unknown Wireless Network Discovery

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Research, develop and evaluate algorithms and methodologies for discovering and characterizing non-cooperative hidden nodes with selfish or malicious intent operating in real world environments.

DESCRIPTION: Traditionally in the context of wireless local area networks (WLANs), a hidden node is defined as one that other nodes sharing the same network resources are unaware of its existence. When a known and hidden node both try to utilize the resources of the network at the same time, packet collisions occur and information is dropped. The hidden node problem in this case is investigated primarily at the medium access control level. In the context of cognitive radio networks (CRNs), the hidden node problem describes the issue of secondary users failing to detect the presence of licensed primary users in the band, causing interference to the primary users when data is transmitted. In this cognitive radio environment, systems are built on software defined architectures, allowing for flexibility to rapidly change their operating parameters. They are also capable of operating under multiple configurations that are both unknown and can easily change, such as networking layer protocols, topologies, operating locations, user information, and routing algorithms. All this makes it easier for a hidden node to “hide”.

Current solutions to both of these scenarios assume that the network environment is a cooperative one, and look for ways to either “discover” the hidden node and better incorporate it into the network infrastructure, or to decrease the amount of interference that is caused as a result of the node being hidden. There is very little consideration of the non-cooperative scenario, one in which the hidden node is “hiding” purposely, with either a selfish or malicious intent. A non-cooperative hidden node operating under selfish means tries to scavenge as many resources as it can for itself. A malicious hidden node is one that actively hides or intentionally misinforms the other network occupants in order to spy on the network or even try to impair or disable it.

The effective detection and classification of non-cooperative nodes will require the use of multiple disciplines including: both networking and physical layer waveform expertise, distributed cooperative/collaborative sensing, and non-traditional sensing techniques among others. As more information is discovered about the hidden nodes, that knowledge should be utilized as part of the situational knowledge of the network, used locally at the node level or globally in the construct of the overall network. Approaches and responses that are highly flexible and innovative are necessary.

The ability to obtain more useful information about non-cooperative wireless sensor/communication networks using intelligent algorithms and techniques is extremely valuable to the USAF and future Electronic Warfare (EW) technology implementations.

PHASE I: Define and analyze through trade studies, approaches and methods to discover and characterize unknown wireless networks. Through analytical and simulation means, show the quantitative performance for a variety of representative and realistic operational environments.

PHASE II: Develop a software-defined architecture based prototype and test environment to validate results from the Phase I effort.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The technology will be required for enhancement of battlefield situational awareness, and future deployments of a Cognitive Jammer Architecture to judge value and maximize adaptation performance.

Commercial Application: The techniques may be applicable to commercial cognitive radio deployments.

REFERENCES:

1. Li, Z., et al., “A Distributed Consensus-Based Cooperative Spectrum-Sensing Scheme in Cognitive Radios,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Jan 2010.

2. Zeng, Y., et al., ";A Review on Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio: Challenges and Solutions,"; EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2010.

3. Thomas, R., et al., “Cognitive networks: adaptation and learning to achieve end-to-end performance objectives,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Dec. 2006.

4. Haykin, Simon, “Cognitive Dynamic Systems”, IEEE 1-4244-0728-1, 2007.

5. Koubaa, A.; Severino, R.; Alves, M.; Tovar, E.; ";Improving Quality-of-Service in Wireless Sensor Networks by Mitigating “Hidden-Node Collisions”,"; Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.5, no.3, pp.299-313, Aug. 2009.

KEYWORDS: spectrum sensing, hidden node, signal intelligence, dynamic spectrum access

AF103-169 TITLE: Prioritization of Weapon System Software Assurance Assessment

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Weapons

OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative approach to risk assessment of commercial software, such as freeware, shareware, etc. to determine which software requires further scrutiny by existing code analysis tools.

DESCRIPTION: There are many software application programs being developed by commercial and private sources, such as freeware, shareware and open source software that are available on the internet that have the functionality to help our weapon systems perform their mission faster and at a lower cost. The majority of these programs have not gone through a formal risk acceptance approval process to enable them to be officially installed and integrated on various weapon system platforms. Weapon systems operate in a high threat environment. The risk is high that these software programs may contain malicious or vulnerable code that could impact the safety of the weapon system, disable the weapon system or cause the weapon system to transmit sensitive or classified information. Weapon system software that is critical or safety-of-flight (SOF) related needs to be stringently controlled. Most freeware and shareware software has been written without the intent to cause any problems, but that could change once a source or provider knows that the software is being used in a weapon system. Both defense contractors and Department of Defense (DoD) users are constantly searching for software utility programs that they do not need to develop or manage. Utility programs like these can aid the software developer in implementing functionality into new or existing weapon systems much sooner. This type of software can help organize and reduce the information overload that exists in our weapon systems today.

There are a number of software analysis tools (mostly source code tools) on the market today that can provide a certain level of confidence for software assurance (SwA). None of these tools however can cover all potential scenarios to uncover all potential vulnerabilities. Each tool may be good at a specific task, but then may need to run as part of a suite to uncover potential problems. Most of the commercial utility programs downloaded to date for analysis do not come with source code, but with binary code. The first step needed in the SwA process is to perform an initial risk assessment of the weapon system software (source or binary), prioritizing which software needs further analysis and then determine the appropriate code analysis tool or tool suite to perform the code analysis.

Automation is required to be an integral part of the risk assessment process of all weapon system software for a program with prioritized results. This risk assessment will be based on SOF, mission, criticality, etc. The output of this technology will identify which software needs code analysis to lower the risk of using this software. This would benefit all programs that utilize commercial software not developed specifically for that program. Current Information Assurance (IA) policy stipulates that commercial software be approved for use by the appropriate Certifying Authority (CA) and Designated Accrediting Authority (DAA). Without some technical assurance that the software in question is low risk, the DAA will be reluctant to approve the software, potentially impacting the program.

Phase I: Develop and demonstrate an innovative technique or algorithm that will analyze a list of weapon system software and assess the risk of using it based on SOF, mission, criticality, etc. A software code analysis tool or tool suite is then recommended to perform further analysis.

Phase II: Further refine the risk assessment technology in proving an overall tool capability for use beyond just a demonstration. This stand-alone tool should seamlessly interface with selected code analysis tools or tool suites. ASC plans to implement an Agent of the Certifying Authority (ACA). This tool will permit the ACA rapid risk assessment of the weapon system software for vulnerabilities.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Follow-on activities are expected with one or more DoD organizations to use this tool as part of a tool suite to analyze/assess selected commercial software, open source, freeware and shareware.

Commercial Application: Follow-on activities are expected by the offeror to commercialize this software tool, providing opportunities for use by AF, other DoD services, government departments, agencies, and industry.

REFERENCES:

1. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Spec Pub 800-53

2. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, / IEEE Standard 1012 - 2004, 8 Dec 04, IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation.

KEYWORDS: software assessment, software assurance, code analysis, information assurance, open source software, freeware, shareware, malicious code, vulnerabilities, DAA

AF103-170 TITLE: Small Unmanned Aerial System (SUAS) Standard Payload Interface (SPI)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors, Weapons

OBJECTIVE: Research, design and demonstrate a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) Standard Payload Interface (SPI) enabling vendors to design unique SUAS payloads while meeting payload interface requirements.

DESCRIPTION: A variety of payload types may be carried in (and in some cases released from) the bays of existing and future SUASs. These include but are not necessarily limited to munitions, munition dispensers, sensors (electro-optical, infrared, radar, environmental, chemical/biological), target rangers/designators, communications monitoring packages, etc. Installation of these payloads will vary from mission to mission in the general case. Most current payloads have unique electrical interfaces (in spite of the fact that many identical or similar functions are typically supported), requiring vehicles to be originally built for or modified to support a specific suite of payload types. Addition of new payload types during the service life of the vehicle typically requires further modification, often at a significant cost. The diversity of interfaces also results in significant wiring requirements and additional electronics in the vehicle to support the multiple interface types, driving up weight and consuming internal volume.

This effort is to consequently identify payload types of interest for carriage in SUAS bays, investigate and document the associated vehicle interface requirements (electrical and functional), and define a SPI capable of satisfying the established interface requirements of all payload types of interest. The defined SPI should take account of existing interface standards for weapons and evolving interface standards for sensors, and include/adapt applicable features of those interfaces where deemed beneficial. The SPI should also consider existing government/commercial standards as well as the unique military use cases which include (but are not limited to): E/O and IR Video (H.262, MPEG2, MPEG4, etc.), Digitized Data (lines of bearing), Munitions functions (Arm, Disarm, Aerial Detonation, etc.--always a multistage process), and Payload Separation or Multiple Separations within payload (should be considered a multistage process w/o munitions safeguards). Assume that raw digitized data (within 100gram package) will be produced and that intense processing will be accomplished off board. Also determine the feasibility of applying the same concept of open architecture to large UAS. Cost, physical volume requirements, and separation characteristics (for releasable payloads) of interface implementations should be major factors of consideration. Ease of payload installation/change-out is also of major interest. A baseline interface definition should be developed which addresses power, data communication, discrete signal transfer as well as any other identified interface requirements for the payload types of interest. A prototype of the defined SPI should ultimately be implemented and used to demonstrate/refine the proposed interface definition.

PHASE I: Investigate SUAS payload types and document requirements for electrically interfacing payloads with SUAS platforms. Define and propose a candidate standard payload interface based upon composite requirements of various payload types.

PHASE II: Build and demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype satisfying established Phase I requirements. Finalize a design for transition to Department of Defense (DoD) UAS.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Technology could lead to improved release approaches for micro-munitions used to attack high value targets with minimum collateral damage while providing better operational flexibility and reliability

Commercial Application: Technology could be adapted to support integration of removable internal/external electronic subsystems on commercial platforms used for photographic surveying, fire surveillance, crop monitoring, etc

REFERENCES:

1. Information on Air Force research Laboratory Munitions Directorate activities related to munitions technology and development may be found at www.eglin.af.mil/units/afrlmunitionsdirectorate/.

2. Information on Society of Automotive Engineers Avionics System Division activities which support development/implementation of interoperable store (including munitions) interfaces may be accessed via /standardsdev/aerospace/aasd.htm.

KEYWORDS: micro-munitions, stores, store interfaces, plug-and-play interfaces, power transfer, electrical interconnection, airborne sensors, UAV payloads

AF103-171 TITLE: Hyperspectral Sensor for Tracking Moving Targets

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Design, build, and demonstrate a hyperspectral sensor capable of tracking moving targets.

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is programming a new generation of airborne sensors for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) that provide a persistent high resolution wide field of view tracking of moving targets. Hyperspectral sensors have the added capability of being able to quickly help identify an object based upon a unique spectral signature. Applying hyperspectral technology to identify a moving target based upon a unique spectral signature would significantly enhance a sensor operator’s ability to maintain or re-acquire a track. However, current hyperspectral imaging sensors are generally restricted to applications where targets are stationary. Those sensors that can acquire data to track moving targets are usually burdened by mis-registration between spectral bands or have issues with scanning, framing and geolocation. These sensors are often pushed to the limits of their capability and storage capacity and only offer minimal tracking potential.

The challenge is to develop a hyperspectral sensor specifically designed for the purpose of tracking moving targets. The host platform flies at altitudes of 5 – 25k ft. Targets will be observed from nadir to 45 degrees off nadir. At these ranges, the ground sample distance (GSD) should be approximately 1m to sufficiently track vehicles (threshold) and less than 0.5m to successfully track dismounts (objective). Likewise, revisit/framing rates should be adequate to track both vehicles moving anywhere from 0 to 75 miles per hour (threshold) and dismounts moving anywhere from 0 to 5 miles per hour (objective). The sensor field of view must be large enough to permit reliable tracking of the targets described above. For sufficient hyperspectral algorithm processing, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensor should be greater than 100 if operating in the VNIR-SWIR or should have a noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) of less than 1 microflick (1 microW/sr cm2 micron) if operating in the LWIR spectral region. The system must export target tracks in a fashion such that they can be easily integrated/overlaid with and registered to other imagery streaming at video frame rates (30 frames/second minimum).

The sensor should place the highest priority on registration between spectral bands and addressing spectral distortion and aliasing. To adequately integrate this system onto an Air Force platform carrying other sensor payloads, minimal size, weight and power should be in the forefront of the system design. Goal is for the sensor to occupy no more than a 1 cubic foot volume, weigh less than 20 lbs. and consume less than 100W when completed.

While software for sensor operability will be an integral part of the system, the solution to this solicitation shall be a hardware deliverable. This is not a moving target algorithm effort. Software only solutions will not be considered.

PHASE I: Develop a preliminary design for the system based upon an analysis of alternatives for achieving the listed requirements, including trades in scanning versus framing systems, spectral operating ranges, bandwidths etc., and addressing inter-band registration, spectral distortion and aliasing.

PHASE II: Finalize the design, build and demonstrate a prototype sensor. The prototype will include sensor, software and data acquisition capability. This phase will also continue investigation into sensor performance, miniaturization options and commercialization.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application: Further refinement of Phase I/II designs for miniaturization, ruggedness and flight testing of sensor on chosen aircraft. The technology will also be applicable to larger reconnaissance platforms.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications of this technology include law enforcement, border patrol and search and rescue.

REFERENCES:

1. Stevenson, B. P., O’Connor, R., Kendall, W. B., Stocker, A. D., Schaff, W. E., et al., “Design and Performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731–742 (Jun 2005).

2. Simi, C. G., Winter, E. M., Williams, M. M., and Driscoll, D. C., “Compact Airborne SpectralSensor (COMPASS),” Proc. SPIE 4381, 129–136 (Aug 2001).

3. Hackwell, J. A., Warren, D. W., Bongiovi, R. P., Hansel, S. J., Hayhurst, T. L., et al., “LWIR/MWIR Imaging Hyperspectral Sensor for Airborne and Ground-Based Remote Sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102–107 (Nov 1996).

4. Chang, Chein-I, ed. 2007. Hyperspectral Data Exploitation Theory and Applications. Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley and Sons.

5. Curtiss Davis, Jeffrey Bowles, Robert Leathers, Daniel Korwan, T. Valerie Downes, William Snyder, W. Rhea, Wei Chen, John Fisher, Paul Bissett, and Robert Alan Reisse, ";Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,"; Opt. Express 10, 210-221 (2002).

KEYWORDS: Hyperspectral, HSI, Moving Targets, sensors

AF103-172 TITLE: Conformal Antennas for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative wideband conformal antenna solutions (passive and active) for aircraft communications (includes satellite communications (SATCOM) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) functions on UAS.

DESCRIPTION: Conformal antennae offer a unique solution to the strict size weight and power (SWAP) requirements for airborne sensors especially those deployed on UAS. Conformal antennae also help address the issue of antenna locations and the conflicts that arise from limited real estate. There has been limited success integrating the desired antennas for various functions (platform communications and SIGINT) into the air-frame. Improved antenna performance, lowered co-site and co-channel interference, and lowered cost can be accomplished by advanced design and manufacturing techniques. Develop and demonstrate proof of concepts for conformal antenna designs to support the required functions. Desired frequency coverage is very high frequency (VHF) through Ku band. A unique antenna design is not required to satisfy all functions.

PHASE I: Conduct antenna modeling and simulation and develop antenna designs for a proof of concept demonstration. Perform trade study for nontraditional antenna locations.

PHASE II: Fabricate, test and integrate the conformal antenna(s) on a UAS or scaled model to demonstrate installed pattern performance, antenna gain, and reflection coefficient. Perform full scale field test, and flight qualify for use in a program of record. Verify measured results through comparison to simulations.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Innovations developed under this topic will benefit all major DoD UAS conducting ISR operations.

Commercial Application: Innovations developed under this topic will benefit both DoD and commercial programs. Possible uses for these products include commercial aerospace, automotive, and communications industries.

REFERENCES:

1. Structurally Integrated Antennas on a Joined-Wing Aircraft, Author(s): Smallwood, Ben P. Report Date: Mar 2003, Report Number(s): AFIT/GAE/ENY/03-7XC-TR-2005-037; Report Classification: Unclassified, Distribution Limitation(s): 01 - APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEAS, Accession Number: ADA412866

2. Lockyer, Allen J., et al, “Flight Test Results of a Conformal Load-Bearing Antenna Structure (CLAS) Prototype Installed in NASA’s Systems Research Aircraft,” 16th AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Irvine, CA, October 1997.

KEYWORDS: Conformal Antennas, UAV, SIGINT

AF103-173 TITLE: Manufacturable Optical Diffraction Gratings

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop methods to improve the manufacturing processes associated with reflective diffraction gratings used in spectral sensing systems.

DESCRIPTION: Sensor development programs currently underway are experience difficulty in obtaining diffraction gratings. Diffraction grating are an optical system component with a regular pattern, which splits and diffracts light into several beams. The directions of these beams depend on the spacing of the grating and the wavelength of the light so that the grating acts as the sensor dispersive element. Departmetn of Defense (DoD) is working to invest in airborne long range and wide field of view hyperspectral sensors in the next 3-7 years. Techniques, processes, materials and designs for producing such gratings at an acceptable yield and integrating them into hyperspectral sensors are needed.

Hyperspectral sensors require diffraction gratings that operate in the Visible through Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) bands with moderate (256 bands or greater) spectral resolution and high registration accuracy. Critical are Visible and Short Wave (SWIR) which are the two Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) sensor bands most used by operators to meet long-range sensor requirements. Mid-Wave IR (MWIR) is the most commonly used part of the spectrum by current airborne sensor operators. Airborne LWIR is the band of choice for airborne gaseous or effluent detection. Current and future missions will require concepts for integrating gratings covering wavelengths that extend into the Mid-Wave IR (MWIR) and LWIR regions of the spectrum. Techniques that allow for similar manufacture with affordability, reliability, and high yield of are of strong interest.

The current manufacturing processes are expensive and manpower intensive. Current techniques including diamond turning manufacturing and laser-based lithography (such as holographic or interferometric lithography)[1], and nano-imprint lithography[2]. New or improved grating manufacturing techniques must be capable of generating = 256 bands (targeting 10 nm spectral resolution) covering the wavelength of interest for each band. Gratings should be able to operate across an ambient temperature ranging from -20 C to +50 C while maintaining registration and spectral stability better than ±10% of the band centers over this range. The design must focus on maximize grating efficiency and identify a peak value, and rationale for the resulting peak value. For sake of design, the contractor may assume a focal plane array detector consisting of a 256 x 256 array of pixels having 40 µm pitch.

The proposed manufacturing technique must also include an acceptable quantitative analysis of manufacturing yield estimates for lots of based on their findings, and a design and proof-of-concept for gratings simultaneously covering the MWIR (nominally 3 µm < wavelength < 5 µm) and LWIR (nominally 8 µm < wavelength < 14 µm) bands. This MWIR/LWIR grating should target the same nominal FPA design (256 x 256 array with 40 µm pitch).

PHASE I: Analyze current designs and techniques for manufacturing diffraction gratings. Develop new or improved design and techniques for a proof-of-concept demonstration for each band of interest.

PHASE II: Using the manufacturing technique for either a reflective or transmissive mode of operation, produce and demonstrate the operational properties of the gratings to include spectral resolution, grating efficiency, and temperature stability. Conduct and provide a quantitative analysis of manufacturing yields and finalize a design and proof-of-concept supporting technology transition.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Persistent surveillance systems that include this capability would have wide utility to current and future platforms and could lead to improvements in force protection and standoff/remote detection.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include imaging medical diagnostics; trace gas analysis and identification; effluent monitoring and tracking; leak detection systems; process and/or material quality control.

REFERENCES:

1. Schattenburg, M.L., C. G. Chen, R.K. Heilmann, P.T. Konkola, and G.S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams”, Proc. SPIE Vol. 4485 (2002), pp. 378-384.

2. Gao, H., H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Chou, “Uniformity, High Yield, and Fast Nanoimprint Across a 100 mm Field”, Nano Letters, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 2438-2441 (2006).

KEYWORDS: sensor, gratings, manufacturing, optics

AF103-174 TITLE: Switchable Polarimetric Camera for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a polarimetric imager with a switchable (on/off), pixel-level polarizing structure.

DESCRIPTION: Applying polarimetric imaging techniques to airborne Infrared (IR) and Electro-Optical (EO) surveillance and reconnaissance operations has the advantage of quickly detecting manmade objects in natural background. Smooth surface man-made objects produce a stronger polarized signal than natural background such as forest canopy or grass. Polarimetric detection capabilities can significantly enhance airborne surveillance and search and rescue missions. For example, a manmade object such as a vehicle under forest canopy whose thermal signature is close to that of its environment can quickly be detected through this phenomenology. However, current methods of gathering polarized imagery reduces the amount of photons that reach the imager’s focal plane array, resulting in a loss of sensor performance. Today, imaging systems are either polarized or non-polarized. A pixel-level polarizing structure needs to be developed that allows switching between both phenomenologies for a single imaging system.

The technological challenge is in determining a method by which a polarizing structure can be removed and replaced during normal camera operation. This structure shall allow camera operation at current video frame rates. The architecture shall be implementable as a retrofit to existing imaging systems. The risk is that such technology may not be robust enough to meet Air Force needs. If successful, such architectures could be incorporated into a new generation of IR cameras or transitioned as a spiral upgrade to existing Air Force IR imagers, making polarimetric target cuing and recognition readily available and affordable to the warfighter.

An IR polarimetric camera is desired. However, approaches can be demonstrated at EO wavelengths. But the technology developed as part of this effort shall also perform in the IR and be directly transitionable to IR systems. To facilitate target identification and ease the processing burden, an active, switchable (or removable), polarizing architecture is desired.

The camera and integrated technology shall operate at video frame rates (30 Hz threshold, 60 Hz objective). The architecture shall be switchable during normal camera operation. Switching of the polarimetric component shall be accomplished in under 100 ms (threshold), and ideally in less than 17 ms (objective). Switchable polarizer architecture shall have no features that prevent it from operating in conjunction with imagers sensitive to either mid-wave IR or long-wave IR radiation. The extinction ratio for the polarizing elements shall be at least 10:1 (threshold) with a target of 1000:1 (objective). Technical approaches shall be applicable to focal plane arrays having at least 1024 x 1024 pixels. The polarimetric capability shall be user selectable, able to be switched on and off (polarizing in one state and unpolarizing in the other) as a threshold. Ideally, the state of polarization captured (S0, S1, S2, degree of linear polarization (DOLP)) should also be user selectable as an objective. The camera should output fused imagery in a standard video format (S0 fused with DOLP as threshold, S0 fused with S1, S2, or DOLP selectable as objective). The architecture must also be able to be retrofit on existing cameras or integrated into a form, fit, and function replaceable camera unit.

PHASE I: Model appropriate architectures to demonstrate theoretical IR imaging system performance developing designs of promising candidate component technologies. Proposed a design based upon the most promising candidate architecture.

PHASE II: Finalize a design, develop associated software and fabricate prototype components for a complete IR imaging system. Associated software shall also be completed, integrated, and delivered. Demonstrate the system against challenging target sets.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Facilitate a dual mode, polarimetric surveillance capability for the Air Force for manned and unmanned surveillance platforms, and applies to strike aircraft as an enhancement to existing IR systems.

Commercial Application: Will improve the state of the art in switchable optics and lead to a new generation of airborne law enforcement surveillance systems that enhance target detection and recognition in natural clutter.

REFERENCES:

1. den Boer, J.H.W.G., Kroessen, G.M.W., de Zeeuw, W., de Hoog, F.J. ";Improved polarizer in the infrared: two wire-grid polarizers in tandem."; Optics Letters 20.7 (1995): 800 - 802.

2. Fetrow, M.P., Boger, J.K. ";Instrument simulation for estimating uncertainties in imaging polarimeters."; Optical Engineering 45.6 (2006): 1 - 11.

3. Hara, M., Tanaka, S., Esashi, M. ";Rotational infrared polarization modulator using a MEMS-based air turbine with different types of journal bearings."; Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 13 (2003): 223 - 228.

4. Tyo, J.S., Goldstein, D.H., Chenault, D.B., Shaw, J.A. ";Polarization in remote sensing - introduction."; Applied Optics 45.22 (2006): 5451 - 5452.

5. Tyo, J.S., Goldstein, D.L., Chenault, D.B., Shaw, J.A. ";Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications."; Applied Optics 45.22 (2006): 5453 - 5469.

KEYWORDS: Polarimetric, camera, airborne UAS, Switchable optics, Infrared, IR, imager

AF103-176 TITLE: Dual Mode Tag (DMT) Proof-of-Concept Device

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a prototype electronic tag that is detectable by an airborne weapon system that is equipped with either radar, electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR), or a laser designator.

DESCRIPTION: Future Air Force airborne weapon systems will need a reliable air-to-ground sensing capability that can detect and identify friendly ground forces at both long and short ranges. This capability will reduce Joint coalition fratricide, find downed pilots and increase combat effectiveness by allowing the warfighter to concentrate on various enemy threats and unknowns. To date, some demonstrations of the detection and identification of friendly forces within a battlespace have used single, passive or active (covert or overt) electronic tags and other types of devices. Unlike single marker devices, integrated marker devices must operate in more than one mode that can be detected by all airborne weapon systems. There is a vision that a futuristic marker might be able to be turned on by more than just a “single” transmitting device on an airborne weapon system. This capability has not yet been fully defined or validated. Air Combat Command has already expressed interest in a device of this type.

This design for this device should not be a simple combination of a current RF tag with a current EO/IR device – or other device under consideration. That has already been done. Rather it should be an integrated one that must be made small enough to be viable and have military utility for the warfighter. For example, dual antennae and transmitter associated electronics should be packaged into something that is similar to the size of one current device – like a single RF tag itself. It is envisioned that this new device will not look anything like current tag or other sensor/transmitter technology. System engineering will be fully taxed to develop something completely new like this.

The device must be responsive to incoming sensory transmissions and perform a function (return a signal or turn on another device) with <1ns time delay. It must not respond to signals that are not supposed to trigger it; and, it should operate at low enough power to satisfy battlefield logistics. The device should be field programmable so it can be adapted to the sensors that would be flown against it depending on known aircraft sensory capabilities in theater. Future marker devices might also be able to relay a unique response signal back to the warfighter in order to provide additional identification information. This could help eliminate enemy spoofing.

The DMT device should be reliable, affordable, secure, and compatible with the types of missions that the Air Force must fly (e.g. strike, close air support, ISR and CSAR) in order to provide effective situational awareness for the warfighter. Design specifications must allow for testing either on the ground or from the air. The design’s size weight & power and the probability of intercept should also be determined. The expected performance of the device should be carefully established and detailed. Modeling and Simulation are encouraged to support performance claims for the device.

