Главная > Документ

1

Смотреть полностью

MBRC Database on coral reefs

No of Records : 2181

-------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sponge-associated bacteria of Lakshadweep coral reefs, India: resource for extracellular hydrolytic enzymes

Author(s) :Feby, A.; Nair, S.

Source :Adv. Biosci. Biotechnol.: 1; 2010; 330-337.

Abstract :Sponges (Phylum: Porifera) is one of the major groups in the Lakshadweep coral reefs. These sponges harbor diverse bacteria with metabolic potentiality. From biodiversity to biotechnological prospecting, scientific investigations related to sponge associated microorganisms have expanded, but remain rather limited to few geographic locations. In this study, culturable bacteria associated with two demosponges viz Dysidea granulosa, Sigmadocia fibulata and the ambient water were screened for commercially important enzymes such as amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, deoxyribonucleic, phos-phatase and urease. Amylase and phosphatase were the predominant enzymes produced by more than 80% of sponge-associated bacteria compared to the ambient water. Nearly 50% of the sponge-associated bacteria expressed multiple enzymatic activities (greater than equal to 4) with variation in the percentage of expression of individ-ual enzymes. More than 65% of the culturable het-erotrophic bacteria associated with sponges were Gammaproteobacteria. The order Vibrionales was the main source for multiple enzyme production. Sponge associated bacteria formed more closely re-lated clusters than the water isolates based upon their activity pattern. High recovery of sponge-associated bacteria with multiple enzymatic activities suggest that these versatile bacteria are yet unexploited potential for bioprospecting.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Distribution pattern of coaral and non coralline fish larvae in Khark and Kharko (Persian Gulf)

Author(s) :Vosoughi, G.H.; Fatemi, M.R.; Rabbaniha, M.; Jamili, S.; Gharra, K.; Noorinejad, M.

Source :Iran. J. Fish. Sci.: 9(1); 2010; 173-184.

Abstract :Khark and Kharko Islands are located at far northern point of fringing coral reefs in the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. These coralline are the habitats of the wildlife refuge with total area of 2400ha and located in the territory of Bushehr province. The present study was carried out from July 2006 to June 2007 over 12 stations. Sampling was conducted obliquely from bottom using Bongo-net plankton sampler with 500 mu of mesh size. In total, 1808 specimens, both in pre and post flexion stages were collected and examined. They were belonging to 45 families from different ecological groups (21 coralline and 24 non coralline fish larvae families). 96% of examined fish larvae were in preflexion stage. Some families are new ones from the area. Among identified families, Clupeidae, Blenniidae, Sillaginidae, Atherinidae and Tripterygiidae; were dominant families in studied area and the peaks were estimated in spring. The mean abundance of total fish larvae was 18.71 per 10m sup(2) of sea surface. The most abundant families were Clupeidae, Sillaginidae, Blenniidae, Atherinidae and Tripterygiidae in which comprised 65% of fish larvae. Abundance in spring showed significant difference with other seasons. The distribution pattern of fish larvae changed seasonally in both groups, increasing in east coasts of Khark Island and in three coastal stations during summer and autumn and in west coast of Khark in spring. The distribution of fish larvae seemed to be correlated to sea currents

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Thaliacea of the Madras plankton

Author(s) :Nair, R.V.

Source :(Bull. Madras Gov. Mus. New Ser. Nat. Hist. Sect.). : 6(1); 1949; 52 pp.

Abstract :From the Madras plankton as many as sixteen species of Thaliacea have been obtained the largest number ever recorded from the plankton of any particular place. The great expeditions such as the 'Challenger,' 'Siboga' and 'Investigator,' collected most of the known species of Thaliacea from widely different parts of the great oceans. Even the Great Barrier Reef Expedition, which confined its investigations to definite places obtained only nine species of Thaliacea. Dakin and Colefax record only seven forms from the Australian plankton

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effects of fisheries closure size, age, and history of compliance on coral reef fish communities in the western Indian Ocean

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.; Graham, N.A.J.; Wilson, S.K.; Letourneur, Y.; Fisher, R.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 396; 2009; 99-109.

Abstract :The hypothesis that the history of management compliance (strong versus variable), closure size (0.3 to 28 km sup(2)), closure age (2 to 39 yr), and habitat/geographic variables influenced total fish biomass, the number of species, and the ratio of herbivores to carnivores in no-take areas was tested. Twenty existing closures across 6 countries in the western Indian Ocean were sampled during the same time period (2004 to 2007). Geographic location and closure attributes were weak to moderate predictors of these coral reef fish community variables for analyses of all closures. Strong interactions between fish community variables and levels of compliance indicated that high compliance sites largely drove the closure-fish community relationships. Variable or weak compliance and closures <1 km sup(2) exhibited limited recovery of fish communities. The closure areaΓÇôfish biomass data for strong-compliance closures indicates that biomass is stable above 5 km sup(2). A mix of community-based, private, and national program closures were sampled, and, although low sample sizes within each of these management systems precludes conclusive analysis, none of these management systems was universally successful in terms of compliance or maximizing fish community variables

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Synchronous reproduction of corals in the Red Sea

Author(s) :Hanafy, M.H.; Aamer, M.A.; Habib, M.; Rouphael, A.B.; Baird, A.H.

Source :Coral Reefs: 29(1); 2010; 119-124.

Abstract :Multi-species synchronous spawning was first described on reefs off the east and west coast of Australia. In contrast, locally abundant species in the northern Red Sea and the central Pacific have little overlap in the time of reproduction. Consequently, the idea developed that high levels of spawning synchrony both within and among species was largely confined to Australian reefs. It is shown that gamete maturity in colonies of the genus Acropora was highly synchronous in the Red Sea. In early April 2008, at two locations separated by 300 km, 13 of 24 species sampled had mature colonies, and a further 9 species had immature colonies. In late April-early May 2008, all colonies sampled had no oocytes, indicating colonies had spawned a few days after the full moon of 20 April 2008. Similarly, in 2009, 99% of colonies from 17 species at Hurghada were mature in late April, and all were empty in early May. Spawn slicks suggested many of these colonies had released gametes three night prior to the full moon on 8 May 2009. This level of synchrony in gamete maturity is among the highest ever recorded and similar to that typically recorded in Acropora assemblages on Australian reefs. While further work is required to document the night of gamete release, these data strongly suggest that high levels of spawning synchrony are a regular feature of these Red Sea coral assemblages and that multi-species spawning occurs on or around the full moon in April and/or May

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The catastrophic 2008-2009 red tide in the Arabian Gulf region, with observations on the identification and phylogeny of the fish-killing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides

Author(s) :Richlen, M.L.; Morton, S.L.; Jamali, E.A.; Rajan, A.; Anderson, D.M.

Source :Harmful Algae: 9(2); 2010; 163-172.

Abstract :Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by the marine ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef are responsible for mass mortalities of wild and farmed fish worldwide, with catastrophic impacts to aquaculture and local economies. The Cochlodinium species responsible for a severe and widespread HAB in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman that has lasted for more than eight months at this writing, killing thousands of tons of fish and limiting traditional fishery operations, damaging coral reefs, impacting coastal tourism, and forcing the closure of desalination plants in the region are reported. To identify the causative organism, cultures were established from cells isolated along the Arabian Gulf shore of the United Arab Emirates. Taxonomic analyses using scanning and light microscopy, and partial analysis of the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene confirmed the C. polykrikoides classification. rRNA gene sequences of C. polykrikoides isolates from the Arabian Gulf were identical to isolates from the northeastern USA, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Malaysia, known as the ΓÇÿAmerican/MalaysianΓÇÖ ribotype. To our knowledge, this is the first HAB event associated with C. polykrikoides in the Arabian Gulf or the Gulf of Oman. The sudden emergence of C. polykrikoides in these Gulfs coincides with an apparent global expansion of this taxon, as well as a recent increase in HAB impacts observed in this region. The mechanisms underlying this expansion require further investigation, and may include increased nutrient enrichment of coastal waters in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from domestic and industrial inputs, natural meteorological and oceanographic forcings, and the recent introduction of this species through ballast water discharge. A pattern of subsequent recurrence of C. polykrikoides blooms following an initial outbreak has been observed in other parts of the world, suggesting that this species may become a persistent HAB problem in this region. As Arabian Gulf countries rely on desalination plants as the primary source of freshwater, the disruption of plant operations by recurring Cochlodinium blooms poses a serious threat to the drinking water supply in the region, and represents an unprecedented HAB impact

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Intertidal rock pool fishes in the natural reserve of Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Durville, P.; Chabanet, P.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 8(2); 2009; 225-230.

Abstract :The fish diversity of intertidal rock pools in die Glorieuses Islands was investigated using clove-oil anaesthetic. That method, is easy to use and safety is well adapted for this type of census. A total of thirty two species belonging to 14 families were sampled. Of these, 19 were observed as adults in most stations and represented the typical population of these intertidal pools, in particular the Blenniidae that presented the highest species richness and the Gobiidae, which were the most abundant. The 13 remaining species were only observed during their juvenile state and appeared to be only temporary residents. More than half of the species collected (17/32 spp) were not recorded during the previous ichthyofauna study at the Glorieuses islands using UVC, results that show the importance of the anaesthetic method that allows the collection of smaller-sized species that live inside the reef framework and are consequently more difficult to record

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef monitoring in Tanzania: An analysis of the last 20 years

Author(s) :Muhando, C.A.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 8(2); 2009; 203-214.

Abstract :Coral reef monitoring in Tanzania started in the early 1990s. The main objective was to document reef status and in places assess the extent of damage caused by the use of destructive resource harvesting practices, mainly fishing using dynamite and dragged nets. The information obtained formed the basis for setting up of legislation and control measures and for further monitoring of reef health. Two systems evolved: low tech or simple (skin diving) community-based coral reef monitoring and high tech involving the use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has contributed substantial descriptive information and has raised awareness to coastal communities and managers. Analysis of CRM data over the years has provided information on the dynamics of reef health conditions, e.g. cover and composition of reef benthos, fish and macro-invertebrates. Statistical Power Analysis tests, both on spatial and temporal scales showed inadequate coral monitoring sampling effort, mainly due to high variance of categories being measured. Furthermore, the ongoing monitoring programs did not include environmental or economic indicator variables, hence monitoring results were not linked or statistically analysed against possible causative factors: Lack of information on biological connectivity and vital replenishment factors, e.g., larval sources, dispersal mechanisms, growth, and survival also diluted the interpretation of benthic community data, directly impacting on the strategic management of reef fish and invertebrates. Similarly, the link between socio-economic attributes and coral monitoring results has remained weak. This paper discusses critical issues in the past coral reef monitoring programs and provides strategic recommendations for the next phase of coral reef monitoring in Tanzania

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Zooxanthellae densities are highest in summer months in equatorial corals in Kenya

Author(s) :Mwaura, J.; Grimsditch, G.; Kilonzo, J.; Amiyo, N.; Obura, D.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 8(2); 2009; 193-202.

Abstract :Coral bleaching (loss of zooxathellac) is an increasing problem for the health and persistence of corals, but the phenomenon can not be fully comprehended without understanding seasonal fluctuations in the field. Seasonal dynamics of coral zooxanthellae (population density and mitotic indices) of eleven scleractinian coral species (Acropora sp., Echinopora gemmacea, Favia sp., Galaxea fascicularis, Hydnophora microconos, Montipora aequituberculata, Pavona decussata, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora eydouxi, Porites cylindrica and Porites lutea) were monitored in Mombasa Marine Park from 1998 to 2006. Direct tracking of mapped corals provided evidence that zooxanthellae densities were highest during the North-East Monsoon (NEM) season and displayed highest mitotic indices during transition periods directly preceding this season. The higher densities found during the northeast monsoon (when temperatures and light radiation levels are higher) are surprising as they are contrary to trends found at higher latitudes. It is possible that at higher latitudes seasonal variability of temperatures and light is so great that it dictates zooxanthellae density dynamics, while corals closer to the Equator are less influenced and other factors may have greater influence on zooxanthellae dynamics. The present study highlights the degree of variability of zooxanthellae dynamics that may exist among coral species and compares sites from widely different geographic locations

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral and reef fish in the northern Quirimbas Archipelago, Mozambique - A first assessment

Author(s) :Hill, N.A.O.; Davidson, J.; Silva, I.; Mucave, S.; Muaves, L.; Guissamulo, A.; Debney, A.; Gamier, J.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 8(1); 2009; 113-125.

Abstract :In recent years there has been much interest in the conservation and tourism value of the Quirimbas Archipelago, Mozambique. Historically, biological and conservation work has been focused on the more accessible southern part of the Quirimbas. This paper is a contribution to the knowledge on the resources in the north of the Quirimbas following survey work conducted around Vamizi Island in 2001,2003 and principally in 2006. The results indicate it may be one of few examples in the region that has not yet suffered the same level of anthropogenic or natural disturbances that other areas in the region have suffered. Anthropogenic impacts are low as a result of its remote location that has kept it relatively isolated from markets. Limited evidence of bleaching mortality indicates that the area may have some resilience to bleaching events. Given its condition and strategic location, it is suggested that the area is of high conservation and research interest, and is an important economic resource that if managed wisely can contribute to sustainable fisheries and development through tourism. Threats include high levels of immigration, improved access to markets and technology, and oil and gas exploitation. The main recommendation emerging from the study is that the area is in need of timely management and formal protection

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reproductive biology of Actinopyga echinites and other sea cucumbers from La Reunion (Western Indian Ocean): Implications for fishery management

Author(s) :Kohler, S.; Gaudron, S.M.; Conand, C.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 8(1); 2009; 97-111.

Abstract :The sea cucumber fishery is important in several countries of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) but is generally not adequately managed. A regional MASMA programme (Marine Science for Management) granted by WIOMSA (Western Indian Ocean Marine Sciences Association) is providing data on the reproduction of some commercial species. In La Reunion, the two target species are Actinopyga echinites and Holothuria leucospilota. These sea cucumbers are very abundant on the fringing reefs and were sampled monthly during 2005-2006. Data on the population structure and on the reproductive cycle of A. echinites are presented here. The main results are: 1) eviscerated weight (EW) distribution of individuals within the population of PlanchΓÇÖAlizes site is plurimodal with a main mode at 85-95g, 2) sex-ratio is skewed toward females, 3) anatomy of gonads is described in five maturity stages, 4) a seasonal reproductive cycle with a major spawning event in December-January and a minor spawning event in April, 5) size at first sexual maturity EW sub(50) equal to 45g is determined from another site (a sea grass bed with juveniles). These results are integrated with data from other holothurian species such as H. leucospilota, H. atra and Stichopus chloronotus previously studied in La Reunion and will be useful for research on the reproductive biology of sea cucumbers conducted in the other countries of WIO. ΓÇÿSeasonal closureΓÇÖ using results on the spawning season during the warm waters period and ΓÇÿminimum sizeΓÇÖ using size at first sexual maturity are tools for enhancing sustainable management of the fisheries

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Trap fishery and reproductive biology of the whitespotted rabbitfish Siganus sutor (Siganidae), within the Dar es Salaam Marine Reserves, Tanzania

Author(s) :Kamukuru, A.T.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 8(1); 2009; 75-86.

Abstract :Fish samples and catch data were collected monthly from traditional basket fish traps set on reefs within the Dares Salaam Marine Reserves (DMRs) to evaluate trap catch dynamics and reproductive biology of the rabbit fish Siganus sutor (Valenciennes 1835). Trap catch composition was 85% rabbitfishes by weight with a mean (plus or minus SE) catch per unit effort (CPUE) of 2.8 plus or minus 0.1 kg trap sup(-1) day sup(-1) during a fishing season, which lasted between September 2004 and May 2005. CPUE did not differ significantly with lunar cycle, but exhibited a spatial variation, the highest being from Fungu Yasini Marine Reserve, which is further from shore. The spawning season of S. sutor is protracted, lasting between October and May, peaking in March. Size at first sexual maturity was 217.1 and 227.7 mm TL for male and female S. sutor, respectively. The species exhibits a size-dependent sex ratio, with a preponderance of females at larger sizes. The species shows high fecundity at a maximum of 1,300,400 oocytes for 396 mm TL female. Average (plus or minus SE) total fecundity was 627,052 plus or minus 78,886 oocytes per female of 266 to 396 mm TL. It is proposed that beach seines be eliminated from the marine reserves and regulated trap fishery be allowed as a way to facilitate sustainable exploitation of the rabbitfishes and other reef fishes in the DMRs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal habitat mapping along the Tanzania/Mozambique transboundary area using landsat 5 TM imagery

Author(s) :Ferreira, M.A.; Andrade, F.; Cardoso, P.; Paula, J.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 8(1); 2009; 1-13.

Abstract :Landsat 5 TM imagery was used to study the distribution of coastal habitats along the Eastern African coast, from Mnazi Bay (Tanzania) south to Pemba Bay (Mozambique), across the mouth of the Ruvuma estuary and the Quirimbas archipelago. Eight classes of coastal habitats, adapted from the Ramsar convention classification -intertidal, and subtidal -were mapped at a coarse descriptive resolution using an unsupervised classification procedure. Results for 1995 and 2005 are presented, for the entire coastline, and in detail, for the areas of the Ruvuma estuary, Palma, Mocimboa da Praia, and Ibo Island. Results were evaluated using data from ground truthing excursions during 2006. For each date, over 3300 knr of coastal habitats were classified. The classes with the largest coverage were ΓÇÿpermanent shallow marine waterΓÇÖ (> 1,500 km sup(2)), followed by ΓÇÿintertidal flatsΓÇÖ (>650 km sup(2)), ΓÇÿmangrovesΓÇÖ, and ΓÇÿcoral reefsΓÇÖ (covering > 320 km sup(2) each). Estimated overall thematic accuracy for 2005 exceeded 70%. The paper discusses a number of aspects that may influence the accuracy of the final classification and limit time-change analysis to a few of the habitats considered. The resulting spatially referenced thematic maps constitute a useful tool to aide management actions along this coast and are a valuable reference point for conservation and research planning

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Numerical analysis of boulder transport by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at Pakarang Cape, Thailand

Author(s) :Goto, K.; Okada, K.; Imamura, F.

Source :Mar. Geol.: 268; 2010; 97-105.

Abstract :Field observations and numerical modeling of the spatial and grain size distributions is conducted at Pakarang Cape, Thailand and sources of boulders deposited by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; the boulders are a very rare example of boulders for which a tsunami origin is well confirmed. Numerical modeling of the tsunami's boulder transport revealed that the grain size and spatial distributions of boulders are explainable by the initial distribution of boulders at the source and the tsunami's local behavior, which is controlled strongly by the tsunami hydrodynamic features and local topography. Soon after the bore front reached at the beach, the tsunami's hydraulic force on the tidal bench decreased suddenly below the critical force necessary to displace the boulder because of the seaward propagation of the reflected wave that had been generated at the beach slope. Consequently, all boulders were deposited below the high-tide line and subsequently concentrated at the western coast of the cape. Absence of boulders that had been originally deposited deeper than 10 m water depth is also explained by this reflected wave because the wave passed over boulders that had been originally deposited at 10 m water depth before the boulder crossed the reef edge. Our well-tuned model elucidates how the tsunami was able to deposit large boulders on the tidal bench at the cape. The results demonstrate that, theoretically, up to 250 tons of boulders might have been emplaced on the tidal bench by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at the cape (approximately 7 m wave height). The calculated maximum weight is of comparable order to that of boulders around the world that are inferred to be of tsunami origin, although we infer that the weight is determined based on the sensitive balance of the local topography, hydrodynamic features of the tsunami, and the initial distribution of boulders at the source

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The impact of cyclone Gonu on selected coral rich areas of the Gulf of Oman including indications of recovery at the Daymanyiat Islands

Author(s) :Taylor, O.

Source :Indian Ocean tropical cyclones and climate change. ed. by: Charabi, Y.Springer; London; UK; 2010; 289-293.

Abstract :The Gulf of Oman is located at the northwest end of the Indian Ocean, separating the Arabian Gulf from the Arabian Sea (Fig. 1), bordered by India, Oman, Pakistan, and Iran. This study summarizes the impacts of cyclone Gonu on coral communities within the Gulf of Oman and specifically those associated with the coast of the Sultanate of Oman. Upwelling and associated oceanographic features within the Gulf of Oman dominate marine ecosystems, preventing oligotrophic conditions favorable for true reef development by reducing water temperature, light attenuation, and bringing nutrients into the euphotic zone. The net result is the absence of the true coral reefs as defined in most tropical oceanic zones from much of the coastline. Instead, coral colonies grow on exposed rocky substrates or other dead coral colonies (e.g., Pontes) and do not lay down a limestone-based reef matrix, subsequently forming incipient reefs. Very few true reefs have been identified in the Gulf of Oman, and where they do occur, they are limited in extent. True reefs are restricted to small areas, typically in shallow water embayments where light attenuation is high and the effects of upwelling events are limited

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A note on the occurrence of reef inhabiting, red-bellied yellow tail fusilier, Caesio cuning from outside its known geographical array

Author(s) :Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.

Source :Mar. Biodivers. Rec.: 3; 2010; 6 pp.

Abstract :The reef inhabiting fusilier, Caesio cuning, characterized by pinkish abdomen and yellow caudal fin exhibits shoaling behaviour and is known to be geographically distributed from the Gulf of Mannar to the Vanuatu Islands in the South Pacific. The present observation is evidence for the first record of this species off Goa, west coast of India, to be outside its known geographical array. The bay-estuarine and coastal region of Goa influenced by south-west monsoon receives nutrient-rich water during upwelling. Hence the region is highly productive and supports diverse marine assemblages. Moreover, the present observation reveals very low numbers (N=4) of this species in the light of the trawl hauls (N=92) with a core sampling effort of 146 hours, wherein it was found to occur only in two hauls. The paper also provides detailed insight into the description of C. cuning from this region with orthodox taxonomic methods including morphometry and meristic counts.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The contribution of deep-sea macrohabitat heterogeneity to global nematode diversity

Author(s) :Vanreusel, A.; Fonseca, G.; Danovaro, R.; DaSilva, M.C.; Esteves, A.M.; Ferrero, T.; Gad, G.; Galtsova, V.; Gambi, C.; Genevois, V.F.; Ingels, J.; Ingole, B.S.; Lampadariou, N.; Merckx, B.; Miljutina, M.; Muthumbi, A.; Netto, S.; Portnova, D.; Radziejewska, T.; Raes, M.; Tchesunov, A.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Van Gaever, S.; Venekey, V.; Bezerra, T.N.; Flint, H.; Copley, J.; Pape, E.; Zeppilli, D.; Martinez, P.A.; Galeron, J.

Source :Mar. Ecol. (Evol. Persp.): 31(1); 2010; 6-20.