PHASE I: Conceptualize and design an innovative, optimal prototype DMT with a focus on which combination of RF, EO/IR or laser modes of this device provide the greatest operational effectiveness with Air Force missions. Develop detailed device performance predictions.

PHASE II: Develop a prototype DMT as designed in Phase 1 by using performance metrics that are consistent with an expected concept of employment. Define test objectives then demonstrate and test the device under realistic operating conditions. Demonstration results should validate the performance predictions made in Phase 1.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military uses include enhanced battlefield situation awareness for the warfighter and combat search and rescue of a downed pilot.

Commercial Application: This technology could provide a civilian authority the ability to scan/interrogate an area to determine if any emergency personnel or assets are present.

REFERENCES:

1. ";Unfriendly fire"; 02 October 2004 Theodore Postol Magazine issue 2467

2.";Radar tags tell friend from foe"; 11:15 01 November 2005 news service Kurt Kleiner

3. Whitepaper “Tag Feng Shui”A Practical Guide to Selecting and Applying /docs/WP_Alien_Tag.pdf

KEYWORDS: fratricide, combat identification, sensors, multi-mode tags

AF103-178 TITLE: X-Band and Ka Band Low Noise Block Downconverter

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop monolithic microwave integrated circuits for low noise block downconverters with high sensitivity, high resistance to interfering signals, small size, low weight, and low power dissipation.

DESCRIPTION: Low noise amplifiers (LNAs) presently used in satellite communication terminals achieve noise figures below 1.5 dB throughout the microwave bands. Because these amplifiers typically use Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) or Indium Phosphide (InP) based High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) to obtain this low noise figure, they are subject breakdown voltages on the order of a few volts. The amplifiers must therefore be protected from large interfering signals by limiters placed between the antenna and the LNA. The signal loss in the limiters degrades the system noise figure to as high as 2.5 dB to 3 dB in X-Band and the protection circuitry adds complexity to the system. The recent emergence of wide bandgap semiconductor devices, particularly Aluminum Gallium Nitride / Gallium Nitride (AlGaN/GaN) Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors (HFETs) can lead to LNAs with low noise figure, high gain, and high breakdown voltages. Because of the high breakdown voltage, the HFETs have high power handling capability. For low noise applications, the power capability means the transistors can survive high levels of overdrive, eliminating the need for front-end protection circuitry. Without the need for protection circuitry, the use of GaN based amplifiers would improve system noise figure by 0.5 dB or more compared to present technology and reduce the component count. In addition, reductions in the size, weight, and cost of low noise block downconverter electronics can be achieved by integrating components into monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). The purpose of this topic is to develop innovative MMICs to demonstrate this capability. Candidate circuits for integration include LNA, mixer, local oscillator, and combinations of these. MMICs for low noise block downconverters are needed at X-band and Ka-Band satellite communication frequencies with output frequencies in L-band. Performance goals include noise figure less than 1.5 dB, ability to withstand input signal levels up to 5 watts continuous without degradation, bandwidth 0.5 GHz in X-band and 1.0 GHz in Ka band, input voltage standing wave ratio less than 1.3, gain flatness +/-1.5 dB max, third order output intercept +30 dB.

PHASE I: Identify candidate device technologies to achieve performance goals, confirm critical device performance parameters through modeling, simulation, or experiment, define circuit partitioning, develop innovative preliminary MMIC designs, and ensure availability of fabrication capability for Phase II.

PHASE II: Refine device models, refine circuit design, fabricate, test, and deliver packaged MMIC low noise amplifiers meeting the stated goals.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This technology is applicable to military satellite communication and radar systems.

Commercial Application: High performance, affordable downconverter components would find wide application in commercial satellite communication systems and mobile communications.

REFERENCES:

1. M. Rudolph, R Behtash, R. Doerner, K. Hirche, J. Wurfl, W. Heinrich, G. Trankle, ";Analysis of the Survivability of GaN Low-Noise Amplifiers,"; IEEE Trans on Microwave Theory and Tech, vol 55, No. 1, pp. 37-43, January 2007.

2. M. Micovic, A. Kurdoghlian, T. Lee, R. O. Hiramoto, P. Hashimoto, A. Schmitz, I. Milosavljevic, P. J. Willadsen, W.-S. Wong, M. Antcliffe, M. Wetzel, M. Hu, M. J. Delaney, D. H. Chow, ";Robust Broadband (4 GHz – 16 GHz) GaN MMIC LNA,"; IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium Digest, October 2007.

3. N. X. Nguyen, M. Micovic, W..S. Wong, P Hashimoto, P. Jamke, D. Harvey, and C. Nguyen, “Robust low microwave noise GaN MODFETs with 0.6dB noise figure at 10 GHz,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp 469-471, March 2002.

4. J-W Lee, V Kumar, R. Schwindt, A. Kuliev, R. Birkhahn, D. Gotthold, S. Guo, B. Albert, and I Adesida, “Microwave noise performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 80-81, January 2004.

5. Bennett, Bruce Quock, Kensing, Greeves, Joseph, Nguyen, Minh-Huy, ";DoD IP SATCOM Transition to WGS,"; IEEE Military Communications Conference, October 2007.

KEYWORDS: X-Band, Ka-band, low noise amplifier, microwave receiver, satellite communications, wide gap semiconductor, gallium nitrides, monolithic microwave integrated circuits

AF103-179 TITLE: Real-Time Dismount Detection and Tracking Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

(SAR) System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop real-time dismount detection and tracking system concept and algorithms that will enhance capability of current radar based surveillance systems and benefit warfighters saving lives.

DESCRIPTION: In recent years, the US Department of Defense has made significant investments in electronic sensor technology, e.g., radar, infrared (IR), and visible cameras for dismount detection and tracking in counter-terrorism efforts. Such sensors are expected to operate all-hour, in adverse weather, and from a safe distance. Due to the maturity of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and its capability to provide high-resolution information regarding an interrogated scene under above-mentioned operational conditions, wide-area SAR systems have been built and studied for the dismount detection problem. Airborne circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) systems such as the AFRL Gotcha Radar system could be employed for dismount detection, geo-location, and tracking.

Simple standoff radars that operate in short distances [1, 2] have been used to detect humans by the US Border Patrol. However, these systems are not practical in the counter-terrorism applications in hostile environments that require interrogating a scene from several miles away; these systems neither have the resolution nor the power required. As mentioned earlier, the main strength of an airborne SAR system is to provide high-resolution imaging information from a safe distance, in adverse weather conditions, and with 24-hour operation.

There are two prominent radar signal processing methods that have been investigated to detect dismounts. One method is based on a multi-channel radar system to perform Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) [3]. The other approach depends on micro-Doppler analysis [4, 5]. The main problem with these two approaches is that they currently employ simplistic and unrealistic models for dismount SAR signatures. The basic assumption for these models is that a dismount motion is similar to the motion of a slow-moving person, such as a casual jogger in a park who moves at a constant speed and has rhythmic/periodic leg and arm motion. However, we do not anticipate observing such a phenomenon with dismounts in a hostile and chaotic environment. In fact, the dismounts would appear in SAR with multiple nonlinear Doppler signatures, which cannot be represented via a simple model. Furthermore, these dismount signatures would be buried under the strong signature of clutter (stationary scene). Additionally, in the case of a multi-channel SAR, data processing requirements would make the real-time detection and tracking of dismounts infeasible.

The proposed research will investigate development of airborne CSAR-based algorithms for real-time detection and tracking of dismounts with nonlinear and unpredictable motion in a heavy clutter environment. To make this system practical several issues must be addressed. These include the operating radar frequency band, the separation of the transmitter and receivers, the operational distance, the integration (azimuth) and elevation angles, and determining optimal image generation frequencies. Outcome of this research will be transitioned to warfighters.

PHASE I: Develop a system concept and signal processing for dismount detection.

PHASE II: Demonstrate dismount detection algorithm performance on a realistic system and data.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Dismount detection and tracking will be an advanced capability for the warfighters and it will save lives.

Commercial Application: For detecting drug activity along the United States Boarders.

REFERENCES:

1. Cooper, K.B.; Dengler, R.J.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Schlecht, E.; Gill, J.; Skalare, A.; Mehdi, I.; Siegel, P.H.; “A High-Resolution Imaging Radar at 580 GHz,” Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE Volume: 18 , Issue: 1, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/LMWC.2007.912049, Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 64 – 66.

2. Amazeen, C.A.; Locke, M.C.; “US Army's new handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS)”, The Detection of Abandoned Land Mines: A Humanitarian Imperative Seeking a Technical Solution, EUREL International Conference on (Conf. Publ. No. 431), Publication Year: 1996, Page(s): 172 – 176.

3. Hersey, R.K.; Melvin, W.L.; Culpepper, E.; “Dismount modeling and detection from small aperture moving radar platforms,” Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR '08. IEEE Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/RADAR.2008.4720724, Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): 1–6.

4. Raj, R.G.; Chen, V.C.; Lipps, R.; “Analysis of radar dismount signatures via non-parametric and parametric methods,” Radar Conference, 2009 IEEE, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/RADAR.2009.4977025, Publication Year: 2009, Page(s): 1 - 6

5. Fogle, R.; Rigling, B.; “Parametric Model of High-Resolution Radio-Frequency Dismount Data,” Aerospace and Electronics Conference, 2008. NAECON 2008. IEEE National Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/NAECON.2008.4806519, Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): 74 – 77.

KEYWORDS: Dismount, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Digital Signal Processing, Change Detection, Target tracking in SAR

AF103-180 TITLE: Cognitive Multi-Sensor Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection

Technologies (COMIDT)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop a software/hardware interface to fuse data from heterogeneous sensors to develop a detection engine by combining all the data to enhance situation awareness and countermeasures.

DESCRIPTION: The Remote Controlled Improvised Explosive Device (RCIED) is a choice of weapon used by asymmetric threats. Given its high success and effectiveness against coalition forces, low cost and ease of use is a strong indication that this threat is here to stay. Even though the countermeasures against these types of threats may be effective at this point, the evolving and adaptive nature of our adversaries reminds us that the countermeasures are only a partial or temporary solution. An optimum solution would be to be able to detect, identify and spatially geolocate these threats, but this is like finding a needle in a haystack. There are number of specific detection technologies and sensors each focusing on a particular anatomy of the IED and each claims to be successful, but the IED problem still remains unsolved. The simple problem is that each sensor or detection method has its own range and performance specifications. The concept in this topic is to be able to combine a number of heterogeneous sensors and their information regarding a threat in deriving a single point solution. For example, if an radio frequency (RF) emitter detection engine identifies an RF device, there is a good chance that device is not tied to IED, but if number of other heterogeneous sensors such as Chemical, Radar and other IED related sensors are pointed to the same location, then the probability of false alarm will be minimized and that location will be looked at more closely.

The anatomy of the IED can be divided into trigger devices, the body or the frame of the IED and the explosive content. The first challenge is to identify existing candidate heterogeneous sensors. The second challenge is designing an interface to combine data or information from heterogeneous sensors and develop detection engines in combining all the sensor data or information into a spatial geolocation of the threat. Since each sensor might have different range of operation, the third challenge is identifying a low latency, low data rate sensor network to exchange information to the combining engine. At a minimum, at least three heterogeneous sensors will need to be considered for this effort.

PHASE I: Objectives:

1. Identify minimum of three heterogeneious sensors representing the RCIED anatomy

2. Design an interface to fuse sensor data

3. Identify an optimum distributed sensor network architecture.

4. Evaluate learning algorithms suitable for development of an optimum cognitive engine.

PHASE II: Develop prototype hardware proof of concept of the COMIDT detection engine using state of art Commercial off the shelf (COTS) or Government off the Shelf (GOTS) technology. A minimum of at least three heterogeneous sensors dealing with different aspects of the IED anatomy needs to be considered.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This effort will help in detection and defeat of the IED threat.

Commercial Application: Should be applicable perimeter security or in general surveillance related application.

REFERENCES:

1. Spurious emissions research http://www.emclab.umr.edu/research/IED_Detection.html.

2. S. Reddy et.al, ";ESP Framework: A Middleware Architecture For Heterogeneous Sensing Systems";, http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~sasank/doc/1569015544.pdf.

3. Awareness and localization of explosive related threats, http://www.northeastern.edu/alert/research/systems_alternative/.

4. Neil C. Rowe, ";Wireless Sensor Networks for Detection of IED Emplacement";, /events/14th_iccrts_2009/papers/110.pdf.

5. Detecting Improvised Explosive Devices in Urban Areas, /component/content/article/5094.

KEYWORDS: IED sensors, sensor fusion, machine learning, heterogeneous sensors, sensor networks

AF103-181 TITLE: Multimode Tracking for Next Generation Over the Horizon Radar (NG OTHR)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

OBJECTIVE: NG OTHR has the potential to provide wide area surveillance but is challenged by track accuracy. This activity will combine returns from multiple ionospheric modes for improved target tracking.

DESCRIPTION: High frequency (HF) over the horizon radar (OTHR) uses the refractive properties of the earth’s ionosphere for the detection of objects at very long ranges. The range and azimuth accuracy of detected targets depends strongly on ionospheric properties between the radar and the target. When multiple ionospheric layers are present, multiple returns exist from a single target are processed. The location of the target is estimated from the multiple returns. This has contributed to the limited geolocation accuracy of current-generation OTHR; between about ten and 40 kilometers in both latitude and longitude, depending on ionospheric conditions. There have been significant improvements in our ability to measure and model the ionosphere between the radar and the target. Typical ionospheric measurements used for this purpose have included vertical incidence soundings at the radar site and backscatter soundings (originally used only for frequency management). Greater insight into the structure of the ionosphere at the refraction point can help to support the estimation of the virtual height of the various ionospheric layers. Coupled with better ionospheric characterization is the availability of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) data. FAA ground tracks can be converted to slant range by sweeping through the range of possible virtual heights. Ionospheric modes that are present will show up as slant paths. If a mode is present, the slant path created by converting the FAA track according to that mode's virtual height is the most accurate slant track prediction available. The ionospheric modes will vary as a function of time. This effort will develop analytical methods of determining what ionospheric modes are present and their location. It is anticipated that this will provide the ability to use that information to inform target coordinate registration. Additionally this introduces the ability to derive information about mode statistical characteristics and target statistics. Novel techniques are sought for implementing multiple mode characterization and to leverage this information to improve target detection and tracking. The proposed methods should include the ability to demonstrate through analysis the validaty of the approach. Over the Horizon Radar has the potential to address the need for persistent wide area surveillance of North America. Improved tracking and tracking accuracy is of signficant interest. While initially interested in the suitability of the proposed approach to North America, the ability to adapt the solution to different sites is important for the future.

PHASE I: Develop and evaluate the ability of using advanced ionospheric modeling and FAA ground track information to identify the virtual height of the available ionospheric refraction layers. Identify how to apply this information to tracking performance and quantify improvement expected.

PHASE II: Implement multiple mode tracking algorithm for NG OTHR. Simulate performance of the tracking for multiple ionospheric conditions using either simulated or measured radar data. Estimate the tracking performance for a range of conditions. Develop live test recommendations for Phase III.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: OTHR can address wide area surveillance shortfalls. Improved understanding of the ionospheric behavior will identify multiple target returns and leverage this for greater track accuracy.

Commercial Application: The HF spectrum is widely used for communications. Improved ionospheric insight can support HF communication systems performance and improve communication reliabiltiy and spectrum management.

REFERENCES:

1. Dall, I.W., Kewley, D.J., ";Track Association in the presence of multi-mode propagation";, Radar 92. International Conference, 12-13 Oct 1992, Pages 70-73.

2. Kong Min; Wan Guohong; ";Research on Multi-mode Fusion Tracking of OTHR based on Auction Algorithm";, Computational Intelligence and Security Workshops, 2007, CISW 2007, International Conference on , 15-19 Dec. 2007, Pages 393-396.

3. Cameron, A; Habermann, G; Mohandes, M; Bogner, R.E.; ";Modelling OTHR tracks for Association and Fusion";, Radar Conference 1996, Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE National , 13-16 May 1996, Pages 100-105.

4. Krolik, J.L.; Anderson, R.H.; ";Maximum likelihood coordinate registration for over the horizon radar";, Signal Processing IEEE transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Volume 45, Issue 4, April 1997 Pages 945-959.

KEYWORDS: multimode, tracking, ionosphere, OTHR

AF103-182 TITLE: Research and develop innovative high sensitivity receiver concepts which will

significantly improve current performance of active electro-optical sensors

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Developing photon counting receiver response without the processing burden associated with Geiger Mode Avalanche Photo Diodes(GM-APD) is the goal of this topic.

DESCRIPTION: Laser radar (ladar), specifically imaging ladars, can provide a significant capability for airborne targeting and reconnaissance missions. Extending the performance range of these devices is critical to utilizing imaging ladars in these missions. The most effective method of increasing range performance while minimizing size, weight and power (SWAP) growth is to increase the sensitivity of the detectors used in the receiver. Avalanche-photo diodes (APD) operating in Geiger-mode (GM) provide response to return signals as small as a single photon. However, the manner in which GM-APD’s are used also requires a significant increase in numbers of pulses and the processing needed to produce an image. Developing GM-APD like receiver response without the associated processing burden is the goal of this topic.

This topic solicits new ideas for active sensors that will provide GM like sensitivity, that is photon counting response, without the processing burden usually associated with receivers using GM-APD’s. Direct detection receiver sensitivity should meet or exceed Geiger mode response. The current state of the art GM and Linear Mode APD’s include focal plane arrays (FPA) which achieve few photon sensitivity, frame rates greater than 1 kHz and effective bandwidths on the order of 1 GHz. Large format (128x128 or larger) FPA realizations of these concepts are sought. On-FPA and near-FPA data processing and data rate reduction capabilities are also sought for real time image generation. These performance parameters should meet or exceed those of current state of the art FPA detector technologies. Compact form factor should be capable of supporting receiver integration. Large format ladar receiver and /or APD arrays operating in the 1550 nm regime are needed. The topic emphasis is on innovative concepts, components and technologies for compact high-sensitivity and light-weight ladar receivers. Improvements to the receiver array can include demonstration of significantly reduced dark current, improved sensitivity from photon counting, with significant reductions in receiver size.

PHASE I: Research and develop a conceptual design meeting the above listed physical constraints and parameter requirements. Determine the expected performance through an extensive system level analysis/modeling effort. Identify technical risks and develop a risk mitigation plan.

PHASE II: Design, develop, and characterize a prototype a large format ladar receiver and demonstrate its functionality.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: 3-D data for targeting, mission planning, vertical obstruction identification.

Commercial Application: Road building, Geological Surveys.

REFERENCES:

1. Ingerson, T.E., et. al., ";Photon Counting with Photodiodes";. Applied Optics Vol. 22, No. 13. 2013 - 2018 (1983).

2. Gatt, P., et. al., ";Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode LADAR Receiver Performance Characteristics and Detection Statistics";. Applied Optics Vol 48, No 17. 3261 - 3276. (2009).

3. Milstein, A. B., et. al., ";Acquisition Algorithm for Direct-detection Ladars with Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes";. Applied Opitcs Vol. 47, No. 2. 296 - 311. (2008).

KEYWORDS: Sensors, 3-D, LADAR, Geiger

AF103-183 TITLE: Anti Tamper (AT) Techniques

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Protection of our Warfighter Technologies Edge. Protection of the Critical Program Information (CPI) & Critical Technology (CT) for the current and future Weapon Systems.

DESCRIPTION: The opportunities for exploitation of U.S. systems are increasing due to the Foreign Military Sales (FMS), Direct Commercial Sales (DCS), and international co-production, Exposure during the global war on Terrorism, and system loss on the battlefield. The Anti Tamper (AT) mission is to deter reverse engineering of our military's critical technology in order to impede technology transfer, stop alteration of system capability, and prevent the development of countermeasures to U.S. systems. There is an increasing need to protect our nation's Critical Technology (CT), with special emphasis on the protection of sophisticated microelectronics, by incorporating sensors and penalty systems into Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) integrated circuit. All these requires some kind of power. The Power solution(s) for new and existing AT applications. Solution(s) may be innovative implementations of existing power techniques, improvements to existing power sources, or development of novel power storage or generation techniques. The proposed power solution (s) should focus on longevity (15 to 20 years) and providing sufficient power over the duration of use with capability of burst power. Current AT power requirements varies from size, weight, and type of technology utilizing in weapon systems. The technology areas that DoD AT communities have interest include the following: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Nanoscience Technology, Advanced Materials Technology, Electromagnetic field, Vibration, Acoustic, and X-rays, and Focus Ion Beams (FIB). Current technology provides limited capability in both Nanoscience Technology and MEMS technology and output of the power require. Looking for innovative ideas and ways to attack the AT power requirements that address functionality, environment, and operational impact. Currently there is interest in the generation, storage and harvesting of power sources at all levels of research; research spans the basic R&D to the most mature level which is advanced research. There are many size, weight, power management requirements, and energy harvest that dominate DoD's interest. The power requirement should address enough power to support both chip level power requirement and board level power requirement. This includes dedicated or integrated sensors that can actively detect, protect, and react in a time budget.

PHASE I: Basic and applied research to show comprehensive study and research on the AT Power requirements by investigating detail of the power source, harvesting, or scavenging and present the innovative ideas and approach of the research.

PHASE II: Build the prototype and demonstrating the AT Power requirements concept in the laboratory environment with limited reliability and environment testing.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This is something we need today and in the future for all the DoD weapon system to protect the CPI/CT. Applicable to the DoD weapon systems.

Commercial Application: Most of the electronics components are also used by the commercial world so this technology will directly benefit them.

REFERENCES:

1. CMOS/VLSI Design, Neil Weste, Wesley, 2004.

2. AT Power Study/Survey Phase I, Navy Crane, 2007.

3. AT Power Study Phase II, Navy Crane, 2009.

KEYWORDS: sensors, trigger device, power, harvesting power, innovative, unique, operational environment, nanscience technology, MEMS, material technology

AF103-184 TITLE: Advanced Integrated Circuit Anti-Tamper Methods

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: To develop new robust, Anti-Tamper (AT) technology and design methods that will impede unapproved technology transfer, alteration of system capability, or countermeasure development.

DESCRIPTION: Novel design methods, processes, and techniques, are needed including implementation demonstrations and subsequent security evaluations of alternative integrated circuit AT methods. These methods should provide multiple attributes of the following characteristics: a visible barrier to the underlying circuitry, electromagnetic shields to suppress or confuse radiated and conducted emissions, methods that protect from both the front and rear of the active integrated circuit areas, methods to detect intrusion and that initiate a tampering penalty, methods that cause the reverse engineering process to be substantially delayed or rendered fruitless. These techniques must be applicable to integrated circuit design and manufacturing processes, use minimal circuit area/power resources, provide minimal decrease in manufacturing yield, and remain cost effective. Advanced AT developments and techniques are required in the following integrated circuit areas: software/firmware design, circuit design, physical layout, and packaging techniques. Additionally, simulation and analysis methods need to be developed to assess and verify AT effectiveness, prior to fabrication. Test methods and measurement standards are required to assess the protection provided by the proposed mix of AT chosen for a particular point-design.

PHASE I: Develop paper designs of the proposed < 90 nm Trusted Access Program Office (TAPO) application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) test structure. Design the procedures, experiments and test plans necessary to fabricate a testable structure for validation of AT effectiveness during Phase-II.

PHASE II: During this phase fabricate and test a < 90nm TAPO AT test chip with the advanced AT technology embedded in the device. Validate the AT effectiveness against known attack methods and counter measures. Access the vulnerability of individual AT techniques in a matrix framed according to risk assessments described by the Anti Tamper Executive Agency (ATEA).

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Develop generalized design tools to deploy advanced AT techniques to cover commercial intellectual property (IP) blocks.

Commercial Application: Apply an advanced AT design methodology to commercial applications like secure identification cards, smart cards, or banking cards.

REFERENCES:

1. Defense Acquisitions: DOD Needs to Better Support Program Managers’ Implementation of the Anti-Tamper Protection, General Accounting Office Reports and Testimony, Stonehenge International, 2004.

2. A.F. Hubber II, and J.M. Scott, The Role and Nature of Anti-Tamper Techniques in U.S. Defense Acquisition, Acquisition Review Quarterly, 6 (1999) 355.

3. Neil H. E. Weste, CMOS/VLS Design, Pearson/Addison Wesley, 2004.

4. Jacob Millmar, Microelectronics, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1979.

KEYWORDS: Anti-Tamper, AT, Reverse Engineering, Penetration, Countermeasures, Intellectual Property Protection, Smart Cards, Trusted Foundry Program Office, Trust, On-Shore

AF103-185 TITLE: Collaborative Global Positioning System (GPS) Receivers for Enhanced

Navigation Performance

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate that by networking Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, improvements in accuracy and availability can achieved under benign conditions and maintained in adverse conditions.

DESCRIPTION: Maintaining accuracy, integrity and availability for a single Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver can be challenging when operating in environments where the GPS signal faces attenuation due to obstructions (e.g. urban canyons and indoors), interference, jamming, and multipath propagation effects. Many conventional means of overcoming these challenges, such as multi-element Controlled Radiation Pattern Antennas (CRPA), are not suitable for Hand Held (HH) GPS receivers due to requirements that limit HH receivers' cost and size. This topic considers the use of single element HH GPS receivers designed to operate collaboratively with the goal of improving the accuracy, integrity and availability of the navigation solution for the ensemble of collaborative GPS receivers.

It is envisioned that collaborative HH GPS receivers would share measurements to allow for a collective navigation solution that could be computed centrally, decentrally, or somewhere in-between. A collective picture of the GPS signal environment could also be obtained and in advanced implementations adaptively process the GPS signal to reduce interference. There are two general cases that should be considered- collaboration at the signal processing level (pre-correlation) and collaboration at the GPS measurement level (post-correlation).

Collaboration at the signal processing level has many technical challenges which must be overcome specifically when the following assumptions are not made: identical sensors, clock synchronization, relative sensor locations, small sensor spacing, and far-field jammers, etc. Therefore, novel approaches are sought that allow for maximum uncertainties in propagation environments and in interfering/jamming signal characteristics. For practical deployment it is anticipated that collaboration among individual and subgroups of receivers could be sufficient to enhance GPS signals under such adverse conditions for accurate location fixes for all participating individual receivers or subgroups.