Abstract :The great variety of geological and hydrological conditions in the deep sea generates many different habitats. Some are only recently explored, although their true extent and geographical coverage are still not fully established. Both continental margins and mid-oceanic seafloors are much more complex ecologically, geologically, chemically and hydrodynamically than originally thought. As a result, fundamental patterns of species distribution first observed and explained in the context of relatively monotonous slopes and abyssal plains must now be re-evaluated in the light of this newly recognized habitat heterogeneity. Based on a global database of nematode genus composition, collected as part of the Census of Marine Life, we show that macrohabitat heterogeneity contributes significantly to total deep-sea nematode diversity on a global scale. Different deep-sea settings harbour specific nematode assemblages. Some of them, like coral rubble zones or nodule areas, are very diverse habitats. Factors such as increased substrate complexity in the case of nodules and corals seem to facilitate the co-existence of a large number of genera with different modes of life, ranging from sediment dwelling to epifaunal. Furthermore, strong biochemical gradients in the case of vents or seeps are responsible for the success of particular genera, which are not prominent in more typical soft sediments. Many nematode deep-sea genera are cosmopolitan, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans, whereas only 21% of all deep-sea genera recorded are restricted to a single habitat. In addition to habitat heterogeneity, regional differences are important in structuring nematode assemblages. For instance, seeps from different regions yield different genera that thrive on the sulphidic sediments. This study also shows that many areas and habitats remain highly under-sampled, affecting our ability to understand fully the contribution of habitat heterogeneity versus regional differences to global nematode diversity

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Vulnerability of corals to warming of the Indian seas: a projection for the 21st century

Author(s) :Vivekanandan, E.; Ali, M.H.; Jasper, B.; Rajagopalan, M.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 97(11); 2009; 1654-1758.

Abstract :Indian seas experienced severe warming in 1998 and 2002 that resulted in large-scale bleaching and mortality of corals. Anticipating increased warming in future, an attempt to project coral vulnerability in the Andaman, Nicobar, Lakshadweep, the Gulf of Mannar and the Gulf of Kachchh regions for the 21st century is made. To project the number of bleaching events, the thermal threshold for bleaching, degree heating month (DHM) accumulations of the sea surface temperature (SST) hotspot anomalies, and the predicted increase in SST during this century were considered. The decadal DHM values are expected to gradually increase in all the five regions in the early decades of this century, but abruptly increase after the year 2050. The results indicate that if there is no increase in thermal tolerance capacity, bleaching would become an annual or biannual event for almost all reef regions along the Indian coast in the next 30-50 years. Reef building corals may lose dominance between 2030 and 2040 in the Lakshadweep region and between 2050 and 2070 in the other four regions.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Drug discovery from marine resources

Author(s) :Chakraborty, C.; Hsu, C.-H.; Wen, Z.-H.; Duh, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-S.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 97(3); 2009; 292-293.

Abstract :This article highlights the efforts of Taiwan in identifying bioactive compounds from corals and sponges around Taiwan. New steroids from formoson soft coral were also isolated. Another compound lemnalol was isolated from coral. It also highlights on the potential resources from Indian coast lines.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Geniculate coralline algae from the Neogene-Quaternary sediments in and around Porbandar, southwest coast of India

Author(s) :Kundal, P.; Mude, S.N.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 74(2); 2009; 267-274.

Abstract :The present paper documents nine geniculate coralline algal species, namely Arthrocardia cretacica, Calliarthron antiquum. Corallina hayasaki, C. marshallensis, C. prisca, C. typica, Jania mengaudi, J. sripadaraoi and J. vetus from Neogene-Quaternary sediments of Porbandar area, Saurahtra, Gujarat. Out of nine species, six species namely Arhrocardia cretacica, Calliarthron antiquum, Corallina hayasaki, C. marshallensis, C. prisca and C. typical occur in the Dwarka Formation (lower-middle Miocene), one species Jania sripadaraoi occurs in the Adatiana Member of the Miliolite Formation (early middle-late Pleistocene) and two species namely, J. mengaudi and J. vetus occur in the Porbandar Calcarenite Member of the Chaya Formation (late Pleistocene-late Holocene). These species indicate that the Dwarka Formation and the Adatiana Member of the Miliolite Formation were deposited in tropical marine environment with moderate to low energy conditions at depths ranging from intertidal to 60 m, and that the Porbandar Calcarenite Member of the Chaya Formation was deposited in a tropical marine environment under moderate to low energy conditions at depths ranging from 40 m to 60 m.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral microatoll as geodetic tool in North Andaman and Little Andaman, India

Author(s) :Som, S.K.; Shivgotra, V.; Saha, A.

Source :J. Earth Syst. Sci.: 118(2); 2009; 157-162.

Abstract :Coral microatolls were examined from North Andaman and Little Andaman to understand the relative sea level change due to vertical tectonic deformation above the duction interface. The highest level of survival of coral microatoll before the 26 December, 2004 earthquake at eastern coast of North Andaman has been determined by Global Ocean Tide Model. The present position of recently dead flat top microatoll with preserved internal structure at the eastern coast of North Andaman mainland indicates 31.21 cm uplift due to the 26 December, 2004 earthquake. Comparatively old cup shaped microatoll at the eastern fringe of North Andaman group of islands and highly bioeroded fossil microatolls at the intertidal zone of Little Andaman bear the signature of permanent vertical deformation in the past.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Soil erosion limits for Lakshadweep Archipelago

Author(s) :Mandal, D.; Tripathi, K.P.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 96(2); 2009; 276-280.

Abstract :Soil loss tolerance limits (T value) define the soil loss amounts that are tolerable to maintain, continuously and economically, the sustainability of soil productivity. Within these limits, soil erosion and soil formation processes are in equilibrium. The Lakshadweep Islands is prone to soil erosion and about 20 running kilometre seashore line is being subjected to severe erosion. The unique land and soils of the Lakshadweep Coral Islands require careful management to protect the fragile ecosystem. Soils of ten inhabited islands of Lakshadweep were studied in detail to assign T values, for suggesting a conservation plan. The T value for the whole Archipelago varied between 7.5 and 12.5 t ha sup(-1) yr sup(-1). The spatial delineation of soils with respect to T value can facilitate the management of these valuable resources and prevent their degradation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Mode shift in the Indian Ocean climate under global warming stress

Author(s) :Nakamura, N.; Kayanne, H.; Iijima, H.; McClanahan, T.R.; Behera, S.K.; Yamagat, T.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 36(23); 2009; 5 pp, doi:10.1029/2009GL040590.

Abstract :A 115-year coral record from Kenya has been found to preserve the history of rainfall anomalies in East Africa in relation to global warming-induced Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) variability. The coral IOD index demonstrates a dominantly decadal periodicity in the early part of the 20th century. This low-frequency IOD occurred more frequently before 1924 with mostly quasi-biennial ranging from 18 months to 3 years events since 1960. The mode shift has also coincided with an intensified coupling with Indian summer monsoon rainfall. It is suggested that a warming of the western Indian Ocean, which has attenuated and replaced the El Nino/Southern Oscillation effect over the Indian Ocean, has driven the observed shift

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Changes of coral communities over 35 years: Integrating in situ and remote-sensing data on Saint-Leu reef (la Reunion, Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Scopelitis, J.; Andrefouet, S.; Phinn, S.; Chabanet, P.; Naim, O.; Tourrand, C.; T. Done, T.

Source :Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 84(3); 2009; 342-352.

Abstract :Monitoring coral reef communities at a decadal scale is necessary to understand and project their dynamics to provide a basis for reef management in light of disturbances and climate change. Complementing infrequent and localised in situ observations, time-series of aerial photographs and remotely sensed satellite images provide a means of monitoring the position and extent of reef-top coral communities, vegetation and abiotic substrata at the whole reef scale. The aim of the present study was to map such changes on Saint-Leu Reef (La Reunion) between 1973 and 2007. The period included two cyclones (1989, 2002) and one severe bleaching event (2002). Vertical images of the reef were recorded in five aerial photographs (1973, 1978, 1989, 1997, and 2003) and two Quickbird satellite images (2002, 2006) during that time. Quantitative in situ observations of parts of the reef-top were also available both to document ecological and substratum characteristics that produce the color and texture observable in the photos and satellite images. Coral communities were mapped on all images using manual delineation of polygons identified according to color and texture contrast. The 2006 Quickbird image was used as the mapping base and 15 types of coral communities were identified from a reef survey conducted in 2007. This hierarchical typology used coral growth forms, live and dead coral cover, macro-algae, substratum (sand, rubble and platform) and, to a lesser extent, coral taxonomy. The polygons at date t were over-laid onto image t - 1 across the whole series and their boundaries were manually edited to match the pattern on the earlier image. Labelling of polygons was guided by field-survey data and maps. For coral-dominated patches, six successive pairs of maps from 1973 to 2006 were compared to produce ΓÇÿcoral community change mapsΓÇÖ for that period. Despite the multiple disturbance events, the coral community distribution and composition in 2006 on Saint-Leu Reef did not display major differences compared to 1973. This suggests a high degree of coral resilience at the site, led by rapid recovery of compact branching corals. The mapping techniques overcame challenges due to different image quality and the sparsity of in situ observations in time and space. Our results demonstrate the potential for further application of reef monitoring protocols based on complementary in situ and remote-sensing data to help understand the dynamics of reef-top coral reef communities and geomorphology over years to decades

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Alterations in seawater pH and CO sub(2) affect calcification and photosynthesis in the tropical coralline alga, Hydrolithon sp. (Rhodophyta)

Author(s) :Semesi, S.; Kangwe, J.; Bjork, M.

Source :Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 84(3); 2009; 337-341.

Abstract :Calcification in the marine environment is the basis for the accretion of carbonate in structures such as coral reefs, algal ridges and carbonate sands. Among the organisms responsible for such calcification are the Corallinaceae (Rhodophyta), recognised as major contributors to the process world-wide. Hydrolithon sp. is a coralline alga that often forms rhodoliths in theWestern Indian Ocean. In Zanzibar, it is commonly found in shallow lagoons, where it often grows within seagrass beds and/or surrounded by green algae such as Ulva sp. Since seagrasses in Zanzibar have recently been shown to raise the pH of the surrounding seawater during the day, and since calcification rates are sensitive to pH, which changes the saturation state of calcium carbonate, we measured the effects of pH on photosynthetic and calcification rates of this alga. It was found that pH had significant effects on both calcification and photosynthesis. While increased pH enhanced calcification rates both in the light and in the dark at pH >8.6, photosynthetic rates decreased. On the other hand, an increase in dissolved CO sub(2) concentration to approx. 26 Mu mol kg sup(-1) (by bubbling with air containing 0.9 mbar CO sub(2)) caused a decrease in seawater pH which resulted in 20% less calcification after 5 days of exposure, while enhancing photosynthetic rates by 13%. The ecological implications of these findings is that photosynthetically driven changes in water chemistry by surrounding plants can affect calcification rates of coralline algae, as may future ocean acidification resulting from elevated atmospheric CO sub(2)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Top-down and bottom-up regulation of macroalgal community structure on a Kenyan reef

Author(s) :Mork, E.; Sjoo, G.L.; Kautsky, N.; McClanahan, T.R.

Source :Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 84(3); 2009; 331-336.

Abstract :Top-down and bottom-up regulation in the form of grazing by herbivores and nutrient availability are important factors governing macroalgal communities in the coral reef ecosystem. Today, anthropogenic activities, such as over-harvesting of herbivorous fish and sea urchins and increased nutrient loading, are altering the interaction of these two structuring forces. The present study was conducted in Kenya and investigates the relative importance of herbivory and nutrient loading on macroalgal community dynamics, by looking at alterations in macroalgal functional groups, species diversity (H0) and biomass within experimental quadrats. The experiment was conducted in situ for 42 days during the dry season. Cages excluding large herbivorous fish and sea urchins were used in the study and nutrient addition was conducted using coated, slow-release fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorous) at a site where herbivory is generally low and nutrient levels are relatively high for the region. Nutrient addition increased tissue nutrient content in the algae, and fertilized quadrats had 24% higher species diversity. Herbivore exclusion resulted in a 77% increase in algal biomass, mainly attributable to a >1000% increase in corticated forms. These results are in accordance with similar studies in other regions, but are unique in that they indicate that, even when prevailing nutrient levels are relatively high and herbivore pressure is relatively low, continued anthropogenic disturbance results in further ecological responses and increased reef degradation

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in Dubai, United Arab Emirates?

Author(s) :Burt, J.; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P.; Bauman, A.; Sale, P.F.

Source :Coral Reefs: 28(3); 2009; 663-675.

Abstract :Artificial reefs are often promoted as mitigating human impacts in coastal ecosystems and enhancing fisheries; however, evidence supporting their benefits is equivocal. Such structures must be compared with natural reefs in order to assess their performance, but past comparisons typically examined artificial structures that were too small, or were immature, relative to the natural reefs. Coral and fish communities on two large (>400,000 m sup(3)) and mature (>25 year) artificial reefs are compared with six natural coral patches. Coral cover was higher on artificial reefs (50%) than in natural habitats (31%), but natural coral patches contained higher species richness (29 vs. 20) and coral diversity. Multivariate analyses indicated strong differences between coral communities in natural and artificial habitats. Fish communities were sampled seasonally for 1 year. Multivariate fish communities differed significantly among habitat types in the summer and fall, but converged in the winter and spring. Univariate analysis indicated that species richness and abundance were stable throughout the year on natural coral patches but increased significantly in the summer on artificial reefs compared with the winter and spring, explaining the multivariate changes in community structure. The increased summer abundance on artificial reefs was mainly due to adult immigration. Piscivores were much more abundant in the fall than in the winter or spring on artificial reefs, but had low and stable abundance throughout the year in natural habitats. It is likely that the decreased winter and spring abundance of fish on the artificial reefs resulted from both predation and emigration. These results indicate that large artificial reefs can support diverse and abundant coral and fish communities. However, these communities differ structurally and functionally from those in natural habitats, and they should not be considered as replacements for natural coral and fish communities

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Fine-scale analysis of genetic structure in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix from the Red Sea

Author(s) :Maier, E.; Tollrian, R.; Nurnberger, B.

Source :Coral Reefs: 28(3); 2009; 751-756.

Abstract :The dispersal of gametes and larvae plays a key role in the population dynamics of sessile marine invertebrates. Species with internal fertilisation are often associated with very localised larval dispersal, which may cause small-scale patterns of neutral genetic variation. This study on the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix from the Red Sea focused on the smallest possible scale: Two S. hystrix stands (approx. 100 colonies each) near Dahab were completely sampled, mapped and analysed at five microsatellite markers. The sexual mode of reproduction, the likely occurrence of selfing and the level of immigration were in agreement with previous studies on this species. Contrary to previous findings, both stands were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Also, no evidence for spatially restricted larval dispersal within the sampled areas was found. Differences between this and previous studies on S. hystrix could reflect variation in life history or varying environmental conditions, which opens intriguing questions for future research

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine metabolites: The sterols of soft coral

Author(s) :Sarma, N.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Pasha, Sk.G.; Rao, T.S.P.; Venkateswarlu, Y.; Parameswaran, P.S.

Source :Chem. Rev.: 109(6); 2009; 2803-2828.

Abstract :Sterols constitute a major group of secondary metabolites of soft corals. Several of these compounds have the 'usual' 3 beta-hydroxy, delta sup(5) (or delta sup(0)) cholestane skeleton, a large number of these metabolites are polar sterols with multiple oxygenations in rings as well as side chains. The latter compounds are structurally similar to some of the steroidal hormones, bile acids, signaling agents, etc., with potential therapeutic applications in the fields of cancer, atherosclerosis, and other diseases. The present review lists 561 structurally diverse sterols of marine soft coral origin and attempts to codify their structural types. This will help in chemotaxonomic investigations of these organisms and stimulate biochemists to look for useful enzymes for conversion of normal sterols into biologically useful derivatives.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Decline in skeletal growth of the coral Porites lutea from the Andaman Sea, South Thailand between 1984 and 2005

Author(s) :Tanzil, J.T.I.; Brown, B.E.; Tudhope, A.W.; Dunne, R.P.

Source :Coral Reefs: 28(2); 2009; 519-528.

Abstract :Of the few studies that have examined in situ coral growth responses to recent climate change, none have done so in equatorial waters subject to relatively high sea temperatures (annual mean > 27 degrees C). This study compared the growth rate of Porites lutea from eight sites at Phuket, South Thailand between two time periods (December 1984-November 1986 and December 2003-November 2005). There was a significant decrease in coral calcification (23.5%) and linear extension rates (19.4-23.4%) between the two sampling periods at a number of sites, while skeletal bulk density remained unchanged. Over the last 46 years, sea temperatures (SST) in the area have risen at a rate of 0.161 degrees C per decade (current seasonal temperature range 28-30 degrees C) and regression analysis of coral growth data is consistent with a link between rising temperature and reduced linear extension in the order of 46-56% for every 1 degrees C rise in SST. The apparent sensitivity of linear extension in P. lutea to increased SST suggests that corals in this part of the Andaman Sea may already be subjected to temperatures beyond their thermal optimum for skeletal growth

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Large temperature plunges recorded by data loggers at different depths on an Indian Ocean atoll: Comparison with satellite data and relevance to coral refuges

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.

Source :Coral Reefs: 28(2); 2009; 399-403.

Abstract :Seawater temperature was recorded at two-hourly intervals for two years (March 2006-March 2008) by six data loggers in Diego Garcia atoll, central Indian Ocean. Loggers were substrate mounted, in two transects of 5, 15 and 25 m depth on a seaward reef and in a lagoonal pass. During the season of mixed but predominantly northwest winds, regular plunges of temperature of 5-7 degrees C occurred with a periodicity of 1-4 days. This partly coincided with the period of greatest annual warming. Temperature fluctuations increased with increasing depth. Temperature traces are compared with HadISST1 and AVHRR satellite-derived temperature data which do not capture the deeper water temperature plunges. Reasons for the regular temperature plunges appear to include both tidal cycles and unidentified, internal waves. This is important for issues of coral refuges, complicating use of satellite-derived temperature data for planning optimal coral reef conservation areas

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Holocene reef growth in the Maldives: Evidence of a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand in the central Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Kench, P.S.; Smithers, S.G.; McLean, R.F.; Nichol, S.L.

Source :Geology: 37(5); 2009; 455-458.

Abstract :Radiometrically calibrated ages from three reef cores are used to develop a Holocene reef growth chronostratigraphy and sea-level history in the Maldives, central Indian Ocean. Last interglacial reef (U-series age 122 plus or minus 7 ka) was encountered at 14.1 m below mean sea level. An age of ca. 8100 calibrated (cal) yr B.P. immediately overlying this Pleistocene surface records the initiation of Holocene reef growth. Massive in situ corals occur throughout the cores and the consistency of the three age-depth plots indicate that the reef grew steadily between 8100 and 6500 cal yr B.P., and at a decreasing rate for the next 2 k.y. The position of modern sea level was first achieved ca. 4500 cal yr B.P. and sea level reached at least 0.50 plus or minus 1 m higher from 4000 to 2100 cal yr B.P. before falling to present level. Emergent fossil microatolls provide evidence of this higher sea level. Results are significant to two long-standing issues relating to Maldivian sealevel history. First, the ambiguity of a late Holocene highstand has been resolved with clear evidence of its existence reported here. Second, the uncertainty of the regional pattern of sea-level change in the central Indian Ocean has been clarified, the Maldivian results broadly agreeing with island records in the eastern, rather than western Indian Ocean. The results provide the first field evidence confirming geophysical model projections of a highstand 4-2 k.y. ago in the central Indian Ocean, though the observed level (+0.50 plus or minus 0.1 m) is lower than that projected

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Mitochondrial control region sequence analyses indicate dispersal from the US East Coast as the source of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans in the Bahamas

Author(s) :Freshwater, D.W.; Hines, A.; Parham, S.; Wilbur, A.; Sabaoun, M.; Woodhead, J.; Akins, L.; Purdy, B.; Whitfield, P.E.; Paris, C.B.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 156(6); 2009; 1213-1221.

Abstract :Lionfish are popular aquarium fish from the Indo-Pacific that have invaded the western Atlantic. Two species, Pterois volitans and P. miles, were well established along the United States east coast before the first lionfish were reported from the Bahamas in 2004, where they quickly dispersed throughout the archipelago by 2007. The source of the Bahamian lionfish invasion has been in question because of the hypothesized low connectivity between Florida and Bahamas reef species as well as the temporal lag in their arrival in the Bahamas. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes (680 bp) were determined and analyzed for lionfish specimens from the Bahamas, North Carolina, and two sites within their native range (Indonesia and the Philippines). Exact tests, pairwise F sub(st) and AMOVA analyses all showed no significant differentiation between the Bahamas and North Carolina specimens. The similarity between the Bahamas and North Carolina lionfish was also reflected in a minimum spanning network and neighbor joining distance tree generated from the data. Sequence analyses also revealed the presence of only Pterois volitans, as no P. miles were detected in the Bahamian sample. These results indicate that the source of the Bahamian lionfish is egg and larval dispersal from the United States east coast population, and support previous models of reef fish dispersal that suggest a low level of connectivity between the Bahamas and east coast of Florida

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Phylogenetic relationships of coral-associated gobies (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the Red Sea based on mitochondrial DNA data

Author(s) :Herler, J.; Koblmuller, S.; Sturmbauer, C.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 156(4); 2009; 725-739.

Abstract :Bryaninops, Gobiodon, Paragobiodon and Pleurosicya are the most abundant genera of coral-associated gobies. These genera are adapted to live among coral, while other small reef gobies (e.g., the genus Eviota) show no obligate association with this living substrate. Thirteen coral-associated species and two Eviota species were sampled from different regions of the Red Sea, along with four populations/species of Gobiodon from the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed using partial sequences of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes, 1,199 base pairs in total. Several clades were consistently resolved in neighbor joining-, maximum parsimony-, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. While each of the four genera Gobiodon, Paragobiodon, Bryaninops and Pleurosicya proved to be monophyletic, their relative position in the phylogeny did not support an emergence of coral-associated gobiids as a monophyletic assemblage. Instead, two separate monophyletic sub-groups were discovered, the first comprising Gobiodon and Paragobiodon, and the second Bryaninops and Pleurosicya. Our molecular phylogenetic examinations also revealed one unassigned species of Gobiodon from the Maldives as a distinct species and confirmed three putative and yet unassigned species from the Red Sea. Moreover, the uniformly black colored species of Gobiodon are not monophyletic but have evolved independently within two distinct species groups. Genetic distances were large in particular within Pleurosicya and Eviota. Estimated divergence times suggest that coral-associated gobies have diversified in parallel to their preferred host corals. In particular, divergence times of Gobiodon species closely match those estimated for their typical host coral genus Acropora

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Late Quaternary seismic sequence stratigraphy of the Gulf of Kachchh, northwest of India

Author(s) :Michael, L.; Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.; Vora, K.H.

Source :J. Coast. Res.: 25(2); 2009; 459-468.

Abstract :High-resolution seismic reflection and bathymetric data in 10 to 50 m water depth in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwest of India, have been analysed together with earlier results from the area. They have revealed geomorphic features and Late Quaternary seismic sequence stratigraphy of 25-m-thick sediments. Seabed topography is uneven except in the east, carpeted by thick acoustically transparent to semitransparent sediment clays and stratified limestone beds. The sediments consist of (1) the transparent unit `A` up to 12 m thick, (2) thick 8 to 10 m diffuse seismic reflection free unit `D,` and (3) 4 to 5 m thick hummocky reflections unit `K`. The geomorphic/subsurface features are pinnacles (1 to 2 m high) and mounds (4 to 5 m high) on the seafloor and subsurface in the south and west, valleys (1 to 3 m) on the seafloor in the south and subsurface in the north and onlap of reflectors in the north. They mark corals, seafloor incisions, and sediment influx. Spatial shifts of valleys that mark a high energy tidal regime incising the seafloor in paleo and present times appear to be due to neotectonics: subsidence and uplift. Based on the seismic images and on correlation with the sea level curve published by other authors, the pinnacles, mounds, and the hummocky reflectors are interpreted as corals (live and relict) formed in subaqueous conditions. The reflection-free sediments are coral debris, sands mostly derived during the interglacial period of late Pleistocene and Holocene when the gulf was exposed to arid climates during lowered sea levels, around Last Glacial Maximum (centered approx. 18 ka). Access to unique sedimentary records of the Late Quaternary climates/sea level changes even of decadal scale can be retrieved by collecting sediments/corals from shallow drill wells in the gulf.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Aspernolides A and B, butenolides from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus

Author(s) :Parvatkar, R.R.; DeSouza, C.; Tripathi, A.; Naik, C.G.

Source :Phytochemistry: 70(1); 2009; 128-132.

Abstract :Two aromatic butenolides, aspernolides A and B along with the known metabolites, butyrolactone I, terrein and physcion were isolated from the fermentation broth of a soft coral derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute stereochemistry of aspernolides A (1) and B (2) was established by their preparation from the known butyrolactone I. Biogenetically aspernolides A and B must be derived from butyrolactone I, a well known specific inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) from A. terreus. When tested, aspernolide A exhibited mild cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diversity of coral reef fishes in Cuddalore waters, south-east coast of India

Author(s) :Khan, S.A.; Ramesh, S.; Lyla, P.S.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 55(3); 2008; 221-226.

Abstract :The present study was undcrtaken to obtain basic information on the diversity and species richness of coral reef fishes in Cuddalore waters, Tamil nadu, India. Based on collections made for a period of one year, thc study has brought to light the occurrence of 25 species of colourful fishes belonging to 16 families. Among the 25 species - Upeneus vittatus was found to be the most dominant species (27.5%). The values of Shannon diversity log index, Margalef richness. Simpson richness and Pielou`s evenness during the four seasons covered varied from 3.3 to 3.9: 2.2 to 3.0: 0.8 to 0.9 and 0.8 to 0.84 respectively. The maximum diversity and richness were recorded during the preùmonsoon season and the lowest during the monsoon season. However these conventional indices could not effectively bring out the differences in diversity between the seasons as the values ranged narrowly. The recently introduced taxonomic diversity index which ranged from 83.7 to 76.0 was found to be effective. But the difference between summer (76.8) arid monsoon (76.0) seasons with 19 and 15 species respectively was not distinct. The variation in taxonomic distinctness index (range: 298.9ù131.6) and total phylogenetic diversity index (range: 2033.3-1166.7) effectively brought out the differences between the seasons underscoring the advantage of using these diversity indices for biodiversity assessment. Further, the present study underlines the need for making a detailed investigation on the biodiversity of fishes occuring in the reef patches reported off Cuddalore. Parangipettai and Pondicherry making use of visual census method.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Species assemblage in the coral reef ecosystem of Netrani Island off Karnataka along the southwest coast of India

Author(s) :Zacharia, P.U.; Krishnakumar, P.K.; Dineshbabu, P.; Vijayakumaran, K.; Rohit, P.; Thomas, S.; Sasikumar, G.; Kaladharan, P.; Durgekar, R.N.; Mohamed, K.S.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 50(1); 2008; 87-97.

Abstract :Netrani is an uninhabited island located nearly 18 km off Murdeshwar (Karnataka State) in the southwest coast of India (14 degrees 02 minutes N lat; 74 degrees 33 minutes E long.). So far the coral reef ecosystem around this island has not been reported in scientific literature. Therefore, an underwater visual census of the coral reef was undertaken in May 2006 by SCUBA diving. The survey has revealed the existence of a patchy reef surrounding this island consisting of 14 coral species belonging to 11 genera. Other flora and fauna comprised of fishes (92), seaweeds (7), sponges (6), jellyfish (2), holothuria (1), nudibranchs (7), zooplankton (25), bivalves (15), phytoplankton (16), gastropods (48), cephalopods (3), crabs (17), shrimps (2), lobsters (4), etc. Twenty-six species of fishes recorded from this island reef area were found to be new records from the Indian coast. Two IUCN Red Listed fish species, the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) and the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) were recorded from the island area. Another IUCN red listed mollusc, the giant clam (Tridacna maxima) was found inhabiting this reef and this is a first report on the occurrence of this species from the mainland Indian waters. The Indian Navy based at Karwar uses the Netrani Island as target for shooting/shelling practice and evidence of the same was observed during the survey. The wealth of biodiversity around this reef emphasizes the need to conserve and preserve it.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Community structure and spatial patterns of hard coral biodiversity in Kilakarai group of islands in Gulf of Mannar, India

Author(s) :Sukumaran, S.; George, R.M.; Kasinathan, C.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 50(1); 2008; 79-86.

Abstract :The major reefs of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, India extends from Tuticorin group of islands (08 degrees 48 minutes N lat. 78 degrees 9 degrees E long.) to Shingle island (09 degrees 14 minutes N lat., 79 degrees 14 minutes E long.) in Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, India. A comparative study was conducted on Kilakarai group of islands of this reef to deduce the spatial patterns in hard coral biodiversity and community structure. The field work was carried out during September 2004-June 2005. The islands studied were Valai, Mulli, Appa, Valimunai and Anaipar. The highest and the lowest percentage of live coral cover was recorded by the reefs of the Mulli (40.1%) and Anaipar islands (25.0%) respectively. Shannon index of diversity recorded the maximum value in the reefs of Mulli island (2.53) and the minimum in Anaipar island (1.72). Conservation classes (CC's) of 1,2,3 or 4 were assigned to reef sites dominated by massive and massive corals (CCI), foliose or branching non Acropora corals (CC2), Acropora corals (CC3) or approximately equal mixes of these three members (CC4). In the present study the reefs around Valai, Mulli, Appa and Valimunai islands were classified as CC2 and reef around Anaipar island was classified as CC4. Maximum similarity in species composition was found between Valai and Valimunai island reefs (58.1%). Mortality indices of all reefs classified them into the category 'sick' and so further efforts should be focused on implementation of conservation strategies.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of climate change on marine and estuarine ecosystems with special reference to Gangetic delta

Author(s) :Mitra, A.; Zaman, S.; Banerjee, K.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 16(3); 2008; 194-201.

Abstract :The climate of the planet earth is changing fast due to rapid industrialization, urbanization and unplanned human activities. Over a period of sixty years 30% increase in carbon dioxide has taken place. The increase of carbondioxide level in the atmosphere has posed several impacts on the marine and estuarine ecosystems. Scientists believe that expansion of ocean water, temperature rise, alteration of pH and salinity in the ocean and estuarine mouth are all associated with the phenomenon of climate change. In near future such climate change related alteration and modification in the marine and estuarine systems may lead to a change in the biotic community particularly in the sector of molluscan and coral reef community.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Occurrence of cyanobacterial infection (black band disease) in Mandapam group of islands (Gulf of Mannar) southeast Tamilnadu

Author(s) :Thinesh, T.; Mathews, G.; Edward, J.K.P.

Source :Seaweed Res. Util.: 30; 2008; 67-75.

Abstract :The black-band disease in corals is caused due to a consortium of microorganisms dominated by Cyanobacteria (blue green algae). Assessment of black band disease in corals was carried out in six islands of Mandapam group in the Gulf of Mannar during February 2007. Three reef sites were selected in each island and four transects were laid in each reef site. The overall average percentage of black band disease observed was 10.46 plus or minus 2.76. Shingle Island was most affected with 2.74 plus or minus 0.43% followed by Manoli Island with 2.41 plus or minus 1.12% and the least affected island was Pullivasal with 1.05 plus or minus 0.24%. The most affected corals were Montipora spp followed by Pocillopora spp and Acropora spp.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reefs - NIO's repopulating experiments

Author(s) :Gad, S.D.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 95(2); 2008; 169-170.

Abstract :The current initiative is transplantation of corals to repopulate damaged coral reef areas. The advantage of transplantation is that there is control over the choice of species and the technique is costeffective, with no skilled labour required. Some of the coral species transplanted in Kavaratti Lagoon include Acropora formosa, Acropora sp. 1. Acropora sp. 2 and Pocillopora damicornis. During the last two years the technique has been tested and found suitable. This process is now being transferred to a communitybased exercise in all islands, so that reef restoration is enhanced and additional income generated for the local population by way of fish catch from near the transplantation site. The project that began in 2000, has made a noticeable impact on the local population of Lakshadweep and the coral reefs. Till date, around 30-40 locals from Kavaratti and Agatti have been trained in coral reef monitoring and 12 locals in coral identification. The project team has recorded more than 100 species belonging to 41 genera from Kavaratti and Agatti reefs of Lakshadweep.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Body scars and dorsal fin disfigurements as indicators of interaction between small cetaceans and fisheries around the Mozambique Channel Island of Mayotte

Author(s) :Kiszka, J.; Pelourdeau, D.; Ridoux, V.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 7(2); 2008; 185-193.

Abstract :Cetacean bycatch in fisheries occur in all oceans of the world and may have both lethal and non-lethal consequences (body injuries). In the lagoon of Mayotte (12 degrees 50 minutes S, 45 degrees 10 minutes E), in the northern Mozambique Channel, two main types of fisheries occur: handlining (inside the lagoon) and longlining (outside the barrier reef, over the 'continental' slope). The level of interactions between small cetaceans and fisheries in this area were characterised using identification photographs taken from July 2004 to April 2008 during dedicated cetacean surveys. Photographs were taken of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) and short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus). Injuries on the dorsal region (especially the dorsal fin) were characterised and related to fisheries or intra-/ inter-specific interactions (with sharks and other cetacean species). The results suggest interactions with fisheries involving the three species around Mayotte. The occurrence of interactions was the highest in the most coastal species, i.e. T. aduncus. This study shows that interactions between fisheries and small cetaceans occur at varying levels around Mayotte. It also confirms the utility of scars as indicators of fishery exposure to cetaceans

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the coral reef environment of the Gulf of Mannar marine biosphere reserve, India

Author(s) :Kannapiran, E.; Kannan, L.; Purushothaman, A.; Thangarajdou, T.

Source :J. Environ. Biol.: 29(2); 2008; 215-222.

Abstract :Investigation on physico-chemcal parameters of the coral reef environs of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve was studied. The study found the influence of different physico-chemical parameters on one another and also on the distribution of the total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in the coral reel areas. Nutrients exhibited considerable seasonal and spatial variations with influence on the bacteria! population. Ceral reef areas recorded higher bacterial population density both in water (3.5 to 18 x 10 sup(5) CFU ml sup (-1)) and sediment (1 to 14 x 10 sup(7) CFU g sup(-1)) samples than the non coral reef areas (3.4 to 10.5 x 10 sup(4) CFU ml sup(-1) in water and 0.9 to 7 x 10 sup(6) CPU g sup(-1)). The study also found the dominance of gram negative groups at all the stations (64.73, 63.5 and 72.59%) with Pseudomonas contributing maximum number of strains in all the samples. In addition Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Cytophaga, Enterobacter and Alcaligenes were also recorded. The gram positive group was represented by Bacillus, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter and Corynebacterium. The generic composition of THB isolated from the coral mucus revealed the presence of Vibrio and Micrococcus in all the coral mucus

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Impact of intensive collection of reef fishes for aquarium trade on coral communities and reef fish assemblages in the Gulf of Suez

Author(s) :El-Ganainy, A.A.; Edied, M.L.; Ali, A.-H.A.M.; Yessien, M.H.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(2); 2008; 356-371.

Abstract :Approximately 67 species of coral reef fishes of the Egyptian Red Sea have been intensively collected for aquarium trade since 1985. This study examines the effects of ornamental fish collecting from the shallow reefs of the southern Gulf of Suez on fish assemblages and coral community structure. Forty species of the most frequently collected coral reef fishes belonging to ten families were visually censused along the reef edge of three exploited and two protected or unexploited sites on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez. In a parallel study, the coral communities at the investigated sites were studied. The effects of fish collection, especially using destructive methods, on benthic invertebrate communities were assessed. Thirty hard coral species and six soft coral genera were encountered during the survey. The protected sites showed higher species diversity of corals (2.67) than heavily exploited sites (1.64). It is suggested that the higher hard coral cover (72.87%) reported at exploited sites may be related to the dominance of few species of acroporid corals, particularly Acropora hyacinthus, A. hemptichi and A. pharaonsis. Branched, tabulated and massive coral colonies were the most dominant coral growth forms in the area of study. The study revealed a significant reduction in the total abundance of investigated fish species from 2699.4 fish per 1000 m sup(2) at preserved sites to 426.4 fish per 1000 m sup(2) at exploited sites. Species diversity also declined from 50 species per 1000m sup(2) at protected sites to 23.6 species at exploited sites. The abundances of 37.5% of the studied species were significantly lower at exploited sites. Also, the two valuable species of the family Pomacanthidae; Pomacantlus imperator and P. asfur disappeared completely from exploited sites. The recovery of depleted fish populations and the possible integrated management plan for the incoming activities is then discussed

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Environmental Management System (EMS) for the green landscaping of tourist resorts in the multi-use areas of Wadi El-Gemal and Hamata protectorates - The Egyptian Red Sea coast

Author(s) :Misk, A.; Mehani, H.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(2); 2008; 38-44.

Abstract :In 2004, Hazem & Associates (HA) were commissioned to carry out Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for Shams Alam Beach Resort and Ramses Tourisitic Village in the multi-use areas of Wadi El-Gemal and Hamata Protectorates, respectively. Tourism Development Authority (TDA) allows construction to less than 20% of the total area of all development projects and the rest is landscaping mainly greenery. Cultivating ornamental plants, grasses and sometimes designing Golf courses are needed for the resorts which require careful Environmental Management System (EMS) for such environmentally sensitive areas where coral reef and mangrove ecosystems exist on site and nearby. Using chemical fertilizers and pesticides will cause a serious damage to this delicate ecosystem. This leads to strong interest in alternative strategies often refereed to be as an environmentally sustainable agriculture (ESA). It was proposed and recommended that the use of biofertilizers as Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) - locally isolated from the mangrove stand nearby the two resorts within the protectorates along with treated waste water for irrigation will minimize the need of mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides as well as provide cheaper and better results

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Assessment of present status and future needs of four coral reef sites along the Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt

Author(s) :Ammar, M.S.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(4); 2008

Abstract :The present status and future needs of four coral reef sites (Taba, Nuweiba, Dahab and Sharm El-Sheikh) along the Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt were evaluated. A total of 60 quadrats, distributed at different depths or different patches were surveyed at each site during the year 2007. Three mooring buoys were reported only in Ras Umm Seid but nothing was found in other sites, however excessive boating and diving pressure were recorded only in Ras Umm Seid. Highest amount of garbage was recorded in Nuweiba, patrolling efficiency was best in Taba but no patrolling activities were recorded in other sites. Ras Umm Seid (Sharm El-Sheikh) had the highest amount of dead corals (13%) due to increased boating and diving pressure compared to other sites, however Dahab had the lowest amount of dead corals (4%) due to the rough conditions (strong wind and waves) causing difficulties in accessing that site. Nuweiba and Taba had highest percentage cover of sands (10% and 11%, respectively) playing a key role in the considerable amount of dead corals in both sites. Lowest percentage of new coral recruits in Taba (0.5%) was associated with the soft sandy bottom: the opposite was true in Sharm El Sheikh being due to the rocky bottom. Future needs of the studied sites include decreasing the number of divers to the diver carrying capacity (DCC), repair of existing buoys and incorporation of five more buoys in Ras Umm Seid. Other sites have no future needs in these regards as they are far beyond the DCC. Nuweiba needs first of all to be cleaned, then being protected for giving the chance of recovery. Except for Taba which has efficient patrolling, the other 3 sites need efficient terrestrial and marine patrolling as well as enforcement of EFAA regulations. However reef access points which were absent in all sites need to be established to minimize reef damage on accessing deeper water. Also, the environmental awareness field signs which were absent in all sites need to be established and managed. Taba is recommended as a protected area as it has the food for threatened species beside being useful as a nesting site. Ras Umm Seid is recommended to have established artificial reef to draw the attention of divers and snorklers from the natural reefs and prepare artificial shelters for fishes thus promoting the fish resources

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Response of scleractinian corals to the natural and anthropogenic heavy metal stresses in the northern Red Sea and Gulfs of Suez and Aquaba

Author(s) :Dar, M.A.; Ali, A.E.-H.A.; Murad, F.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(4); 2008; 126-142.

Abstract :The heavy metal contents were studied in the bleached and non-bleached specimens of six species of branching, encrusting and massive corals collected from the northern Red Sea (Hurghada); Suez Gulf (Zafrana and Ain Sokhna)and along the western side of AqabaGulf (Sharm El-Sheikh, Dahab and Taba). The areas of investigation arc highly subjected to the anthropogenic stresses. Zn, Fe, Pb and Co recorded significant average concentrations in the different specimens at the different localities while Cu was insignificant. Massive corals as Lopophyllia corymbosa, Porites lutea and Galaxia fasicularis showed significant high metal concentrations in the different localities followed by the encrusting and branching Echinopora gemmaceu. Northern Red Sea recorded the highest average Zn content (21.30 plus or minus 13.74 mu g/g) in the non-bleached corals and Pb (17.64 plus or minus 14.19 mu g/g) in the bleached corals that may attributed essentially to the tourist activities and the related industries as; coastal constructions, desalination plants, automotive boats and shipyards. Gulf of Suez recorded the highest averages of Fe in the non-bleached and bleached specimens (38.98 plus or minus 19.98 mu g/g; 41.46 plus or minus 25.53 mu g/g respectively) that may indicate that the terrestrial infilling from flash floods, dusty winds and/or coastal enhancements are the main sources of heavy metals in the gulf. The high Pb in the non-bleached corals (16.67 plus or minus 6.40 mu g/g) of Suez Gulf is due to oil terminals, industrial wastes, fishing and maritime activities. Aqaba Gulf recorded the highest average of Co in the non-bleached and bleached specimens (5.29 plus or minus 2.02 and 6.46 plus or minus 1.74 mu g/g, respectively) and Zn in the bleached specimens as well as relatively high concentration for the other metals that may be due to industrial activities, sewage spills and military activities at the northern tip of the gulf

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Plutonium concentrations in the shallow water sediments between Hurghada and Safaga, Red Sea

Author(s) :Dar, M.A.; El-Saharty, A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(4); 2008; 115-125.

Abstract :The artificial radionuclides of sup(238) Pu and sup(239+240) Pu were measured in the shallow water sediments along the Red Sea coast at 9 stations between Hurghada and Safaga using the alpha-analyst spectrometer. 4 stations recorded high sup(238)Pu and sup(239+240) Pu; NIOF (0.053Bq/Kg dw, 0.041 Bo/Kg dw), Magawesh (0.10Bq/Kg dw, 0.065 Bq/Kg dw), Coral Beach (0.060 Bq/Kg dw, 0.098 Bq/Kg dw), Dishet-Edaba (0.052 Bq/Kg dw, 0.083 Bq/Kg dw) respectively. Two stations recorded high sup(239+240) Pu only; Abu Minqar (0.15 plus or minus 0.03Bq/Kg dw) and Safaga Bay (0.l65 plus or minus 0.03Bq/Kg dw), while the other stations recorded low measurement of these artificial radioelements. The recorded radionuclide concentrations at the different stations indicated that these artificial radioelements come from the sea mainly from NE direction belonging to the general wind trend in the locality (NE-SW). The estimated measurements were lower than the recorded averages in many localities around the world which means that the average concentrations of the man-made radionuclides along the Egyptian Red Sea coasts are still in the safe limits. No significant source can be impeached as the main source of the artificial radionuclides in the shallow water areas of the Red Sea but they might be accumulated from many sources; atmospheric testing of the nuclear weapons, atmospheric fallout and nuclear wastes discharges in the deep waters of the Red Sea are not away from the arraigning

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Detection of bottom facies using applied acoustic geophysical tools at El Zeit Bay, Red Sea-Egypt

Author(s) :Hamouda, A.; El-Wahhab, M.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(4); 2008; 89-101.

Abstract :The bottom facieses of marine area at El Zeit Bay along the northern Red Sea coast of Egypt were studied during March 2007. This bay is semi-closed with rectangular shape opened with the sea from its eastern south ward. The bay is located at latitude 27 degrees 45.82 minutes ΓÇô 27 degrees 49.61 minutes N and longitude 33 degrees 28.9 minutes ΓÇô 33 degrees 33.81 minutes E. The present study aims to detect and describe the characteristics of biodiversity distribution at El Zeit Bay. The sea bed classifications have been undertaken from the analyses of echo sounder geophysical coastal processes, and biodiversity of bottom facies field survey. Moreover, facies recognition emerges from two independent lines of evidence, sediments analyses and geophysical processes. The sediment typifies three physiographical distinct bottom facies across El Zeit bay: sand facies, floral facies and coral patch facies. As El Zeit bay is controlled by many practically significant physical processes, bottom fades is well differentiated for biota in contrast with sediment type. The sand facies exhibits one dimensional zone (sands). On the other hand, the floral facies has bi-dimensional zones (algae and seagrass) as well as, the coral patch facies (coral patches and other organisms)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Hard and soft coral abilities to accumulate some heavy metals in the northern Red Sea, Egypt

Author(s) :Mohammed, T.A.; Dar, M.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(4); 2008; 74-88.

Abstract :The concentration levels of six heavy metals; Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn were studied in eleven hard and four soft common coral species collected from Hurghada, Wadi Al-Gemal and GolaΓÇÖan mangrove along the Red Sea coast to assess the differential abilities of these corals to concentrate and assimilate the heavy metals inside the soft coral tissues and hard coral skeletons. These results reveal the order of Fc > Zn > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cu. Fe recorded significant high concentrations in the mushroom (funnel) forms of the soft coral species at the different sites; 125.19,101.71 and 90.44 ppm at Gola'an, Hurghada and Wadi Al-Gemal respectively. The soft coral species recorded the highest average concentration of; Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn than the hard corals, which were 13.22, 16.05, 13.08 and 148.17 ppm respectively. Generally, the soft coral forms show higher heavy metal concentrations than the hard coral forms; moreover, Hurghada recorded high general trend of metal concentrations of both soft and hard corals than the other sites. The study concluded that many biological and local environmental factors influenced the heavy metal occurrences and uptakes in the hard and soft corals as; the exposed surface area to the metal uptake, turbidity rates, the overlying mucus thickness that can trap the particulate metals forms and the ability of metals to substitute inside the crystal lattice of hard corals

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Population dynamics, reproduction and growth of the Indo-Pacific horned sea star, Protoreaster nodosus (Echinodermata; Asteroidea)

Author(s) :Bos, A.R.; Gumanao, G.S.; Alipoyo, J.C.E.; Cardona, L.T.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 156(1); 2008; 55-63.