Collaboration at the measurement level could include the use of measurements from multiple receivers with receiver position (or radio range) estimates to form a navigation solution. It could also include the use of measurements to provide additional information on the Radio Frequency (RF) environment for applications such as integrity monitoring. For example, consider members of a group (e.g., squad or platoon-level fitted with networked HH GPS receivers) separated by a large obstruction, such as a building, forming two subgroups. Each subgroup is able to view only a portion of the GPS constellation and cannot form individual navigation solutions; however, if measurements are shared via their comm link, a collective view can be created allowing for the computation of an accurate navigation solution for the entire group. Likewise, collaboration could help locate jammers and detect spoofed GPS signals increasing the robustness of the group's navigation solution.

In both cases, the collaborative system is also subject to limited bandwidth, intermittent connectivity, and high (and varying) latency. The novel approaches should be capable of real-time processing with restricted communication bandwidths and be robust to partial communication link failures. Of great interest are descriptions of systems which would operate in existing and future military communication networks.

PHASE I: Design and analyze innovative collaborative algorithms using networked GPS receivers to determine positioning, detect changes in signal integrity and maximize signal availability for all cooperative GPS receivers while subjected to adverse conditions like interference or urban canyons.

PHASE II: Prototype and demonstrate the capability of a small number of networked GPS receivers to maintain accurate positioning, integrity maintenance and signal availability under benign and adverse conditions such as in an urban canyon and/or indoors where single receivers would fail, or other adverse conditions such as signal spoofing and/or multipath.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications include a group of ground users or vehicles operating indoors or within an urban canyon or otherwise subjected to interference.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include personal/mobile GPS devices operating in urban/indoor environments potentially collaborating other GPS receivers through existing data links (e.g. cell phones).

REFERENCES:

1. F. Berefelt,, B. Boberg,, J. Nygårds,, P. Strömbäck,, Wirkander, S.-L., ";Collaborative GPS/INS Navigation in Urban Environment,"; Proceedings of the 2004 National Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation, San Diego, CA, January 2004, pp. 1114-1125.

2. Hwang, Patrick Y., McGraw, Gary A., Schnaufer, Bernard A., Anderson, David A., ";Improving DGPS Accuracy With Clock Aiding Over Communication Links,"; Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2005), Long Beach, CA, September 2005, pp. 1961-1970.

3. Grejner-Brzezinska, D.A., C.K. Toth, L. Li, J. Park, X. Wang, H. Sun, I.J. Gupta, K. Huggins, Y.F. Zheng, “Positioning in GPS-challenged Environments: Dynamic Sensor Network with Distributed GPS Aperture and Inter-nodal Ranging Signals,” Proceedings of the 22nd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2009), Savannah, GA, September 2009, pp. 111-123.

KEYWORDS: GPS, multipath, jamming, Networked GPS, assisted GPS, indoor navigation

AF103-186 TITLE: Novel Wavefront/Wavefunction Sensor for 3D Imaging

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop, design and demonstrate a compact, fast performing 3D imaging sensor capable of detection and retrieval of remote target information.

DESCRIPTION: Space assets protection and persistent space surveillance requires timely detection, tracking and identification of potential threat or event activities from the ground, airborne or space-based platforms. Surveillance system with 3D imaging capabilities would provide the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission a comprehensive identification of space target based upon its detailed characterization and discrimination for threats or event detection. Coherent optical methods, such as holography, enable detection of the complex amplitude (wavefunction) of target-scattered light and can be used for a high-resolution 3D imaging. However practical realization and implementation of this technique in a high bandwidth configuration with the space object have not yet been explored or demonstrated.

The nature of the application in wavefunction detection for imaging and identifying the remote object in the space or through turbulent atmosphere represent major challenges for sensor design. To achieve the desired results, advanced sensor frame rates in the kilohertz range are required to match the operating pulse rate of laser systems as well as the phenomenology to be analyzed. Likewise, the laser energy returned from a distant target or through the atmosphere from an object of interests may be low-intensity, thus requiring high sensitivity and a very low noise floor.

The goal of this effort is to develop and demonstrate a reliable opto-electronic technique based system design capable of robust detection of wavefunction for retrieval of the 3D imaging and other characteristics that are specific for identification and discrimination of a distant target form the ground or space-based surveillance platform. For space deployment size, weight and power consumption (SWaP) are essential factors to be considered.

PHASE I: The conceptual design should address form, fit and function. The analysis should establish a system performance model; with range, scan times, optic size, and weight; and a final report.

PHASE II: Based on the Phase I design and experiments; develop and demonstrate a prototype sensor module that integrates a novel system design, detector, and associated processing. Perform laboratory tests and demonstrate sensor performance with a wide range of the objects to be “imaged” at various laser illumination conditions, ranging, and tracking applications for airborne and space-based deployment.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The products can be used to improve the spatial-temporal resolution, noise floor and readout of 3D image construction of military laser systems.

Commercial Application: The application for wavefunction high speed sensors is in medicine, engineering, optical computing, and gene sequencing areas.

REFERENCES:

1. U. Schars, W. Jueptner, ";Digital hologram recording, Numerical reconstruction, and related techniques";, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

2. B. Javidi,";Optical and digital technique for information security";, Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., 2005.

3. I. Yamaguch, M. Yokota, ";Speckle noise suppression in measurement by phase-shifting digital holography";, Optical Engineering Vol. 48, No.8, 085602, 2009.

4. U. Schnars, W. Juptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. Vol.33, No.2, pp. 179–181, 1994.

KEYWORDS: Remote sensing, coherent imaging, wavefunction sensing, 3D, lidar, wavefront detection

AF103-187 TITLE: Antennas for GNSS Handheld Receivers

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Design and test innovative small antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) handheld receivers.

DESCRIPTION: The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) includes modernized global positioning system (GPS), the European Galileo, Russian Glonass, and the Chinese Beidou systems. At present, most receivers are GPS only, but many next-generation receivers will include additional GNSS satellite signals to improve accuracy and satellite availability.

Innovative GNSS antennas are needed which are small enough to be used with handsets. The antennas are for receive-only. The polarization of GNSS signals is Right-hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). The GNSS frequencies span from 1164 MHz to 1300 MHz and also 1559 MHz to 1611 MHz. The RHCP gain and received signal-to-noise ratio at all these frequencies should be maximized over all of the visible sky. Crosspolarization should be minimized to reduce multipath, including from the horizon. The above frequency bands should be covered at all times, no additional frequency data will be available from the receiver for tuning adjustments. The antenna will not be used from 1300 MHz to 1559 MHz, so the gain at those frequencies is of no interest, it can be high or low.

A small antenna size is very much desired, low weight is also desired. The proposed antenna can be contained inside the handset, or it can be external and permanently affixed to the handset, either approach can be proposed. The size of the handset box can be assumed to be approximately 6”x3”x1”, most of which will be filled by other electronics, a small amount space could be made available inside the handset for a small antenna.

No groundplane is available, except that provided by the handset held in the user’s hand. The handset will usually be held approximately vertical during normal operation (the 6” dimension is vertical), although this orientation may vary somewhat during actual use. For example, the display located on the 6”x3” side will usually be facing the user, and the handset may be tipped back slightly for viewing the display. The user’s body may be standing, or prone.

There should be no requirement for the user to point or otherwise adjust the antenna, except general knowledge that the handset should be held roughly vertical. Ideally the RHCP gain would be uniform over all of the visible sky from zenith down to 5 elevation, but due to variations in the way the receiver is held, the user’s body position, and the antenna pattern, some gain variations are expected in practice. The antenna performance should not be extremely sensitive to the environment, nor to manufacturing tolerances. The antenna should use a single subminiature version A (SMA) or sub-SMA (SSMA) connector to connect to a 50 ohm system. A good impedance match is secondary to maximizing gain over the sky. The recommended location for low-noise amplifier(s) (LNA) to maximize the received signal-to-noise ratio should be mentioned. Offerors may propose one or more antennas. They should explain why their proposed antenna(s) will provide better performance for this application than existing handheld antennas.

PHASE I: Develop innovative antenna designs for GNSS handheld receivers. Antenna performance should meet the objectives stated above within size and weight constrains. The expected antenna performance should be demonstrated using electromagnetic computer modeling.

PHASE II: Refine the design and demonstrate the feasibility of two selected antenna concepts in Phase I. Antenna prototypes should be built on/in handheld receiver structure, and performance demonstrated by measurements.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: US and allied military user equipment programs will be interested in GNSS handhelds to improve accuracy and satellite availability.

Commercial Application: Commercial GNSS handheld technology is a very large and growing industry. Many next-generation receivers will include GNSS.

REFERENCES:

1. Gerald Moernaut and Daniel Orban, “Innovation: GNSS Antennas – An Introduction to Bandwidth, Gain Pattern, Polarization, and All That”. GPS World, February 2009. pp.42-48.

2. R. Granger, P. Readman, and S. Simpson, “The Development of a Professional Antenna for Galileo”. ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, 26-29 September, 2006, Fort Worth, TX. pp. 799-806.

3. ION, “GNSS Market to Grow to $6B to $8B by 2012”. GPS World, Sept.19, 2008.

KEYWORDS: GNSS, GPS, Global Navigation Satellite System, Global Positioning System, GPS, small antennas

AF103-188 TITLE: Readouts for Energetic, High-Speed Event Sensing

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Design, develop, and demonstrate innovative infrared persistent surveillance system readout integrated circuit (ROIC) structures that are optimized for hostile fire detection.

DESCRIPTION: At the heart of virtually every infrared imaging system there is a sensor (the focal plane array) that detects and converts the incoming infrared radiation into an electrical signal in order to form an image. This focal plane array (FPA) is comprised of two components; the detector array and the readout integrated circuit. The detector array is the infrared-sensing part of the sensor and can be made from a wide variety of materials that are sensitive in the wavelength band of interest. The ROIC is the signal processing component and is generally fabricated on a silicon substrate using volume production integrated circuit processes. Once each component is fabricated and functionality is verified, they are mated physically and electrically through a hybridization process to form a focal plane array.

Persistent surveillance infrared imaging systems are in wide use within the US Air Force. These systems are incorporated into a wide variety of aircraft from unmanned aerial vehicles at low altitudes to satellites that operate in space. These systems typically employ staring focal plane array technology, sometimes up to megapixel geometries. They allow for wide area surveillance and are a critical tool for our warfighters. One shortcoming is that standard ROICs for use in persistent surveillance applications have insufficient bandwidth to characterize small, energetic, fast-moving objects. A new ROIC architecture, mated to a detector array within the band of interest and with suitable speed of response needs to be developed.

There is a need to establish a ROIC concept capable of performing conventional staring imaging at video frame rates, while simultaneously being able to detect and capture the temporal profile of isolated (one to a small number of pixels on the array) energetic transients with one or more kHz bandwidth and up to a second duration. It is also desired that this readout have specialized functionality that will allow for windowing, zoom, autonomous signal processing, and other features that are driven by mission requirements.

The contractor should consider innovative approaches that enhance the overall FPA performance and functionality while allowing for low-cost fabrication using conventional Si technology. A thorough analysis of existing persistent surveillance ROIC designs and techniques to incorporate energetic, high-speed event sensing should be explored. ROIC architectures and unit cell development will be demonstrated during Phase I. Phase II will build upon the knowledge gained in Phase I to demonstrate a prototype moderate format FPA. A variety of military and commercial applications are possible for Phase III.

PHASE I: The contractor will conduct a study of ROIC designs to determine applicability for the sensing of high speed, energetic targets for persistent surveillance applications. Using this information, they will develop appropriate ROIC unit cells and ROIC architectures for use in Phase II development.

PHASE II: Using the design developed in Phase I (with optimization), the contractor will design, fabricate, and demonstrate a moderate-scale ROIC for persistent surveillance applications that will sense high speed, energetic targets. This ROIC will then be hybridized to a detector array to form a focal plane array. Optionally, this FPA can be delivered to AFRL for independent verification of performance.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Persistent surveillance systems that include this capability would have wide utility to current and future warfighters and could lead to significant improvements in force protection.

Commercial Application: A variety of commercial applications are possible for FPAs with the ability to sense high speed, energetic events. Included are applications in homeland security and law enforcement.

REFERENCES:

1. Chen, L. et al., ";Overview of Advances in High-Performance ROIC Designs for use With IRFPAs"; Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4028, 124 (2000)

2. Richards, A.A. et al., ";Passive Thermal Imaging of Bullets In Flight"; Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5405, 258 (2004)

KEYWORDS: infrared, readout, photodetector, multiplexer, transient, energetic, surveillance

AF103-189 TITLE: Sensor Network Data Management for Distributed Electronic Warfare

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop algorithms for optimal data re-routing/fusion in sensor networks supporting distributed electronic warfare assets when they encounter network disruption due to random malfunction or malicious attack.

DESCRIPTION: The future Air Force electronic warfare (EW) operational concept continues to evolve towards a network-centric heterogeneous system-of-systems for the detection, identification, geolocation, deception or suppression of adversarial radio frequency (RF) threat sensors. The hostile systems being targeted by these networked EW systems grow more complex and difficult to engage as time progresses, thus requiring future EW systems to be designed and developed with optimally powerful and efficient state-of-the-art hardware, networking methodology, data fusion algorithms, and automated decision-making logic for platform routing/re-routing, sensor resource management and distributed electronic attack. While great effort continues to be expended on the design and development of future net-centric EW systems, with emphasis on the modeling, simulation and analysis (MS&A) of threat suppression capability under ideal operating conditions, there has been less mission research under the assumption of the necessity for compensation for capability losses due to malfunctions or attacks on the EW sensor data communication network.

This effort concerns the research and development of very fast algorithms for re-routing critical sensor data and/or switching to alternate fusion methods in such a randomly or purposely disrupted communication network supporting distributed EW. Disruption can range from moderate time delays to potentially complete loss of network nodes. The goal is for these modified routing algorithms or alternate fusion methods to minimize loss in performance compared to the original network capability. The effort should include: discussion of current state-of- the-art routing in sensor networks and multi-sensor data fusion methodology; analysis of the effects of disruptions that could occur in the attacking system sensor data communication network; use of analytical and/or M&S tools to research, design and test the modified data routing and/or alternate fusion algorithms.

This research complements well that currently being carried out in the ElectronicWarfare branch which concerns geolocation of RF emitters, airborne electronic attack and distributed electronic warfare. Knowledge gained from it will be especially useful for corresponding efforts in electronic warfare battle management. The algorithms developed from it may facilitate decreased costs for future networked electronic warfare systems, in conjunction with increased mission risk reduction and increased survivability of Air Force weapons for future global strike missions.

PHASE I: Study data communications requirements for sensor networks supporting distributed electronic warfare missions of interest to and provided by the Air Force. Determine feasibility of analyzing performance of possibly disrupted networks by state-of-the-art network analysis methods.

PHASE II: Research and develop fast mathematical algorithms to re-route and possibly re-fuse sensor data allowing sensor data communications network recovery following network disruption. Consider standard Air Force mission MS&A tools to investigate the effects of fast network recovery on distributed EW mission effectiveness.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military application is survivability and risk reduction via pre-defined sensor network reconfigurations after sudden data disruption in missions involving distributed electronic attack of enemy IADS.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include resolution of time-sensitive law enforcement or Homeland Security situations involving coordinated use of possibly data-disrupted multi-sensor networks.

REFERENCES:

1. Bertsekas, D.P., Gallagher, R.G., Data Networks, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall,1987.

2. de Morais Cordeiro, C., Agrawal, D.P., Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Theory and Application, Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific, 2006.

3. Mitchell, H.B., Multi-Sensor Data Fusion, An Introduction, Berlin, Springer, 2007.

4. Hill, J.P.,Chang, K.C., “ Sensor Resource Management with Level 2 Fusion Using Markov Chain Models” , 7th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2005.

5. Sciortino, J.C., Smith, J.F., Kamgar-Parsi,B., Franciose,R., “Implementation of Battlespace Agents for Network-centric Electronic Warfare”, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4396 (2001).

KEYWORDS: Sensor Networks, Communication Data Disruption, Data Re-routing, Sensor Data Fusion, Distributed Electronic Attack

AF103-190 TITLE: Robust and Reliable Broadband Infrared Coatings

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop coatings for infrared optics that are broadband and are resistant to laser damage, and adhere well in harsh environments.

DESCRIPTION: Infrared laser devices and components are of interest for many applications in the areas of environmental sensing, laser radar, and infrared countermeasures (IRCM). But the reliability of infrared antireflection (AR) and highly reflective (HR) and partially reflective coatings is often the key cause of laser device failure. High laser power/energy, dust, water vapor, and temperature changes, all can lead to damage spots, cracking, pealing and changes in operating performance of optical coatings. New materials and approaches are needed to develop robust and reliable infrared coatings.

One area of particular need is robust coatings that are broadband AR throughout the 2-5 micron wavelength range. The coatings must have improved laser damage thresholds and be impervious to moisture. At the same time, coatings that are costly or require a long time to prepare are undesirable.

Also, of interest would be concepts that could eliminate or reduce the number of coatings required in a complex optical setup. For example, Brewster angle surfaces do not require a coating when used with a polarized laser beam. Devices using fibers or waveguides for beam transport could eliminate some optical surfaces and the need to coat them.

Current technology that most closely meets the requirements for broadband AR coatings throughout the 2-5 micron wavelength range uses multiple, relatively “soft,” thin-film layers of materials that are somewhat hygroscopic. Coating houses use proprietary formulas that are specific to a narrow wavelength range and substrate. The coatings are often compromises between reliability and bandwidth.

SBIR efforts are needed to develop novel approaches to achieving improved infrared coatings that are robust and reliable. New types or classes of coating materials or device configurations such as motheye structures that can provide major improvements are of interest.

PHASE I: The Phase I effort will demonstrate feasibility of an approach to achieve the objective goals with a working prototype in the 2-5 micron spectral range.

PHASE II: The Phase II effort will develop and demonstrate a coating or device configuration that provides order of magnitude improvement in damage threshold and extended operation in mil-spec environments with negligible increase in cost or fabrication time.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Infrared missile countermeasures, high-resolution, long-range target identification; remote sensing of biological or chemical agents.

Commercial Application: Commercial application: remote sensing of industrial effluents, gas leaks, mineral/petroleum prospecting; medical, dental.

REFERENCES:

1. Sullivan, R.M. (Weapons Div., Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA, USA); Phelps, A.; Kirsch, J.A.; Welsh, E.A.; Harris, D.C. Source: Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, v 6545, n 1, 27 April 2007, p 65450G-1-11.

2. Hobbs, Douglas S. (TelAztec LLC); MacLeod, Bruce D.; Riccobono, Juanita R. Source: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, v 6545, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials X, 2007, p 65450Y.

3. Wager, Major Torrey J., Mid-IR Nonlinear Absorption and Damage Study in Ge and GaSb, Air Force Institute of Technology, presentation

July 22, 2010.

KEYWORDS: infrared coating, infrared laser, motheye, antireflection

AF103-191 TITLE: Interrupted Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: To design and deliver Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) processing algorithms to handle the temporal and spectral gaps caused by interruptions due to mission constraints.

DESCRIPTION: Most of the advanced radar systems today and in the future either employ or will employ active array antennas. With these revolutionary advances in antenna technology we can fulfill multiple roles with a single aperture such as radar, electronic warfare (EW) and communication functions. Also the beam agility afforded by this active array technology allows the radar portion to perform multiple functions for example Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Airborne/Ground Moving Target Indication (A/GMTI) and advanced passive radar techniques. These multiple functions will be competing for aperture time, as dictated by the scenario conditions. With this increasing desire to have multi-function radar systems in the presence of an overcrowded spectrum a need for flexible radar systems has arisen.

One of the crucial radar functions is the collection of data to form high or ultra-high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. And for the fine resolution SAR modes the coherent integration time (CIT) required to form such images may extend to several tens of seconds under certain conditions. Depending on the tactical situation, the system resource manager typically cannot dedicate this amount of uninterrupted time solely to the ground mapping function. Therefore, the SAR data collection may need to be interrupted periodically to perform other modes such as air-to-air situational awareness (search, track, and track maintenance), terrain following/terrain avoidance (TF/TA), electronic attack (EA), electronic protection (EP), and communications. Thus, the SAR modes in these systems will need to perform with both temporal and spectral interruptions. These gaps could be both periodic and/or randomly spaced in nature. At times, these interruptions will be significant with respect to the normal integration time. Also these interruptions maybe planned or spontaneous, cooperative or non-cooperative and they may result from both friendly and/or hostile radio frequency interference (RFI).

Even with these planned and unplanned interruptions the SAR system must be able to maintain a high data quality and have the ability to produce high resolution image products with good image quality. Also with the development of new SAR modes such as persistent staring circular SAR, note that in this mode extremely long integration times are desired to produce sub-inch cross-range resolution imagery, the interrupted SAR mode becomes extremely important.

PHASE I: At this point it is unclear how these interruptions will affect the SAR image quality and utility, therefore the phase I effort will entail the study of these effects as a function of interruption time and frequency. Existing video phase history data will be made available to support this effort.

PHASE II: The Phase II effort will include the development and delivery of algorithms to overcome temporal as well as frequency gaps in SAR data collections. As well as the characterization of the effects of the aperture gaps on SAR image quality and image utility. The contractor shall demonstrate algorithm performance on exiting video phase history data sets.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Real-time implementation suitable for integration into one or more AF operational or developmental platforms.

Commercial Application: These algorithms could be used to support commercial ground mapping applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Bruder, J.A.; Schneible, R., ";Interrupted SAR waveforms for high interrupt ratios,"; Radar Systems, 2007 IET International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-5, 15-18 Oct. 2007

2. Salzman, J.; Akamine, D.; Lefevre, R.; Kirk, J.C., Jr., ";Interrupted synthetic aperture radar (SAR),"; Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE , vol.17, no.5, pp.33-39, May 2002

KEYWORDS: Interrupted SAR, SAR, Multi-function radar

AF103-192 TITLE: Performance Prediction of Feature Aided Trackers using Persistent Sensors

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

OBJECTIVE: This effort develops an on-line performance prediction model that estimates and predicts the tracking performance as an integral component of a feature aided tracking algorithm using wide area video.

DESCRIPTION: The ability to track all moving vehicles in a complex environment using persistent sensing is an important technical challenge. A key contributer to the solution of this difficult tracking problem is the use of persistent sensing, in this case, wide area video surveillance from airborne platforms. The advantage of persistent, wide area, airborne sensors are several: 1) The scene is continually revisited promoting the on-line learning of both background and target models (spatial and kinematic), 2) The revisit time (1-2 times per second) promotes kinematic tracking and frame-to-frame association, and 3) The spatial resolution is sufficient to develop target models of all targets in the scene which, in turn, supports feature aiding of the tracker. These advantages support the central element of this effort which is the incorporation of a performance model into the feature aided tracker. The performance model, in turn, enables the following capabilities that are essential to the solution of this important but complex problem: 1) The ability to fuse the tracker outputs with the outputs of other trackers. (It is envisioned that, operationally, several sensors will be available in a particular area of interest, and the performance model provides a first principled way to provide the uncertainty of the track to a fusion approach which combines the tracks from multiple sensors.), and 2) The ability to anticipate the need for other sensors or for human aiding. (A performance model enables the feature aided tracker to know when the existing processing and/or sensor data is insufficient to maintain track, thus providing the basis for help -- more sensor data, human intervention.) This effort does not perform fusion or sensor management itself, but rather develops the performance model embodied in the feature aided tracker that would be an essential input to a fusion algorithm or sensor manager.

The data available to develop and test the performance model and feature aided tracking algorithm are named CLIF 2006 and CLIF 2007, and are available at https://www.sdms.afrl.af.mil/main.php

The expected deliverable in Phase I would be an algorithm with embedded performance model programmed in MATLAB(tm) that was capable of processing the CLIF data. The mathematics and theory that formed the basis of the algorithm should also be delivered in a paper or report format.

PHASE I: The expected output of Phase I would be an analysis and report that mathematically and algorithmically described the integrated performance model and feature aided tracker. A demonstration and delivery of the tracker and performance model using the aforementioned CLIF data would be required.

PHASE II: The expected output of Phase II would be the validation of the performance model on a wide variety of data representing both easy and difficult tracking conditions. Based on the validation experiments, improvements to the tracker and performance model would be developed and further validated under the various conditions. Finally, the computational requirements for the algorithm would be defined.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This effort would be used to do a focused surveillance on a local area using persistent sensing. Adversaries and their tactics would be discovered/tracked both in real time and for forensic analysis.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include support to law enforcement, first responders, municipal and large event security, traffic monitoring, disaster management, and industrial security.

REFERENCES:

1. K. Ishiguro, T. Yamada and N. Ueda, Simultaneous Clustering and Tracking Unknown Number of Objects, Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR '08), pp. 1-8, 2008.

2. C.S. Lee, A. Elgammal, Coupled Visual and Kinematic Manifold Models for Tracking, Int J Comput Vis (2010) 87: 118–139

3. Emmanuel J. Candes, Xiaodong Li, Yi Ma, and John Wright, Robust Principal Component Analysis?, http://decision.csl.illinois.edu/~jnwright/RPCA.pdf

4. E.B. Fox, ";Bayesian Nonparametric Learning of Complex Dynamical Phenomena,"; Doctoral Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, July 2009

KEYWORDS: performance modeling, persistent sensing, feature aided tracking, bayesian estimation, manifold learning

AF103-196 TITLE: Simultaneous Liquid-Vapor Characterization in Fuel Sprays for JP-8 and

Alternative Fuels

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop methods of characterizing liquid fuel breakup, atomization and evaporation in fuel sprays associated with propulsion and power devices.

DESCRIPTION: Proper fuel-air mixture preparation is critical for meeting the performance objectives of propulsion devices, including gas-turbine combustors, afterburners, pulsed-detonation engines, and rocket engines.

While a variety of optical diagnostic techniques are being developed or have been employed to measure temperature and species concentrations within the flame zones of these combustion devices, there has been very little success in measuring fuel-vapor concentrations because of complex light-matter interactions that occur within the multi-phase, reacting spray region. Challenges include high optical density, strong scattering interference, and multi-component vaporization. Furthermore, techniques that rely on fluorescent tracers require information about local temperatures, which vary in both time and space, to capture the effects of distillation as well as temperature-dependent fluorescence properties. As such, a diagnostic technique suitable for liquid- and vapor-concentration measurements in fuel sprays under realistic combustion-test-facility conditions has yet to be demonstrated.

Advanced strategies for overcoming the difficulties associated with in situ measurement of liquid and vapor concentrations in spray flames are required. This might involve innovations to current techniques, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), exciplex fluorescence, phosphorescence, filtered Rayleigh scattering, and/or X-ray radiography. Other techniques may involve computational capabilities with the ability to track the liquid/vapor interface, such as Volume of Fluid method or Level Set. The capability to distinguish between the liquid and vapor phase is of great interest. Time resolution on the order of kHz and tens of micron-level spatial resolution is desirable. A methodology to calibrate droplet size and vapor concentration is required to make the measurement quantitative. It is desired that the Phase II prototype be delivered to the government for additional evaluation.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach, including experimental methods and necessary devices, for measuring concentrations of liquid-phase and vapor-phase fuels in sprays. Address the effects of optical density, scattering interferences, and temperature variations on the measurement method. Develop and demonstrate the approach in a laboratory environment.