Abstract :The horned sea star (Protoreaster nodosus) is relatively common in the Indo-Pacific region, but there is little information about its biology. This study of the population biology of P. nodosus was carried out in Davao Gulf, The Philippines (7 degrees 5 minutes N, 125 degrees 45 minutes E) between September 2006 and May 2008. P. nodosus was found in sand and seagrass dominated habitats at a mean density of 29 specimens per 100 m sub(2) and a mean biomass of 7.4 kg per 100 m sub(2), whereas a significantly lower density and biomass was found in coral and rock dominated habitats. Adult specimens (mean radius R = 10.0 cm) were found at depths of 0-37 m, whereas juveniles (R < 8 cm) were only found in shallow sandy habitats with abundant seagrass (water depth is less than or equal to 2 m). Increased gonad weights were found from March to May (spawning period), which coincided with an increasing water temperature and a decreasing salinity. Density and biomass did not change significantly during reproduction, but sea stars avoided intertidal habitats. All specimens with R > 8 cm had well developed gonads and their sex ratio was 1:1. P. nodosus grew relatively slowly in an enclosure as described by the exponential function. Maturing specimens (R= 6û8 cm) were estimated to have an age of 2-3 years. Specimens with a radius of 10 cm (population mean) were calculated to have an age of 5-6 years, while the maximum age (R = 14 cm) was estimated as 17 years. Potential effects of ornamental collection on the sea star populations are discussed

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Recent intensification of tropical climate variability in the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Abram, N.J.; Gagan, M.K.; Cole, J.E.; Hantoro, W.S.; Mudelsee, M.

Source :Nat. Geosci.: 1(12); 2008; 849-853.

Abstract :The interplay of the El Nino Southern Oscillation, Asian monsoon and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) drives climatic extremes in and around the Indian Ocean. Historical and proxy records reveal changes in the behaviour of the El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Asian monsoon over recent decades. However, reliable instrumental records of the IOD cover only the past 50 years, and there is no consensus on long-term variability of the IOD or its possible response to greenhouse gas forcing. A suite of coral oxygen-isotope records is used to reconstruct a basin-wide index of IOD behaviour since AD 1846. The record reveals an increase in the frequency and strength of IOD events during the twentieth century, which is associated with enhanced seasonal upwelling in the eastern Indian Ocean. Although the El Nino Southern Oscillation has historically influenced the variability of both the IOD and the Asian monsoon, it is found that the recent intensification of the IOD coincides with the development of direct, positive IODûmonsoon feedbacks. It is suggested that projected greenhouse warming may lead to a redistribution of rainfall across the Indian Ocean and a growing interdependence between the IOD and Asian monsoon precipitation variability

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine-derived fungi as a source of proteases

Author(s) :Kamat, T.; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 37(3); 2008; 326-328.

Abstract :Microbial enzymes have continued to assist diverse reactions as biocatalysts. Marine derived microbes offer a prospective resource for such enzymes. In this study thirteen fungi were isolated from marine organisms (soft coral and sponge) collected from Mandapam (Tamil Nadu) coast. The fungal isolates were screened for the protease activity. Fungi Beauveria brongniartii and Acremonium fusidioides showed remarkable protease activity. Isolation, purification and characterisation of proteases from these fungi may reveal special, significant properties.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Morphometry of coral reefs in Shingle Islands, Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park

Author(s) :Raghuram, K.P.; Venkataraman, K.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 449-456.

Abstract :Shingle Island is the northern most island of the Gulf of Mannar. Land area covers 12.69 ha with a circumference of 1736 m. The island is covered with shrubs. Fringing reefs are distributed along the south and northeast of the island. Large amount of coral rubble is seen on the northeastern and southeastern parts of the shore. Montipora digitata forms a large part of the rubble. Species such as Porites spp., Montipora digitata, M. aequituberculata, Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora spp. are found on the island. Patchy distribution of boulder (massive) corals is observed on the northern side. Diversity of live coral is maximum at the northeastern corner. Parrotfish are commonly found along the southeastern and northeastern parts of the island. The fishing boat channel is present near the northeastern reef, less than 80 m from the shore. There is no fishing activity observed on this island. Seaweeds such as Turbinaria spp., Hydroclathrus sp. and Sargasum spp. are found in north and south side of the island. Reef associated organisms such as Holothuria atra, seaurchin (Diademma spp.), sea anemone are commonly found in the northeastern reefs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diversity of coral associated brachyuran crabs during post monsoon period in Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve

Author(s) :Gokul, A.; Venkataraman, K.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 427-438.

Abstract :Gulf of Mannar is one of the important biosphere reserves of India. It includes 21 islands, which are classified into three groups, the Mandapam group, Keelakarai group and Tuticorin group. A detailed survey on the diversity of coral reef associated brachyuran crabs was done in all the islands during post monsoon (Jan-Apr), pre monsoon (May-Aug) and monsoon (Sep-Dec) seasons. The coral reefs were associated with the crustaceans in large numbers. Among these the brachyuran crabs plays a vital role in the reef areas as well as in the coral colonies. The selection of the habitat by the crabs depends solely on the basis of the requirements. Obligatory symbiotic crabs act as a bio indicator and generally indicate the health of the coral colonies and the reef status hence the crab diversity was estimated. The results of the diversity enumerated the status of the coral reef in that particular area.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Distribution of brachyuran crabs associated with Pocillopora corals from selected islands of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve

Author(s) :Gokul, A.; Venkataraman, K.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 378-392.

Abstract :Coral reefs are considered to be one of the significant resources for various environmental, ecological and socio-economic reasons. In India, Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gulf of Mannar and Gulf of Katchchh are the areas that are rich in coral diversity. The Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), consists of 21 uninhabited islands ranging from 0.25 to 130 ha in size and lying between 1 and 4 km offshore, surrounded by shallow waters. GoMMBR is considered to be one of the richest biodiversity regions in India. Morphometry analysis was carried out in all the 21 islands of GoMMBR to study the diversity of corals and the associated brachyuran crabs. The morphometry survey results with the wider distribution of Pocillopora corals with the associated crabs were found to be abundant in 12 islands of the biosphere reserve. Results also revealed that the cryptic crabs were associated more in the dead Pocillopora colonies covered with algae than the live ones. The island area dominates with coral diversity with the associated brachyuran crabs includes Shingle (east), Krusadai (north-east), Pullivasal (south), Poomarichan (east), Manauli Putti (west), Hare (west), Mulli (south-east), Vaalai & Thalayari (North), Appa (north-east), Anaipar (south-west), Nallathanni (north) and Upputhanni (north-west). The coral crabs were found abundant in these specific directions of the islands. Both obligatory and facultative crabs were associated with the dead colonies covered with algae. A total of 26 species of coral crabs were collected. Various natural and anthropogenic threats to the coral reefs have an impact on the coral colonies and the associated crabs. Basic education is needed to the coastal communities for the conservation and to improve the future corals with its associated faunal communities.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Faunal diversity of Sethusamudram ship channel and its adjoining region of Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Raghunathan, C.; Krishnan, S.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 353-377.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar is an arm of Indian Ocean lying between southern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka at a width of between 160 and 200km. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve is one of the world's richest marine biological resources covers an area of 10,500 km sup(2) and it has about 3600 species of fauna and flora making it India's biologically enriched marine ecosystem. Besides, the Gulf of Mannar is especially significant for the diversity of 123 species of corals belonging to 54 genera, 400 species of algae, 13 species of sea grasses under six genera and endangered species of dugong (Dugong dugon), dolphins and turtles. The Palk Bay is also considered as one of the five major reef formations in India and it also harbours 61 species of algae belonging to 37 genera. The Sethusamudram Ship Channel Project (SSCP) is a 167km long shipping channel envisaged creating a navigational channel across the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka and allowing ships to have a straight passage through Indian territorial waters instead of circumnavigating Sri Lanka. The present study describes the existing faunal assemblage with emphasis on their diversity and distribution along the adjoining area of the project site. Though voluminous literature is available on various components of this ecosystem, the studies pertaining to the diversity of faunal resources are scanty.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Public marine aquarium: A tool for marine biodiversity conservation and education

Author(s) :Raja, K.; Fernando, O.J.; Balasubramanian, T.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 339-350.

Abstract :The first aquariums appeared in the middle of 19th century. For around 100 years the main objective of aquariums was to exhibit animals to the public. The focus was on the animals themselves. Little importance was given to the environment they lived in or to education activities. The aquariums were first generated based on small volume aquariums showing mostly fish. In the 1960s and 70s, the second generation aquariums began to appear. Major advances were made in life support systems (water filtration and sterilization), salt production for synthetic seawater and diets. At the same time there was an increase in the knowledge of the life history and behavior of marine animals and their underwater habitats (water current, light spectrum etc.). At the present time aquariums are able to maintain a wide diversity of healthy animals for a long periods. Visitors to public aquariums could now see fishes living together with sensitive invertebrates like corals, anemones and even marine plants in an artificially reproduced but naturalistic setting. Most significantly, public aquariums have the potential and power to communicate the issues affecting the marine environment. With around 140 public aquariums currently in Europe (and more under development) reaching an audience in the region of 70,000,000 people a year, the EU Maritime Strategy should consider aquariums an integral part of the strategy and a powerful tool to achieve change. At the same time in India there are few aquariums particularly marine aquariums that are significant. The marine research and public aquarium in Annamalai University and the public aquarium in Zoological Survey of India are the two important marine aquariums in India as they help enhance the scientific knowledge to understand the marine biodiversity and its values to the public. The present study was designed to gather information on the impact of a large marine aquarium on its visitors.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Anthropogenic threats to marine biodiversity of India with special reference to marine turtles of gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

Author(s) :Venkataraman, K.; Milton, M.C.J.; Rita, J.J.A.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 324-338.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar is a marine National park on the south eastern tip of India which consists of 21 Islands some eight km off the coast of Tamil Nadu. Of the 21 islands, seven islands belong to Mandapam group, seven islands to Keelakarai group, three islands to Vembar group and four remaining islands to Tuticorin group. There are beaches, estuaries and tropical dry broadleaf forests in the park, and three distinct marine ecosystems such as sea grass, coral reefs and mangroves along with algal communities and salt marshes. Around 11 species of seagrass, totally recorded in India are found in the reserve. The Kurusadai Islands, off Mandapam Islands, off Mandapam boasts of a vast expanse of shallow waters. Marine National Park, one of the richest coastal regions in Asia, contains over 3,600 species of flora and fauna most of which are in their virgin form. Nearly 117 species of hard corals have been recorded in the Gulf of Mannar. The reef is home to sprats, herrings, barracuda, sea horses, dolphins, Balano-glossus, sea cucumbers, pearl oysters and turtles. The sandy shores of the islands provide a nesting habitat for about 5 species of marine turtles. Migratory birds also visit these islands. But due to destructive fishing and pollution, coral reefs, dolphins, Dugongs (Dugong dugon), whales and sea cucumbers are among the species, which figure, in the endangered list.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Impact of human activities detrimental to the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve and the needed remedial and preventive measures

Author(s) :Dhandapani, P.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 312-323.

Abstract :The detrimental effects of human activities like trawling for fish over Pearl bank and inside the core area of GoMBR; illegal harvesting of marine algae and sea grass from the wild; involvement in para-traditional fishing activity for sea-horses, pipe fish and sea-cucumbers; coral mining and dynamite fishing; and hunting for Dugongs were elaborated and discussed. Remedial and preventive measures like declaring the Pearl Oyster Paars as Marine Protected Areas; demarcation of Core and Buffer zone by the Management authorities and the need to involve Coast Guard to prevent trespassing; collaboration between scientific community and aqua farmers; ranching of commercially important marine products to re-vitalise the gene pool; stringent punishment for use of Dynamite and coral mining; declaring Dugong as the National Marine Mammal to prevent extirpation of the species; and involvement of Stake Holders as Community Authorised Managers of the GoMBR are suggested.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Conservation and management of sea cucumbers from Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

Author(s) :James, D.B.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 246-254.

Abstract :The processed product of sea cucumber is called as beche-de-mer, which is a delicacy for the Chinese, Japanese and Koreans. The sea cucumbers are consumed in the fresh, chilled, frozen and processed forms. A grade beche-de-merfrom Holothuria scabra commands a price at US $ 110 per kg in the International market. Isostichopus japonicus distributed in the temperate regions like China and Japan costs US $400 per kg. The Chinese visited all the reefs of the Indian and Pacific Oceans in search of sea cucumbers. They came to the Gulf of Mannar more than 1000 years ago in search of pearls and beche-de-mer. They took pearls and beche-de-mer'm exchange for silks and porasc skin. They taught the local persons the processing methods and personally supervised them. The Chinese were stayed in Ramanathapuram till early twentieth century.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Biodiversity in mangrove ecosystem of the Gulf of Mannar

Author(s) :Kathiresan, K.; Rajendran, N.; Govindan, T.; Ramanathan, T.; Sivakumar, K.; Thangaradjou, T.; Saravanakumar, P.; Anantharaman, P.; Sivakumar, T.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 152-175.

Abstract :Mangrove forests along the coastlines are among the world's most productive ecosystems. These are often called as 'tidal forests', 'coastal woodlands' or 'oceanic rainforests'. Living along the interface between land and sea, the mangrove ecosystems support genetically diverse groups of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. They include diversified habitats such as core forests, litter forest floors, mudflats, and adjacent coral reefs and seagrass ecosystems. The contiguous water bodies consist of the rivers, bays, inter tidal creeks, channels and backwaters. The mangroves can exist under wide ranges of salinities, tidal amplitudes, winds, and temperatures, even in muddy and anaerobic soil conditions. The highly variable habitat conditions make them profusely rich in biodiversity. This biological diversity is due to its structural complexities of the mangrove habitats that provide ecological niches for a variety of organisms. The mangroves are critical for sustaining biodiversity (Kathiresan and Qasim, 2005).

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diversity of brachyuran crabs in Gulf of Mannar (southeast coast of India)

Author(s) :Jeyabaskaran, R.; Khan, S.A.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 68-82.

Abstract :Coral reefs protect the coastline against waves and erosion and constitute one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world. Coral reefs provide subsistence, security and cultural utility to the inhabitants of coastal areas in all the tropical nations. Nevertheless, reef degradation is widespread, due to their manifold uses and importance to the people of developing countries. Therefore the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) considers maintenance of reef fisheries as a global priority. Collection of data about the coral reef resources is the most basic information in a coral reef ecological study. Management could be done only on the basis of such information.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Over view of marine biodiversity conservation in Tamil Nadu and importance of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

Author(s) :Venkataraman, K.

Source :Biodiversity conservation in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. eds. by: Kannaiyan, S.; Venkataraman, K.(Int. Workshop on Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve: An Ecological Model for Biodiversity Conservation Livelihood and Sustainability; Chennai (India); 20-21 Sep 2007). National Biodiversity Authority; Chennai (India); 2008; 25-67.

Abstract :The general climate is moderately hot and dry in the plains of the State. However, temperature dips close to 0 degrees C in the Western Ghats during winter. The average rainfall varies between 900 and 1200 mm/y. Rainfall in the range of 3000-5000 mm/y occurs in the Western Ghats while the rain shadow region of Coimbatore and adjacent areas receive less than 600 mm annually. Whereas the southwest monsoon is the major source of rain, the northeast monsoon hydrates the east coast during the colder part of the year. Tamil Nadu has a human population of 62.11 m (2001 Census) and a livestock population of 26 m. 17.4% of the land area (2.26 m ha) is classified as forests of which 86 % are reserve forests, 11% reserve lands and 2.71% unclassified forests. Tamil Nadu has a conglomeration of different types of ecosystems rather than a particular type as in some other states of India. The geographical location of the state has bestowed it with major representative ecosystems. It has within its confines, areas representing different types of ecosystems like dry deciduous forests, moist deciduous forests, degraded shrub lands, dry evergreen forests or thorn shrub and small pockets of semi evergreen forests, besides certain wetland ecosystems and freshwater bodies. Though most of the ecosystem types represented here is found in some of the other states, yet much of the thorn forests and scrublands of India are confined to Tamil Nadu, comprising a major part of this state. The whole eastern side of the state is protected by 1000 km of seacoast, which has all major types of habitats and major ecosystems such as pelagic and benthic, estuarine, seaweed and sea grass, mangrove and coral reef ecosystem, peculiar to the state of Tamil Nadu.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Comparative investigation on physico-chemical properties of the coral reef and seagrass ecosystems of the Palk Bay

Author(s) :Sridhar, R.; Thangaradjou, T.; Kannan, L.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 37(2); 2008; 207-213.

Abstract :Coral reef and seagrass ecosystems separated by a distance of 25 km in the Palk Bay region were investigated for their physico-chemical properties. Monthly variations of different parameters investigated are as follows; air temperature (27-35 degrees C), surface water temperature (25.0-31.5 degrees C), LEC (0.54-1.22 k), salinity (28.0-36.0 E), pH (7.0-8.2), DO (3.15-6.68 mll sup(-1)), nitrate (0.25-7.3 mu M), nitrite (0.03-2.91 mu M), inorganic phosphate (0.12-4.1 mu M), reactive silicate (0.6-7.4 mu M) and POC (0.28-3.25 mgCl sup(-1)). There is distinct spatial variation on the above parameters between the stations. The present study had elucidated that the ecosystems like coral reefs and seagrass are prefer specific environmental conditions for their survival.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast, India

Author(s) :Murugan, A.; Dhanya, S.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 95(2); 2008; 253-260.

Abstract :This study provides baseline information on the abundance and identification of seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast. Monthly sampling for seahorses and pipefishes from the by-catch was made during 2000-01 at 15 landing centres along the Tamil Nadu coast. Five species of seahorses belonging to one genus and seven species of pipefishes belonging to four genera were recorded. Hippocampus kelloggi and Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus were recorded for the first time in the Indian waters. H. Kelloggi was abundant in the Coromandel coast, H. kuda in the Palk Bay and H. trimaculatus in the Gulf of Mannar. H. fuscus was absent in the Coromandel coast and H. kelloggi was not recorded in the Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar. Seagrasses, seaweeds and dead corals were the preferred habitat of seahorses. H. kelloggi was recorded at 10-20 m depth and the others were found at depths less than 10 m. Abundance of seahorses was more in the Palk Bay than in the Gulf of Mannar and the Coromandel coast. Area-wise and species-wise abundance of seahorses was maximum during northeast monsoon and minimum during summer. In all, 104,018 seahorses were collected from the by-catches, comprising 34% H. trimaculatus, 29% H. kuda, 19% H. spinosissimus, 9% H. kelloggi and 9% H. fuscus. This 2000-01 survey on the abundance of seahorses may serve as a yardstick to assess the impact of the excavation and subsequent navigation of the Sethu Canal. With preference to seagrasses and seaweeds, the pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus was the most common species in the shallow coast. In the Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar, the percentage composition of S. biaculeatus was more than that of seahorses, while seahorses constituted more than 78% of the total syngnathid landings of the Coromandel coast. Other pipefish species were rare along the Tamil Nadu coast.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :New field evidence of coseismic coastal uplift during the December 2004 earthquake, north Andaman Island

Author(s) :Bandopadhyay, P.C.; Chakrabarti, U.; Mohapatra, N.R.; Roy, A.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 71(6); 2008; 871-874.

Abstract :This report documents ground uplift of a part of the eastern coast of North Andaman Island during the December 2004 earthquake. Emergence of a part of fringing coral above the high tide level has been recorded from the Kalipur beach.The newly emergent part of the coral reef is approx. 25 m wide and trends ESE paralleling the trend of the shore line.The study records appearance of a approx. 600 m long and 200 m wide tombolo joining the Smith Island to the Ross Island off the eastern coast of North Andaman Island. Before the December 2004 earthquake it was a sand bar that emerged only during the low tides. Vertical movement of 0.4 m is calculated for the Kalipur beach while that between the Smith and Ross Islands is 0.7-0.8 m.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bioinvasion of Kappaphycus alvarezii on corals in the Gulf of Mannar, India

Author(s) :Chandrasekaran, S.; Nagendran, N.A.; Pandiaraja, D.; Krishnankutty, N.; Kamalakannan, B.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 94(9); 2008; 1167-1172.

Abstract :Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty (Rhodophyta: Solieriaceae) is a Philippine-derived macroalga introduced into the Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, South India for mariculture in 2000. Here we report its bioinvasion on branching corals (Acropora sp.) in the Kurusadai Island. Qualitative data collected using underwater photography clearly indicated its invasion and establishment on live and dead corals as well as coral rubbles and pavements. It specifically invaded Acropora sp. as monospecific beds with extraordinary phenotypic plasticity in the form of thallus, thickness of its major axis and lateral branching. It shows remarkable shadowing and smothering effects over the coral colonies. The primary and secondary branches are much reduced in the invaded algal colonies. Quantitative data on its live cover on corals and biomass production are also reported. These observations are discussed with available limited information on bioinvasion of K. alvarezii on coral reefs. Our findings disprove all arguments and misapprehensions reported earlier about this species as coral-friendly and as a safe candidate for mariculture for the production of carrageenan under wild conditions in the Gulf of Mannar. Our observations underscore the need for urgent reconsideration of its cultivation in a biologically diverse ecosystem, the Gulf of Mannar.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The impact of anthropogenic activities on the physical and chemical characteristics of surface sediments in some coastal lagoons along the Egyptian Red Sea coast

Author(s) :Madkour, H.A.; Mohamed, A.W.; Ahamed, A.E.-H.N.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 34(1); 2008; 53-68.

Abstract :Forty-two sediment samples were collected from Abu-Shaar, Abu-Gaiwa, Umm al-Huwaytat and Marsa Shuni lagoons located along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Several investigations including nature and geochemistry of surface sediments were carried out. Grain size characteristics reflect the restriction of sand rich with coral debris in Abu-Shaar and Abu-Galawa lagoons. Consequently, the sediments of Abu-Galawa and Abu-Shaar lagoons have the highest carbonate content due to the dominance biogenic sediments.from surrounding coral reefs and relatively of tenigenious influx. The mud content recorded high values in Umm al-Huwaytat and Marsa Shuni lagoons compared with the other two lagoons due to high contribution of terrigenous materials from wadies and some human activities especially near at Umm al-Huwaytat lagoon by shipment activities in Abu-Tartour Harbour. The sediments of Marsa Shuni lagoon have the highest total organic matter content compared to the other three lagoons resulting from the high contribution of terrestrial input by Wadi El-Shuni . Grain size is the main controlling factor for the organic carbon enrichment. On other hand, The phosphorus content of sdiments sampled in Umm al-Huwaytat lagoon recorded the highest values due to phosphate shipments operation in Abu-Tartour Harbour. The investigation of distribution of the heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in surficial sediments of the coastal lagoons indicated that the degree of metals pollution is caused by anthropogenic activities and or by natural impacts by wadies. This study provides knowledge about nature and geochemistry of sediments and the extent of the pollution degree of the metals to represent primary base line data efor managers to follow any anthropogenic impacts, and better assessing the needs for remediation by detecting any changes in future

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diving down the reefs? Intensive diving tourism threatens the reefs of the northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Hasler, H.; Ott, J.A.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 56(10); 2008; 1788-1794.

Abstract :Intensive recreational SCUBA diving threatens coral reef ecosystems. The reefs at Dahab, South Sinai, Egypt, are among the worldÆs most dived (>30,000 dives y sup(-1)). Frequently dived sites is compared to sites with no or little diving. Benthic communities and condition of corals were examined by the point intercept sampling method in the reef crest zone (3 m) and reef slope zone (12 m). Additionally, the abundance of corallivorous and herbivorous fish was estimated based on the visual census method. Sediments traps recorded the sedimentation rates caused by SCUBA divers. Zones subject to intensive SCUBA diving showed a significantly higher number of broken and damaged corals and significantly lower coral cover. Reef crest coral communities were significantly more affected than those of the reef slope: 95% of the broken colonies were branching ones. No effect of diving on the abundance of corallivorous and herbivorous fish was evident. At heavily used dive sites, diver-related sedimentation rates significantly decreased with increasing distance from the entrance, indicating poor buoyancy regulation at the initial phase of the dive. The results show a high negative impact of current SCUBA diving intensities on coral communities and coral condition. Corallivorous and herbivorous fishes are apparently not yet affected, but are endangered if coral cover decline continues. Reducing the number of dives per year, ecologically sustainable dive plans for individual sites, and reinforcing the environmental education of both dive guides and recreational divers are essential to conserve the ecological and the aesthetic qualities of these dive sites

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Recently studied sedimentary records from the eastern Arabian Sea: Implications to Holocene monsoonal variability

Author(s) :Agnihotri, R.; Kurian, S.

Source :Earth Sci. India: 1(4); 2008; 258-287.

Abstract :Deep insight into exact mechanism(s) controlling past monsoonal variability on inter-annual to millennial time scales is a pre-requisite for developing predictive capability of monsoon on timescales relevant to human life. Reliable monsoon predictions developed by climate modelers play a crucial role for making countryÆs future economic programme. Basic data input to generally applied monsoon models is instrumental rainfall data, beyond which search for monsoon variability relies upon proxy records stored in various natural repositories such as tree rings, corals, cave deposits, lake and marine sediments. While tree rings, cave deposits and corals are capable of yielding paleo-monsoonal information on extremely high temporal resolution, continental margin sediments depositing in the Arabian Sea have provided relatively coarser but longer proxy records of monsoonal variability. Here, some of such recently studied sedimentary records from precipitation dominated eastern Arabian Sea in an attempt to comprehend past monsoonal variability in Indian as well as global context are reviewed. We also focus upon different proxies used so far in the Arabian Sea, their fidelity, limitations and future scope of using novel proxies for a better understanding of past monsoonal variability especially in the anthropocene epoch.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Photosynthetic performance of giant clams, Tridacna maxima and T. squamosa, Red Sea

Author(s) :Jantzen, C.; Wild, C.; El-Zibdah, M.; Roa-Quiaoit, H.A.; Haacke, C.; Richter, C.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 155(2); 2008; 211-221.

Abstract :Two species of giant clams, Tridacna maxima and T. squamosa, coexist in the Red Sea, but exhibit distinctly different depth distributions: T. maxima mostly occurs in shallow waters (reef flat and edge), while T. squamosa may occur down to the lower fore-reef slope. Giant clams have been described as mixotrophic, capable of both filter-feeding and photosynthesis due to algal symbionts (zooxanthellae), therefore, observed depth preferences were investigated in relation to possible differences in autotrophy vs. heterotrophy. This study was conducted from April to June 2004, at the reef near the Marine Science Station, Aqaba, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, and in May 2007, at a reef near Dahab, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. In situ measurements using a submersible pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer (Diving PAM), revealed no significant differences in effective PSII quantumyield (delta F/Fm) and relative electron transport rates (ETR) between the two species; but rapid light curves (ETR vs. light, photosynthetically active irradiance, PAR) showed significant differences in maximum photosynthetic rates (ETR sub(max)), with 20% higher values in T. maxima. Chamber incubations displayed higher net and gross oxygen production by T. maxima (88.0 and 120.3 mu mol O sub(2) cm sup(-2) mantle area day sup(-1) than T. squamosa (56.7 and 84.8 mu mol O sub(2) cm sup(-2) mantle area day sup(-1)); even under shading conditions (simulated depth of 20 m) T. maxima still achieved 93% of the surface gross O sub(2) production, whereas T. squamosa reached only 44%. A correlation was found between ETR and net photosynthesis measured as oxygen production (T. maxima: R sup(2) = 0.53; T. squamosa: R sup(2) = 0.61). Calculated compensation depth (CD) (gross photosynthesis equals respiration) in T. maxima (16 m) matches the maximum depth of occurrence in this study (17 m). By contrast, the CD of T. squamosa (9 m) was much shallower than the maximum vertical range (42 m). Findings suggest T. maxima is a strict functional photoautotroph limited by light, whereas T. squamosa is a mixotroph whose photoautotrophic range is extended by heterotrophy.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Community structure and microhabitat preferences of harpacticoid copepods in a tropical reef lagoon (Zanzibar Island, Tanzania)

Author(s) :Gheerardyn, H.; De Troch, M.; Ndaro, S.G.M.; Raes, M.; Vincx, M.; Vanreusel, A.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.: 88(4); 2008; 747-758.

Abstract :Three microhabitat types (dead coral fragments, coral gravel and coral sand) were distinguished and sampled at two locations (Matemwe and Makunduchi) in a tropical lagoon (Zanzibar Island, Tanzania), and the community structure, habitat preferences and biodiversity of the associated harpacticoid copepod fauna was investigated. The harpacticoid fauna is affected by sediment granulometry and by the structural differences between coral and both gravel and sediment. The coral fragments contained a specific assemblage composed of typical æphytalÆ taxa (Tisbe, Paradactylopodia and Dactylopusia) along with other eurytopic and sediment-dwelling forms (Ameira, Ectinosoma and Amphiascus), which may be attracted by the sediment retained between the coral branches. The assemblages of coral gravel and upper sediment layer did not differ significantly from each other and had mostly the same dominant genera. The sediment from Matemwe was dominated by the interstitial Paramesochridae and the sediment from Makunduchi by Tetragonicipitidae. The coral fragments from Makunduchi sustained a more diverse assemblage than gravel and the different sediment layers. It was assumed that coral form and complexity, with implications for habitable space, nutritional resources and level of predation, are important in structuring diversity of the associated assemblage.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Vulnerability and adaptation of ecologically sensitive mangrove habitats to the changing climate

Author(s) :Jagtap, T.J.; Kulkarni, V.A.; Verlekar, X.N.

Source :Proceedings of Conference on Marine Problems and Specific Solutions, COMPASS2008, June 15-18, 2008, Maldives. (Conf. on Marine Problems and Specific Solutions, COMPASS2008; Maldives; 15-18 June 2008). ; 2008; 15-18.

Abstract :Maldive islands on Laccadive archipelago, from Indian Ocean sustain multi tier ecologically sensitive marine habitats in shallow and intertidal zones. They consist of coral, seagrass, seaweed, mangrove and sand dune ecosystems, of a great ecological and socioeconomic significance. Mangroves and seagrasses form the predominant source at the interface of sea. Considering present scenario of global climate change, sea level rise (SLR) and resultant calamities, as well as the proximity of islands to SLR (Church et al, 2006), these habitats are of a vital importance in protecting the coast and minimizing damage to the property and life. The present paper predicts the major implications of the climate change on the natural resources; particularly mangroves based on the case studies in India and put forward the remedial measures for conservation of island ecosystem.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Spatial genetic patterns in lagoonal, reef-slope and island populations of the coral Platygyra daedalea in Kenya and Tanzania

Author(s) :Souter, P.; Grahn, M.

Source :Coral Reefs: 27(2); 2008; 433-439.

Abstract :Considering the rapid degradation of coral reefs, it is becoming increasingly important to assess factors such as levels of intraspecific genetic diversity and degree of connectivity between populations and reefs. In this study, five DNA microsatellite markers were used to infer migration patterns and levels of genetic diversity in ten populations of the faviid coral Platygyra daedalea along the coast of East Africa. Populations from reef-slopes and offshore islands had significantly greater genetic diversity, measured as expected heterozygosity and allelic richness than those of inshore lagoonal reefs. A combination of F-statistics and individual assignment tests indicated moderate to high levels of gene flow among lagoonal populations, and less migration between lagoonal sites and the reef-slope and island sites. These results suggest that reef-slope and island reefs could be important reservoirs of genetic diversity for this coral species.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Recovery of corals a decade after a bleaching event in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Author(s) :Burt, J.; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 154(1); 2008; 27-36.

Abstract :Elevated sea surface temperatures in the late 1990s were associated with widespread coral mortality in the Arabian Gulf, particularly in Acropora dominated areas. This study investigates the composition, condition, and recruitment patterns of coral communities in Saih Al-Shaib, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, a decade after mass bleaching. Five statistically distinct communities were identified by cluster analysis, with grouping optimized from 17 significant indicator species. Overall, 25 species of scleractinian coral were observed, representing 35 plus or minus 1.6% coral cover. Densities of recruits were low (0.8 plus or minus 0.2 m sup(-2)), and composition generally reflected that of the surrounding adult community. Ten years after mass mortality, Acropora dominated assemblages were observed in three of the six sites examined and coral cover (41.9 plus or minus 2.5%) was double post-bleaching cover. One shallow near-shore site appears to have had recovery of Acropora reset by a further bleaching event in 2002. However, the prevalence of young Acropora colonies here indicates that recovery may recur in several years. One area formerly dominated by Acropora is now dominated by faviids and poritids, with adult and juvenile composition suggesting this dominance shift is likely to persist. Porites lutea and P. harrisoni dominated communities were negligibly impacted by the bleaching events, and the limited change in coral cover and composition in intervening years likely results from slow growth and low recruitment. Despite strong recovery of several dominant Acropora species, five formerly common species from this area were not observed suggesting local extinction. Dubai coral communities exhibit both resistance and resilience to elevated sea temperatures. The conservation of these patch reefs is warranted given the predicted increase in bleaching events, and the role that these communities may play in regional recovery.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Phylogenetic relationships of Indo-Pacific coral gobies of the genus Gobiodon (Teleostei: Gobiidae), based on morphological and molecular data

Author(s) :Harold, A.; Winterbottom, R.W.; Munday, P.L.; Chapman, R.W.

Source :Bull. Mar. Sci.: 82(1); 2008; 119-136.

Abstract :Gobiodon species are coaral-commensal gobiid fishes which occur throughout much of the Indo-Pacific Region. Species-level phylogenetic relationships were analyzed using mitochondrial DNA sequences. Portions of the 12S and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes were selected for analysis. A search was made for the most parsimonious trees (maximum parsimony), the result of which was two trees with a consistency index of 0.620 and length of 753 steps. Bootstrap support and decay values were calculated for each resolved node. Many parts of the trees were well supported, but with lower support at intermediate levels. Monophyly of Gobiodon is strongly supported (bootstrap support 100%, decay value 33). Inclusion of a set of morphological characters in a total evidence analysis provided additional support at some nodes resolved by the molecules-only analysis and also allowed a number of new resolutions. In the total evidence tree the specialized deep-bodied, compressed species, such as Gobiodon histrio (Valenciennes, 1837), G. unicolor (Castelnau, 1873), and G. brochus (Harold and Winterbottom, 1999), form a monophyletic group, whereas the molecular analysis has them paraphyletic. In both analyses, the morphologically generalized species, G. quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes, 1837), and related species form a clade which is sister group to all other Gobiodon species

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Eddy-resolving ocean circulation in the Asian-Australian region inferred from an ocean reanalysis effort

Author(s) :Schiller, A.; Oke, P.R.; Brassington, G.; Entel, M.; Fiedler, R.; Griffin, D.A.; Mansbridge, J.V.

Source :Prog. Oceanogr.: 76(3); 2008; 334-365.

Abstract :The first global ocean reanalysis with focus on the AsianûAustralian region was performed for the period October 1992 to June 2006. The 14-year experiment assimilated available observations of altimetric sea-level anomaly, satellite SST and quality-controlled in situ temperature and salinity profiles from a range of sources, including field surveys and the Argo float array. This study focuses on dominant circulation patterns in the South-East Asian/Australian region as simulated by an eddy-resolving and data-assimilating ocean general circulation model. New estimates of the ocean circulation are provided which are largely in agreement with the limited number of observations. Transports of key currents in the region are as follows: The total (top-to-bottom) annual mean Indonesian Throughflow transport and its standard deviation are 9.7 plus or minus 4.4 Sv from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean with a minimum in January (6.6 Sv) and a maximum in April (12.3 Sv). The Leeuwin Current along the west coast of Australia is dominated by eddy structures with a mean southward transport of 4.1 plus or minus 2.0 Sv at 34 degrees S. Along the southern coast of Australia a narrow shelf edge current known as the South Australian Current advects 4.5 plus or minus 2.6 Sv eastward at 130 degrees E. The South Australian Current converges east of Tasmania with the eddy-rich extension of East Australian Current. At 32 degrees S this current transports 36.8 plus or minus 18.5 Sv southward. A dominating feature of the circulation between north-eastern Australia and PapuaûNew Guinea is the strong and quasi-permanent Coral Sea Gyre. This gyre is associated with the highly variable Hiri Current which runs along the south coast of PapuaûNew Guinea and advects 8.2 plus or minus 19.1 Sv into the Western Pacific Ocean. All of these transport estimates are subject to strong eddy variability.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Late Quaternary reef growth and sea level in the Maldives (Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Gischler, E.; Hudson, J.H.; Pisera, A.

Source :Mar. Geol.: 250(1-2); 2008; 104-113.

Abstract :Based on rotary drilling and radiometric and U-series dating, we present the first comprehensive data on Holocene reef anatomy and sea-level rise as well as nature and age of underlying Pleistocene limestone in the Maldives. Holocene reefs in Rasdhoo Atoll, central Maldives, are composed of four facies including (1) robust-branching coral facies, (2) coralline algal facies, (3) domal coral facies, and (4) detrital sand and rubble facies. Branching coral and coralline algal facies predominate the marginal reefs and domal corals and detrital facies preferentially occur in a lagoon reef. In addition, microbialite crusts are found in lower core sections of marginal reefs. Microbialites formed during the early Holocene in reef cavities. Holocene reef thickness ranges from 14.5 m to greater than 22 m. Reef growth started as early as 8.5 kyr BP. Marginal reefs accreted in the keep-up mode with rates of greater than 15 m/kyr. Rate of sea-level rise significantly slowed down from 7û6 kyr BP and subsequently gradually rose with rates is less than 1 m/kyr. The lagoon reef accreted in the catch-up mode with rates of around 4 m/kyr. Even though no indications of a higher than present sea level were found during this study, it is not entirely clear from the data whether the sea gradually rose to or exceeded present level in the late Holocene. Submarine cementation in Holocene reefs studied is rather weak, presumably as a consequence of high accretion-rates, i.e., short time available for consolidation. Pleistocene coral grainstone was encountered in one core at 14.5 m below present level and three U-series dates indicate deposition during marine isotope stage 5e ca. 135 kyr BP

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Two new species of Chaetognatha from the Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Nair, V.R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.; Pillai, H.U.K.; Gireesh, R.

Source :Mar. Biol. Res.: 4(3); 2008; 208-214.

Abstract :Two new chaetognath species, Krohnitta balagopali and Sagitta meenakshiae, are described from the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean). K. balagopali is easily distinguishable from the other two known species of the genus by its unpigmented eye, fully rayed fins and smaller size. S. meenakshiae has distinct characters, such as a small size, lower tail percentage, lower meristic counts and a difference in eye pigmentation as compared with three related species. The two new species appear to be endemic to this coral ecosystem.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Asynchronous coral spawning patterns on equatorial reefs in Kenya

Author(s) :Mangubhai, S.; Harrison, P.L.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 360; 2008; 85-96.

Abstract :This study examined patterns of reef coral reproduction on lagoonal reefs adjacent to Mombasa in Kenya, at a latitude of 4 degrees S. A total of 401 colonies comprising 20 Acropora species was marked and repeatedly sampled between 2003 and 2005 to determine patterns of reproduction at the individual and population level. Spawning was inferred from the disappearance of mature oocytes and spermaries from sequential samples. In comparison to other regions, the overall pattern of coral reproduction in Kenya is one of asynchrony; Acropora species release gametes over a 7 mo period (October to April), with some level of ætemporal reproductive isolationÆ occurring between species in relation to the lunar month and lunar phase when the main spawning occurred. Extended gametogenic cycles were recorded in A. tenuis, A. valida and Acropora sp. 1, and quiescent non-reproductive periods between cycles were either very short or absent. Spawning occurred during both rising and maximum sea surface temperatures, during both neap and spring tides, and across all lunar periods. The findings from Kenyan reefs support the hypothesis of protracted breeding seasons and a breakdown of spawning synchrony nearer the equator. It is hypothesised that the high fecundities recorded in coral species in Kenya compared to other regions may allow individual reef coral populations to stagger their reproduction over 2 to 5 mo without incurring a significant reduction in fertilisation rates.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Gametogenesis, spawning and fecundity of Platygyra daedalea (Scleractinia) on equatorial reefs in Kenya

Author(s) :Mangubhai, S.; Harrison, P.L.

Source :Coral Reefs: 27(1); 2008; 117-122.

Abstract :The reproductive ecology of the hermaphroditic broadcast spawning scleractinian reef coral Platygyra daedalea was studied on lagoonal reefs in Kenya. While single annual gametogenic cycles occurred in 84% of colonies, biannual gametogenic cycles were recorded in 16% of colonies and these patterns occurred in two morphotypes. In colonies with a single annual cycle, oogenesis occurred for 6û7 months from September to March and spermatogenesis for 5 months from November to March. In biannually spawning colonies, oogenic cycles overlapped for at least 2 months prior to gamete release. The major spawning period occurred in February and March, with minor spawning also occurring in AugustûOctober in biannually spawning colonies. Reproductive effort was lower during the minor winter compared to the major summer spawning, with fewer colonies reproducing (12.5û19.2%), not all mesenteries producing oocytes (32.5%) and less than half of the mesenteries with mature oocytes had associated spermaries (48.1%).

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diel variation of benthic respiration in a coral reef sediment (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Clavier, J.; Chauvaud, L.; Cuet, P.; Esbelin, C.; Frouin, P.; Taddei, D.; Thouzeau, G.

Source :Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 76(2); 2008; 369-377.

Abstract :Oxygen and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fluxes at the water sediment interface were measured using benthic chambers to assess the short-term variations of community respiration (CR) in the back reef sediments of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Benthic CR had a daily cycle of minimal (6:00 AM) and maximal values (6:00 PM), showing increases of oxygen and DIC fluxes of 2.8- and 3.8-fold, respectively. Average CR values were observed at midday and midnight. The evolution of fluxes was positively related to oxygen concentration in ambient water, but not to temperature changes. In the study area, high daytime primary production augments the amount of energy available for community metabolism and increases benthic respiration. The benthic communities are therefore subjected to short-term variable environmental conditions with oxygen supersaturation during the day, and moderately hypoxic conditions at the end of the night

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Variability of the low-level cross-equatorial jet of the western Indian Ocean since 1660 as derived from coral proxies

Author(s) :Gong, D.-Y.; Luterbacher, J.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 35(1); 2008; doi:10.1029/2007GL032409, 5 pp.

Abstract :Using monthly-seasonally resolved coral proxies from the Indian Ocean basin, the JuneûJulyûAugust (JJA) low-level jet in western Indian Ocean from 1660-1957 with skillful estimates is statistically reconstructed for high and low-frequencies. The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are reasonably captured. The strength of the jet significantly increases from the late 17th century to late 19th century. The decreasing in reconstructed jet in 20th century disagrees with previous studies which indicated an enhancement of Southern Asian summer monsoon (SASM) in association with the rapid global warming. The jet reconstructions are useful for understanding of SASM variability and the validation of historical monsoon simulation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Occurrence of anemonefishes and host sea anemones in Andaman and Nicobar islands

Author(s) :Madhu, R.; Madhu, K.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 49(2); 2007; 118-126.

Abstract :Among the anemonefishes, 13 species under the genus Amphiprion viz., A. akallopisos, A. bicinctus, A. chrysogaster, A. clarkii, A. ephippium, A. frenatus, A. melanopus, A. ocellaris, A. percula, A. perideraion, A. polymnus, A. sandaracinos and A. sebae, and one species under the genus Premnas viz., P. biaculeatus are reported from 14 selected study sites of the coral reef ecosystem of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India during 2000-2005. Field observations reveal that the anemonefish are found in association with 10 host sea anemones viz., Cryptodendrum adhaesivum, Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis aurora, H. crispa, H. magnifica, H. malu, Stichodactyla gigantea, S. haddoni, S. mertensii and Macrodactyla doreensis. The fishes and their hosts were observed at a depth of 0.5 to 10 m during low tide in the coral reef areas and slopes. The sea anemones such as C. adhaesivum, H. aurora, H. malu, S. haddoni, M. doreensis are often found buried in the sediment or sand and retracted completely when disturbed whereas, H. magnifica, H. crispa, S. gigantea, S. mertensii and E. quadricolor were usually found attached to hard strata. Among the fish species, melanistic variation was noticed only in A. ocellaris. The surveys show that the numerical abundance of Amphiprion populations from these groups of islands has diminished. Rapid developmental activities in the islands, turbidity, discharge of waste, increase in water temperature and deposition of sand due to tsunami and destruction of natural habitats due to ecological imbalance in the coastal belt are considered as the probable reasons for decrease in population.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal habitats atlas of selected marine protected areas. Sponsored by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi

Corp. Body :Indian Space Research Organ; Ahmedabad (India).

Source :Space Applications Centre (ISRO); Ahmedabad (India)SAC/RESIPA/MESG/PR/59/2007; 2007; 77 pp.

Abstract :Coastal habitats of India mainly coral reefs and mangroves falling under selected Marine National Park, Marine Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary, etc., have been mapped using satellite data (Landsat MSS/TM, IRS LISS II, m, PAN data) under various projects at the Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad. Mangroves of the Marine Protected areas have been further mapped at community level and the coral reefs at eco-morphological level. This atlas comprises maps of the twelve Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) covering coastal habitats of Gulf of Kachchh, coral reef eco-morphological maps of Malvan, selected Lakshadweep reefs, Gulf of Mannar and Andaman reefs, mangroves community-level maps of Chorao, Coringa, Bhitarkanika, parts of Sunderbans and Andaman Islands. Condition of these habitats has also been given.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sea anemones: Flower`s of coral paradise?