PHASE II: Refine and develop the proposed measurement system proposed during the Phase I effort. Develop a quantitative methodology to calibrate droplet size and vapor concentration. Validate the system and associated methodology in a combustion rig with geometries relevant to aero-engine combustors and augmentors.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Improve measurement and modeling tools for fuel-air mixing for gas-turbine combustors, afterburners, pulsed-detonation engines, rocket engines, and internal combustion engines.

Commercial Application: Commercial uses for this capability would extend to manufacturers of gas-turbine combustors, internal combustion engines, and many heating and power-generation applications. The technology would allow improvement of fuel-air mixing for gas-turbine combustors, afterburners, pulsed-detonation engines, and internal combustion engines.

REFERENCES:

1. Jermy, M.C. and Greenhalgh, D.A., Applied Physics B 71:703-710, 2000.

2. M. Herrmann, ";A Balanced Force Refined Level Set Grid Method for Two-Phase Flows on Unstructured Flow Solver Grids,"; J. Comput. Phys., 227 (4), pp. 2674-2706, 2008.

3. E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, ";Optics Express,"; 16:17870-17881, 2008.

4. B.D. Ritchie and J.M. Seitzman, “Simultaneous Imaging of Vapor and Liquid Spray Concentration Using Combined Acetone Fluorescence and Phosphorescence,” AIAA Paper 2004-384, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, 5-8 January 2004.

5. T. Tran, Y. Kochar, and J. Seitzman, “Measurements of Liquid Acetone Fluorescence and Phosphorescence for Two-Phase Fuel Imaging,” AIAA Paper 2005-827, 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno NV, 10-13 January 2004.

6. Schulz, C., and Sick, V., ";Progress in Energy and Combustion Science,"; 31: 75-121, 2005.

7. J. Lee, B. Miller, and K.A. Sallam, (2009), “Demonstration of Digital Holographic Diagnostics for the Breakup of Liquid Jets Using a Commercial-Grade CCD Sensor,” Atom. Sprays, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 445-456.

8. J.B. Schmidt, Z.D. Schaefer, T.R. Meyer, S. Roy, S.A. Danczyk, and J.R. Gord, ”Ultrafast Time-Gated Ballistic-Photon Imaging and Shadowgraphy in Optically Dense Rocket Sprays,” Appl. Opt., Vol. 48 (4), pp. B137-B144, 2009.

KEYWORDS: Fuel spray, fuel vapor, laser diagnostics, breakup modeling, , vapor concentration, droplet size

AF103-197 TITLE: Technologies for the Suppression of Screech

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative technologies for the suppression of combustion instabilities for thrust augmentors in high-performance gas turbine engines.

DESCRIPTION: Combustion instability, or screech, occurs in the afterburner of high-performance gas turbine engines. Screech modes typically occur in the range of frequencies from hundreds to thousands of hertz. Screech is due to the complex physical coupling of the wave propagation in the combustion chamber with fluctuations in the heat release of the combustion process. Coupling can produce large pressure fluctuations that can be severe enough to damage engine hardware.

Historically, screech has been mitigated by two very different approaches; damping and active control. In the case of damping, liners and resonators have been fashioned to absorb acoustic energy. Acoustic, or screech liners are designed to affect modes whose frequencies are greater than 1KHz. Liners have proven to be a cost effective and lightweight way to control screech modes above 1KHz. Resonators on the other hand are usually tuned to attack lower frequency modes, less than 1KHz. To absorb acoustic energy at these frequencies, the resonators are physically large. Resonators provide excellent suppression of combustion instability in ground-based gas turbine systems, where weight is not significant factor. In aero systems current resonator technology has a significant system weight penalty and a significant production and sustainment cost penalty.

In the case of high bandwidth active control, fuel is modulated at the frequency of the instability using an actuator valve. The phase of the modulation is varied actively until sufficient fuel modulation is out of phase with the instability. This results in suppression of the instability. Active control has also provided excellent control of combustion instability in ground-based gas turbine systems, where weight and actuator power consumption are not significant factors. To date development of an actuator valve with sufficient driving capability that is flight weight and uses less than 100 watts of power is still an open research area.

Combustion in the augmentor is governed by many unsteady physical processes. Desired are new screech suppression technologies that target physical processes in the afterburner. New technologies may not be limited to just damping or active control. These new technologies should be developed such that they could easily be implemented in current and future gas turbine augmentors with little weight or cost consequence. Close collaboration with an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of high-performance afterburners is highly recommended to ensure successful transition of technology concepts at the end of Phase II and in Phase III.

PHASE I: Identify an innovative concept for suppression of combustion instabilities. Develop and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept in a laboratory environment. Identify the experimental methodology to evaluate the influence of the technology on the magnitude and bandwidth of the instability. Perform proof of concept demonstration in a relevant combustion environment

PHASE II: Further develop the proposed concept and conduct extensive experimental evaluation of the technologies demonstrated in Phase I. Assess the ability of the candidate technology to reduce the magnitude and band width of screech instabilities. Perform a prototype demonstration of the suppression concept to TRL of 4.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Military Application: Light weight, and low cost technologies transitioned to military gas turbine OEMs for incorporation into existing and future augmentor design systems.

Commercial Application: Improved, light weight and low cost technologies have many applications in commercial gas turbine, land based gas turbine power generation, and boiler power generation applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Paschereit, C.O. and Gutmark, E., 2008, ";Combustion instability and emission control by pulsating fuel injection";, ";Journal of Turbomachinery, Vo. 130, No. 1, p 011012-1-8.

2. Jae-Yeon Lee, Lubarsky, E.; Zinn, B.T., 2004, "; Slow"; active control of combustion instabilities by modification of liquid fuel spray properties";, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, v 30, pt.2, p 1757-64.

3. Annaswamy, A.M. (Dept. of Mech. Eng., MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA); Ghoniem, A.F., ";Active control of combustion instability: theory and practice";, IEEE Control Systems Magazine,Vol. 22, No.6, p 37-54, Dec. 2002.

4. Barooah, P. et al., 2002, ";Active combustion instability control with spinning valve actuator";, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, International Gas Turbine Institute, Turbo Expo (Publication) IGTI , v 2 A, pp. 207.

5. Morgans, A.S., and Dowling, A.P., "; Model-based control of combustion instabilities";, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 299, No. 1-2, pp. 1-82.

KEYWORDS: combustion instability, screech, damping, active control, acoustic energy, actuator valve

AF103-198 TITLE: High Temperature Blade Health Measurement System for Adaptive Engines

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a robust, on-line blade health measurement system that accommodates a wide class of engines and operates in harsh environments.

DESCRIPTION: Turbine blade clearance and vibration are critical parameters affecting the performance and life of legacy propulsion engine components. On future adaptive engines, clearance measurement will enable high performance, reduced-leakage components and active flow control devices. Clearances vary throughout the operating conditions (start-up, idle, shut-down) due to expansion coefficients and heating rates. Vibration also occurs due to the wear-out, foreign object damage (FOD), inlet distortion, and unusual operating conditions. To achieve reduced maintenance cost, improve fuel efficiency, and enable active control techniques, key sensor technologies are required that leverage work accomplished in prognostics and health management (PHM) and lifing algorithms to measure and control these parameters. Implementing a new on-engine sensor technologies will require that the single-sensing hardware be developed for multiple parameters, including speed, clearance, and vibration to achieve cost effectiveness. The sensors that will be used in a harsh environment must have reduced complexity compared with the present sensors. In many applications, space and accessibility limitations of adding more sensors to an existing installation may not be possible. The current state-of-the-art for measuring rotating machinery clearance employs eddy current and capacitive sensor technology. They are limited by their temperature capability, response, resolution, life, and robustness characteristics. They also suffer from deterioration and mechanical failure, often resulting in FOD issues in the turbine. New and maturing technologies that provide greater temperature environmental capability (2500 to 4000°F.), high bandwidth (above 400 kHz), high resolution (10 to 20 microns), robustness, and life (4,000 hours) are based on technologies that include microwave (above 10 gHz) and optical sensors. Other sensor technologies based on flow the measurements are also in the research stage. Additional barriers to transitioning the new sensor technology to an on engine/aircraft application include development of models and algorithms that will enable measurement parameters in a high noise environment and accommodation of a wide variety of structural geometries (1 mm blade width) at very high data rates.

PHASE I: Develop a feasibility demonstration of a blade health measurement system that will provide the capability to reliably resolve measurement of vibration, speed, clearance, and to operate at high temperature.

PHASE II: A high temperature on-line system will be designed, tested, and demonstrated in a realistic environment. The blade health system must accommodate engine test rig installation constraints and have sufficient bandwidth to measure expected blade vibration modes. The measurement electronics can be designed for a benign environment, but a path to full engine implementation should be considered.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Legacy engines and advanced variable cycle engines.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications include both engine and aircraft/engine actuation systems

REFERENCES:

1. Jonathan L. Geisheimer, Scott A. Billington, Thomas Holst, and David W. Burgess, “Performance Testing of a Microwave Tip Clearance Sensor,” AIAA Paper, 2005-3987. Radatec, Inc., Atlanta, GA, 30308.

2. Mark R. Woike, James W. Roeder, Christopher E. Hughes, and Timothy J. Bencic, “Testing of a Microwave Blade Tip Clearance Sensor at the NASA Glenn Research Center,” 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting Sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Orlando, Florida, January 5-8, 2009.

3. Andrei B. Vakhtin, Shin-Juh Chen, and Steve M. Massick, “Optical Probe for Monitoring Blade Tip Clearance,” 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including The New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 5-8 January 2009, Orlando, Florida.

KEYWORDS: blade diagnostics, turbine engine, non-intrusive sensors, optical sensors, microwave sensors, adaptive engine, prognostics, measurement technology, vision algorithms

AF103-199 TITLE: Fiber-Coupled Pulsed and High-Intensity Ultraviolet Optical Measurements for

Propulsion Systems

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Apply fiber-coupled pulsed and high-intensity ultraviolet (UV, >200 nm) optical diagnostics to propulsion systems for the measurement of key performance parameters.

DESCRIPTION: Increasing augmentor performance demands, especially those arising from the need for static and dynamic combustion stability, have challenged the utility and robustness of our current design approach. A new design system is required to enhance performance and reduce cost, schedule, and risk. Such a system must involve physics-based models validated through experimental data. In situ data at realistic operating temperatures and pressures is required at multiple points in the flow for fluid-dynamic parameters and multiple chemical species simultaneously. Validation of high-fidelity models as well as prediction of combustion physics and instabilities require spatially and temporally resolved experimental data providing temperature and concentrations of key minor species such as OH, NO, C2H3, and C6H6 (at the 10-100 ppm level), which play significant roles in controlling various aspects of chemical reactions during combustion. The current state-of-the-art laser-based diagnostic approaches providing spatially and temporally resolved species-concentration measurements involve free-standing optics, thereby making their implementation in realistic combustor or augmentor test rigs and engine test stands very challenging, if not impossible. To perform concentration measurements in chemically harsh reacting-flow environments, new strategies for fiber-based diagnostics must be developed.

Current fiber-based measurement technologies rely on transmitting near-infrared light for performing line-of-sight temperature and H3O concentration measurements in combustors and augmentors. A major shortcoming of this approach is the absence of spatially resolved experimental data with one laser beam. Tomographic reconstruction with multiple laser beams can provide limited spatial resolution (typically of the order a few mm), which is often inadequate for model validation. Moreover, the lack of optical access in many test rigs complicates the implementation of full tomography systems, which often involve as many as 20-30 laser beams. Furthermore, this fiber technology is not suitable for transmitting pulsed, high-intensity UV laser beams generally required for the detection of the aforementioned minor species.

A detailed investigation of high-intensity, pulsed, UV laser-beam propagation through various fibers, such as multimode step-index, photonic crystal, and all-silica multimode fibers, is required for performing minor-species concentration measurements under realistic operating conditions in harsh environments. For example, the color of the fiber material changes when high-intensity UV light is transmitted through the fiber through a phenomenon known as “solarization.” The effects of solarization on the transmitted and signal beams need to be characterized before high-intensity UV laser light can be used for laser-based sensing of gas-phase molecules. Other effects that include laser-induced damage, spatial mode changes, and bandwidth increases arising from nonlinear phenomena (e.g., self phase modulation and stimulated Raman processes) must be characterized as well.

To perform the work described in this topic area, offerors may request to utilize unique facilities/equipment in the possession of the US Government located onsite at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Accordingly, the following items of Base Support may be provided to the successful offeror, subject to availability and negotiations, in accordance with the clause in Air Force Materiel Command FAR Supplement (AFMCFARS) 5352.245-9004 “Base Support”: The Combustion and Laser Diagnostics Research Complex, the Atmospheric-Pressure Combustor Research Complex, and specialized laser hardware and augmentor rigs therein.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of using high-intensity, pulsed, UV laser beams for gas-phase spectroscopic applications to include optimum fiber selection for a working distance of at least 20 ft for measurements in test rigs.

PHASE II: Demonstrate spatially resolved concentration measurements of OH, NO, C2H3, and C6H6 with a fiber-coupled spectroscopic system. Deliver appropriate fibers and associated hardware and demonstrate spatially resolved minor-species concentration measurements in an augmentor test rig at AFRL. Extensively validate the methodologies in large-scale experimental or test facilities to TRL 5.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Developed measurement technologies can be used in development and procurement programs for the acquisition of validation data for design practice/system and robustness validation.

Commercial Application: A fiber-based UV spectroscopy system will have a broad range of applications, making this technology applicable to combustors, augmentors, engine test facilities, and biological imaging, for example.

REFERENCES:

1. T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, T. N. Anderson, J. D. Miller, V. R. Katta, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, ";Measurements of OH Mole Fraction and Temperature Up to 20 kHz by Using a Diode-Laser-Based UV Absorption Sensor,"; Appl.Opt. 44 (31), 6729-40 (2005).

2. M. W. Mackey, J. W. Daily, J. T. McKinnon, and E. P. Riedel. ";High-Temperature UV-Visible Absorption Spectral Measurements and Estimated Primary Photodissociation Rates of Formaldehyde, Chlorobenzene and 1-Chloronaphthalene,"; Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, A: Chemistry, 105 (1), 1 (1997).

3. J. R. Gord, P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, T. R. Meyer, and S. Roy, ";Gas-Phase Temperature Measurements in Reacting Flows Using Fiber-Coupled Picosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Spectroscopy,"; AIAA Paper No. 2009-1444, 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. Orlando, Florida, 2009.

KEYWORDS: Lasers, diagnostics, measurements, combustion, fluid dynamics

AF103-200 TITLE: Thermal Interaction of High Performance Gas Turbine Engines Combustor Exit

Products on Downstream Components

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Compare and Contrast innovative concepts for high fuel-air ratio combustor operation for mitigating thermal failures in film cooled turbine stages in a high performance gas turbine engine.

DESCRIPTION: The demand for increased thrust in gas turbine engines has driven higher combustor operating fuel-air ratios, approaching stoichiometric operation, while aiming at greater combustion efficiency. As a result, increased temperatures are realized at the combustor exit. The efficiency of complete combustion and heat release in the main burner at higher fuel-air ratio operation depends on the fuel-air mixing process, the volume, the residence time, flow velocity and layout of the combustion device. Combustion systems are becoming very compact, resulting from requirements to reduce engine size and weight which improve engine thrust-to-weight ratios. Reduced combustor size results in reduced residence time for combustion reactions to complete, resulting in non-reacted carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) emissions. These two factors increase the probability of unburned hydrocarbons entering the downstream turbine stages and reacting with the film cooling air, resulting in a possibility for secondary combustion in the turbine stages. Generally, the level of UHC in the combustion products above 600 parts per million (ppm) is dangerous and permits localized severe heating to cause concern. Secondary reactions occur in the thermal boundary layer near the turbine blade surface, enhanced by the transport and mixing of the unburned hydrocarbons with the film cooling air. These secondary reactions and combustion increase the temperature in turbine stages and pose a series of rotating component design challenges, impacting the blade durability due to thermal fatigue and could result in structural disintegration and loss. Ideas are sought to investigate possible occurrences and fixes for the thermal fatigue of turbine sections at high fuel-air combustor operations. This serious mishap could be prevented by devising and designing suitable novel concepts, which could include turbine cooling concepts and/or reheat cycles where fuel is staged axially in the engine, thereby reducing combustor fuel-air ratio locally to allow for adequate burning time in the combustion device. During the Phase I effort, feasibility to determine the effect of secondary combustion for a film cooled specimen vane, with identifying possible fixes may be demonstrated by modeling & simulation or by sub-scale testing at representative conditions. The Phase II effort will proceed to further develop, fully optimize the best of Phase I findings in a combustion device for final rig testing. Offerors should establish baseline combustor performance parameters, such as fuel tailoring and distribution, temperature increase, staged combustion efficiency, exit profile pattern factor, species and pressure drop prior to developing the staged combustion concept in order to quantify projected performance. Close collaboration with an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of commercial and military gas turbine engines is highly encouraged to ensure successful transition of the new device concept and technology at the end of Phase II. Transitioning the methodology and any kind of data to a military engine or OEM is expected.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility for high fuel-air ratio combustion operation on film cooled vanes for enhanced thermal durability by examining several potential solutions and comparing their merits for physics-based technical feasibility.

PHASE II: Fully develop and optimize the selected Phase I finding for various conditions of the main burner, at high-fuel air operation by numerical procedures or testing. Rig test a film cooled representative vane with the prototype concept and establish proof of sustained durability of the film cooled vane at relevant engine operating conditions and establish technology and manufacturing readiness level.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Optimum staged combustion devices can be incorporated into military gas turbine engine combustion systems, including high speed engines. UAV. large and small fighter engines.

Commercial Application: Proven staged combustion systems can be included in subsonic and supersonic jet engines, as well as in land-based turbine engines combustion systems, to reduce pollutant emissions and save fuel.

REFERENCES:

1. Lukachko, S.P., Kirk, D.R., Waitz, I.A., “Gas Turbine Engine Durability Impacts of High Fuel-air Ratio Combustors Part 1: Potential for Secondary Combustion of Partially Reacted Fuel,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2002, June 3-6, 2002, Amsterdam, The Netherlands GT-2002-30077.

2. Kirk, D.R., Guenette, G.R., Lukachko, S.P., Waitz, I.A., Gas Turbine Engine Durability Impacts of High Fuel-air Ratio Combustors Part 2: Near Wall Reaction Effects on Film-Cooled Heat Transfer, Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2002, June 3-6, 2002, Amsterdam, The Netherlands GT-2002-30182.

3. Zelina, J., Shouse, T., and Hancock, R.D., “Ultra-Compact Combustors for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME IGTI Paper 2004-GT-53155, Vienna, Austria, June 2004.

4. Zelina, J, Shouse, D.T., Stutrud, J.S., Sturgess, G.J., and Roquemore, W.M., “Exploration of Compact Combustors for Reheat Cycle Aero Engine Applications,” GT 2006-90179, Barcelona, Spain, May 2006.

5. Thornburg, H., Sekar, B., Zelina, J., and Greenwood, R., “Numerical Study of an Inter-Turbine Burner (ITB) Concept with Curved Radial Vane,” AIAA 2007-649, 2007.

6. Lin, C-X, Sekar, B., Zelina, J., Holder, R.J., Thornburg, H., “Numerical Simulation of Inter-turbine Burner (ITB) Flows with the Inclusion of V-Gutter Flame Holders,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2008: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, GT2008-50337.

KEYWORDS: staged combustion, tailored fuel distribution, high fuel-air ratio, unburned hydrocarbon, heat transfer, durability, combustion efficiency, pressure loss, film cooling air, durability

AF103-201 TITLE: Wireless Sensor Network powered by Energy Harvesting Solution Network

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop wireless sensor devices powered by energy harvesting technologies from vibratory and thermal gradient energy sources and/or Radio Frequency (RF) in a distributed control system.

DESCRIPTION: USAF is currently developing a distributed engine control system (DCS) to eliminate Full Authority Digital Engine controls (FADEC) cooling requirement and mitigate obsolescence, and improve reliability and robustness. The typical minimum operating rage for introduction into a FADEC and sensors require an operating range of -55 to 125 degrees Celsius. However, it is desired to extend this range up to 225 degrees Celsius. Ideally, a sensor capable of a wider operating range would be desirable as the move to mount electronics on the core of the engine becomes a feature discriminator. DCS offers modularity, improved control system prognostics, and fault tolerance, along with reducing the impact of hardware obsolescence. Distributed control (DC) is the Air Force strategy that enables flexible multiple control nodes while potentially reducing the system’s installed cost. In the DCS of the future, networked sensor and actuator-based solutions will be used for controls and engine health management. Wireless technology may be applied increasingly in control systems to reduce weight and cost and provide extensibility to existing systems without having to carry out significant modifications.

Wireless networks can bring control systems additional advantages, such as flexibility and feasibility of network deployment at low costs, while it also raises some new challenges. This has been enabled by the availability, particularly in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These sensors are equipped with wireless interfaces which may communicate with one another to form an adaptable network.

Energy constrained systems such as sensor networks may increase their usable lifetimes by extracting energy from their environment. However, environmental energy will typically not be spread homogeneously over the spread of the network. The wireless sensor community has had many discussions about solar, vibration, and thermal energy harvesting solutions. All options needs to be investigated. It may be possible to use COTS thermal energy harvesters for the sensors. A typical engine environment is around 177 °C. It is expected that energy solution can provide a typical voltage output is ~ 5V @ DeltaT = 60 °C, and the Power Output = 80mW @ DeltaT = 60 °C. A minimum of 300 microWatt is desired for the wireless sensors. While these technologies can harvest useful energy, they share the common problem of being reliant on ambient sources generally beyond their control. Solar requires light, vibration requires motion, and thermal requires a heat source. Radio frequency energy may also be harvested from the environment adequately to provide a power store for a wireless sensor network

A wireless power solution based on RF energy transfer overcomes this lack of controllability because power can be replenished when desired. Various techniques can be used for RF energy transfer, the most simple being an inductively coupled system, which works at radio frequencies. The RF is received by an antenna and converted into a rectified signal which can power sensor(s) and/or low power electronic circuits.

The impact for wireless sensors is profound. Instead of design and operational constraints for maximizing battery life, devices can be recharged with energy repeatedly and perpetually, enabling greater functionality and more frequent use. Wireless data acquisition system design requires the ability to extract usable amounts of electrical energy from vibratory and thermal gradient energy sources and / or RF energy transfer techniques. This is a critical technology as the use of wire supplied power supply negates any advantage of the wireless approach. Isolated electronic devices must be able to be self –sustainable and “harvest” (and to some extent store) sufficient power with which to operate. WSN will be able to transmit senor data to the FADEC on a periodic basis.

In Phase I, the ambient energy environment of a turbine engine shall be characterized, as well as the power needs for typical wireless sensor nodes. Results should include detailed analysis of the power needs of remote sensor nodes. Prognostic and/diagnostic data sets should be assumed to calculate the necessary power to drive sensor nodes with properly scaled data sampling rates and network bus bandwidths. During Phase II, the offeror should be able to demonstrate the wireless sensor using energy harvesting solutions utility of a WSN on a control system bench under harsh operational environments as is described in Reference 5. WBS needs to withstand EMI/lightning as well.

PHASE I: Develop requirements and plan for a multiple source (vibratory, thermal, and/or RF) wireless sensors powered by energy harvesting solution which enables a wireless sensor network to be implemented within a distributed control system.

PHASE II: Fabricate and test a prototype of the smart wireless distributed sensor node powered by energy harvesting system and Demonstrate the feasibility of a WSN powered by an energy harvesting technique on a control system bench. Packaging and protection should be considered for EMI, lightning, and temperature.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The device must be able to be incorporated into a FADEC to be transitioned to commercial production for dual use applications.

Commercial Application: This technology has wide applicability to commercial gas turbine engines for aircraft and also for improving performance and maintainability of industrial gas turbine engines in remote areas.

REFERENCES:

1. Bhardwaj, M. and Chandrakasan, A., ";Bounding the lifetime of sensor networks via optimal role assignments."; INFOCOM 2002, New York. pp. 1587-1596.

2. Bhardwaj, M., Garnett, T., and Chandrakasan, A. P., ";Upper bounds on the lifetime of sensor networks,"; IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2001

3. Chang, J.-H. and Tassiulas, L., ";Maximum lifetime routing in wireless sensor networks."; Advanced Telecommunications and Information Distribution Research Program (ATIRP), College Park, MD.

4. Kalpakis, K., Dasgupta, K., and Namjoshi P., ";Efficient algorithms for maximum lifetime data gathering and aggregation in wireless sensor networks,"; Technical Report UMBC-TR-02-13, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering,University of Maryland, Baltimore County, August 2002. Accepted for publication in Computer Networks.

5. Behbahani A., and Semega K., U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, ";Sensing Challenges for Controls and PHM in the Hostile Operating Conditions of Modern Turbine Engine";, 44th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, AIAA-2008-5280, NTIS-Report Number: AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2008-2184.

KEYWORDS: energy harvesting, wireless sensor network; protocols; sensor network services; sensor network deployment; FADEC

AF103-202 TITLE: Commercial Controls Technology Insertion

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop common distributed control architecture for turbine engine controls based on affordable high temperature electronics (HTE) and a common architecture reduced development and acquisition costs.

DESCRIPTION: Turbine engine controls based on bulk silicon electronics are increasingly constrained by improvements in turbine engine technology. This constraint is primarily associated with the thermal environment on the engine system. Distributed control on engine systems can alleviate this constraint by enabling the Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) to be located in a less hostile environment without incurring the weight penalty associated with complex wiring harness assemblies.

Distributing the input/output (I/O) functionality of the FADEC to the individual control elements allows the FADEC to focus on control law processes. This greatly simplifies the FADEC interface and associated wiring harness through digital communications. But this can only occur if the I/O electronics are properly embedded in the control element and have sufficient capability to communicate to the control law processes.