Author(s) :Setu, S.K.; AjithKumar, T.T.

Source :Seshaiyana: 15(2); 2007; 10-12.

Abstract :Coral reefs are having impressive biodiversity, productivity and scenic beauty. In this ecosystem one beautiful creature which is getting nourishment is known as the flowers of coral paradise i.e., sea anemones. They occur at different depth of oceans but particularly abundant in coastal water especially in coral reef system. Many are beautifully colored (red, pink, brown, green, violet etc.) and look like a flower. The oral or feeding end is equipped with many extensions called tentacles. The sea anemones are closely related to corals and do not have skeleton. Sea anemones are a rich source of biologically active polypeptides with diverse pharmacological applications.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Biodiversity and community structure of coral reefs around Krusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar, India

Author(s) :Sukumaran, S.; George, R.M.; Kasinathan, C.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 54(3); 2007; 275-282.

Abstract :This paper gives the results of the surveys conducted in the Krusadai Reef, Gulf of Mannar, India for the assessment of the coral cover and biodiversity during March-May 2005, following the Line Intercept Transect Method. A total of 35 hard coral species were recorded in this reef. The total live, dead and bleached coral cover for the reef as a whole was estimated as 54.9, 18.7 and 15.4% respectively and the remaining part was covered with soft corals, sponges, seagrasses, sand and rubble. Dead coral cover was dominated by porites. Further, relative abundance values were derived for each species and they were assigned the status dominant/ abundant/ common/ uncommon/ rare. Although, no species was assigned dominant status, Acropora formosa belonged to the category abundant and all other species were either of common or uncommon status only. Fisher alpha and Shannon diversity indices were highest (3.68 and 2.14 respectively) in 8th site. Pielou's evenness was highest in 7th site. SIMPER analysis revealed that Acropora formosa (33.95%) along with Acropora humilis (15.85%), Porites mannarensis (12.97%) and Montipora digitata (12.07%) were responsible for dissimilarity among various sites in the island. The average similarity in species composition was 20.5%.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Brachyuran diversity in coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu

Author(s) :Roy, M.K.D.; Nandi, N.C.

Source :J. Environ. Sociobiol.: 4(2); 2007; 169-192.

Abstract :Diversity of brachyuran crabs of coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu is documented and critically analysed. The crabs reported so far from these ecosystems comprise of 344 species belonging to 154 genera under 23 families. Highest diversity of species has been observed at Gulf of Mannar (195 species) followed by Chennai coast (169 species), Palk Bay (98 species) and Parangipettai coast (84 species), while highest diversity of species has been encountered in the family Xanthidae (56 species) followed by Portunidae (53 species), Leucosidae (41 species), Majidae (36 species), Grapsidae (32 species) and Ocypodidae (19 species). Zoogeographical distribution of these species has been discussed along with endemicity. Amongst these crabs, 254 species are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, 57 species are confined to the Indian Ocean and 25 species to Bay of Bengal. Habitat-wise distribution of 140 species of crabs has revealed the occurrence of 61 species in coral reef, followed by 40 species in mangroves, 23 species in backwater and 13 species in sandy habitats of this state. List of new taxa described so far from the state has also been given

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A qualitative appraisal of the soft corals (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) off Mandapam, South India

Author(s) :George, R.M.; Sanil, N.K.; Naomi, T.S.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 54(1); 2007; 99-106.

Abstract :The discovery of rare prostaglandins in soft corals has initiated a general interest in this group as an easily available source of several 'wonder drugs'. During the present study four species of soft corals from the family Alcyoniidae are described in the light of scanning electromicrographs of the sclerites to facilitate easy identification. Although 28 species are recorded earlier, three species listed in the present account are new records to the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef fish abundance and diversity of seagrass beds in Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India

Author(s) :Anand, P.E.V.; Pillai, N.G.K.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 54(1); 2007; 11-20.

Abstract :The community organization of coral reef fishes in the seagrass sub-habitat of Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep, India was studied during the period from January 1991 to June 1992. Twenty-seven families represented by 65 species were recorded by the visual censes method. The community diversity for families and species was 2.49 and 3.14 respectively. Juveniles and sub-adults of the most adult reef fish, which inhabit other sub-habitats, were recorded here. The high species diversity in the seagrass beds is due to their roles as nurseries, shelter and foraging grounds for many species. Labridae, Chaetodontidae, Acanthuridae and Mullidae were the most speciose families. Ocurrence of siganids was highly seasonal. The cover that seagrass canopy provides conceals many species and perhaps influenced counts. The occurrence of balistids could be related to the presence of interstitial and patches and abundant invertebrate food. Scorpaenids subsisted on abundant invertebrates and juveniles fishes. High counts and pronounced variations make seagrass beds unstable habitats. However, monsoon assemblages were relatively stable perhaps due to lack of excessive new recruits and a habitat shift by most species.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Draft operation policy using optimization model in a non homogeneous aquifer system: A systematic appraisal of hard corals (family Acroporidae) from the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve south-east India

Author(s) :George, R.M.; Sukumaran, S.

Source :(CMFRI Bull.). CMFRI; Cochin (India): 50; 2007; 118 pp.

Abstract :A most comprehensive account of coral fauna has been made by the authors, based on a study on the hard corals of the south-east coast of India collected recently from the various small islands extending from Vembar to Rameswaram (9 degrees 14 minutes - 9 degrees 09 minutes N Lat. and 79 degrees 14 minutes - 78 degrees 35 minutes E Long.), in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve and from the two reefs (9 degrees 17 minutes N Lat. and 79 degrees - 12 minutes E Long.) in Palk Bay which are described in depth and illustrated. The present account deals with 43 species of the family Acroporidae belonging to 2 genera viz., Acropora and Montipora. Among the species under species are new to India and four new to science. A synopsis of the various species is provided under each genus, discussed, and detailed descriptions are provided based on material collected. An attempt was made to resolve many problems of synonyms that have resulted in a marked reduction of the species recognized by earlier authors and addition of species and records new to science and India. Ecological notes are provided under each species with specific location of their occurrence to facilitate future collection and taxonomic identification

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Remedial measures to wave break problems along Tuticorin District

Author(s) :Suresh, P.K.; Krishnaprasad, E.; Raman, P.

Source :Fourth Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE-2007) 12th - 14th December 2007. Proceedings volume 2. eds. by: Rao, S.; Shirlal, K.G.(4. Indian Natl. Conf. on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE-2007); NITK, Surathkal (India); 12-14 Dec 2007). National Institute of Technology Karnataka; Surathkal (India); 2007; 561-568.

Abstract :The coastline from Tuticorin to Kanyakumari is characterised by the presence of sand dunes along the coast and offshore discontinuous reef running almost parallel to the coast. Periathalai is one such fishing village located along this coast. During south west monsoon most of the waves break along the offshore reef. During these period the fishermen find it very difficult to venture in to the deep sea for performing fishing operations resulting casualties to both men and material. Studies were carried out and the necessary remedial measures in the form of a break water of length 800 m was executed in the field. The details of the studies, execution of the remedial measure and its post effects are detailed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Laboratory investigation on tandem breakwater with concrete cube as artificial armour unit

Author(s) :Rao, S.; Shirlal, K.G.; Manu; Bharadwaj, P.

Source :Fourth Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE-2007) 12th - 14th December 2007. Proceedings volume 1. eds. by: Rao, S.; Shirlal, K.G.(4. Indian Natl. Conf. on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE-2007); NITK, Surathkal (India); 12-14 Dec 2007). National Institute of Technology Karnataka; Surathkal (India); 2007; 352-360.

Abstract :Tandem breakwater system consists of a conventional breakwater protected by a seaward submerged reef. The paper discusses physical model study on the hydraulic performance of tandem breakwater system subjected to varying wave climate and water depths, while keeping constant crest width of submerged reef. The breakwater in the study is armoured with concrete cube. It is found that a submerged reef of natural stones of crest width 0.40 m placed at a seaward spacing of 2.5 m protects the inner main breakwater and is successful in reducing the wave force on the main structure, thereby protecting the inner main breakwater completely without causing any damage.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Modelling of coastal protection works at Ullal using MIKE-21

Author(s) :Rao, S.; Shirlal, K.G.; Babu, M.; Subramanian, B.R.; Kankara, R.S.

Source :Fourth Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE-2007) 12th - 14th December 2007. Proceedings volume 1. eds. by: Rao, S.; Shirlal, K.G.(4. Indian Natl. Conf. on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE-2007); NITK, Surathkal (India); 12-14 Dec 2007). National Institute of Technology Karnataka; Surathkal (India); 2007; 344-351.

Abstract :Large part of sandy coasts all over the world suffers from erosion. Proper protection of these threatened coasts is an important aim of coastal engineering. The causes of this coastal erosion and the planning, design and constructional aspects of coastal defence works are subjects of great practical significance. This brings the need for modelling techniques to address the problems associated with coastal engineering. Dakshina kannada district situated along west coast of India with geographic location 12 degrees 48 minutes-12 degrees 53 minutes north and 74 degrees 48 minutes -74 degrees 51 minutes east is facing a severe shoreline erosion problem at isolated locations. Severe coastal erosion is taking place, since 1996 during the monsoons along the stretches of Kotepura in Ullal town of Mangalore. During the monsoon and rough sea conditions, the waves lash directly on to the beaches encroached by houses and the fishing industries along the Ullal coast leading to huge property loss. Even emergency anti-erosion works do not function up to the mark. This emphasizes a need for the design of permanent protective solution to counter the erosion problem at Ullal region. MIKE-21, a Danish Hydraulic Institute modelling software was used to address the coastal problem. This study was undertaken to understand the coastal processes and suggest a best solution to counter the erosion problem at Ullal region. A submerged reef, groyne and T-groyne structures were selected to address the erosion problem through modelling technique. Model results show that the response of submerged reef was comparatively better than the other structures.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Slow poisoning of Indian waters

Author(s) :Yadav, K.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 15(2); 2007; 270-282.

Abstract :When the poisoning is slow, the realisation comes a little too late. The case in point is the Indian ocean, the waters of which is shared by 47 countries today-a complex, heterogeneous group marred with a fractured responsibility towards the ocean, owing to a variety of reasons. At the global level, 85 million tonnes of wild Fish, 100 million sharks, 2,50,000 turtles and 3,00,000 sea birds were killed, directly or indirectly, owing to human fishing, in 2006. And in its place went 40,000 or so pieces of non-biodegradable waste. Though many may conclude that these wastes are the main contributor to ocean pollution, but the extent of pollution caused by them is less than 10 per cent. In the context of Indian Ocean, one of the primary concerns is the unabated sinking of unseaworthy ships, particularly during the monsoons. The sea-air pollution link that has become apparent, subsequent to a March 2006 report is a significant finding at how damaging land pollution can get for the seas. Coastal pollution, particularly from sewage, industries, and recreation is causing irreversible damage to the eco-sensitive flora and fauna of the coastal areas. Amidst the impending chaos, however, there is one glimmer of hope: the formation of the Earth Commission by the Government of India in a cabinet meeting held on 09 Aug 2006. The effort has certainly brought all the stakeholders and the think-tanks on one platform. But the challenge is enormous, and requires coordinated efforts on the part of government bodies, NGOs and stakeholders.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Brachyuran diversity in coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu

Author(s) :Roy, M.K.D.; Nandi, N.C.

Source :J. Environ. Sociobiol.: 4(2); 2007; 169-192.

Abstract :Diversity of brachyuran crabs of coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu is documented and critically analysed. The crabs reported so far from these ecosystems comprise of 344 species belonging to 154 genera under 23 families. Highest diversity of species has been observed at Gulf of Mannar (195 species) followed by Chennai coast (169 species), Palk Bay (98 species) and Parangipettai coast (84 species), while highest diversity of species has been encountered in the family Xanthidae (56 species) followed by Portunidae (53 species), Leucosidae (41 species), Majidae (36 species), Grapsidae (32 species) and Ocypodidae (19 species). Zoogeographical distribution of these species has been discussed along with endemicity. Amongst these crabs, 254 species are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, 57 species are confined to the Indian Ocean and 25 species to Bay of Bengal. Habitat-wise distribution of 140 species of crabs has revealed the occurrence of 61 species in coral reef, followed by 40 species in mangroves, 23 species in backwater and 13 species in sandy habitats of this state. List of new taxa described so far from the state has also been given.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Ecotoxicological impacts on some Indian ecosystems

Author(s) :Das, A.K.

Source :J. Environ. Sociobiol.: 4(1); 2007; 1-8.

Abstract :Ecotoxicology is an interdisciplinary field of study, intending to integrate both ecological and toxicological effects of pollutants and contaminants on living organisms, populations and communities within the defined ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies on Indian ecosystems are fragmentary and scattered although this country is very rich in ecodiversity and biodiversity. Based on major habitat classification as well as on geographical and geological features 10 ecosystems are recognised in India. These are forests (16 types), grasslands (5 types), deserts (3 types), wetlands (10 types), mangroves, coral reefs, marine, mountains, islands and ocean. However, for the convenience of assessing ecotoxicological impacts, Indian ecosystems are grouped under two broad categories, viz., aquatic and terrestrial. For assessing ecotoxicological impacts on aquatic ecosystems of this country those of the river Ganga were analysed, as an example, with additional dealings on marine ecosystems. Prime sources of pollutants and toxicants on these ecosystems, viz., industrial emissions, municipal effluents and agricultural run off and their impacts on aquatic communities are discussed. Ecotoxicological impacts on terrestrial ecosystems are also dealt with in similar fashion with special reference to high altitude ecosystems. Need for future research on this aspect is highlighted in the concluding remarks of this communication.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Relict benthic foraminifera in surface sediments off central east coast of India as indicator of sea level changes

Author(s) :Rana, S.S.; Nigam, R.; Panchang, R.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 36(4); 2007; 355-360.

Abstract :An attempt has been made to reconstruct sea-level variations along the central east coast of India during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. A total of 39 surface sediment samples collected from water depth range of 27 - 2,777 m were studied for foraminiferal content. The samples within the depth range of 36-110 m showed presence of relict foraminiferal tests along with recent foraminifers. The relict foraminiferal assemblage of Amphistegina, Operculina, Calcarina and Alveolinella in the selected surface samples is characteristic of coral reef environment and has been inferred as evidence or past low sea levels. Based on extrapolation of previously published radiocarbon dates from the region, a pliable sea level curve for the period between approx. 000 to approx. 14,000 years BP is proposed

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera of Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Saraswati, P.K.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 36(4); 2007; 351-354.

Abstract :Eleven genera of symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera, also known as `larger benthic foraminifera, are recorded from the lagoon waters of Lakshadweep. The assemblage is comparable to that of any other high diversity reef assemblages of the Indian and Pacific Oceans and the diversity may even be higher if a detailed study of fore-reef areas is carried out. The potential of these foraminifera as proxy of sea-surface temperature and a tool to monitor the health of coral reefs need to be explored. Recent studies on stable isotopes and trace elements in some selected species of these foraminifera indicate their usefulness as proxy of sea surface temperature. The longer life spans and larger size of the symbiont-bearing species are advantageous to assess their potential as geochemical proxies of palaeoenvironment. The lagoons of Lakshadweep provide natural laboratory for the same and a major initiative is required in this direction.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Cell culture from two Red Sea benthic invertebrates: A case study on the soft Octocorals Dendronephthya klunzingeri and Anthella glauca

Author(s) :Ammar, M.S.A.; Emara, A.M.; Perovic, S.; Wiens, M.; Billinghurst, Z.; Muller, I.M.; Muller, W.E.G.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 33(3); 2007; 39-51.

Abstract :Primmorphs were obtained from single cells of both coral species Dendronephthya klunzingeri and Anthelia glauca following incubation for three or four days during 2001. Both ultraviolet light (UVB; peak of emission of 320 nm) and visible light (wavelength between 400 and 520 nm with a maximum at 480 nm) were applied to the primmorphs as stressors. The following incubation probes have been isolated from D. klunzingeri and were used to monitor the expression of the respective genes in the homologous cell system; the heat-shock protein HSP90 (to monitor general stress responses), the histone H5cDNA (to monitor the cell cycle/proliferation) and the UVS-related protein (response to ultraviolet light) from D. klunzingeri. The data show that the steady state level of HSP90 expression is only upregulated at low level of exposure to UVB (30 J/cm sup(2)), while at stronger irradiation the expression level decreases. The expression of the histone H5 gene is blocked following exposure to UVS. Interestingly, in the absence of UVB no transcripts of UVS-rclated protein can be visualized. However, after exposure of the primmorphs with 30 to 300 J/cm sup(2) a strong upregulation of the expression of the UVS-related gene is seen. The response of the primmorphs to visible light is distinct to that following exposure to UVB. The expression of the gene for histone H5 is significantly upregulated following exposure to UVB, while no expression of the gene UVS-rclated protein can be detected. It is concluded that, the primmorph system is useful to assess potential nature and anthropogenic disturbances on coral cells.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The status of coral reefs in the remote region of Andavadoaka, southwest Madagascar

Author(s) :Nadon, M.-O.; Griffiths, D.; Doherty, E.; Harris, A.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 6(2); 2007; 207-218.

Abstract :Three reef systems (fringing, barrier and patch reefs) were surveyed in the region of Andavadoaka, southwest Madagascar. Patch reefs had the highest coral cover and highest density of coral recruits (approx. 45% and 1.8 m sup(2) recruits), followed by barrier reefs (approx. 12% and 1.3 m sup(-2) recruits) and fringing reefs (approx. 8% and 0.8 m sup(-2) recruits). Sea urchin assemblages varied greatly between reef systems, with fringing reefs being dominated by Echinothrix sp., barrier reefs by the rock-boring sea urchin Echinostrephus molaris and patch reefs by Diadema sp. On all reef types, algae grazing sea urchin densities were six times lower then on overfished reefs elsewhere. The density of commercial invertebrates (e.g., sea cucumbers) did not differ significantly between the relatively unexploited patch reefs versus barrier and fringing reefs, which suggests that these are not yet over-fished in the region. Coral reef fish assemblages were significantly different on each reef system. Reef fish densities were high on both patch and barrier reefs (approx. 170 per 100 nv) compared to fringing reefs (approx. 90 per 100 m sup(2)). These reefs are not direcdy threatened by terrigenous sedimentation, which is considered to be one of the principle causes of reef degradation elsewhere in soudiwest Madagascar's extensive reef system; instead, it is over-fishing that appears to be the main threat to their existence.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Assessing coral community recovery from coral bleaching by recruitment in two reserves in Kenya

Author(s) :Visram, S.; Mwaura, J.; Obura, D.O.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 6(2); 2007; 199-200.

Abstract :In 2003 and 2005, studies were carried out on the density of small coral colonies (<10 cm) on three reefs in the Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve on the southern fringing reef system of Kenya, and on three reefs in the Kiunga Marine National Reserve in the north of the country. All the study sites were impacted by a major coral bleaching event in 1998. A total of 28 coral genera from 12 families were recorded, of which 17 genera were recorded on both northern and southern sites. Two or three genera of corals contributed 50-60% of all small colonies in both regions, with Porites, Coscinarea and Pocillopora the main contributors of small colonies in Kiunga, and Pocillopora being the most abundant genus of small corals in Mombasa in both years. The densities of small colonies were lowest at the northern sites, and small colonies of genera of corals that suffered from high bleaching and mortality during the El Nino Southern Oscillation in 1998 were less abundant in the north. These northern reefs are relatively isolated from sources of coral larvae from reefs in the south, and are seasonally influenced by nutrient-rich, cooler water due to the influence of the Somali Current and the northeast monsoon winds. The data presented here support our preliminary assessment that these northern reefs are less likely to recover by natural recruitment. These reefs are therefore more vulnerable to environmental perturbation such as the conditions that elicited coral bleaching on the study reefs in 1998.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Inventory and spatial assemblage study of reef fish in the area of Andavadoaka, south-west Madagascar (Western Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Gillibrand, C.J.; Harris, A.R.; Mara, E.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 6(2); 2007; 183-197.

Abstract :This study represents the first qualitative census of the reef fish assemblage of coral reefs in the vicinity of Andavadoaka, south-west Madagascar. Observational data offish species sightings were collected over the course of a year, while visual census data, with low observer bias, detailing fish assemblage from the four major reef zones of the area were collected in a shorter 5-week period. A total of three hundred and thirty four (334) species from 58 families were recorded throughout the year, while one hundred and eighty seven (187) species were observed during the shorter assemblage study. The trophic habits of the fish population are comparable with other sites in the Western Indian Ocean, and suggest a healthy fish community, despite evidence of broad-scale damage from coral bleaching and associated mortality. The authors suggest that this can be explained by current relatively low levels of anthropogenic impacts from fishing. However, given the extent of regional reef degradation, fish species diversity may now be particularly vulnerable to future anthropogenic or climatic disturbances, such as increased fishing effort or renewed coral bleaching episodes.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Carbon fluxes at the water-sediment interface in Reunion Island fringing reef

Author(s) :Taddei, D.; Bucas, G.; Clavier, J.; Cuet, P.; Frouin, P.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 6(2); 2007; 137-146.

Abstract :To assess the contribution of soft-bottoms to the carbon cycle in coral reefs, the net community production (p) was measured in winter at 3 stations on La Saline inner reef fiat (Reunion Island). Changes in pH and total alkalinity at different irradiances (I) were assessed using benthic chambers (0.2 m sup(2) during a 1-h incubation. Mean grain size, the silt and clay load and chlorophyll a content of the sediments were analysed in each chamber. Daily community production (P), gross community production (P sub(g)) and community respiration (R) were estimated from p-I curves and daily irradiance variations (PAR, 400-700 nm). Sediment characteristics and chlorophyll a contents did not differ between the three sites, except for the silt and clay fraction at one station. R being higher than P sub(g) (84.88 plus or minus 7.36 and -62.29 plus or minus 3.34 mmolC m sup(-2) d sup(-1) respectively), P value reached 22.59 plus or minus 5.66 mmolC m sup(-2) d sup(-1). The sediments were therefore heterotrophic with a mean P sub(g)/R lower than 1 (0.74 plus or minus 0.05) and appear to be a carbon source. The data suggested the importance of the degradation process in the functioning of near-reef sediments.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reproduction and growth rate of two scleractinian coral species in the northern Red Sea, Egypt

Author(s) :Mohamed, T.A.A.; Kotb, M.M.A.; Ghobashy, A.-F.A.; Deek, M.S.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 33(2); 2007; 70-86.

Abstract :During the present study three sites were chosen to study reproduction and growth of two dominant coral species, Acropora humilis and Stylophora pistillata. The gonad development was followed to determine the breeding season in their localities at Hurghada. Their growth rate in the same localities was also studied. Both species are hermaphrodite but the male gonads take shorter time to develop and to release gametes. The polyp number of ova is about 5 in both species for each sex. Breeding occurs in winter months and releasing of gametes in April for Acropora humilis and planula releasing is during spring. Planula larva was detected inside Stylophora but not in Acropora. Growth rate reached the maximum in summer and the least in winter. Higher annual growth rate for Acropora (7.5 mm) was recorded at Abu Qalawa, while the highest rate for Stylophora (6.68 mm) was recorded at Gotta El-Erg. On the other hand, water currents affect the thickness of S. pistillata branches while in case of A. humilis not affected.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A comparative study of the components of the hard coral Seriatopora hystrix and the soft coral Xenia umbellata along the Jeddah coast, Saudi Arabia

Author(s) :Al-Sofyani, A.A.; Niaz, G.R.

Source :Rev. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr.(3); 2007; 207-219.

Abstract :In this study, the structure of the polyps and the cell types of the hard coral Seriatopora hystrix and the soft coral Xenia umbellata were compared, together with the composition of the fatty acids in their tissues. S. hystrix displayed an apparent lack of specialized feeding cells, notably the relatively small number of mucous gland cells and the low percentage of venom containing nematocysts. P-mastigophores accounted for 1.52-5.7% and, B-mastigophores for 1.28% of the nematocysts. Conversely there was a high percentage of holotrichs nematocysts (24.86 - 55.5%) in the tentacles and mesenterial filaments respectively. Zooxanthellae were abundant in the gastrodermis. These characteristics suggest that S. hystrix relies essentially upon autotrophic nutrition. The polyps of X. umbellata were devoid of cnidae, and mucous glands were in abundance, particularly in the lower part of the polyp. The presence of particulate matter in the coelenteron, and low number of zooxanthellae indicate that X. umbellata is a suspension feeder, using mucus to trap the particles on the pinnate tentacles. Differences were also revealed by a comparative study of their chemical composition. X. umbellata had a high protein and lipid content, whilst S. hystrix was characterized by high calcium carbonate content. In S. hystrix, the fatty acids were found to be predominantly saturated fatty acids (87.3%), the most abundant being 16:0 and 18:0. X. umbellata showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (77.7%), the most abundant being 16:1 and 18:1. The differences in morphology and in biochemical composition suggest that S. hystrix has a greater reliance on autotrophic feeding whilst X. umbellata is a more heterotrophic suspension feeder

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Temporal variations in coral reef health at a coastal industrial site on the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

Author(s) :Al-Zibdah, M.K.; Damhoureyeh, S.A.; Badran, M.I.

Source :Oceanologia: 49(4); 2007; 565-578.

Abstract :A detailed ecological study was conducted for three years (2001û03) on a 5 km stretch of well-developed coral reef facing an industrial site in the southernmost section of the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. The degree of modification associated with the prevailing ecological factors was assessed with respect to species diversity and abundance of the major groups of the macrobenthic community: corals, bivalves, hydrozoans, echinoderms, sponges and macroalgae. Three locations of two depths each - 6 and 12 m - were selected and surveyed using the visual census point-intercept method. The actual area of the survey covered about 2250 m sup(2). Macrobenthic communities occurring close to the industrial jetty were characterized by low diversity and the obvious dominance of soft coral (16û30% cover). In the deep transects (12 m) hard coral cover was higher than that in the shallow transects (30-55%). Correlation analyses indicated that species richness increased with increasing distance from the industrial jetty. Species richness of other macrobenthos was also higher as depth increased. The results revealed that the distribution and abundance of coral, echinoderms, hydrozoans and macroalgae were correlated with the relative importance of bottom modification within the various locations in the entire study area. However, no distinct influence of location or depth on the identities of most macrobenthic species was indicated.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Last glacial deep-water corals from the Red Sea

Author(s) :Taviani, M.; Correa, M.L.; Zibrowius, H.; Montagna, P.; McCulloch, M.; Ligi, M.

Source :Bull. Mar. Sci.: 81(3); 2007; 361-370.

Abstract :The present Red Sea deep-sea benthos appears impoverished with respect to the adjacent Indian mother-ocean as a result of severe filters, represented by an extremely shallow sill, high salinity, and high temperature. Today, the Red Sea basin hosts a still poorly known deep-water coral fauna of Indian Ocean affinity. During the Pleistocene, conditions were at times suitable as proven by the findings of last glacial corals (Javania insignis Duncan, 1876, and Trochocyathus virgatus sensu Marenzeller, 1907 (not Alcock, 1902), and, possibly, Guynia annulata Duncan, 1872) from seamounts in the north-central part of the basin. A subfossil J. insignis from the Coral Sea peak has been U-series-dated at 26,590 plus or minus 120 yrs. This represents the first documentation regarding the presence of deep-water corals in the Red Sea during the late Pleistocene and predates the postulated basin-wide extinction of normal marine biota that took place at the Last Glacial Maximum

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reef - An ecofriendly and cost effective hard option for coastal conservation

Author(s) :Shirlal, K.G.; Rao, S.; Radheshyam, B.; Ganesh, V.

Source :Lakes and Coastal Wetlands: Conservation, Restoration and Management. ed. by: Mohanty, P.K.(Lake 2004, an Int. Conf. on Conservation, Restoration and Management of Lakes and Coastal Wetlands; Bhubaneswar, Orissa (India); 9-13 Dec 2004). Capital Publishing; New Delhi (India); 2007; 203-210.

Abstract :The wave breaking over submerged breakwater causes great turbulence on lee side. Current and turbulence together on lee side of submerged breakwater have a strong power of erosion on a sandy bottom and can thus prevent siltation. They also offer resistance through friction and turbulence created by breakwater interference in wave field causing maximum wave damping and energy dissipation, minimum wave reflection and bottom scour, and maximum sand trapping efficiency. They are also used for coastal protection. The reef is a structure which is little more than a homogeneous pile of stones without a layered structure. The hydrodynamic performance of the reef is investigated based upon physical model study to ascertain its suitability as coastal defense structure. The varying geometry and seaward location and wave transmission at the reef will help in designing an optimum structure.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Stratigraphic distribution and depositional environment of the Chaya Formation along the northwestern coast of Saurashtra Peninsula, Western India

Author(s) :Pandey, D.K.; Bahadur, T.; Mathur, U.B.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 69(6); 2007; 1215-1230.

Abstract :Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basin of Saurashtra along the northwestern coast of India is of great interest for its importance in sea-level and palaeoclimatic studies. Lithostratigraphically, the lithic-units have been grouped into Gaj, Dwarka, Miliolite, Chaya, Katpur and Mahuva Formations in ascending order. Present paper deals with stratigraphic distribution and depositional environment of individual sections of the Chaya Formation. With the addition of a new member, the Chaya Formation now consists of three members; viz. Okha Shell Limestone Member, Aramda Reef Member and Porbandar Calcarenite Member.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Interference of Sigmadocia pumila, a poriferan on the growth of red seaweeds, Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskal) Feldmann et Hamel and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in cultivation

Author(s) :Sahu, N.; Ganesan, M.; Eswaran, K.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 92(12); 2007; 1683-1685.

Abstract :Seaweeds or marine macroalgae form a conspicuous biomass in the coastal regions of the tropics. They are the primary producers in aquatic habitats supporting rich food chains and they oxygenate the aquatic ecosystem1. Seaweeds can be found around the seashore in large amounts, clinging to solid substrates like corals, rocks or shells. Seaweeds interact with other marine organisms including animals which could be sessile or motile. Seaweed-animal interaction is possibly by the way of competition and grazing. Competition involves either scramble for a limiting resource, e.g. space, light and nutrients or without direct antagonism between the organisms. Competitive interactions, particularly between plants and animals, have not been well documented and are poorly understood. The present study reports the unusual interference of Sigmadocia pumila, a poriferan member on growth of commercial seaweeds, viz. Gelidiella acerosa and Kappaphycus alvarezii.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Paleoenvironmental significance of coralline algae from early Miocene Bombay Formation, Bombay Offshore Basin

Author(s) :Kundal, P.; Bhagat, M.B.; Humane, S.K.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 69(2); 2007; 274-278.

Abstract :This note records four nongeniculate coralline algal species viz. Neogoniolithon sp., Sporolithon sp., Mesophyllum sp. and Lithoporella sp. and 3 geniculate coralline algal species Jania sp., Corallina sp. and Subterraniphyllum sp. from the Early Miocene Bombay Formation, Bombay Offshore Basin, India. Based on coralline algal assemblage, it is inferred that the limestone of Bombay Formation was deposited under low to moderate energy conditions with 10 to 20 m water depth.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Heavy metal contents in growth bands of Porites corals: Record of anthropogenic and human developments from the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba

Author(s) :Al-Rousan, S.A.; Al-Shloul, R.N.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Abu-Hilal, A.H.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 54(12); 2007; 1912-1922.

Abstract :In order to assess pollutants and impact of environmental changes in the coastal region of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba, concentrations of six metals were traced through variations in 5 years growth bands sections of recent Porties coral skeleton. X-radiography showed annual growth band patterns extending back to the year 1925. Baseline metal concentrations in Porites corals were established using 35 years-long metal record from late Holocene coral (deposited in pristine environment) and coral from reef that is least exposed to pollution in the marine reserve in the Gulf of Aqaba. The skeleton samples of the collected corals were acid digested and analyzed for their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn content using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). All metal profiles (except Fe and Zn) recorded the same metal signature from recent coral (1925û2005) in which low steady baseline levels were displayed in growth bands older than 1965, similar to those obtained from fossil and unpolluted corals. Most metals showed dramatic increase (ranging from 17% to 300%) in growth band sections younger than 1965 suggesting an extensive contamination of the coastal area since the mid sixties. This date represents the beginning of a period that witnessed increasing coastal activities, constructions and urbanization. This has produced a significant reduction in coral skeletal extension rates. Results from this study strongly suggest that Porites corals have a high tendency to accumulate heavy metals in their skeletons and therefore can serve as proxy tools to monitor and record environmental pollution (bioindicators) in the Gulf of Aqaba

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bacteria associated with the coral Echinopora lamellosa (Esper 1795) in the Indian Ocean - Zanzibar region

Author(s) :Piskorska, M.; Smith, G.; Weil, E.

Source :Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.: 1(5); 2007; 93-98.

Abstract :Infectious diseases are now known to have major effects on the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems throughout the world. The number of recognized coral diseases has increased dramatically. The problem was first recognized in the Caribbean in the early 1970Æs but has now been reported to affect coral communities worldwide. There is little information regarding bacteria associated with diseased corals in the Indian Ocean. However, one of the most common disease signs observed is a rapid loss of tissue leaving exposed white skeleton in contact with compromised tissue, followed by necrosis. These signs have been referred to as white plague in the Caribbean. Similar signs have been observed in the Indo-Pacific and are referred to as white syndrome. The pathogens associated with these disease signs depend on the species and geographic location of the corals. In the Caribbean, the disease was associated with Aurantimonas coralicida and in the Red Sea with Thalassomonas loyaeana, both newly described species. During exploratory surveys in the reefs near Zanzibar in the Indian Ocean, mucus samples were collected from healthy and apparently diseased Echinopora lamellosa (with signs of white syndrome) colonies. Samples were plated on two solid media: GASW (a nonspecific medium) and TCBS (Vibrio selective medium). Growth on TCBS was only found with diseased samples. Culturable isolates were characterized using metabolic profiling. A relatively high prevalence of Class Gamma Proteobacteria was found with diseased samples compared with healthy samples and Vibrio species were well represented in diseased samples.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status of coral reef affected by different impacts in some sites of the Red Sea

Author(s) :Ammar, M.S.A.; Ghobashi, A.A.; Omran, M.A.; Shaaban, A.M.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 33(1); 2007; 224-237.

Abstract :Using SCUBA diving, surveying the coral reef communities at four sites, Red Sea Egypt was done. These sites are: Ras El Behar (polluted by petroleum oil), El-Hamraween (impacted by phosphate shipping), Shabrour Umm Gainar (harmed by recreational activities and has been suffering from the outbreak of Acanthaster planci during 1998) and Kalawy (a control site). The skeletal growth of the coral Stylophora pistillata was promoted greatly at the expense of other corals, in presence of chronic oil pollution (Ras El-Behar). In contrast, this species was completely suppressed in presence of phosphate and sulphur enrichment. Petroleum oil led to coral scarcity, space monopolization by one coral and increased sea urchins and algae. Coral reefs enriched with phosphate in the field, surprisingly was accompanied by extraordinary well flourishing corals. El-Hamraween was the only site having as higher number and abundance of Acropora as the control site. The abundance of Pontes and Pocillopora was higher than the control site. Shabrour Umm Gamar, the she suffering from Acanthaster planci outbreak during 1998, was characterized by soft corals which were more abundant than stony corals, indicating that soft corals have higher rate of growth and recovery than stony corals after Acanthaster planci attack. Hydrocorals were abundant in the control site (kalawy).

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sedimentological and environmental impacts of development projects along the coast of Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt

Author(s) :Mansour, A.M.; Mohamed, A.W.; ElDien, G.K.; Sayed, S.M.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 33(1); 2007; 59-84.

Abstract :The studies areas lay in Hurghada region include different aspects of coastal development It represents different environmental problems and threats to the Red Sea ecosystem and geosystem. They include two tourist projects, a central marina for yachts and fishermen and a site for oil exploration and production. All sits have implemented Environmental Impact Assessment studies (EIA). Unfortunately, dredging and landfilling caused severe coast destruction and shoreline change in these areas. All sites have accurately surveyed and environmental problems cited, oceanographic parameters were measured, and 109 samples were collected from the beach and the tidal flat of four sits forming the study area. Grain size, carbonates and organic master contents, major and trace elements were determined. Cluster analysis and correlations were carried out. The results reflect the impact of coast destruction and shoreline change. Grain size analysis indicated the predominance of coarse grained sediments close to the landfilled areas. Mixtures of terrigenous and biogenic fragments are the main components of these sediments. The distribution of carbonates supports this result where carbonates content is low in the beach area and gradually increases seaward. Fine sands and mud dominate the dredging areas and cover the nearby corals and bottom fades. Results of major and trace elements, total organic matter (TOM), organic carbon (OCX and carbonate contents were used to discuss the sediment characteristics and interpret the abundance of some parameters in the impacted areas. The findings of this study help decision makers to identify anthropogenic impacts and better assess of the needs for remediation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The anthropogenic effluents of the human activities on the Red Sea coast at Hurghada Harbour (case study)

Author(s) :Madkour, H.A.; Dar, M.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 33(1); 2007; 43-58.

Abstract :The heavy metal accumulations in the seawater, coral reefs and two effective fractions of underlying sediments (less than 0.125mm and less than 0.063mm) were studied in the coastal and tidal fiat zones at the main shipyard near of Hurghada Harbour. The area of investigation is very worse whereas, it is considered tailing outlet for both solid and liquid influents of many human activities in/and surrounding the harbour. The solid phases are of construction remains, paint remains, iron pipe rusts, hydrocarbons, plastic bags, metal and wood remains as well as the artificially conglomerate stones that thrown in the in the marine area. The liquid phase is restricted in the continuous brine water draining to the sea from a huge desalination plant (Capacity 5000 cubic meters of freshwater daily) and the bilge water of the boats cooling engines in the mooring zone inside the shipyard marine area. The recorded metals show significant declination seaward in both seawater and sediments. The highest values of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cd in the seawater were recorded at the outlet point of the desalination plant pipeline while the highest values in the sediments were recorded at the beach zone whereas the dumped materials were concentrated. The finest fraction sediments (less than 0.63mm) recorded high concentrations of the toxic metals; Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cd than the coarsest one. Pb in sediments recorded high reading in the boat mooring zone in the two sediment fractions relative to the beach zone and inside the sea. The recorded coral reefs are new generations (recruits) mostly of the massive forms. These corals were growing over, conglomerate stones, rusted iron plates, plastic remains and car tires dumped to the zone. The metal concentrations in these corals are high relative to their age and the recorded metals in world. This study indicated that some coastal activities as; the shipyards and desalination plants are environmentally antagonistic and must be monitored continuously in order to decrease their effluents to the tidal flat zones. Also, it is obvious that the new coral generations are able to accommodate with the inconvenient conditions.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Differing effects of thermal stress on coral fertilization and early embryogenesis in four Indo Pacific species

Author(s) :Negri, A.P.; Marshall, P.A.; Heyward, A.J.

Source :Coral Reefs: 26(4); 2007; 759-763.

Abstract :Coral reefs are expected to be severely impacted by rising seawater temperatures associated with climate change. The fertilization and early embryogenesis of four reef-building coral species representing three Indo-Pacific families were examined in a series of laboratory experiments where temperatures were increased up to 5-6 degrees C at ambient. High levels of fertilization and normal embryogenesis were observed for Favites abdita, F. chinensis and Mycedium elephantotus at temperatures to 32 degrees C (+5 degrees C) and embryos developed normally until the 5th cell cleavage. Acropora millepora was the only species to the affected by higher temperatures, exhibiting significantly reduced fertilization and a higher frequency of embryonic abnormalities at 32 degrees C (+4 degrees C), and fertilization ceased altogether at 34 degrees C (+6 degrees C). Early cell cleavage rates increased with temperature up to 32 degrees C for all species

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tidal fish connectivity of reef and sea grass habitats in the Indo-Pacific

Author(s) :Unsworth, R.K.F.; Bell, J.J.; Smith, D.J.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.: 87; 2007; 1287-1296.

Abstract :The present study considered the influence of the tide on shallow water fish assemblages within the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia. Timed underwater visual observations were made across a gradient of intertidal to subtidal habitats from near-shore to reef crest at different tidal heights. Transient fish were found to dominate shallow water fish assemblages and the assemblage composition varied with tidal state. Fish assemblages were more diverse and abundant at higher tides in both coral and sea grass habitats, however, this was more pronounced within sea grass habitats. A tidal reduction from &#8776;2.0m to &#8776;0.8m (above chart datum) corresponded to a 30% reduction in fish abundance, while species richness also significantly decreased from 13.5 to 10.8 species per standardized timed observation. Fifty fish groups were reported from sea grass habitats with the most abundant being from the Engraulidae family and Lethrinus harak, which form important local subsistence fisheries. This research confirms the importance of tidal changes in structuring the fish fauna of Indonesian sea grass habitats and underlines the connectivity that exists between these habitats and nearby coral reefs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Predominance of clade D Symbiodinium in shallow-water reef-building corals of Kish and Larak Islands (Persian Gulf, Iran)

Author(s) :Mostafavi, P.G.; Fatemi, S.M.R.; Shahhosseiny, M.H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Loh, W.K.W.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 153(1); 2007; 25-34.

Abstract :Scleractinian coral species harbour communities of photosynthetic taxa of the genus Symbiodinium. As many as eight genetic clades (A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H) of Symbiodinium have been discovered using molecular biology. These clades may differ from each other in their physiology, and thus influence the ecological distribution and resilience of their host corals to environmental stresses. Corals of the Persian Gulf are normally subject to extreme environmental conditions including high salinity and seasonal variation in temperature. This study is the first to use molecular techniques to identify the Symbiodinium of the Iranian coral reefs to the level of phylogenetic clades. Samples of eight coral species were collected at two different depths from the eastern part of Kish Island in the northern Persian Gulf, and Larak Island in the Strait of Hormuz. Partial 28S nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA of Symbiodinium (D1/D2 domains) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were analyzed using single stranded conformational polymorphism and phylogenetic analyses of the LSU DNA sequences from a subset of the samples. The results showed that Symbiodinium populations were generally uniform among and within the populations of eight coral species studied, and there are at least two clades of Symbiodinium from Kish and Larak islands. Clade D was detected from eight of the coral species while clade C was found in two of species only (one species hosted two clades simultaneously). The dominance of clade D might be explained by high temperatures or the extreme temperature variation, typical of the Persian Gulf

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Possible effects of downwelling on the recruitment of coral reef fishes to the Eilat (Red Sea) coral reefs

Author(s) :Ben-Tzvi, O.; Kiflawi, M.; Gildor, H.; Abelson, A.

Source :Limnol. Oceanogr.: 52(6); 2007; 2618-2628.

Abstract :Water current measurements were compared with data on the recruitment of reef fishes to a coral reef in Eilat, Red Sea for two consecutive recruitment seasons. There was a clear correlation between the daily number of recruits and the magnitude of the downwelling flow, suggesting that an increase in offshore (near bottom) flow induces higher recruitment. The higher recruitment may be the result of larval swimming against the flow. Although the exact mechanism explaining this correlation is unclear, it may involve odor transport from the reef by the downwelling currents, which reaches competent larvae in deeper water and directs them to potential settlement sites

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Microhabitats and ecomorphology of coral- and coral rock-associated gobiid fish (Teleostei: Gobiidae) in the northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Herler, J.

Source :Mar. Ecol.: 28(S1); 2007; 82-94.

Abstract :Twenty-one coral- and coral rock-associated gobiid fish species were examined in the Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea in autumn 2003 and spring 2004. They represent the seven genera Bryaninops, Eviota, Gobiodon, Paragobiodon, Pleurosicya, Priolepis and Trimma. All species showed clear spatial niche segregation. Branching corals of the genus Acropora were obligatorily inhabited by Gobiodon spp., while Paragobiodon echinocephalus was restricted to Stylophora pistillata. Three Bryaninops species showed species-specific associations with Acropora spp., Millepora dichotoma and Cirripathes sp. Most of the five Eviota species had weak associations with live corals but frequented coral rock. Among the genus Pleurosicya, two species were encountered. Pleurosicya micheli frequented massive scleractinian corals, while P. prognatha occupied various species of Acropora. Priolepis semidoliata was only ccasionally observed on coral rock. Weak associations with scleractinian corals were documented in Trimma avidori and T. mendelssohni, both of which inhabit coral rock. Principal component and cluster analyses showed several morphological features to be important ecomorphological traits. Gobiid species inhabiting encrusting or massive corals have a more depressed body than species in branching corals. Eye size was well correlated with preferred water depth, especially in the coral-associated species. A typical gobiid feature û the pelvic disc û was found in very different character states, and corresponded to preferred microhabitats. A well-developed suctorial pelvic disc was typical for obligate coral-dwellers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Rupture kinematics of the 2005 M sub(w) 8.6 NiasûSimeulue earthquake from the joint inversion of seismic and geodetic data

Author(s) :Konca, A.O.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Song, T-R.A.; Avouac, J.P.; Helmberger, D.V.; Ji, C.; Sieh, K.; Briggs, R.; Meltzner, A.

Source :Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.: 97(1A); 2007; S307-S322.