The fundamental technology to enable this paradigm shift is highly-integrated, high-temperature electronics which can be embedded in the control element. These electronic components must be highly integrated to meet system level weight restrictions. These electronic components must be capable of continuous, high reliability operation on the engine core, including the transient thermal conditions of soakback which occur when the engine is shut down. These electronic components must have sufficient digital communications capability to accommodate stable engine control and system diagnostics. Finally, these electronic components must be affordable at reasonable production volumes to allow the technology to be inserted in mainstream engine control applications. These combined requirements may drive the electronic components to have sufficient integrated functionality, in addition to networked communications, which will enable them to interface with a wide variety of engine control elements to minimize the number of unique parts, thereby increasing the production volume and lowering the production cost.

Down select (with input from major engine manufacturers) a high-temperature electronic communications component capability based on a reasonable production cost (as defined by the major engine manufacturers) for electronic components. Develop a reasonable scale breadboard of the engine control system distributed communications network using available HTE components or similar capability commercial electronics. Demonstrate the communications capacity in terms of bandwidth, throughput, determinism, and bit error rate. Test the component under relevant environmental conditions and provide data on its performance.

PHASE I: Investigate & quantify the minimum digital networked communications capability for distributed control systems which translates into an electronics performance requirement in terms of clock speeds and the number of digital gates for HTE circuits and protocol implementation.

PHASE II: Design & Test a highly-integrated, HTE component which can implement the control system communication protocol as identified in phase I and per the reliability requirements and system integration constraints of the turbine engine system. Provide die of the electronic component for the purpose of testing its function and integrating the component into a larger assembly or Multi-Chip Module (MCM).

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Affordable sensors & actuators with high temperature capability and standard data bus communications capabilities for engine control effectors for military turbine engines & other applications.

Commercial Application: Affordable sensors and actuators with high temperature capability and standard data bus communications capabilities for turbine engine and industrial process control applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Makowitz, R., Temple, C., “Flexray—A Communication Network for Automotive Control Systems,” IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems, June 27, 2006, pp. 207–212.

2. Lee, K.C., Kim, M.H., Lee, S., Lee, H.H., “IEEE-1451-Based Smart Module for In-Vehicle Networking Systems of Intelligent Vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 51, Issue 6, Dec. 2004, pp. 1150–1158.

3. Gwaltny, D.A., Briscoe, J.M., “Comparison of Communication Architectures for Spacecraft Modular Avionics Systems,” Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA/TM—2006-214431.

4. Culley, D., Behbahani, A., “Communications Needs Assessment for Distributed Turbine Engine Control,” NASA TM2008-215419, September 2008.

5. TIA-485-A Electrical Characteristics of Generators and Receivers for Use in Balanced Digital Multipoint Systems (ANSI/TIA/EIA-485-A-98) (R2003).

6. ";Smart Pressure Sensors with Next Generation Communication Interfaces";

/iel5/10236/32655/01529138.pdf.

7. Alireza Behbahani, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, ";Achieving AFRL Universal FADEC Vision with Open Architecture Addressing Capability and Obsolescence for Military and Commercial Applications,"; AIAA-2006-4302, 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Sacramento, California, July 9-12, 2006.

8. Collin, J.M., ";Progress and new challenges in electronics and digital engine control,"; Affiliation Societe Nationale d'Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation, Paris (France). Report Number PB96-101688, 1994.

KEYWORDS: control, communications, high temperature electronics (HTE), communications, RS485,FADEC.

AF103-203 TITLE: Electrical Power System Robustness-REPS

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate capabilities to improve & ensure robustness for electrical power systems.

DESCRIPTION: Electrical Power Systems (EPS) and subsystems for aerospace applications have to meet continually increasing demands. Significantly, these demands now include providing power to critical flight surface actuators. While Size, Weight and Power (SWAP) are all major features that are uppermost in system designs, the need for system Robustness underpins all others. Robustness is the ability of the system to operate whenever it is needed and can be measured by such parameters as Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), measured degradation signatures and probability of system loss of control. A robust system must also be capable of handling transient power requirements, be able to accommodate anomalies, and re-configure itself as needed to perform as expected. Of current concern is the actual robustness of fielded state-of-the-art EPS that were designed to replace the triple and quad redundant hydraulic systems on aircraft. While robustness of these dual channel electrical designs was originally demonstrated at the R&D level, there is currently no known measure of robustness now that the equipment is fielded, yet there is a need to know the levels being achieved so that system safety, reliability and maintainability requirements can be met.

As with any system, the overall reliability is only as good as the weakest component in the system. Hence, a simple switch or resistor can reduce the robustness of the entire EPS or airplane electronic component. In addition, interactions between components (power supply, power conditioning, actuator drive, etc.) can potentially lead to interactions that reduce overall system robustness. The measurement of robustness must take account of every component and piece part in the entire system or complex assembly and hierarchy of components, from component level, to PWB-level, to Module Level and ultimately to system level. With modern EPS now operational and real data being generated, this SBIR seeks to determine the robustness of electrical systems using the real data being generated and identify technologies that could be developed or leveraged to increase the robustness in the EPS. The available data is typically owned by the system manufacturers so small businesses wishing to pursue this topic will most likely need to partner with a large OEM.

PHASE I: With access to operating data from a deployed aircraft's EPS or a chosen electronic component, show on a small scale how robustness can be measured & determined. Identify capabilities & technologies that can improve EPS robustness and reliabilty measures. Effort will be lab-centered.

PHASE II: In a full scale aircraft EPS system, develop and progressively demonstrate the identified means of measuring & determining EPS robustness. Further develop and demonstrate robustness improvement capabilities into a full scale EPS including means of validating the developed methodologies.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: F-35 and most UAV's employ electric actuation to critical flight surfaces. A measure of EPS robustness is most important for these applications.

Commercial Application: Emerging commercial airliners are employing utilities that are electrically driven. Rubustness for these applications is manditory.

REFERENCES:

1. Moir, I., and Seabridge, A., ";Aircraft Systems: ";Mechanical, electrical, and avionics subsystems integration,"; ISBN:978-0-470-05996-8.

2. Archived FedBizOps information: /archive/2008/06-June/22-Jun-2008/FBO-01598541.htm.

KEYWORDS: More electric aircraft, robustness, systems integration, reliability, mean time between failure, probability of loss of control

AF103-204 TITLE: Improved Data & Power Transmission: Conductor & Shielding

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop improved shielding and/or conductor for data transmission & power conductor cables that are lighter and more EMI resilient.

DESCRIPTION: There exists a potential for significant Air Force wide fuel savings by decreasing the weight of aircraft. Additionally, the increasingly more electrically based aircraft of today and the forthcoming of high powered directed energy applications create additional Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) issues that need to be addressed.

Traditionally, most all Air Force manned and unmanned air platforms transmit both power and data through heavy copper, aluminum, and metallic based cables. A significant portion of the weight in these power and data transmission cables is in the shielding. Goals for improving the data transmission cable include decreasing weight of cable by at least 25% and improving EMI resiliency. It should also be acknowledged that currently used cables on aircraft are often times limited by bend radius and also suffer from mechanical durability issues. Bend radius and durability are ancillary concerns that will eventually be of importance with product maturity that this topic may also resolve. Note that optical data transmission solutions are not the intention of this SBIR topic.

Initial indications suggest carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other carbon based materials are a possible solution. CNT's and other carbon based materials show favorable electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. These materials are also favorable at high frequencies and high temperatures as compared to metallic materials found in conductors and EMI shielding. Nanomaterials also form nano-scale meshed netting which is favorable for EMI shielding.

During Phase I of the contract, the small business is expected to determine the best type of cable to match their material. In essence, the small business shall analyze and begin determining the best cable type to use as an initial target for product improvement (i.e. data transmission cable type or power cable type). The cable selection shall tradeoff both the novel material capability and the potential payoff capability for airborne systems. The use of both modeling and experimental data analysis is expected for this product improvement downselection during Phase I.

During Phase II of the contract, the small business is expected to form or have already formed a business relationship with an original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The Phase II effort shall consist of improving the performance and weight of the selected cable. The small business shall create a method for accurately characterizing the cables so that prototypes can be created, analyzed, and characterized without the help of AFRL.

The small business is encouraged to team and work with an appropriate OEM that should naturally lead to a business relationship with appropriate DoD aerospace air framers.

Delivery of prototype cables to AFRL may be expected throughout the program.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of the innovative cable design using modeling and empirical analysis. Select the best type of cable to transition that meets the goals of less weight and improved EMI resiliency for cables on aerospace platforms. Deliver a short cable that shows weight reduction.

PHASE II: Produce six foot long cables and continue iteratively improving upon the cables that are at least 25% lighter than a baseline cable. Develop method for, test, and characterize the cables. Extend modeling from Phase I effort to continue predicting the electrical performance & characteristics of the cable design. Work with OEM in satisfying electrical and mechanical performance standards.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: JSF, data transmission and power cable shielding. High frequency and high temperature applications. Litz wire. Electronics/component shielding.

Commercial Application: Data transmission wiring. Wire harnesses. USB. Coaxial cable. Litz wire, Electronic circuitry, component shielding.

REFERENCES:

1. Wang, Ben Liang, et al., ";Investigation of Lightning and EMI Shielding Properties of SWNT Buckypaper Nanocomposite,"; 03 Feb 2005, DTIC Accession Number: ADA430333.

2. Prysner, William J., ";Flexible Cable Providing EMI Shielding,"; 07 Jun 1999, DTIC Accession Number: ADD019616.

3. ";Voltage Level and Wiring Weight for Aircraft Electrical Power Systems,"; Naval Research Lab Washington DC, 06 Oct 1971, DTIC Accession Number: AD0732001.

KEYWORDS: carbon nanotube, coaxial cable, EMI shielding, USB, shielding, litz wire, power transmission

AF103-205 TITLE: Thermally Efficient Fuel Management Technology

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop conceptual designs and tools for variable delivery fuel system components that significantly reduce thermal output compared with state-of-the-art aerospace pumping systems.

DESCRIPTION: The aerospace fuel pump and metering system has evolved to become reliable efficiently packaged components that provide excellent capability at their design point. These systems may include multiple pumps for redundancy and flow capability. Current fixed flow/displacement designs and materials provide long life (above 10,000 hours) in commercial service and high capability, in terms of flow rates and pressure for advanced engine applications. However, to meet future engine/aircraft requirements for fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, and high performance, the capability of the fuel pump and metering system must be designed to provide the required flow on demand and reduce the thermal impact on the engine fuel system. The current state of the art (SOA) in aerospace fuel systems accommodates fuel temperatures from (-55 C to 150 C), high turn down ( 20:1), and operates with efficiencies that may vary from 5 percent to 60 percent for full envelope operation. Emerging on-demand and high-thermal-efficiency technology employs electrically driven and variable displacement pumps that potentially reduce the thermal characteristics of the pump. These designs may significantly reduce the thermal signature, but are very application dependent. Typical examples are the variable displacement vane pump and axial (variable axis) piston pump. However, issues remain with conventional variable pump systems that contribute to reduced thermal performance, instability, life, and durability. These issues are challenges to future lightweight, high-thermal-efficiency systems where it is desirable to operate at or above 15,000 rpm (2X above SOA), have high operational life (5,000 hours), comparable weight of a centrifugal system, and increase worst case efficiency by 5X while increasing best operating efficiency to 80 percent. It is also desirable to employ feedback controls to increase robustness (reduced sensitivity to operating parameters) and accommodate a variety of applications or operating characteristics. In the Phase I effort, it is appropriate to investigate new variable delivery pump designs that reduce the effective pressure/velocity (PV) parameter to enable high--speed designs at high flow rates (above 100 gallons/minute). It is appropriate to investigate new mechanical configurations as well as system configurations that will provide reduced thermal effects at a broad range of operating points. Development of tools to evaluate system configurations and performance of novel mechanical designs is appropriate.

PHASE I: Develop a conceptual design for a variable delivery fuel pump with consideration of system technology to improve the characteristics of an advanced turbine high rate and pressure variable delivery system. Demonstration using prototype concept designs and models is appropriate.

PHASE II: In Phase II, development and testing of an advanced prototype concept of a variable delivery fuel pump or system shall be accomplished. The design should accommodate the expected operating conditions, such as pressure and temperature of an advanced turbine engine but can be scaled in flow for demonstration.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Advanced turbine engines, advanced variable cycle engines, engines incorporating thermal management systems of complex mechanical systems and electric components.

Commercial Application: Technology for advanced turbine engines on commercial aircraft that have reduced thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) fuel burn characteristics.

REFERENCES:

1. Johnson, Harry T., “Design and Evaluation of Advanced High-Speed Fuel Pump,” Battelle Memorial Inst. Columbus Ohio, Columbus Labs, DTIC Accession Number, AD0729867, Final Technical Report, July 1971.

2. Tschantz, J. and Bison, B., “Variable Displacement Vane Pump,” Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety - Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 710-715.

3. David F. Thompson and Gregory G. Kremer, “Quantitative feedback design for a

variable-displacement hydraulic vane pump,” Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Nuclear Engineering, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072.

KEYWORDS: fuel pump, variable displacement, fuel metering, modeling, variable delivery, vane pump, piston pump, thermally efficient pump

AF103-207 TITLE: Hypersonic Propulsion: Improvements in Control and Thermal Management

Techniques

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop technologies for enhancing the robustness of mid-scale scramjet engines through improvements in control and thermal management techniques.

DESCRIPTION: Hydrocarbon-fueled supersonic combustion ramjets (scramjets) are expected to operate from Mach 3.5 up to Mach 7-8. Scramjet engines are categorized into three general sizes based on air flowrate: small-scale (10 lbm/s), mid-scale (100 lbm/s), and large-scale (1000 lbm/s).

The X-51 program represents the state of the art for scramjet technology and can be used as a reference point. It is a small-scale system using kerosene fuel, and has a takeover Mach number of 4.5 and overall contraction ratio of approximately 5.

Moving from small-scale to mid-scale systems has exposed various challenges. This topic seeks to enhance the robustness of mid-scale scramjet systems through innovations in controls or thermal management. More details on these challenges are as follows:

1. Scramjet vehicle performance is limited because the engine is not actively controlled. Isolator unstart margin, fuel flow response to both engine and vehicle transients, and overall engine thermal balance are high priority items for control system development. Proposals need not address all three control areas listed above.

Sensors and actuators are important to scramjet control systems. Presently, fundamental issues such as sensor type, placement, and temporal response are critical areas of research. Similar issues exist for actuators. Presently, very little scramjet engine transient data is available, making it difficult to understand the relevant time scales needed to help guide sensor/actuator placement and performance requirements. Proposals may either be computational or experimentally focused in either cold or reacting flows.

2. The upper Mach number of a hypersonic propulsion system is limited by the ability to achieve thermal balance of a fuel-cooled engine. With the onboard fuel as the only viable sink for excess thermal energy, options for operability and performance gains are limited. Two approaches to engage this challenge are to a) reduce the uncertainty and associated thermal design margins and b) explore alternate methods to manage the excess thermal energy.

Uncertainty margins in predicting heat loads on scramjet engine walls are not well understood. Proposals addressing the first approach above (a) should identify the sources of uncertainty in current methods used to estimate heat loads in a scramjet environment, and then develop an approach to mitigate the uncertainty. Results must improve the overall accuracy along with the spatial and temporal resolution of heat flux predictions. The capability should be compatible with current thermal management codes and calculate absolute values of heat flux with quantified uncertainty necessary to predict the thermal balance point.

As scramjet engines get larger, the weight and volume constraints are relaxed allowing more complex thermal management systems. Secondary fluid loop heat exchangers, methods of energy extraction from the coolant or fuel and other methods for managing the thermal load are potential areas for research. Proposals addressing the second approach for achieving thermal balance in a fuel-cooled engine (b) should include conceptual designs of complete thermal management systems with consideration of system and component efficiencies. Results should include efficiency and performance evaluations for comparison to current state of the art scramjet thermal management systems and discussion of the integrated system level impact to the vehicle performance.

PHASE I: Design innovative concepts for one of the challenge areas listed in the description. Perform detailed numerical analyses or subscale testing of the proposed concepts. Prepare for more thorough testing of the concepts in Phase II through development of detailed designs and test plans.

PHASE II: Provide engineering systems analyses on one or more of the challenge areas for developing larger and broader operating ranges for scramjet systems. Fabricate and evaluate prototypical devices or hardware to confirm predictions at an acceptable scale.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: High-speed propulsion systems and technologies are applicable toward various time-critical weapon systems, strike/reconnaissance vehicles, and space launch applications.

Commercial Application: Enhancing current scramjet designs is needed for access to space applications. It allows physical testing at smaller scales to save costs while upholding confidence of applicability to larger systems.

REFERENCES:

1. Wagner, J.L., Yuceil, K.B., Valdivia, A., Clemens, N.T., and Dolling, D.S., “Experimental Investigation of Unstart in an Inlet/Isolator Model in Mach 5 Flow,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1528-1542.

2. Le, D., Goyne, C., and Krauss, R., “Shock Train Leading-Edge Detection in a Dual-Mode Scramjet,” Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1035-1041.

3. Dolling, D., “Fifty Years of Shock-Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction Research: What Next?,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1517-1531.

4. Gamble, E. J., et al., ";Development of a Scramjet/Ramjet Heat Exchanger Analysis Tool (SRHEAT),"; Proceedings of the AIAA 44th Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA 2008-4614 (July 2008).

5. Joseph M. Hank, James S. Murphy and Richard C. Mutzman, “The X-51A Scramjet Engine Flight Demonstration Program,” Proceedings of the 15th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, AIAA 2008-2540 (28 April-1 May 2008)

KEYWORDS: hypersonic, scramjet, propulsion, high speed, space access, controls, thermal management

AF103-208 TITLE: Variable-Fidelity Toolset for Dynamic Thermal Modeling and Simulation of

Aircraft Thermal Management System (TMSs)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

OBJECTIVE: Develop a variable-fidelity dynamic modeling and simulation toolset for optimizing design and conducting thermo-analysis of steady-state and transient behavior of aircraft thermal management system.

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force Research Laboratory is developing several novel architectures for power and thermal management systems (TMS) to address the challenge of optimizing the acquisition of heat and managing its transport and rejection in advanced aircrafts. The development of variable-fidelity dynamic thermal modeling and analysis capability will benefit the development and testing of aircraft TMS architectures and components selection by providing an essential design, control and analysis tool that is not currently available on the same software platform. This toolset should be able to simulate dynamic operating conditions and be ready for full integration with control algorithms. Some specific focus areas in which the toolset will be used in are vapor compression cooling systems for varying loads, electronic cooling solutions for high heat flux applications and in analysis of heat and mass transport in multiphase flows.

The tools should be modular in approach with a graphical interface and should be capable of evaluating architecture and providing thermal design functionality. Special attention has to be placed on providing models for transient behavior of the various components in response to multiple changing input conditions. Varying fidelity is essential for routine use of such a toolset in support of testing of thermal components and designing of a variety of TMSs along with use in research and development toward a comprehensive thermal management approach. A hierarchical scheme with variable-fidelity-lumped-parameter models for the components and subcomponents that can be adapted to design specifications is required. The components include but are not limited to evaporators (e.g., parallel/counterflow/crossflow heat exchangers), condensers, compressor (e.g., reciprocating, centrifugal), control valves, accumulators/receivers, mixers, splitters, heat loads, fans, sensors, oil separators and water separators. The degree of fidelity in this case is defined by the flexibility of the component models to incorporate a higher number of independent physical parameters to satisfy specific design geometries and the extent of the parameter range for which the transient model is valid. The toolset must be MATLAB/SIMULINK based and for the end product, some cross platform software development with plug-in for seamless interfacing with commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for multidimensional thermal analysis is desirable.

The tool set should be able to design and optimize architectures for refrigeration systems (both single and multiple-phase) as well as provide steady-state and transient thermo-analysis of thermal and electronic components. During the Phase I program, the small business will be provided with vapor compression, cycle-based TMS architecture (sample architecture provided at the SBIR Interactive Technical Interchange Service) case studies, and the validity of the toolset will be determined by the sensitivity of the toolset to capture steady-state response (within 5 percent) and transient response (within 20 percent). During the Phase II program, the toolset will be expanded to include representative components for the aircraft TMS and higher fidelity models for those provided in Phase I and will be validated by sponsor-provided TMS architecture and mission profile case studies.

PHASE I: Thermal toolset with steady-state & transient dynamic models of components representative of two-phase refrigeration systems. Deliverables: software framework, MATLAB/SIMULINK-based source code, graphical user interface (GUI), parameter list, documentation, and results of defined case studies.

PHASE II: Expand and fully develop the toolset to include other components of the aircraft thermal management system. Deliverables: Updated component library, source code, GUI and parameter list for elements listed above, final report summarizing results of defined case studies.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The proposed software will benefit the design and analysis of the TMSs of military aircraft by providing an essential control-based, high-fidelity thermal design tool.

Commercial Application: Include design of high-efficiency refrigeration systems and the analysis of a myriad of dynamic thermal systems for use in both land- and air-based vehicles.

REFERENCES:

1. Thomas L. McKinley and Andrew Alleyne, ";An Advanced Nonlinear Switched Heat Exchanger Model for Vapor Compression Cycles Using the Moving Boundary Method,"; International Journal of Refrigeration, 31 (2008) 1253-1264.

2. D. Bunce and S. Kandlikar, ";Transient Response Of Heat Exchangers, Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, December 28-31, 1995.

3. S. Bendapudi and J.E. Braun, ";A Review of Literature on Dynamic Models for HVAC Equipment,"; ASHRAE Report #4036-5, May 2002.

4. Sample Vapor Cycle System Architecture, diagram (*NEW* reference provided by TPOC, uploaded in SITIS 08/10/10.)

KEYWORDS: thermal toolset, aircraft thermal management system, vapor cycle based refrigeration system, simulink dynamic models, steady state and transient behavior, two phase flow

AF103-209 TITLE: Internal Combustion (IC) Engine/Electric Hybrid Power/Propulsion System for

Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate an efficient hybrid internal combustion (IC) engine/electric system to power small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for increased reliability and operational capability.

DESCRIPTION: Tactical requirements for unmanned aerial systems are exceeding current capabilities for performance, reliability, maintainability, and supportability. Mission requirements such as extended endurance, increased power, and low altitude maneuverability in urban environments are becoming paramount. Specifically, in the 50 to 150-lb class of vehicles, which includes both ground launched and air-dropped systems, these requirements are not fully realized with solely electrochemical energy storage-based propulsion, nor with solely engine-based propulsion. Electrical power requirement for advanced payloads is also increasing. Objective of this topic is to utilize combined strengths of electrical-based and engine-based power/propulsion systems through advanced hybrid configurations in order to anticipate and meet the current and future needs of small to medium-sized unpiloted aerial systems (UASs).

Current UAV IC engines are sized to provide enough power and speed for takeoff capability, leading to a propulsion system which operates inefficiently at other operating conditions. In addition, IC engines tend to be noisy, which can limit UAV operational capabilities. Electric-based systems are quiet, but have issues with power density and energy storage capacity. Fuel cell-based systems provide a very efficient energy source, but tend to be limited in the amount of power provided for larger UAVs. Batteries are limited by their energy storage capacity, unless they can be charged during operation by another energy source. Hybridization would enable users to take advantage of quiet, efficient operation of electric-based propulsion while also taking advantage of the power density of IC engines.

A hybridized propulsion system would need to be able to meet different operational conditions of a small/mid-sized UAV, which include full power takeoff and dash modes for 10 percent of mission duration and part-power cruise and hold conditions for 80 percent of mission time. Cruise mode shall include segments of quiet operation (10 to 30 percent of total mission duration) and segments of increased electric payload power draw. Key capabilities include: ability of IC engine to operate off of heavy-fuel (JP-8, diesel); dual operation of electrical and IC components to additively produce peak propulsive power; the ability to regenerate a rechargeable electrical power storage system during cruise conditions; ability to remotely shut-down the IC engine and to run in electric-only ";quiet” propulsion mode; ability to remotely re-start the IC engine; and ability to provide power to a number of electrical payloads.

During Phase I effort, hybrid concepts should be developed that provide adequate power for propulsion and sensing, as well as decreased weight over present single-power concepts employed. Key capabilities will be to achieve mission times equivalent with present non-hybrid propulsion systems, IC, electric and fuel cells, that can achieve mission times of 24+ hours. Phase II will fully develop, fabricate, and demonstrate the system in a ground test environment with designs to be integrated into a specific in-service UAV airframe. Phase III options should integrate the enhanced propulsion system into the airframe and demonstrate the performance of the system with flight testing in a UAV mission environment.

PHASE I: During the Phase I effort determine the optimal approach to hybrid electric power/propulsion through modeling, empirical, and pragmatic analyses. The S-UAS platform should include the vehicle, subsystems, payload, and all other ancillary components of the hybrid propulsion system.

PHASE II: The Phase II effort will fully develop and fabricate the system design from Phase I and demonstrate the system in a ground-based environment.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: S-UAS performing Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), targeting and target acquisition missions.

Commercial Application: Law enforcement, Homeland Security, and emergency service Unmanned Air Systems performing intelligence, surveillance, search and rescue, and disaster relief missions.

REFERENCES:

1. “Hybrid Engine Concept from Flight Design,” AVweb, v15n30d, July 30, 2009, (/eletter/archives/avflash/1425-full.html).

2. “Meyer Nutating Disk Engine, a New Concept in Internal Combustion Engine Technology,” 43rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, 8-11 July 2007, Cincinnati, OH

3. Frederick G. Harmon, Andrew A. Frank, and Jean-Jacques Chattot, ";Conceptual Design and Simulation of a Small Hybrid-Electric,"; University of California—Davis, Davis, California 95616-5294, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

KEYWORDS: unmanned aerial vehicle, hybrid propulsion system, heavy fuel engine, energy storage, fuel cell, battery

AF103-210 TITLE: Indentification, Validation, and Control of Jet Noise Sources

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

OBJECTIVE: Develop improved understanding of noise generation mechanisms. Use improved understanding to develop and evaluate new technologies for the suppression of jet noise from gas turbine engines

DESCRIPTION: The noise due to jet engine exhausts of current military and commercial aircraft continues to be an environmental concern. High noise levels impact residential communities around military bases and commercial airports, airport ground crews, and military aircraft carrier launch/recovery crews. With regulations pertaining to noise from commercial jet aircraft becoming more stringent, mitigation of noise levels from aircraft are a major concern. The response to more stringent civil requirements has been flight path and usage restrictions and surcharges impacting flight operations.

From research over the past 30 years, there is a firm understanding of the consequence of jet turbulence as a source of jet noise. For all jets, regardless of jet Mach number, there are two sources of noise generated by the turbulence in the jet. Noise generated from small-scale turbulence, G spectrum, is typically omnidirectional. Noise generated from the large scales, F spectrum, is directional and most prevalent at downstream angles of the jet. Finally, for supersonic jets, as the turbulence convects through the shocks, there is significant amplification of the higher frequency noise, called broad band shock noise or BBSN.

Current state of the art in jet noise measurement is the use of arrays of high-speed pressure measurement in the near and far field. To measure the turbulence in the jet, techniques trade temporal and spatial resolution. For high temporal resolution of the turbulence, arrays of hot wires have been used. These arrays have limited spatial resolution are intrusive and could themselves be a source of turbulent noise. Conversely, for high spatial resolution, techniques such as planar image velocimetry (PIV) and Schlieren have also been used. Until recently, these techniques have low temporal, ~10s to 100s of Hz, resolution.

To truly understand the influence of turbulence on the F and G spectrum and BBSN, detailed sets of data with high spatial and temporal resolution are required. For near field pressure, current techniques provide sufficient temporal/spatial resolution. For measuring turbulence, there are several new high-speed planar techniques, such as PIV or Schlieren, that could be applied. The correlation between pressure and velocity is a key feature of the research, not correlation or spectral software which is currently commercially available. An improved understanding of the coupling of the turbulent spectrum to pressure and noise-generation is desired. Also desired is an improved understanding of the physics of suppression techniques.

Close collaboration with an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of gas turbine engines is highly recommended to aid transition of technology concepts.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of high resolution turbulence measurement concepts. Establish and exhibit a methodology to obtain simultaneous high resolution turbulence and high speed pressure arrays measurements. Perform proof of concept demonstration of coupled pressure and turbulence concept in an anechoic chamber of a jet or other methodology with equally accurate measurement capabilities.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate the prototype high resolution coupled measurement device and methods from phase I. Establish and exhibit a methodology for the analysis of coupled pressure and turbulence data. Develop new concepts for the reduction of jet noise. Conduct an experimental investigation of the effectiveness of noise suppression concepts over the noise spectrum in an anechoic chamber. Deliver prototype measurement device, improved methods, an assessment of noise suppression concepts, and an archive of experimental data. .

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Military Application: Light weight, and low cost technologies transitioned to military gas turbine OEMs for incorporation into existing and future gas turbine engines.

Commercial Application: Improved, light weight and low cost technologies have many applications in commercial gas turbine, land based gas turbine power generation.

REFERENCES:

1. Hall, J., Pinier, J., Hall, A.M. and Glauser, M.N. (2009), ";Cross-Spectral Analysis of the Pressure in a Mach 0.85 Turbulent Jet,"; AIAA Journal, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp 54 - 59.

2. Hileman, J.I., Thurow, B.S., Caraballo, E.J. and Samimy, M., (2005), ";Large-Scale Structure Evolution and Sound Emission in High-Speed Jets: Real-Time Visualization with Simultaneous Acoustic Measurements";, J. Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 544, pp. 277-307.

3. Kearney-Fischer, M., Kim, J., H., and Samimy, M., 2009, “Noise Control of a High Reynolds Number Mach 0.9 Heated Jet Using Plasma Actuators”, AIAA 2009-3188

4. Nance, D. K., and Ahuja, K., K., (2009), “Experimentally Separating Jet Noise Contribution of Large-Scale Turbulence from that of Small-Scale Turbulence, AIAA 2009-3213

5. Schlinker, R., Simonich, J., Shannon, D., Reba, R., Colonius, T., Gudmundsson, K., Ladeinde, L., 2009, “Supersonic Jet Noise from Round and Chevron Nozzles: Experimental Studies”, AIAA 2009-3257

6. Tam, C. and, Chen, P., 1994, “Turbulence mixing noise from supersonic jets”, AIAA Journal 32 (1994) 174–1780.

7. Tam C.K.W., “Supersonic jet noise”. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 27 (1995) 17–43.

8. Tam, C., Golebiowski, M., and Seiner, J., (1996), “Two Components of Turbulent Mixing Noise from Supersonic Jets”, AIAA-96-1716.

9. Tam, C., Pastouchenko, N., and Schlinker,R., 2003, “On the Two Sources of Supersonic Jet Noise”, AIAA 2003-3163

10. Tam, C. et al., 2007, “The Sources of Jet Noise: Experimental Evidence”, AIAA 2007-3641

11. Tinney, C.E., Jordan, P., Hall, A.M., Delville, J. and Glauser, M.N. (2007), ";A Time-resolved Estimate of the Turbulence and Source Mechanisms in a Subsonic Jet Flow";, Journal of Turbulence, Volume 8, 1.

12. Viswanathan, K., (2008), “Investigation of Noise Source Mechanisms in Subsonic Jets”, AIAA JOURNAL, Vol. 46, No. 8, August 2008

KEYWORDS: subsonic jet noise, supersonic noise, turbulence, G spectrum, F spectrum, broad band shock noise

AF103-211 TITLE: Novel Oxidizer for Ammonium Perchlorate Replacement

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Identify and develop synthesis routes for new high energy density oxidizers with an oxygen balance >-30%, a melting point >120°C and with physical and hazard properties better than that of cyclotetramthylene tetranitramine (HMX).

DESCRIPTION: The DoD requires increased performance and increased density solid propellants for use on boost, strategic and tactical missile systems, however, simultaneously attaining higher energy and density while maintaining satisfactory physical properties is an extremely challenging goal. Current ingredients are incapable of imparting the desired performance and insensitivity. Because of sporadic, short-term funding in advanced energetic ingredient research over the past 20 years and the lack of a coordinated, sustained national effort; few new ingredients have surfaced. Concurrently, the level of research effort has declined steadily in the USA and research chemists in this critical defense area represent a declining workforce. Meanwhile, efforts in Russia and the Peoples Republic of China have remained high and have accelerated dramatically. In order to meet and compete in this technology challenge, and to avoid technological surprise, focused efforts are needed to identify, synthesize, and characterize new ingredient oxidizers to increase the energy and density of formulated solid propellant mixtures while meeting other required attributes (hazard classification, lifetime, cost, performance, etc) defined by the DoD/NASA/US Industry’s Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program Phase III goals and beyond.

Performance calculations can be used as the first tool to quickly evaluate the performance potential of the oxidizer candidates. Performance calculations should be performed using a physics based thermochemical computational code, utilizing a solid propellant formulation consisting of a 68-72% oxidizer content, a 10-18% fuel content, 1-2% plasticizer and a 8-12% hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) binder content. Oxygen balance (OB or %OB) can be calculated from the empirical formula of a compound in percentage of oxygen required for complete conversion of carbon to carbon dioxide, hydrogen to water, and metal to metal oxide.

During Phase I, the energetic material will be synthesized to confirm the chemical and physical properties of the oxidizer candidates. Characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), carbon, hydogen and nitrogen (CH&N) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) will be performed along with friction, impact and electro static discharge (ESD) hazard analysis to help identify if it poses a significant risk to personnel or facilities during synthesis, transport or storage. Thermal sensitivity can be determined by TGA analysis using either a ramped or isothermal heating rate to help determine thermal stability and decomposition temperature.

During Phase II, laboratory synthesis will be refined to produce larger quantities of the candidate oxidizer to confirm the properties evaluated under Phase I and for further evaluation in a solid propellant formulation. Emphasis will be to produce at least 100 grams for shipment per DOT-SP-8451 exemption containers to AFRL/RZS for evaluation in a solid propellant formulation. Since a solid propellant formulation consists up to 72% by weight solid oxidizer, sufficient material is needed for evaluation in a candidate propellant formulation for chemical compatibility, mechanical property, thermal stability, hazard sensitivity, and performance characteristics.

PHASE I: Design research strategies and experimental approach to synthesize & characterize key physical properties. Prepare at a minimum 2 gram quantities of the new oxidizers at the laboratory scale, to verify at a minimum; ingredient structure, thermal stability and hazard sensitivities.

PHASE II: Develop and refine laboratory scale-up synthesis procedure to produce at least 100 grams of the new compound for verification of the Phase I chemical and physical properties and for further evaluation in a solid propellant formulation. Oxidizer shipment to AFRL/RZS is required for evaluation and characterization in a candidate solid propellant formulation.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Design research strategy to allow for multi-pound production of new ingredient so that it can be formulated into propellants tailored for specific boost or strategic missile system applications.

Commercial Application: Due to the nature of these materials, commercial application will be limited. Commercial space launch will be the primary customer but this application could be extended to include the air bag industry, firework manufacturers and commercial mining.

REFERENCES:

1. Zarlingo, F., Fuller, S., “Tactical Development in IHPRPT- A DoD Perspective,” AIAA Meeting Paper, A9637353, AIAA Paper 96-3282, 1996

2. Sikder, A.K.; Geetha, M.; Sarwade, D.B.; Agrawal, J.P.; “Studies on Characterization and Thermal Behavior of 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole and its Derivatives,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol 82, Issue 1, Mar 2001, pg 1-12

3. Agrawal, J.P.; “Recent Trends in High-Energy Materials,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., Vol 24, Issue 1, 1998, pg 1-30

4. Sheremetrev, A. B.; Kulagina, V.O.; Aleksandrova, N. S.; “Dinitro Trifurazans with Oxy, Azo, and Azoxy Bridges,” Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, Vol 23, Issue 3, Dec 1998, pg 142-149

5. Willer, R.L.; Day, R. S.; Gilardi, R.; George, C.; “Synthesis and Properties of Methylene-bis-(nitraminofurazans),” J. Heterocyclic Chem; Vol 29, Issue 7, Dec 1992, pg 1835-1839

6. Sheremetev, A. B.; Makhova, N. N.; Friedrichsen, W.; “Monocyclic Furazans and Furoxans,” Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry, Vol 78

KEYWORDS: Boost, Strategic and Tactical Missiles, High Energy Density Ingredients, HEDM, Solid Propellants, Energetic Materials, Energetic Ingredients, Oxidizer, Specific Impulse, Density, Density Impulse, Insensitive, Heat of Formation, Impact Sensitivity, Shock Sensitivity, Friction Sensitivity, Thermal Stability, Chemical Compatibility, IHPRPT.

AF103-214 TITLE: Real-Time Health Monitoring for Solid Rocket Motors

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Development of innovative systems to allow real-time health monitoring of solid rocket motors assessing both the current and future state.

DESCRIPTION: The current methodology for monitoring the health of solid rocket motors (SRMs) is to launch or dissect a few missiles a year looking for anomalies. The current system not only expends limited, and oftentimes expensive assets, it also presents two opposing risks: first, there is the risk of failing to detect defects in a population due to statistical sampling; second, a single flawed motor could lead to the destruction of an entire SRM fleet. A new monitoring system, which could be embedded into future systems or a non-invasive technique for monitoring the current system, has the potential payoff to “save as much as 50% in costs over a 50-year life cycle.”2 Non-invasive techniques are currently used during the manufacturing process (e.g. computed tomography, ultrasound, and eddy current) for quality control purposes. However, they are rarely used in a fielded system to attempt to monitor the overall health of the system due to the time-consuming nature and cost of transporting the motor back to the Depot. Embedded or non-invasive sensors outfitted on an SRM have the potential to analyze both the mechanical and chemical state. Aging studies have shown that certain chemical reactions in combination with diffusion of species through the propellant-liner-insulator bondline have led to premature failures. Chemical aging models have improved significantly but in order to take full advantage of them real-time motor data is needed. Innovations are sought to gather critical data without affecting the integrity of the asset. Research areas may include but are not limited to chemical sensors, improved/miniaturized non-destructive techniques, embedded/external sensors with wireless/wired communication. These capabilities will enable the real-time health management of SRMs and the accurate prediction of usable lifetime. Creative solutions that address the topic and have a strong backing in engineering principles; previous research and development; scientific literature; and cost analysis are highly sought after. The successful proposed Phase I development shall build upon and demonstrate significant enhancement over all existing technologies to determine the current and future state of the SRMs health. The proposed solution shall be affordable and usable. Usability shall take into account operability, sustainability, supportability, interoperability, modularity, and reliability in the field. The proposed system should leverage standards-based communication and open-source software wherever possible. Also, identify technical issues that could arise in prototype development and develop a resolution plan. Partnership(s) with a current Department of Defense prime contractor(s) is highly desired, such a relationship would aid in the refinement and implementation of the contractor's plan to integrate developed technologies into domestic defense applications. Phase II shall include at minimum, sub-scale validation and verifications of the technologies ability to meet the topics objective on a relevant SRM or reasonable surrogate test item in relevant environments. A workable plan shall be developed to integrate this technology into current and future military applications. Lastly, to increase the probability of successful transition to Phase III, the technology development efforts proposed should leverage existing capabilities and ongoing rocket health detection development efforts to the maximum extent possible.

PHASE I: Demonstrate feasibility of an innovative technology that can acquire information to determine the current and future state of a SRMs health. The solution will improve monitoring of the current and future system over current capabilities and evaluate the technology for its affordability/usability.

PHASE II: Develop and fabricate an initial brass board/prototype to accomplish the aforementioned goals. Validate and verify the technology on a sub-scale SRM or analog, at a minimum, in environments relevant to a deployed asset. This effort shall clearly resolve the link between actual measurement and the state of the SRM and detail the performance and cost payoff of this technology.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Current and future ballistic missile and space launch applications, supporting the prediction of service life for all SRMs.

Commercial Application: Space-launch, successful identification of a degraded SRM could potentially avoid a catastrophe saving millions of dollars worth of commercial payload equipment.

REFERENCES:

1. Guenther, M., Kuckling, D., Corten, C., Gerlach, G., Sorber, J., Suchaneck, G., and Arndt, K.-F., ";Chemical sensors based on multiresponsive block copolymer hydrogels,"; Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 126, Issue 1, Pages 97-106., 20 September 2007.

2. Ruderman, G.A., “Health Management Issues and Strategy for Air Force Missiles,” 1st International Forum on Integrated System Health Engineering and Management in Aerospace, Napa, California, November 7-10, 2005.

3. Depree, D. O., Katzakian, A., Klier, J. A., and Steele, R. B. AFRL-TR-81-099 Liner Technology: Liner Development Methodology Manual. [Edwards AFB, CA]. U.S. Air Force, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory [May 1982]. Print.

KEYWORDS: Solid Rocket Motor (SRM), Health Management, Integrated vehicle health monitoring, Chemical sensors, Damage assessment, Service life prediction, Non-destructive techniques

AF103-215 TITLE: Advanced Near-Net Shape Metallurgy of Liquid Rocket Engine Components

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Through innovative research, develop and demonstrate novel near-net shape metallurgy processes for low-rate production of highly complex liquid rocket engine components.

DESCRIPTION: Materials development for rocket applications poses significant technical challenges due to the harsh environments in which they operate. Materials that are developed for liquid rocket engine (LRE) applications must survive severe service environments including, liquid hydrogen temperatures (-253°C), combustion temperatures (4000°C), pressures up to 10,000 psi and intense vibrations. These environments are exacerbated by the presence of a variety of different fluids (oxygen, hydrogen, methane, kerosene, combustion gases, etc), which are in contact with the metallic components. Each LRE component or area in a component has its own unique environment as well as technical challenges. LREs have very low production rates with very high complexity that preclude many fabrication techniques and lend themselves to higher cost and long lead-time processes. Components such as turbopump impellers or inducers can be designed with complex internal flow paths. Unfortunately using state of the art manufacturing techniques these internal flow paths cannot be manufactured and/or located accurately enough with the high tolerances necessary for LREs. New component designs would improve performance significantly if a method to produce them existed. Considering these challenges, the development of advanced near-net shape metallurgy, e.g. powder metallurgy, is highly desired due to the potential to increase the performance and affordability of rocket propulsion. These features are critical to the advancement of space access and DoD missile programs.

The development of advanced near-net shape metallurgy will aid in achieving Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Phase III goals for LRE. The relevant Phase III goals are 100% increase in thrust to weight ratio, 35% reduction in hardware cost and an increase in performance over baseline (IHPRPT website). The development effort should demonstrate significantly shortened lead times for small number of parts while reducing part weight and cost. This needs to be accomplished without sacrificing tolerances or surface finish with minimal final machining.

The proposed material process and development shall provide significant enhancement over existing domestic and foreign state-of-the-art materials processes. To increase the probability of successful transition to Phase III demonstration or other application areas, the technology development efforts proposed should leverage existing capability and rocket technology development efforts to the maximum extent possible.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of innovative metallurgy technology with respect to producibility, fabrication time and material properties to achieve IHPRPT goals. This work will include analysis and/or research designed to understand the challenges of using the powder process.

PHASE II: Further develop the process, and fabricate 1) test articles for property determination and 2) prototype LRE component with the same size, shape, and complexity as advanced LRE parts. Required Phase II deliverables include 1) Technical report of process development/property validation; 2) Detailed plan for fabrication trials and marketing for Phase II Dual Use Applications; 3) prototype LRE components.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This effort supports current and future DoD space launch applications.

Commercial Application: It will also support commercial and NASA space launch vehicle development (Any other commercial uses for powder metallurgy for complex parts outside the aerospace arena).

REFERENCES:

1. G.P. Sutton & O. Biblarz, Rocket Propulsion Elements, 7th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001, ISBN 0-471-32642-9.

2. D.K. Huzel & D.H. Huang, Modern Engineering for Design of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines, Vol 147, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Published by AIAA, Washington DC., 1992, ISBN 1-56347-013-6.

3. IHPRPT Website: http://www.pr.afrl.af.mil/technology/IHPRPT/ihprpt.html

4. Asm Handbook: Powder Metal Technologies and ApplicationsASM International; 2Rev Ed edition, ISBN: 0-871-70387-4

KEYWORDS: Near-Net Shape, Powder Metallurgy, IHPRPT, Liquid Rocket Engine, Propulsion, Materials

AF103-218 TITLE: Fusion Technology for Multispectral Imager with Adjunct Sensors

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop sensor fusion technology that integrates multiple electro-optical radiometric sensor signature outputs.

DESCRIPTION: Improved quality & comprehensiveness of measured UV-VIS-IR threat signatures of military targets (vehicles, ordnance, and weapons) is needed by developing an expert technology that improves the performance of conventional multispectral and advanced hyperspectral (HS) imager systems. Threat signatures must be characterized in all three of the spatial + temporal + spectral domains – thus the large DoD investment in multispectral imagers, which measure all three domains in a single instrument. However, as requirements for increased resolution in time, space, and wavelength have been pushed to ever higher values, the performance of conventional multispectral (MS) imagers has reached the “photon starvation” limit (Refs. 1-3). A dramatically new technology is needed. This topic solicits an expert technology to combine the signature data stream from a conventional MS sensor with adjunct sensors (imagers, radiometers, CVF spectrometer, etc.) in order to achieve enhanced spatial, temporal, and spectral performance that is substantially beyond the limits achievable by a stand-alone MS imager. Open-source literature and prior SBIR efforts (Refs. 4-8) have addressed only the spatial resolution. To ensure widespread application to DoD and allow for growth as electro-optical (EO) sensor technology evolves, the approach must not be “hard-wired” to a specific type of MS/HS imager or to a specific suite of adjunct EO sensors. Instead, the technology must adapt to rapidly reconfigure existing EO assets (UV-Vis-IR cameras, MS imager) to meet new test requirements as they arise. This comprehensive level of sensor fusion for multispectral imagers (spatial + spectral + temporal), together with the requirement for flexibility, have never been attempted. The benefit to the war fighter is comprehensive high fidelity target signature measurements (spatial, temporal, and spectral) for battlefield simulation, target recognition, scientific and technical data collections, and improved threat signature measurements for aircraft warning receivers (missiles and hostile fire). The benefit to the DoD test measurement community is the ability to significantly enhance the performance of existing multispectral imager systems - regardless of design, and without the need to purchase expensive new hardware.

PHASE I: Concept validation using radiometric signature data streams from actual instruments (three sensor types and two test scenarios, GFE from Arnold AFB).

PHASE II: Software development and demonstration for a flexible instrument suite, one of which includes a multi-spectral / hyperspectral imager.

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

Military Applications: Applications include military signature data, military satellite industry (e.g., Boeing, Raytheon), missile defense (MDA, DoD), Aircraft survivability (DoD, Civ), JSF, UAV, EMSIG.

Commercial Applications: Applications include medical imaging, Industrial process control, Geoscience, remote sensing.

REFERENCES:

1. “Hyperspectral imaging for astronomy and space surveillance using CTIS,” E. K. Hege et. al., Proc. SPIE Vol. #5159, Imaging Spectrometry IX , 6-7 August 2003,

2. “Technology Options for Imaging Spectrometers,” A. R. Harvey, et. al., Imaging Spectroscopy VI, Proc. SPIE Vo. 4132(2000)

3. Adaptive Spectroscopy: Towards Adaptive Spectral Imaging, M.E. Gehm et. al., Proc SPIE Vol. 6978, 697801-1

4. AF00-122 Multispectral and Hyperspectral Image Spatial Resolution Enhancement (2001)

5. AF01-138, Using High Resolution Multispectral and/or Hyperspectral Imagery to Improve Digital Land Cover Classification from Low Resolution Multispectral Imager (2002)

6. AF01-221, Hyperspectral Resolution Enhancement (2002)

7. AF03-015, Innovative Measurement Techniques for Space-Based Remote Sensing/Standoff Detection, (2004)

8. AF06-222, Panchromatic Image Chip Classifier (2006)

KEYWORDS: hyperspectral, multispectral , image fusion, sensor fusion, motion-compensated up-sampling, pan-sharpening, IR signature, IR imagery

AF103-219 TITLE: Jet Engine Passive Optical Sensor Technology

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop passive optical diagnostic systems for combustors and augmentors.

DESCRIPTION: Passive optical diagnostic prototype systems are needed for high speed, spatially resolved, quantitative measurements of temperature, species concentration, fuel/air ratios, and heat release for combustor and augmentor flow fields. Measurements of combustion and gas dynamic properties inside gas turbine engines and augmentors aid in engine development, performance testing and evaluation, and for verification and validation of numerical models. Probe based measurement systems are intrusive and can adversely affect the measurement. Active optical diagnostics, such as laser diode absorption or laser-induced fluorescence, require multiple sources and sensing probes are usually limited to point measurements or line of sight averaged measurements due to the lack of adequate optical access. Recent progress has been made using flame emission spectra in the ultraviolet and visible portions of the spectrum to determine fuel-air ratio and instantaneous heat release in liquid fueled gas turbine combustors. Researchers have used emission signatures in the infrared to measure temperature and species concentrations. A successful Phase I should demonstrate the feasibility to make spatially resolved measurements of temperature, species concentration, fuel/air ratios, and heat release using passive sensors on a laboratory combustion source that simulates gas turbine combustion. A Phase II should develop and demonstrate the passive emission sensor system in a jet engine operational environment. The primary combustion properties of interest are local fuel air ratios, heat release, temperature, and free radical species (such as OH, CO, and NOx). The prototype system should be capable of measuring these quantities with an accuracy of 10% and a measurement response rate of 1 kHz or greater.

PHASE I: Demonstrate proof-of-concept/feasibility using a laboratory combustion source.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a passive diagnostic prototype system in jet engine combustion.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Passive sensors could be used for the development of military turbine and afterburner combustion processes and active control for flight systems.

Commercial Application: Passive sensors could be used for the development of commercial turbine and afterburner combustion processes, turbine engine coal-fired plants.

REFERENCES:

1. G.R. Beitel, D.H. Plemmons, D.R. Catalano, and K.C. Wilcher, “Advanced Embedded Instrumentation for Gas turbine Engines,” AIAA/U.S. Air Force T&E Days, 5-7 February 2008, Los Angeles CA, AIAA 2008-1675.

2. M.R. Morrell, J.M. Seitzman, M. Wilensky, E. Lubarsky, J. Lee, and B. Zinn, “Interpretation of Optical Emissions for Sensors in Liquid Fueled Combustors,” 39th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, 8-11 January 2001, Reno, NV.

3. T. Yi and D. A. Santavicca, “Flame Spectra of a Turbulent Liquid-Fueled Swirl-Stabilized Lean-Direct Injection Combustor,” J. of Propul. and Power, Vol. 25, No. 5, (2009).

4. N. Goldstein, C.A. Arana, F. Bien, J. Lee., J. Gruninger, T. Anderson, W.M. Glasheen, “Innovative Minimally Intrusive Sensor Technology Development for Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine Combustors,” Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo. 2002, GT2-2300051

KEYWORDS: Passive Optical Sensors, Species, Temperature, Gas Turbine Combustor, Augmentor

AF103-220 TITLE: Valve Health Monitoring System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop a prototype health monitoring system for valve health prognostics and diagnostics.

DESCRIPTION: There is a need for a prototype valve health monitoring system that uses valve sensor data for a variety of valve types and sizes (0.5 to 6 feet in diameter) to perform valve health diagnostics and prognostics. Ideally, valve health analysis and monitoring would be performed on data automatically recorded from a large number (50 to 100) of valves operated through a specified diagnostic sequence. Valves are typically controlled using a rotary position feedback on the shaft and a linear position feedback on the hydraulic piston cylinder. The health monitoring software would automatically determine the current state of valve health and projected life. Typical valve problems include faulty sensors, loose linkages, worn valve bearings, and degraded hydraulic fluids. The Phase I should develop the system architecture and preliminary design for the data collection system. The design should include a description of the condition indicators to diagnose common valve and sensor faults from the data (set-point, rotary, and LVDT, and etc.) and a system concept-of-operations for the valve health monitoring and prognostic software. The Phase II should develop and demonstrate the prototype valve health monitoring system in an operational facility.

PHASE I: Develop the system architecture and data collection design for the health monitoring system.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate the prototype valve health monitoring system.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Applications include test facilities of the Air Force, Navy, and Army throughout the USA, and Navy ships.

Commercial Application: The system could be used throughout the manufacturing and power industries.

REFERENCES:

1. Tansel, I.N.; Perotti, J.M.; Yenilmez, A.; Chen, P.; ";Valve health monitoring with wavelet transformation and neural networks (WT-NN),"; Computational Intelligence Methods and Applications, 2005 ICSC Congress, pp. 6, doi: 10.1109/CIMA.2005.1662337

2. Byington, C.S.; Watson, M.J.; Bharadwaj, S.P.; ";Automated Health Management for Gas Turbine Engine Accessory System Components,"; Aerospace Conference, 2008 IEEE, pp.1-12, 1-8 March 2008, doi: 10.1109/AERO.2008.4526610

3. Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J., “Valve ‘Health’ Monitoring System,” NASA Tech Briefs, May 2009, pp. 5-6.

4. Perotti, Jose M.,” Valve Health Monitor (VHM),” NASA Report KSC-2002-100, NASA Advanced Sensor Symposium, FROM, Baltimore, MD, 30 Jul. 2002.

KEYWORDS: Valve health, Portable data collection, artificial intelligence

AF103-224 TITLE: Infrared Spectrometer for the Cryovacuum Environment

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

OBJECTIVE: Develop an infrared spectrometer for the cryovacuum environment.

DESCRIPTION: Infrared spectrometer technology is needed for space simulation test facility applications. Instruments such as grating or Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) for infrared spectral measurements of radiometric sources in the cryovacuum environment are problematic due to their size, spectral limitations, cost, and/or complexity of moving parts. Current systems do not provide the needed spectral resolution, yet consume higher amounts of power and require large volumes. This excess power creates unwanted heat loads which requires additional systems to manage; creating Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP) impacts beyond the spectrometer itself. Similarly current systems are bulky, again creating size and weight issues with both the spectrometer and its interface with support systems. Simpler solutions that make use of emerging technologies such as photonic crystals or Dyson spectrometers and use of focal plane arrays have potential for cryovacuum environment needs. Solutions must fit within smaller volumes and consume less power that current designs. The system needs to operate over 1 to 20 µm with a spectral resolution of 0.01 µm and discriminate spectral radiometric irradiance (at the spectrometer aperture) down to 10-14 W/cm2-µm across the spectral region. The prototype should also function as a narrow-band spectral source. The Phase I should demonstrate 0.1 µm resolution from 1 to 14 µm and sensitivity of 10-13 W/cm2-µm across the spectral region. The Phase II should demonstrate 0.01 µm resolution from 1 to 20 µm with a sensitivity of 10-14 W/cm2-µm across the spectral region. Additionally, a Phase II system should demonstrate at least 20% power and volume reduction from current systems.

PHASE I: Demonstrate a proof of concept infrared spectrometer for a 77 K and 10-6 Torr cryovacuum environment.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype infrared spectrometer for a 30 K and 10-7 Torr cryovacuum environment.

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

Military Application: Such spectrometers would be applicable to on-board spacecraft systems and military space simulation test facilities.

Commercial Application: Such spectrometers would be applicable to on-board spacecraft systems and commercial space simulation test facilities.

REFERENCES:

1. Morris, Robert, “How Optical Advances Helped Deliver the Promise of Miniature Spectrometers,” /user/viewFreeUse.act?fuid=NzIyODc3MA#3D#3D

2. Warren, D.W., Gutierrez, D.J., and Keim, E.R., “Dyson spectrometers for high-performance infrared applications,” Optical Engineering 47(10), 103601 (October 2008)

3. Pervex, Nadia, “Photonic-crystal-based spectrometer is small and simple,” Laser Focus World, Feb. 2010, p. 9.

KEYWORDS: Cryovacuum Infrared Spectrometer, Photonic Crystals, Dyson Spectrometers

AF103-225 TITLE: High Density Hydrogen Storage with Nano-Material Hybrids

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop a hydrogen nano-material storage device that would be utilized to power a fuel cell in fleet vehicles and air/ground support equipment.

DESCRIPTION: Pursuant to the Executive Orders 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management”, and 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance”, government agencies are required to increase alternate fuel consumption at least 10%, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduction of energy by 3% annually or 30% by 2015, and reduce fleet petroleum consumption by 2 percent annually through 2015 at a minimum. One such means to attain these goals is the utilization of hydrogen fuel cells. A major drawback to using hydrogen to power a fuel cell is storage procedures. Current methods of storing hydrogen in a gaseous or liquid form do not offer the energy density of conventional gasoline per unit volume, and these means are problematic with respect to support systems and potential fire and safety hazards. The storage of hydrogen on metal hydrides is another concept developed over the past 3-4 decades, but the gravimetric storage densities have reached a plateau of about 3-6 percent by weight. Recent advances with nano-materials have shown enhancements to hydrogen storage with respect to storage density and also related logistics such as pressure and kinetics of hydrogen delivery. The goal of this project is to perform applied research that will gain knowledge and understanding necessary to produce a useful method to store hydrogen using a high-density hydrogen medium comprised of nano-material hybrids. Physical mixtures of traditional solid storage media with nano-materials are not of interest since the properties of such mixtures would merely be the average of the components.

Hence, this topic seeks to identify hybrid materials with synergistic interaction of the components that will increase hydrogen storage capacities, storage densities, and hydrogen delivery kinetics. The medium will be deployed on a vehicle and air/ground support equipment to power a fuel cell and should strive to provide comparable energy density per unit volume to fuel. The technology must also demonstrate a reasonable re-fuel rate.

PHASE I: Research to identify, produce, and test storage hybrid media. Integration of technology to the air/ground support equipment and fleet vehicles must also be explored. The study will investigate existing gravimetric, volumetric and refueling parameters with improved storage performance parameters.

PHASE II: Utilizing the research and hybrid media developed in Phase I, a prototype unit will be developed using this technology to produce the desired energy storage density and other applicable operation parameters, and report findings.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This device will find application at any DOD installation in the United States and abroad which have fleet vehicles and air/ground support equipment.

Commercial Application: Device would provide great advancements in providing a commercialized fuel cell power generation for aviation and other transportation industries. Fuel storage technology must not limit development.

REFERENCES:

1. National Renewable Energy Lab, http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/vsa/fuelcell.html

2. DOE Hydrogen Program, FY05 Overview http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/progress05/vi_1_satyapal.pdf

3. DOE Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Fuel Cell Technologies Program, Hydrogen Storage, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/storage/current_technology.html

KEYWORDS: Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, Hydride, Nano-materials, Electric Vehicles, Support Equipment

AF103-226 TITLE: Continuous Indoor Vapor Intrusion Monitoring System for Volatile Organic

Compounds

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop continuous, field portable, low cost rapid response monitoring unit to quantitatively measure the concentration of VOCs such as benzene, PCE, and TCE in indoor air.

DESCRIPTION: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) defines vapor intrusion as the migration of volatile chemicals (VC) from the subsurface into buildings (USEPA, 2002). Volatile chemicals may include gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), select organic compounds (SVOCs), select polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some inorganic analytes (such as elemental mercury and hydrogen sulfide).

Edwards AFB has reported that VOC soil and groundwater contaminate plumes (specifically benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene (PCE) have migrated under buildings at both its Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Main Base facilities posing a potential health risk to workers. VOC indoor air concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 281 µg/m3 have been calculated from soil vapor measurements (250 - 110,000 ppbV) in Building 8595 at AFRL using exposure modeling software. Based on these calculations, a potential cancer risk of greater than 1 in a million has been determined. To protect base personnel Edwards AFB will be undertaking mitigation procedures in the near future.

An indoor field portable sensor unit is needed that has the capability of identifying VOCs (specifically benzene and TCE) concentrations in accordance with EPA Test Method TO-15, with a detection limit for targeted VOCs of 1 µg/m3 , range of 1 - 100 µg/m3, operating range from 10-40oC, sensitivity of + 0.5 µg/m3, measured and recorded hourly. The preferred design would require little or no maintenance.

This technology will not only protect human health, but will also give decision makers technically sound data for input into their risk management considerations associated with evaluating and responding to potential vapor intrusion and provide guidance for establishing operation and maintenance (O&M) requirements for sub-slab depressurization and venting systems, or other mitigation technologies.

The development of a low-cost, rapid response monitoring unit to quantitatively measure the concentration of VOCs such as benzene and trichloroethylene (TCE) in indoor air would have a large commercial market for process management and O&M requirements for sub-slab depressurization and venting systems.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a basic design for a device suitable for measuring VOCs from vapor intrusion in an indoor environment.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype device, based on the Phase I results, suitable for measuring quantitatively the concentration of VOCs such as benzene and trichloroethylene (TCE) in indoor air.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This device will find application at any DOD installation in the United States and abroad which has reportable concentrations of soil and/or groundwater contamination under occupied structures.

Commercial Application: This device will find application in any community in the United States and abroad which has reportable concentrations of soil and/or groundwater contamination under occupied structures.

REFERENCES:

1. California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA). 2005. Use of California Human Health Screening Levels (CHHSLs) in Evaluating Contaminated Properties. January. www.calepa.ca.gov/Brownfields/documents/2005/CHHSLsGuide.pdf.

2. DTSC. 2005a. Interim Final Guidance for the Evaluation and Mitigation of Subsurface Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air, Revised. 7 February 2005.

www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/upload/HERD_POL_Eval_Subsurface_Vapor_Intrusion_interim_final.pdf

3. Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). 2007. Vapor Intrusion Pathway - A Practical Guide. January. /Documents/VI-1.pdf

4. DTSC. 2009. Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Advisory. April (Sec. 6.3.4 revised May 6, 2009)

5. DTSC/LARWQCB. 2003. Advisory – Active Soil Gas Investigations. January.

www.dtsc.ca.gov/lawsregspolicies/policies/SiteCleanup/upload/SMBR_ADV_activesoilgasinvst.pdf

KEYWORDS: Indoor air, Vapor intrusion, EPA Method TO-15

AF103-232 TITLE: Smart Miniaturized Power Supply

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

OBJECTIVE: Develop a miniaturized power supply that is suitable for instrumentation and will also support a flight termination system.

DESCRIPTION: Small sized weapons with diameters less than six inches are being developed to reduce collateral damage and accommodate reduced payload area in platforms such as Remotely Piloted Vehicles. These weapons typically have extremely limited space to install instrumentation and flight termination systems. Miniaturized flight termination systems are being developed with micro and nano technologies in receivers, transmitters and termination interfaces that must be supported with power supplies capable of generating 30 Watt hours of energy. The power supply must be less then four cubic inches and must have scalable charge capacities between one and ten ampere hours. The power supply must pass environmental qualifications at temperatures between -40C and +85C. The battery must be rechargeable with a capability of charging to full capacity within four hours.

The power supply must have a “smart component” that will be able to safely regulate charging cycles and communicate battery charge state to other components of a system using standard protocols such as Inter-IC (I2C) bus and RS-232. Smart, miniaturized power supplies have application in the commercial market for cellular phone communications, auto industry and many other applications that have space constraints.

PHASE I: Develop a miniaturized power supply prototype capable of 1-10AH. The prototype should be tested under varying loads from .25C to 2C. Performance will be documented in a technical report. Safe battery recharge circuitry should also be developed in this phase.

PHASE II: Refine Phase I prototype with mil-spec parts to meet the size, power and environment listed above. Develop Software (S/W) to monitor all battery cell voltages, output current and temperature. Develop S/W to control charging and implement safety features. Pass all environmental qualifications. Develop a test report containing results of the qualification testing.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Develop power serial interfaces for all health and status monitoring instrumentation and for a charge configuration setting.

Commercial Application: Develop serial interface for all monitoring and configuration setting. The unit will target the cellular phone and transportation service industry, providing power to GPS location units for example.

REFERENCES:

1. 46 TW/TSSQ, “Subminiaturized Flight Safety System Specification (SFSS)”, March, 2010.

KEYWORDS: SFSS, miniaturized power supply, mil-spec parts, airborne qualified, extreme environments

AF103-235 TITLE: Universal Fire Suppressant Nozzle

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

OBJECTIVE: Design, fabricate, and demonstrate an innovative fire suppressant delivery system capable of directionally transmitting multi-phase fire extinguishing agents directly to the fire zone.

DESCRIPTION: For the past several decades, halogenated agents, notably Halon 1301 have protected aircraft fire regions. However, in the early to mid 1990s, a production ban was issued for Halon. As a result of this ban, replacement agents and new technologies have been developed, attempting to replicate the superior efficiency of Halon 1301 with little success. To further increase the problem, many of the newly developed agents have high-boiling points and are therefore discharged and delivered to the fire zone in a liquid vapor state. Combining the multiphase transport issue and the decreased effectiveness of newly developed agents, efficient agent delivery to the fire zone is now a major concern. To complicate the problem further, most past and current fire suppression systems typically flood the area of interest with fire suppressant, eventually reaching the fire zone. This is not a desired approach since total agent flooding requires increased volumes of fire suppressant and, due to the additional time necessary for suppressant to reach the fire zone, may result in damage to surrounding aircraft structure. By increasing the effectiveness of fire suppression agent delivery, the overall effectiveness of the suppression system can be greatly increased, while minimizing system weight, cost, and damage to the platform.

Development of a compact, low-weight, low-cost, high-efficiency universal fire suppression delivery system that is capable of directly discharging liquid-vapor suppression agents to a fire zone is requested. The system must be able to locate and detect a fire within 100 milliseconds of the initiation of a fire. Specifically, this request is for a nozzle-like system that can adjust the orientation and momentum of the discharging fire suppressant jet. This would enable the suppressant jet to directly impact the fire zone and not be required to flood the entire space to extinguish a fire. As a minimum the performance metrics for the discharging jet are: 1) be able to detect and reach a fire zone 5 feet downstream from the nozzle, 2) be able to change its discharge orientation by a minimum of +/- 15 degrees, and 3) extinguish a 6”x 6” JP-8 pool fire under those conditions. Furthermore, the nozzle housing must remain in a fixed installation position, with adjustment of the suppression discharge parameters conducted within the nozzle housing. Efficient methodologies for varying the discharge parameters such as the jet orientation and exiting agent momentum of the nozzle are highly desired. The newly developed system will be considered for integration into vulnerable aircraft regions such as dry bays and engine nacelles. Methodologies that utilize complex hardware control systems such as tele-robotic systems employed by the Navy for shipboard applications are not of interest due to strict size and weight constraints of aircraft applications.

PHASE I: Design a low cost, self-contained prototype fire suppressant delivery nozzle capable of demonstrating real time adjustment of the agent discharge parameters to efficiently deliver fire suppressants directly to the fire region. Perform a laboratory demonstration of the prototype nozzle system.

PHASE II: Integrate and optimize a fire detection system with the universal discharge nozzle, refine and modify prototype design into a usable product. Perform live fire testing on actual or simulated aircraft compartments, demonstrating the nozzle system meets the requested need. Final Phase II demonstrations must be performed using a multiphase nitrogen/powder mixture.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The proposed universal fire suppressant system is applicable to future and legacy air platforms, as well as compact areas requiring fire suppression (sea and land vehicles, and ground installations).

Commercial Application: The universal fire suppression nozzle is directly applicable to civil aerospace and commercial industries as well as compact fire risk areas such as electronic racks and land/sea based vehicle.

REFERENCES:

1. Bein, D., “A Review of the History of Fire Suppression on U.S. DoD Aircraft,” 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

2. Gann, R.G., “The Final Report of the Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program,” National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 1069 (NIST SP 1069), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, June, 2007.

3. Sorathia, U., Gracik, T., Beck, C., Mealy, C.L., Back, G.G., and Lattimer, B.Y., “TFN (Telerobotic Fire Nozzle) – Critical Water Application Rate Fire Testing,” NSWCCD-61-TR-2007/08, Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, West Bethesda, MD, April 2007.

4. Kemp, J. S., Disimile, P. J., Pyles, J. M., and Toy, N., “Joint Live Fire (JLF) Aircraft Systems Detailed Final Report for Effectiveness of Active Solid Propellant Gas Generators in Apache Engine Nacelles,” Joint Live Fire Aircraft Systems Test Report, JLF-TR-6-04, April 2008.

KEYWORDS: Gas Generators, Halon, Suppression, discharge jets, nozzle, fire

AF103-236 TITLE: Wireless, Time-synchronized, Event Control System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

OBJECTIVE: Define and demonstrate a prototype, wireless event controller that precisely controls, monitors and records events over 12 miles long and a half mile wide area.

DESCRIPTION: Rocket sleds propel test payloads along the rigid test track at speeds up to Mach 10. Events such as firing rocket motors, initiating flares, deploying petals and ejecting bombs are initiated along the length of the test track when appropriate speed and/or acceleration conditions are reached. High speed photography, digital filming and radar speed measurements are used, along with much other instrumentation, to collect data about the test events. The data collected by each of the disparate systems must be time synchronized with sub-millisecond accuracy. Data from each system usually exhibits time phase shifts. Most of the present systems use a cable plant to transmit and collect event initiation and execution data. The cable plant has already been proven to have inherent transmission delays that vary depending on the daily environment. A wireless, master time-synchronized event controller is required to initiate events consistently with the actual performance of the other events in the test. Current wireless factory automation technology enables real-time control of devices and collection of sensor data at 100 millisecond (ms) intervals using ISA100.11a. Some proprietary solutions are pushing faster collection rates at 10ms and even 2ms. It is desired to collect data and initiate events at 10 microsecond intervals simultaneously to/from multiple stations along the length of the track.

The proposed solution should allow the operators to easily and intuitively modify the event controller to support a range of events occurring in series and parallel throughout the length of the 12 mile long test area. In addition to collecting time synchronized data, the event controller should calculate the velocity of the sled at an event location and calculate the time window to enable or disable events later in the test sequence. Finally, the event controller should collect the time-tagged event data for the entire test and store it for later replay to allow operators to adjust event location inputs.

PHASE I: A successful Phase I effort will determine the technical feasibility of a wide-area, wireless, time-synchronized event controller and define a concept for implemention.

PHASE II: A successful Phase II effort will design, fabricate and demonstrate a prototype wide-area, wireless, time-synchronized event controller with several primary and backup events.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military test ranges requiring common, precise time tagged event initiation and data collection

Commercial Application: Large factories, refineries, docks or rail yards requiring common, precise time tagged events

REFERENCES:

1. ISA Factory Automation, No Wild West wireless, April 2009, /Template.cfm?Section=Technical_Information_and_Communities&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=75371

2. Range Commanders Council, Document 204-96, Instrumentation Timing Systems, April 1996, mr.army.mil/rcc/manuals/204-96/204-96.pdf

KEYWORDS: Timing, synchronize, data, collection, event, initiation, programmable

AF103-239 TITLE: Multipurpose Non-Destructive Inspection Test Kit

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop a kit or kits of parts capable of being used by multiple Nondestructive Inspections methods for quality assurance proficiency assessments, and Probability of Detection studies.

DESCRIPTION: Currently aircraft structure and turbo engine parts undergo numerous repair cycles. During life cycle maintenance these parts undergo Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI) processes designed to identify critical flaws that could cause catastrophic failure of the aircraft or engine. NDI maintenance units and the United States Air Force (USAF) NDI Office perform quality assurance and proficiency assessments to calculate the probability of an NDI system detecting a flaw of any given size. The probability of detecting a flaw in a part is directly related to how frequently an inspection must be performed on a part.

To conduct a quality assurance and proficiency assessment a series of known flaws in appropriately representative parts is needed. There also must be enough inspection locations on the total part set to approximate the rate at which an inspector would find a flaw. In most cases that is very difficult since very few parts are flawed when compared to the number of parts inspected. This results in a large number of test parts to perform a satisfactory assessment for each NDI discipline for each type of flaw.

With so many NDI disciplines being utilized by the USAF both in the field and at each Air Logistics Center (ALC) the total number of parts to assess inspectors in every discipline is very large. However the properties required of parts for many of the disciplines overlaps. It is possible to design a set of parts to be used to assess NDI inspectors on multiple NDI disciplines. This would decrease the total number of parts required to assess all NDI methods used in the USAF and provide the capability to assess emerging NDI methods with existing parts. In addition, these test parts could be utilized in cost-effective mini-Probability of Detection (PoD) studies. This will allow the Air Force to perform numerous initial and follow on PoD studies that in the past has been cost prohibitive.

PHASE I: Research characteristic part geometries and material properties required for various Non-Destructive Inspection methods. Design universal testing kits with overlapping areas between NDI methods and specimens for Probability of Detection studies.

PHASE II: Further develop the universal test parts proposed in Phase I. Produce specimen sets and demonstrate the detection rate on a small sample of NDI technicians on all considered NDI methods.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Many industries utilize NDI methods and could be interested in a standardized set of parts to assess their technicians and equipment, especially if one set of parts will assess their NDI needs.

Commercial Application: Many industries utilize NDI methods and could be interested in a standardized set of parts to assess their technicians and equipment, especially if one set of parts will assess their NDI needs.

REFERENCES:

1. T.O. 33B-1-1

2. NAS 410 Certification and Qualification of NDT Personnel

3. MIL-HDBK-6870A

4. MIL-HDBK-1823A nondestructive Evaluation System Reliability Assessment

KEYWORDS: Nondestructive testing inspection, Probability of Detection (POD), universal NDI test

AF103-240 TITLE: UNIVERSAL FLEXIBLE COIL EDDY CURRENT PROBE

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Further develop eddy current flexible coil inspection probes for various areas that require near edge crack detection.

DESCRIPTION: One common type of eddy current probe is the flexible coil probe. This type of probe will confirm to a wide part geometry type, and is typically a fast process, accomplishing an inspection with one or a two swipes. However, the flexible coils are unable to adequately detect cracks located on the edges of surfaces. Advanced signal processing and analysis within the existing inspection instruments and part inspection software may allow a flexible coil probe to inspect an area in just a couple of passes, included crack detection on surface edges, replacing existing time consuming techniques. The implementation of edge crack detection with flexible coils will offer significant reduction in inspection time, increasing throughput and reducing overhaul cost. Specific areas for study would be the wheel bead seat and the dovetail slots on turbine rotor disks.

Automated eddy current inspection (ECI) equipment currently inspects various rotating engine components from 8 different models of turbine engines, with all components having different inspection requirements and pass/fail criteria for every feature of a given part. One of the most critical features inspected on turbine rotor disks in every engine model are the dovetail slots of the turbine engine rotors. The dovetail slots of some rotor disks require ECI all the way through, from edge to edge, as compared to other rotor disks where the dovetail slots only require ECI in the center portion of the slots and the edges are excluded. The rotor slots that require edge inspection use the ‘sew & stitch’ inspection technique where a single coil (0.020” dia) will scan the entire area within the slot from edge to edge and index around the slot until complete. Depending on the part, this technique can take between 10 and 25 minutes to inspect a single slot. The rotor disks that do not require this inspection to the edge allow for the use of wide area flexible probes that can scan the entire slot in one to three passes, with each pass taking less than one minute.

Additionally, the wheel bead seat is inspected at each tire change. The inspection is currently accomplished with molded, wide field coil probes. Each probe is molded to fit a specific wheel, which requires a separate inspection kit for each wheel. Tinker Air Force Base currently inspects the nose and main wheels for the B-1, E-3, E-6, and KC-135 and the main and tip gear wheels for the B-52. A flexible coil probe would allow the inspection of all existing wheels with a single probe, and allow for easy transitions to new workload without purchasing additional equipment.

The newly designed probe should allow for easy removal for repair or replacement. A Probability of Detection (PoD) study will determine capability of the new probe(s).

PHASE I: Show a feasible method to enhance capability for existing eddy current wide area flexible probes to adequately detect edge flaws. Propose an improved design for complex features, and design a method to prove the probability of detection of flaws.

PHASE II: Further develop the proposed flexible coil probe and demonstrate on wheel bead seats and dovetail slots. Develop methodology and design for the probes for use on other non-complex surfaces for further reduction of inspection time. Provide proof of probe design with a probability of detection study. Propose methodology for implementation on multiple systems to modernize legacy inspections.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Applies to all military aircraft engines where edge detection eddy current probes ar used.

Commercial Application: This method can possibly be expanded to other areas of inspection, to increase flaw detection with reduced inspection time.

REFERENCES:

1. ";New Trends in Eddy Current Testing";, Dirk Dusharme, Quality Digest Dec. 03

/dec03/articles/01_article.shtml

2. Gilles-Pascaud C., Decitre J. M., Vacher F., Fermon, C., Pannetier M., and Cattiaux G. “Eddy Current Flexible Probes for Complex Geometries”, in QNDE2005 Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 25A pg 399, 2005, http://www-civa.cea.fr/home/liblocal/docs/PubliOff/Gilles_etal_QNDE_2005.pdf

KEYWORDS: nondestructive inspection, NDI, flexible probe, dovetail slot inspection, eddy current

AF103-241 TITLE: Improved Nut Plate Fastener Hole Eddy Current Probe

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: To design an eddy current bolt hole probe capable of inspecting fastener hole cracking while a nut plate is installed.

DESCRIPTION: Many military aircraft structures utilize a nut plate for fastening in areas of reduced or limited access to both sides. Typical split-type eddy current bolt hole probes have the eddy current coil located in the approximate center of the probe. With a nut plate installed, this limits the amount of the fastener hole that can be inspected as the end of the probe contacts the nut plate, leaving the coil some distance from the end of the fastener hole. This type of set up would not detect cracking near the surface of the Nut Plate, where it would be most prone to occur. The removal of the nut plates for inspection of the aircraft is impractical. This project would design an eddy current bolt hole probe with a coil situated near the end of the probe and have the end of the probe designed so that contact during the inspection with the nut plate would not damage the probe but would still allow the coil to maximize its travel to edge of the material, accurately detecting flaws near the surface of the nut plate.

A Probability of detection (PoD) study would then be performed to determine the inspection capability of the new probe design. The study shall be performed in accordance with MIL-HDBK-1823A and shall concentrate on the length of the crack as it extends down into the fastener hole as shown in Figure 3 from the surface where the nut plate is attached.

Government will provide dimensions of typical nut plate sizes and applications. Government may or may not be able to provide nut plate specimens for the project. Government will temporarily provide current bolt hole kit for design purposes and PoD studies. Contractor will be liable for damage to kit.

PHASE I: Design a probe capable of accurately inspecting bolt holes with installed nut plates for flaws, including surface area right under the nut plates. Design would be able to inspect bolt holes without damage to probe or aircraft.

PHASE II: Refine probe design based on feedback, and perform Probability of Detection study per MIL-HDBK-1823A to determine the detection capability of the current probes and new probes for cracks emanating at the surface where the nut plate is attached.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Applies to all military aircraft that utilize nut plates.

Commercial Application: Applies to all commercial aircraft that utilize nut plates.

REFERENCES:

1. ";Applying POD to improve bolt hole eddy current inspection";, Lemire, holly, Underhill, P.R., Krause, T.W., Royal Military College of Canada. /article/reliability2009/Inhalt/we4a4.pdf

2. ";Eddy Current Detection of Short Cracks Under Installed Fasteners,"; by Don Hagemaier and Greg Kark. /publications/materialseval/solution/jan97solutions/jan97solution.htm

KEYWORDS: NDI, nondestructive inspection, nut plate inspection, probe design

AF103-243 TITLE: Improved Methodology for Engineering Repair Process

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop advanced techniques for analysis of processes and procedures that streamline the technical engineering support processes to minimize overall flow time while maintaining a high quality process.

DESCRIPTION: The PDM (Programmed Depot Maintenance) repair processes are extensive overhauls that transform the weapon system into a refurbished product with full functionality and many upgraded processes. Because of the age of the weapon systems many of these cycles are thousands of hours and require broad tear down of the assets before the weapon system can be re-assembled to ensure it’s full working capabilities. Within the PDM cycle there are one hundred percent operations, low percent operations, and engineering technical support requests. One hundred percent operations are repairs that occur on every weapon system. Low percent operations are repairs that occur on only a certain percent of the weapon systems. Engineering Technical Support (ETS) requests are created when an issue or defect is encountered that does have a defined approach to resolve it.

In the current depot process, maintenance discovers an issue or defect that requires engineering support to correct. It is sent to engineering where a decision is made on how to resolve the issue or defect. The decision is then sent to planning who determines the material list and skill sets required to correct the issue or defect. Maintenance is then informed of the solution, and personnel are dispatched to correct the issue. The current process is time consuming, non-standard, and leads to delays that impact the weapon system due dates. Improvements need to be made to streamline the process. The new concepts must be flexible enough to address four primary aircraft production lines, engine overhaul production lines and accessory back shop production lines while still addressing the distinctions between the cognizant engineering authorities for the different weapons systems. It must also consider the experience of the maintenance personnel and simplify the process where at all possible. While research has been conducted on the ETS request, the focus has been on identification and there are many gaps in the research associated with techniques regarding the physical execution and management of the processes in a depot setting. Any approaches to solving the issues must take into account the physical constraints, security protocols, and personnel restriction/limitations. The resulting concepts/processes/training must be demonstrated with the context of the depot repair environment and must follow the strategic, operational, and tactical framework of the Department of Defense depot repair processes.

PHASE I: Research best concepts to meet needs and resolve the constraints associated with the many different interactive variables of the Engineering Technical Support requests including corrosion and crack inspections, and mechanic failures that require significant man-time and/or expertise.

PHASE II: Develop a real world demonstration of the concepts/processes/training to be assessed by managers involved in the numerous production lines, shops, and support processes. The demonstration should include the integration of the concepts/processes/training in at least two different areas. The program shall also provide a plan to transition the technology to commercial development and deployment.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Applicable to all weapons systems and easily extensible to similar military operations. It could have a significant impact on material quality, accuracy, efficiencies, and throughput.

Commercial Application: It could have a significant impact on material quality, accuracy, efficiencies, and throughput. The processes and/or technology selected will improve quality, reduce costs, and increase throughput.

REFERENCES:

1. Andrew Sanchez, “Technical Support Essentials: Advice to Succeed in Technical Support”, Apress, c2009.

2. Steve Geary and Kate Vitasek, “Performance-Based Logistics: a Contractor's Guide to Life Cycle Product Support Management”, Supply Chain Visions - of Tennessee's Center for Executive Education, c2008.

3. James R. Evans, William M. Lindsay, “Managing for Quality and Performance Excellence”, Thomson South-Western, c2007.

KEYWORDS: engineering technical support, inspections technologies, reliability analysis

AF103-245 TITLE: Frangible Cables, Ladders and other Accessories for “ILS/GS Structures and

other Non-visual Aids”

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Investigate, develop, design, test and provide Frangible/Pull-Apart Cables, and other accessories integral to Frangible Towers and other non-visual aid structures on and around airports/aerodromes

DESCRIPTION: Frangible ILS/GS Towers are being developed under SBIR Topic No AF06-339, Contract AF8201-07-C-0072. These towers provide a new generation of frangible composite towers suitable for ILS/GS and other airfield requirements. However, the power, signal, and lightning protection system cables attached to these structures are made of either continuous one-piece woven or solid metal wire extending from the shelter at the bottom of the tower to the antennas at the top of the tower. These attachment cables/accessories must be redesigned using pull-apart materials in order to meet overall frangibility requirements. Also the OSHA approved tower climbing ladders required by the Air Force are currently made of non-frangible aluminum/steel. These can also be redesigned using frangible composite materials as part of a complete frangible tower system.

PHASE I: Determine feasibility of developing frangible cabling and tower accessories (i.e. power, signal and lightning protection along with composite ladder) suitable for application on ILS/GS towers and other airfield frangible towers.

PHASE II: Manufacture prototypes and qualify newly developed frangible cabling and tower accessories.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Air fields accross the world have use for added saftey measures that frangible designs could help improve. Frangible connections can help save lives and equipment in the event of a collision.

Commercial Application: The resulting designs (frangible cables, accessories, and ladder) will be interchangeable and applicable to both DoD and commercial airport applications worldwide.

REFERENCES:

1. DoD UFC (Unified Facilities Criteria) 3-260-01, 17 November 2008, /ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_3_260_01.pdf

2. ICAO Doc 9157, Part 6 Frangibility, Aerodrome Design Manual, First Edition 2006

KEYWORDS: Frangible Composites, PAM-Crash Model, Composite Towers, Power Signal Cables, Tower Climbing Ladders

AF103-246 TITLE: Energy Efficient Tactical Shelters

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop and apply energy efficient technologies capable of significantly reducing energy consumption and improving the efficiency with which energy is managed. Reduce overall fuel/energy consumption.

DESCRIPTION: The military utilizes tactical shelters for all major deployments. These shelter systems house command and control centers, critical communications equipment, strategic support systems for all major weapons (e.g., aircraft, radar, missile systems, etc.), hospital facilities, and personnel. Logistics support activities for deployed operations are encumbered with heavy re-fueling requirements (i.e., over 80% of all deployed logistics operations are for re-fueling purposes). This continued level of logistics support for fuel places military personnel and military missions at risk. The primary objective of this effort will be to increase the energy efficiency of tactical shelters (i.e., reduce energy consumption) and improve the efficiency with which energy is produced and managed within deployed encampments.

PHASE I: Perform an engineering study to evaluate and determine the technical feasibility and cost of technologies that may be applied to the design of existing and planned tactical shelter configurations in order to significantly reduce the energy required by these systems.

PHASE II: A integrated prototype system will be designed, built, deployed, and tested under realistic military conditions. The purpose is to obtain detailed technical and in-service feedback to build (and/or retrofit) a generation of tactical shelters and related power generation/management systems that will dramatically reduce the quantity of fuel required by deployed encampments.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Reduction in energy consumption will help improve shelter configurations opertaions that include: communications systems, medical centers, machine shops, kitchens, command posts, and many others.

Commercial Application: Operations supportive of communication systems, oil exploration, aid to 3rd world countries, natural disaster aid within the U.S. (e.g., FEMA), deployment of remote hospitals, homeland defense ect.

REFERENCES:

1. ASTM E1925, Specification for Engineering and Design for Rigid, Relocatable Shelter. Website

2. DoD Standard Family of Tactical Shelter, Natick Soldier Center. Website http://nsc.natick.army.mil/media/fact/index.htm

KEYWORDS: Power Generation, Power Management, Energy Conservation, Energy Efficient, Reduced Fuel, Tactical Shelters, Deployed Encampments, Logistics Support

AF103-250 TITLE: Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

OBJECTIVE: Design, develop small Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System for covert insertion (aerial dropping) of critical supplies/sensors with platforms using carriage delivery capability across USAF.

DESCRIPTION: Special Forces and intelligence commands desire a scalable precision capability to covertly insert critical supplies and sensors. Initial desire is for a micro system capable of delivering a 20 pound modular payload with a 10:1 glide ratio to a 50 yard target zone using a soft landing technique. Guidance and carriage should be scalable to vehicles capable of delivering a 500 pound modular payload. A low-cost delivery system is desired that minimizes aircraft integration and stores (payload) separation (USAF Seek Eagle) efforts. The CPADS should be capable of launching from transport, fighters, UAVs and rotary wing aircraft.

PHASE I: Develop a design approach to meet the requirements for a Covert Precision Aerial Delivery system.

PHASE II: Develop and produce a (CPADS) prototype capable of safe release from USAF aircraft or UAV utilizing existing carriage equipment. Demonstrate capability for the CPADS to interface with aircraft carriage systems, separate, guide to the target and precisely deliver a modular payload with a soft landing.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Produce qualified Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System (CPADS) assets for use by USAF fixed/rotary wing aircraft. This technology could be used by CAS and government sectors for homeland defense

Commercial Application: Covert deployment of remote sensors would be of value for border patrol and counter drug operations. Environmental organizations can deploy widely dispersed sensors with out need to deploy personnel

REFERENCES:

1. “Enhanced Smart Triple Ejector Rack (ESTER),” EDO Corporation, Business Wire July 17, 2006

2. “Carriage Systems: Multiple Carriage Pneumatic Actuated,” ITT Electronic Systems, JSF/F-35 Lightning Racks

3. Aircraft-armament Suspension & Release Equipment – Pneumatic Twin Store Carrier (PTSC), ITT Electronic Systems

KEYWORDS: close, air, support, environmental, homeland, security, precision, aerial, delivery, CAS, critical, supplies, sensors, delivery, systems, payload

AF103-252 TITLE: Direct Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop a process to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into a liquid hydrocarbon fuel with energy input from solar or other renewable resources that generates no net carbon dioxide.

DESCRIPTION: As high CO2-emitting utilities and other industries move toward CO2 capture technologies to manage greenhouse gas emissions, more and more CO2 will become available as a resource for multiple applications. At the same time, advanced energy conversion and storage technology is under intense development to meet the increasing power demand of the military. Consumption of petroleum-based JP-8 fuel for propulsion and for electricity generation in battlefield places a heavy logistic burden to the Air Force. The cost and availability of this conventional energy source is becoming an important factor to the success of the military operations at present and in the future. Taking into account the fully burdened cost of the petroleum fuel used in theater, and the extra vulnerability rendered by the dependence on this sole energy source, the Air Force needs to explore the possibility to develop the capability to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from available sources such as CO2 and water. This technology, if fully developed, will enable the military to obtain a higher degree of energy security. Therefore, proposals are sought to develop pathways and novel approaches for the beneficial conversion of CO2 into military logistics fuels.

This topic is seeking innovative material and engineering process development to take available CO2, water, and/or other readily available material and reuse them as chemical feedstock [1] for direct production of liquid hydrocarbon fuel with the use of industrial-scale technologies. The goal is to create a demonstrably feasible process for this conversion, and eventually this process could be an integral part of an autonomous power generation system with the best possible energy and resource efficiency.

PHASE I: Determine a feasible approach for feedstock conversion into a fuel that is fungible with JP-8, including preliminary laboratory experiments and production process conceptual design. The design should include all the process components such as reactions and liquid hydrocarbon fuel formation.

PHASE II: Construct a lab-based prototype demonstrating feedstock-to-fuel conversion. The fuel should be characterized, and the energy input should be measured based on one unit liquid fuel produced. Process design- description, operational parameters, performance, expected costs- and follow-on steps to overcome technical barriers are necessary.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Development of liquid hydrocarbon fuel production system using renewable energy sources will have significant impact on energy security and aerospace applications.

Commercial Application: Development of liquid hydrocarbon fuel production system using renewable energy sources will have application to commercial auto, farming and aerospace industries.

REFERENCES:

1. Steinberg, M. Synthetic Carbonaceous Fuels and Feedstocks, U.S. Patent 4,197,421, 1980.

2. Halmann, M.M.; Steinberg, M. Green Gas Carbon Dioxide Mitigation: Science and Technology, CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1998.

3. Wade, J.L.; Lackner, K.S.; West, A.C. Transport Model For a High Temperature, Mixed Conducting CO2 Separation Membrane, Solid State Ionics 2007, 178, 1530-1540.

4. Martin, F.J.; Kubic, W.L. Jr. Green FreedomTM – A Concept for Producing Carbon – Neutral Synthetic Fuels and Chemicals, Los Alamos National Laboratory Report, LA-UR-07-7897, 2007.

5. Frost, L.; Elangovan, E.; Hartvigsen, J. Co-electrolysis of Steam and CO2 as Feed for Fuel Synthesis, Proceedings of 43rd Power Sources Conference, page 619-621, 2008.

KEYWORDS: CO2 sequestration, synfuels, logistics fuel, JP-8, synthetic JP-8

AF103-253 TITLE: Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Inspection

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop a process capable of performing reliable NDI (Nondestructive Inspections) of large areas of honeycomb sandwich structure on aircraft.

DESCRIPTION: An innovative approach is needed in order to have a practical method of performing NDI on honeycomb sandwich structures. Honeycomb sandwich structures on aircraft are susceptible to disbonds and fluid intrusion which can limit the survivability of those structures. Currently, the Air Force utilizes ultrasound and coin tap tests as the primary NDI methods to inspect for disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures. Both of these methods can be labor-intensive and dependent on inspector interpretation, resulting in inconsistent inspections. Also, ultrasonic methods require precise calibration standards that can be expensive to manufacture and often do not accurately mimic in-service disbonds. Radiography is the current NDI method for inspecting honeycomb sandwich structures for fluid intrusion. This method can also be labor-intensive, expensive, and due to the safety precautions associated with radiography, can create scheduling difficulties and limit facility use.

The skin and core of the honeycomb sandwich structures encountered can also be made of many different materials, both metals and nonmetals. The structures are not limited to flat surfaces as they can have varying contours. These variations and other complications cause reliability and feasibility issues on the aforementioned inspection procedures.

An innovative proposal should present a reliable method to inspect honeycomb sandwich structures on aircraft and should be designed for maximum applicability with regard to material and design variation. Targeted capabilities should consider a non-contact inspection, remote inspection capability, and automated or semi-automated inspection. The new process should also have the capability to determine the size and depth of disbonds as well as the capability to simultaneously detect both near and far side defects and fluid intrusion. In the area of fluid intrusion detection, the ability to differentiate between water, other liquids, and other anomalies would also be a focus area.

PHASE I: Determine the feasibility of the proposed NDI method to 1) increase disband Probability of Detection over current methods as well as flaw characterization and 2) detect fluid intrusion: location, amount, and type of fluid. Develop a prototype design utilizing the chosen inspection method.

PHASE II: Develop the prototype designed in Phase I, refining the design as necessary to fully address practicality issues such as safety and ease of use on aircraft. Test the prototype and demonstrate its ability to reliably detect defects in honeycomb sandwich structures.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: This technology applies to all military aircraft that have honeycomb sandwich structures susceptible to disbonds and water intrusion.

Commercial Application: This technology applies to any commercial aircraft that have honeycomb sandwich structures susceptible to disbonds and water intrusion commercial, and honeycomb structures that would require NDI.

REFERENCES:

1. Hsu, David K., Daniel J. Barnard, and Dennis P. Roach. “Tap Test: Evolution of an Old Technique.” Materials Evaluation 67 (2009): 785-91.

2. Hsu, David K., Vinay Dayal, and Daniel J. Barnard. “Heat-Induced Disbonding and Degradation of Adhesive Bonds in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures.” Materials Evaluation 67 (2009): 843-50.

3. Radtke, T.C., A. Charon, and R. Vodicka. “Hot/Wet Environmental Degradation of Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Representative of F/A-18: Flatwise Tension Strength.” Australian DSTO Technical Report. No. 0908. Melbourne Victoria, Australia. DSTO Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory, 1999.

4. Walker, James, et al. “Nondestructive Testing Techniques for the Ares I Common Bulkhead Bond Line.” Materials Evaluation 67 (2009): 775-83.

KEYWORDS: Nondestructive inspection, NDI, honeycomb structure, disbonds, water intrusion

AF103-255 TITLE: Sensor Data Fusion for Intelligent Systems Monitoring and Decision Making

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a novel sensor data fusion (integration) architecture to combine data from multiple sources and to achieve more efficient and accurate inferences about the state of critical assets.

DESCRIPTION: The defense community is faced with major challenges to monitor critical assets (machines, aircraft systems, etc.), track hostile targets and other objects of interest and process data into useful information to support the warfighter, improve tactical and strategic operations and optimize logistic practices. As a result of recent advances in sensing, monitoring, communications and computing, we are witnessing a proliferation of technologies that are aimed to acquire and store data, process it off-line or in real-time and exploit it in a variety of tasks. The enormous volume and complexity of current data bases are overwhelming the data management community. To resolve these data explosion issues, researchers are developing and implementing tools to process more efficiently raw data and extract useful information in compact form. As an example, the Air Force Air Logistics Centers are incrementing machinery and processes that are employed to maintain, repair, and overhaul such critical assets as aircraft. A paradigm shift is emerging in the ALC community where machines are maintained on the basis of their condition rather than on the basis of traditional scheduled or breakdown practices. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) requires the availability of multiple sensor modalities and “smart” processing software to assure that machines and other assets will be available when needed with improved reliability/safety and reduced maintenance costs.

Although significant achievements have been reported in the recent past, the processing of the sensor data intelligently still requires the development, testing, and validation of the new techniques to manage and interpret the increasing volume of data and to combine them as they become available from multiple and diverse sources. Sensor data fusing is a promising technology that can contribute significantly towards a better understanding and a more efficient utility of raw data by reducing it to useful information. This topic is seeking new and innovative fusion techniques that build upon current data management practices and advance the state of the art. A methodology is sought, using intelligent decision-making tools, through which data collected from a variety of sensors under various testing, modeling or field conditions can be aggregated in a meaningful and systematic way to provide information to the decision makers at the operational task level. In addition to a summary of observed data via statistical methods, there is a need to synthesize the information to higher informational levels. A typical sensor data fusion paradigm incorporates several levels of abstraction: fusion at the data level, the feature (characteristic signature of the fault or failure data) level, the sensor level and the knowledge level. At the data level, a variety of filtering, data compression and data validation algorithms have been employed to improve such indicators as signal to noise ratio, among others. The enabling technologies at the feature level borrow from Dempster-Shafer theory, soft computing and Bayesian estimation to fuse feature while meeting specified performance metrics. At the sensor level, multiple sensors must be gated and coordinated spatially and temporally to minimize their number while maximizing the probability of detection. Significant reduction of the computational burden is always a desired objective. The top level of the fusion hierarchy, i.e. the knowledge fusion module should be able to reason about the evidence provided by the lower echelons, aggregate the available information in an intelligent manner, resolve conflicts and report to the end-use the findings of the fusion architecture. Artificial Intelligences (AI) tools and methods from Dempster-Shafer theory, Bayesian estimation techniques and soft computing may find utility as the reasoning enablers at this level.

Sensor data fusion is an integral component of the data management process in a variety of engineering, medicine, business, and finance and other disciplines. In order to focus this research effort and provide to the AF tangible results at the end of the program, the contractor is required to consider a specific application environment of interest to the AF’s ALCs, i.e. databases that relate to health monitoring and Condition Based Maintenance of critical machines / processes. The contractor is expected to take advantage of available health monitoring data for a typical machining center and demonstrate proof-of-concept of the proposed sensor data fusion architecture. Emphasis must be placed on the mathematical rigor, performance and generic attributes of the fusion modules that may be applicable to other critical AF systems/processes.

PHASE I: The goal of Phase I is to perform a study to identify the most suitable sensor data fusion technologies at all levels of the fusion architecture. The contractor will conceptualize the modules of the fusion architecture and their integration in this phase of the program and will demonstrate its main features via simulation using historical/archived fault/failure data for a typical machine.

PHASE II: Based on the results of Phase I, the contractor will complete, test and validate the fusion architecture and its constituent components. This effort will lead to fully functional software modules that can be integrated into the ALC’s data management infrastructure. Performance metrics and interfacing requirements to health monitoring and CBM systems must be considered.

At the end of Phase II, the contractor will provide a software-in-the-loop demonstration of all modules of the fusion architecture highlighting its generic attributes as they may be applicable to other AF systems/processes. A transitioning plan must be drafted and submitted.

PHASE III: The sensor data fusion modules demonstrated in Phase II will be optimized, integrated and validated into a software “product” that can become an indispensable tool to decision-makers at the operational task level. It is anticipated that the results of this program will assist the AF and other services to enhance their capabilities in the data management arena by fusing data from multiple sources. The sensor data fusion problem permeates a large sector of government and industry operations that may benefit eventually from this work. It is expected that the final result of this program will be a marketable product to both DoD and commercial sectors.

REFERENCES:

1. Liggins, Martin E., Hall, D. L., and Llinas, James, Multisensor Data Fusion: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, CRC Press, 2008.

2. Wang, F., Sun, F., Cao, B. G., “Feature Fusion of Mechanical Faults Based on Evolutionary Computation,” in Insight, vol. 49, issue 8, pp. 471-475, 2007.

3. Vachtsevanos, G., Levis, F., Roemer, M., Hess, A., and Wu, B., Intelligent Fault Diagnosis and Prognosis for Engineering Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006.

4. Dar, I. and Vachtsevanos, G., “Feature Level Sensor Fusion for Pattern Recognition using an Active Perception Approach,” Proceedings of IS&T/SPIE’s Electronic Imaging ’97: Science and Technology, San Jose, CA, February 8-14, 1997.

5. Shafer, G., A Mathematical Theory of Evidence, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1976.

KEYWORDS: Sensor Data Fusion, Data Management, Machine Faults/Failures, Condition Based Maintenance

AF103-256 TITLE: High Integrity Coatings for Aircraft Landing Skis/Skids

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop an ultra high-impact tolerant and hydrophobic coating for skis and skids of aircraft that operate in extreme conditions.

DESCRIPTION: Landing skis and skids on both rotary and fixed-wing aircraft must withstand extreme operational and environmental conditions and maintain their structural integrity. Depending upon the aircraft Mission Design Series (MDS) and its mission, these conditions can include frequent high-impacts landings, sand/snow/dust abrasion, extreme cold or heat [2], and constant fluid contact (leading to fluid intrusion), among others. Often, these MDS’ are low volume-high demand in the Air Force inventory, so the loss of one airframe can severely impact a unit’s ability to meet their unique mission requirements. Therefore, recurring maintenance issues is unacceptable for these aircraft. Because ski/skid coating integrity is a known, recurring maintenance issue, a novel coating is needed to address this important shortfall.

While high-durability coatings are in use across the Air Force, none exist that meet this unique set of requirements. The goal of this project is to develop a low-friction, impact-resistant, abrasion-resistant, and hydrophobic coating that can be applied to aircraft landing skis and skids. The extreme cold endured by skis must be considered. Technology behind hydrophobic coatings could be employed to achieve low-friction and fluid-repellant properties. Desired properties should be retained as long as possible, so self-healing technologies could be considered, as could technologies that would make the coating simple and easy to repair. Similarly, failure-detection methods such as those employed in various “smart” coatings could be used.

PHASE I: Conduct basic research to develop a coating that meets the unique requirements of aircraft skis/skids as defined above. Standard characteristics for aircraft exterior coatings must also be met [3]. Present findings and potentially sample tests.

PHASE II: Produce samples of the coating according to approved development plan. Conduct tests according to approved test plan in a relevant environment. Basic capabilities according to desired characteristics must be demonstrated. Upon successful lab testing, an aircraft will be made available for limited flight testing. Create a report of test results and a production plan.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: All military aircraft with skis/skids would benefit from this coating technology. Research into very low friction water resistant skis would also have logical crossover into various marine areas.

Commercial Application: Commercial aircraft and vehicles with skis/skids would benefit from this coating technology.

REFERENCES:

1. “New Ultra-Hard, Low-Friction Coating is Slicker than Teflon,” TPMonLine / articles_on_total_productive_maintenance/innovations/lowfriction.htm#Projected%20Benefits

2. MIL-HDBK-310

3. MIL-STD-7179

KEYWORDS: Skids, Skis, Hydrophobic Coatings

AF103C-148 TITLE: Automated Fastener Installation System

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a system to automatically sort, clean, promote, seal, and install fasteners for 5th generation fighter aircraft production

DESCRIPTION: Nearly 30,000 fasteners with over 300 unique part numbers are used to install the wing assembly skins of one of the fifth generation fighter aircraft, with thousands more on other portion of the aircraft. With a future production rate of one aircraft every working day, the manufacturing facilities across the country will be processing tens of thousands of fasteners every day. Each of those fasteners requires an extensive preparation and sealing process. That process includes identifying the required fasteners, manually collecting, cleaning and promoting the fasteners, applying sealant, identifying the correct hole on the aircraft, and finally installing the fastener. An automated system(s) would save significant amounts of touch labor and cost, and reduce variability and errors in the system.

Currently, to identify the required fastener the assembler looks at electronic work instructions or at a projection onto the aircraft skin. He/she then retrieves the correct fastener from a storage crib. The fastener is cleaned and promoted by manual agitation in small plastic containers for a specific amount of time. Sealant must be mixed and then applied either by hand or with a small sealant gun onto the fastener. Once the fastener is cleaned/promoted/sealed the assembler has a limited amount of time with which to install the fastener. The fastener and the hole are again matched by electronic work instructions or a projection system. The fastener is located, inserted, installed, and secured (with either a collar, nut, or nutplate) manually. The entire process takes several minutes for each fastener, and has significant risk for error if the wrong fastener is used in the wrong hole or the fastener is not properly cleaned/promoted/sealed leading to potential fuel leaks. The task is further complicated due to limited backside access to the panel. Automating this process will greatly reduce the number of touch labor hours required as well as improve quality by making the process more repeatable. Ideally the system would also be adaptable for other fastener processing areas (ie, no sealant, different coatings, multiple types of fasteners, etc).

While there is a specific initial application, there are broad applications to other military and commercial platforms. The most successful offerors will, in their proposal, demonstrate understanding of the fifth generation fighter wing assembly fastener installation issues, propose a solution using systems engineering which can be implemented in an assembly floor environment, and will scope the program such that at the end of Phase II, a working prototype is developed that can be demonstrated at a TRL6/MRL5-6. If successful in meeting technical, cost, and schedule goals, the technology has high potential for immediate implementation into assembly lines.

PHASE I: Develop concept for an advanced fastener installation system. Develop prototype components that perform the system functions at a bench-top level. Develop initial cost estimate and manufacturing/transition plans.

PHASE II: Based on Phase I concept modeling and technology development, further refine the bench-top components into a modular prototype that performs the sorting, cleaning, promoting, sealing, and insertion functions. Test functionality in a production representative environment using actual aircraft fasteners. Clearly define operator/user interface. Refine cost estimate and manufacturing/transition plans.

PHASE III Dual Use Commercialization:

Military application: Aircraft fasteners must be installed in large quantities during initial assembly and again during depot maintenance activities. Technology could be developed and transitioned to multiple airframe manufacturers and all major aviation depots to reduce cost/touch labor/variability during the entire process of fastener installation across services and platforms.

Commercial application: Similarly, commercial aviation assembly/maintenance operations and potentially vehicle systems can also use this technology.

REFERENCES:

1. Supplemental Information for SBIR Topic 103C-148, uploaded in SITIS 8/19/10.

2. Company Fastener List, provided by TPOC. (Uploaded in SITIS 8/30/10.)

3. Fastener Installation Procedure, 1 chart. (Uploaded in SITIS 8/30/10.)

KEYWORDS: fasteners, installation, sealing

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