Abstract :The 2005 Mw 8.6 NiasûSimeulue earthquake was caused by rupture of a portion of the Sunda megathrust offshore northern Sumatra. This event occurred within an array of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) stations and produced measurable vertical displacement of the fringing coral reefs above the fault rupture. Thus, this earthquake provides a unique opportunity to assess the source characteristics of a megathrust event from the joint analysis of seismic data and near-field static co-seismic displacements. Based on the excitation of the normal mode data and geodetic data, relatively tight constraints on the seismic moment and the fault dip is put, where the dip is determined to be 8 degrees to 10 degrees with corresponding moments of 1.24 x 10 sup(22) to 1.00 x 10 sup(22) N m, respectively. The geodetic constraints on slip distribution help to eliminate the trade-off between rupture velocity and slip kinematics. Source models obtained from the inversion of various combinations of the teleseismic body waves and geodetic data are evaluated by comparing predicted and observed long-period seismic waveforms (100-500 sec). Our results indicate a relatively slow average rupture velocity of 1.5 to 2.5 km/sec and long average rise time of up to 20 sec. The earthquake nucleated between two separate slip patches, one beneath Nias and the other beneath Simeulue Island. The gap between the two patches and the hypocentral location appears to be coincident with a local geological disruption of the forearc. Coseismic slip clearly tapers to zero before it reaches the trench probably because the rupture propagation was inhibited when it reached the accretionary prism. Using the models from joint inversions, we estimate the peak ground velocity on Nias Island to be about 30 cm/sec, an order of magnitude slower than for thrust events in continental areas. This study emphasizes the importance of utilizing multiple datasets in imaging seismic ruptures.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coseismic slip and afterslip of the great M sub(w) 9.15 SumatraûAndaman earthquake of 2004

Author(s) :Chlieh, M.; Avouac, J.-P.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Song, T-R.A.; Ji, C.; Sieh, K.; Sladen, A.; Hebert, H.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; Galetzka, J.

Source :Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.: 97(1A); 2007; S152-S173.

Abstract :Coseismic and the first-month postseismic deformation associated with the SumatraûAndaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 from near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra and along the Nicobar-Andaman islands, continuous and campaign GPS measurements from Thailand and Malaysia, and in situ and remotely sensed observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs are determined. The coseismic model shows that the Sunda subduction megathrust ruptured over a distance of about 1500 km and a width of less than 150 km, releasing a total moment of 6.7-7.0 x 10 sup(22) N m, equivalent to a magnitude M sub(w) approx. 9.15. The latitudinal distribution of released moment in our model has three distinct peaks at about 4 degrees N, 7 degrees N, and 9 degrees N, which compares well to the latitudinal variations seen in the seismic inversion and of the analysis of radiated T waves. The coseismic model is also consistent with interpretation of normal modes and with the amplitude of very-long-period surface waves. The tsunami predicted from this model fits relatively well the altimetric measurements made by the JASON and TOPEX satellites. Neither slow nor delayed slip is needed to explain the normal modes and the tsunami wave. The near-field geodetic data that encompass both coseismic deformation and up to 40 days of postseismic deformation require that slip must have continued on the plate interface after the 500-sec-long seismic rupture. The postseismic geodetic moment of about 2.4 x 10 sup(22) N m (M sub(w) approx. 8.8) is equal to about 30 plus or minus 5% of the coseismic moment release. Evolution of postseismic deformation is consistent with rate-strengthening frictional afterslip

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Dar es Salaam seascape: A case study of an environmental management 'Hotspot'

Author(s) :Wagner, G.M.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 6(1); 2007; 85-109.

Abstract :The Dar es Salaam seascape contains a variety of interacting coastal and marine ecosystems that support diverse resources, upon which human life has depended for centuries. This paper applies the UNEP Human-Environment Interaction Analytical Approach to examine the changes that have taken place in this seascape over the past few decades. The main drivers of change have been rapid population growth, poverty and inadequate education, together with global climate change. The main pressures have been destructive fishing practices, mangrove harvesting, overfishing, tourism infrastructure and polluting emissions. These pressures have resulted in substantial negative environmental state changes, e.g., habitat loss and degradation, biodiversity loss and disturbance of food webs, and coastal erosion/accretion. Thus, the Dar es Salaam seascape has become an environmental æhotspotÆ of degradation, with consequent negative impacts on human well-being such as loss of livelihoods and reduction in the availability of food, building materials and firewood. Since the early 1990s, responses or interventions by government bodies, NGOs and integrated coastal management programmes, operating at the national level and at localized levels, have targeted only limited areas of the seascape. Despite these management efforts, there are many critical outstanding and emerging issues that remain unresolved. The paper concludes that it is not effective to manage the seascape in a æpiecemealÆ fashion and recommends that an integrated coastal management programme should be established to cover the entire Dar es Salaam seascape.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A ten-year period of daily sea surface temperature at a coastal station in Reunion Island, Indian Ocean (July 1993-April 2004): Patterns of variability and biological responses

Author(s) :Conand, F.; Marsac, F.; Tessier, E.; Conand, C.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 6(1); 2007; 1-16.

Abstract :Sea surface temperature (SST) was recorded hourly by an automatic data recorder in Reunion Island, at Pointe des Galets (21 degrees 55 minutes S, 55 degrees 17 minutes E) during 1993-2004. The data logger was installed on a beacon located at the port entrance exposed to the open sea. The SST measurements associated with auxiliary environmental data, such as wind stress, depict the main patterns of variability at various timescales for the marine climate of Reunion Island. The 'ten-year' annual mean temperature is 25.7 degrees C and the annual amplitude is 4.6 degrees C. The highest monthly means are observed in February and March (28.0 degrees C) and the lowest occur in September (23.4 degrees C). The daily variation ranges from 0.25 to 0.74 degrees C according to the season. In summer, the tropical cyclones are the major cause of short term variability, with sudden drops of SST than can exceed 2 degrees C within a few hours. The annual cycle of SST is closely associated with that of wind stress, with a lagged response of about 2 months of SST to wind forcing. Throughout the 'ten-year period' covered by our dataset, the coldest years were 1993 and 2000, and the warmest were 2003 and 2004. A trend of increasing SST is suggested for the two major seasons, with a magnitude of 0.088 degrees C/yr in summer and 0.052 degrees C/yr in winter. Finally, the SST trend and variability depicted at our sampling site is shown to reflect the SST patterns of the whole south tropical Indian Ocean. Biological responses to SST variability are shown by coral bleaching events and the local tuna fishery. The major coral bleaching events recorded in Reunion in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2004 occurred during episodes of intense and sustained anomalous high temperatures. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the local pelagic fishery was negatively correlated to SST anomalies with a decreasing trend of CPUE observed over the years, accompanied by an overall increase of SST. The SST observations made in Reunion Island, in a largely unsampled region of the Indian Ocean, show their relevance at a larger regional scale and their usefulness in monitoring changes of some biological components of the marine ecosystem. These examples highlight the need to maintain networks of automatic loggers worldwide at coastal stations

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Oil spill sensitivity analysis and risk assessment for Gulf of Kachchh, India, using integrated modeling

Author(s) :Kankara, R.S.; Subramanian, B.R.

Source :J. Coast. Res.: 23(5); 2007; 1251-1258.

Abstract :Oil-related activities such as single point mooring (SPM), installation, navigation, marine transportation, and oil exploration all have the potential to cause oil spills and pose major threats to the coastal ecosystem along the Indian coast. The Gulf of Kachchh, a biologically rich ecosystem composed of mudflats, submergible shoals, islands, sandy beaches, rocky shore, coral reefs, and mangroves, is located along the northwest coast of India. Its proximity to the Persian Gulf has attracted the establishment of facilities for transferring, piping, and loading of crude oil and petroleum products, mainly the Arabian crude. The marine ecosystem of the gulf is always at risk due to accidental and operational oil spills in the gulf. In this paper, an attempt is made to identify the resources that are at risk due to such oil spills. An integrated numerical simulation modeling approach has been applied to generate the probable oil trajectory and fate analysis, and the results have been integrated into geographic information systems (GIS) to locate and estimate the resources at risk. Sensitivity analysis of the resources available in the study area was carried out in order to set the resource protection priorities in the event of an oil spill.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Dynamics of the coastal boundary layer off Perth, Western Australia

Author(s) :Zaker, N.H.; Imberger, J.; Pattiaratchi, C.

Source :J. Coast. Res.: 23(5); 2007; 1112-1130.

Abstract :Field measurements were used to investigate circulation, mixing processes, and variations in temperature and salinity in the coastal boundary layer off Perth, Western Australia. This region is characterized by a low amplitude diurnal tidal regime, a strong southwesterly summer sea breeze, and topography dominated by submerged barrier reefs. Subinertial current dynamics were analyzed using a simplified depth-averaged alongshore momentum equation. Offshore of the reefs, the results showed a balance between wind stress, alongshore pressure gradient, and bottom friction and acceleration forces. The alongshore pressure gradient contributed to accelerating the water body, but wind was the dominant driving force for a majority of the time. Onshore of the reefs (lagoonal waters), the alongshore dynamic balance was mainly between wind stress and bottom friction. The temperature variability in Perth coastal waters was in agreement with the seasonal variations in the net airûsea heat flux. The exchange rates between lagoonal waters in the area and the adjacent shelf waters were estimated, and the results showed an estimated flushing time of 4 to 13 days for the lagoonal waters. The seasonal variations of salinity in the area were dominated by changes in the salinity of the offshore waters and local discharge of groundwater. The vertical structure of the nearshore water was found to be dominated by wind mixing. In summer, solar heating in the morning stratified the water column, the sea breeze mixed the water column in the afternoon, and convective cooling at night sustained this mixing until the early morning; in winter the water column generally remained mixed throughout the day.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tsunami impacts in the Republic of Seychelles, western Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Hagan, A.B.; Spencer, T.; Stoddart, D.R.; Loustau-Lalanne, M.; Renaud, R.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 149-164.

Abstract :Temporal and spatial characteristics of the December 2004 tsunami in the Republic of Seychelles, Western Indian Ocean are described, with particular reference to the detailed water level record from the Pointe La Rue tide-gauge, Mahe, and tsunami run-up characteristics on Mahe and Praslin. Assessments of tsunami impacts on coastal and shallow marine environments in the granitic islands of the Northern Seychelles, and on the coral islands of selected locations in the Southern Seychelles, are reported. The lack of noticeable impacts within the southern islands compared to those further north appears to be related to both reduced tsunami wave heights to the south and to differences in regional bathymetry, the tsunami being accentuated by the shelf seas of the Seychelles Bank in the north and not amplified around the southern islands surrounded by deep water.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effects of the tsunami in the Chagos Archipelago

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.R.C.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 135-148.

Abstract :The five atolls and numerous submerged atolls and banks of the Chagos Archipelago are all separated from each other by very deep water, and there are no broad or gently shallowing shelves between the atolls and the site of origin of the December 2004 tsunami. Effects of the recent tsunami in Chagos were mixed. The vegetation of some islands has been damaged in places, but nowhere very extensively. Following an inspection of many islands in all 5 atolls in February 2005, it was clear that the results of the tsunami must be looked at in the context of the shoreline erosion that is taking place in these islands. It appears likely that the tsunami accelerated coastal erosion by 1 -2 years on eastern sides at least. Almost all damage seen on land was on eastern sides, where undergrowth vegetation was stripped away in several places, leaving only mature palms. In the sublittoral, most of these eastern areas had low cover by stony and soft corals, but this was also the case in 1999 and 2001 when coral and soft coral cover was drastically reduced, whose cause was attributed to the 1998 mass mortality. Most areas which now have low benthic cover used to be dominated by soft rather than hard corals; soft corals have shown poor recovery to date in any location in this archipelago. Most western facing seaward reefs previously dominated by stony corals show stronger coral recovery from 1998 than do most eastern facing seaward locations. However, some western facing seaward slopes on Diego Garcia still show very low cover, as was the case in 1999 and 2001. There is no consistent pattern to suggest that the tsunami had any widespread sublittoral impacts, and present coral and soft coral cover appears to be much more strongly determined by the legacy of 1998 and differential recruitment of benthic groups. Substantial movement of sand was observed on eastern and southern Salomon atoll, and shoreline erosion was marked in many places in all atolls. Refraction around atolls was minimal such that, with one exception, no damage was seen on western sides of atolls.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Impact of the Sumatran tsunami on the geomorphology and sediments of reef islands: South Maalhosmadulu Atoll, Maldives

Author(s) :Kench, P.S.; Nichol, S.L.; McLean, R.F.; Smithers, S.G.; Brander, R.W.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 105-134.

Abstract :Mid-ocean atoll islands are perceived as fragile landforms being physically susceptible to climate change, sea level rise and extreme events such as hurricanes and tsunami. The Sumatran tsunami of 26 December 2004 generated waves that reached reef islands in the Maldives 2,500 km away, that were up to 2.5 m high. Here we present observations of the affects of the tsunami, based on pre- and post-tsunami topographic and planform surveys of 13 uninhabited islands in South Maalhosmadulu atoll, central Maldives. In contrast to the devastation along the continental coasts subjected to the tsunami, and also to the infrastructure on inhabited resort, village, capital and utility islands in the Maldives, our surveys show there was no extreme island erosion or significant change in vegetated island area (generally <5%). Instead, the tsunami accentuated predictable seasonal (monsoonal) oscillations in shoreline change promoting localised retreat of exposed island scarps, commonly by up to 6 m; deposition of cuspate spits to leeward; and, vertical island building through overwash deposition, up to 0.3 m thick, of sand and coral clasts covering a maximum 17% of island area. The main erosional and depositional signatures associated with the tsunami were scarping and gullying, and sand sheets and spits respectively. It is believed that these signatures will be ephemeral and not permanent features of the Maldivian islandscape.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effects of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Rasdhoo and northern Ari Atolls, Maldives

Author(s) :Gischler, E.; Kikinger, R.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 93-103.

Abstract :Due to the steep rise of the Maldives from the Indian Ocean sea bed, a considerable amount of energy of the December 2004 tsunami was apparently reflected and prohibited the building of a very high wave, thereby sparing the Maldives a similar catastrophe as, e.g., Sri Lanka or Sumatra. The islands on the eastern atoll chain were most heavily affected. Kuramathi and the other islands in Rasdhoo Atoll (Rasdhoo, Madivaru, Veligandu) were only minimally affected by the December 2004 tsunami, presumably due to the location of Rasdhoo in the western atoll chain and the fact that the marginal reef is almost continuous. The damage to the reefs was related to their exposition, topography, and species composition. In general, the reef damage was not heavy in this area. Diving in northern Ari Atoll showed a similar picture as in Rasdhoo Atoll. The 1998 bleaching event was much more devastating for the reefs in this region than the December 2004 tsunami

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The influence of the Indian Ocean tsunami on coral reefs of Western Thailand, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Phongsuwan, N.; Brown, B.E.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 79-91.

Abstract :Coral reefs of the west coast of Thailand were minimally affected by the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004. Results of rapid assessment surveys prior to the present study revealed that only 13% of 174 sites visited along the west coast of Thailand were severely damaged with 60% of sites showing little or no damage. These preliminary results were confirmed in the present study by an evaluation of 17 long-term monitoring sites where reef assessment had been regularly made over the last 15-25 years. Only four of these sites showed marked damage with reductions of coral cover in the order of 5-16%, though it was estimated that coral cover had been reduced by approximately 40% on the southwest tip of Pai Island in Krabi Province where long-term monitoring had not been carried out prior to the tsunami. At impacted sites, damage consisted of overturned massive corals, broken branching corals and smothering of corals by sediments and coral rubble with these effects being greatest in shallow waters. No clear patterns were observed in terms of coral diversity at damaged locations pre- and post- tsunami. Overall damage was extremely localized affecting only small sectors of reef which were exposed to the Ml force of the tsunami waves. It is estimated that damaged sites will recover naturally in a time span of 5-10 years provided there is no major setback such as bleaching-induced coral mortality.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Disturbance to coral reefs in Aceh, northern Sumatra: Impacts of the Sumatra-Andaman tsunami and pre-tsunami degradation

Author(s) :Cambell, S.J.; Pratchett, M.S.; Anggoro, A.W.; Ardiwijaya, R.L.; Fadli, N.; Herdiana, Y.; Kartawijaya, T.; Mahyiddin, D.; Mukminin, A.; Pardede, S.T.; Rudi, E.; Siregar, A.M.; Baird, A.H.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 55-78.

Abstract :The Sumatra-Andaman tsunami of 26 December 2004 was the first to occur in areas for which good ecological data existed prior to the event and consequently provided a unique opportunity to assess the effects of this type of natural disturbance in tropical marine ecosystems. Less than 100 days after the event we visited 49 sites on coral reefs in northern Aceh. Indonesia, all within 300 km of the epicentre, to determine the nature and extent of tsunami damage and pre-tsunami disturbance. Reef fish diversity and abundance were also assessed in relation to tsunami impact and existing marine resource management regulations. At these sites, the initial damage to corals, while occasionally spectacular, was surprisingly limited and trivial when compared to pre-existing damage most probably caused by destructive fishing practices. The abundance of up-turned corals was highly dependent on habitat and largely restricted to corals growing in unconsolidated substrata at depth, a feature we believe unique to tsunami disturbance. Other evidence of tsunami damage, including the abundance of broken corals and recently killed corals was patchy and varied unpredictably between sites: reef aspect, geographic location and management regime had no significant effect on these variables with the exception of broken live corals which were more abundant at locations where the tsunami was larger. Interestingly, there was little correlation between damage variables, suggesting the type of damage observed was strongly influenced by which corals were present at a particular site or depth. In contrast, reef condition was clearly correlated with the management regime. Coral cover was on average 2-3 times higher on reefs managed under the traditional Acehnese system, Panglima Laut, and in the Pulau Rubiah Marine Park when compared to open access areas. Turf algae and coral rubble were 2-3 times

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tsunami impacts in Aceh province and North Sumatra, Indonesia

Author(s) :Hagen, A.B.; Foster, R.; Perera, N.; Gunawan, C.A.; Silaban, I.; Yaha, Y.; Manuputty, Y.; Hazam, I.; Hodgson, G.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 37-54.

Abstract :The huge earthquake and resulting tsunami which occurred on December 26, 2004 off the west coast of Sumatra resulted in regionally variable patterns of impact in and around the Indian Ocean basin. The coast of Sumatra was close to the earthquake epicenter and was the first to be struck, within one hour of the event. A collaborative expedition between the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation, Reef Check International and IUCN (World Conservation Union) to the northwest coast of Sumatra and Aceh Province, Indonesia, was conducted in October 2005. Reef surveys were conducted using two methods: Manta Tow and the Reef Check Plus protocol. A total of 9 sites (8 offshore island sites and 1 mainland Aceh site) were surveyed over a distance of 650 km. Typically tsunami damage was observed as overturned coral colonies and tree debris on the reef. Over half of the reefs surveyed indicated that there had been no tsunami damage and only 15% of the sites surveyed indicated a high level of damage. However, even in areas where severe tsunami damage was recorded and corals were killed as a result of the event, there were still large areas of intact reef present, which will be able to repopulate the damaged reef in the future. Similar post-tsunami surveys in Thailand suggest that full recovery of these reefs should occur within the next 5-10 years. There was evidence that the earthquake caused both uplift and subsidence of some islands. These processes have resulted in three impacts on reefs: 1) extensive mortality of uplifted reef-flat corals, 2) the bringing of reef-front corals into the reef-flat zone and 3) the relocation of reef-flat communities to the reef-front. Both uplift and subsidence therefore have implications for near-future reef ecosystem dynamics in the region.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reefs and the tsunami of 26 December 2004: Generating processes and ocean-wide patterns of impact

Author(s) :Spencer, T.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 544; 2007; 1-36.

Abstract :This paper attempts to place the December 2004 tsunami in its contemporary, historical and possible near-future tectonic contexts. It also attempts to provide a regional synthesis which highlights the regional variability in tsunami wave characteristics. It is hoped that individual site reports on tsunami impacts of coral reefs and associated shallow marine ecosystems can be placed within this framework and thus better understood.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The distribution of molluscan assemblages and their postmortem fate on coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba (northern Red Sea)

Author(s) :Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 151(6); 2007; 2217-2230.

Abstract :Molluscan assemblages were studied on fringing reefs (reef flats, Millepora-fringing reefs, fringing reefs with massive corals) and fore-reef hard substrata (coral patches, coral carpets and small patch reefs) in the Gulf of Aqaba at water depths ranging from the intertidal to 26 m. A total of 1,665 molluscan individuals from 51 taxa was counted on 44 transects, which covered 220 m sup(2) at eight diving sites. The most important molluscs in the assemblage were the parasitic gastropod Coralliophila neritoidea, the encrusting gastropod Dendropoma maxima and the coralassociated bivalve Pedum spondyloideum. The dead assemblage, in contrast, was dominated by encrusting bivalves (Ostreoidea, Chamoidea, Spondylidae) and the coral-predating gastropod Drupella cornus. Distinct molluscan assemblages inhabit each of the three fringing reef-habitats and most of the important depth-related community changes occurred within the uppermost 5 m. In contrast, the three deeper fore-reef habitats are characterized by a more uniform molluscan composition. Molluscan assemblages were more dependent on substrata and their coral associations than on water depth. Comparisons with other published studies indicate that reefoidal hard substrata in the northern Red Sea are largely characterized by similar species-abundance patterns. The minor differences to other Red Sea studies probably reflect the northern, isolated position of the Gulf of Aqaba, the lack of certain molluscan habitats, and the differential impact of anthropogenic influences. Strong differences between living and dead assemblages in Aqaba are similar to those observed in other regions and are due to distinct biases in the dead assemblage. Molluscs closely associated with living corals (mostly bivalves and Dendropoma) can easily be overgrown after death and are thus undetectable in visual censuses. Some gastropod taxa are preferentially transported into surrounding soft-substrata postmortem or redistributed by hermit crabs. Such complex relationships between ecology and taphonomy are crucial in evaluating the quality of the molluscan fossil record in coral reef environments. The comparison of our results with literature data documents an increase in coral predators during the last two decades in the northern Red Sea. Due to the greater mollusc biodiversity in the shallower Aqaba reef habitats, damage to this coral reef zone would have the greatest impact on the overall mollusc community.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Life in the oceanic realms

Author(s) :Raghukumar, C.

Source :Resonance: 12(6); 2007; 24-42.

Abstract :The marine environment includes the nutrient-rich coastal waters, relatively nutrient-poor open oceanic waters, coral reef atolls, metal-rich hydrothermal vent fluids with temperatures of 200-350 degrees C, cold-seeps, estuaries, mangrove swamps, intertidal beaches and rocky shores. Oceans are home to some of the most diverse and unique life forms. This article is an attempt to introduce some of the fundamentals of biological oceanography and marine biology to describe life in the sea.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Mineral resources of the beaches and shallow sea around Indian coasts

Author(s) :Mallik, T.K.

Source :Bull. Indian Geol. Congress: 1(2); 2007; 80-87.

Abstract :The mineral deposits of the land will be exhausted one day due to industrial growth and continuous exploitation by man. It is essential lo search an alternative source. Nearly 7000 km of Indian coast and the shallower portion of the seas is the obvious choice for detail exploration and exploitation. Mineral deposits of this region falls under two categories: (1) those derived from the adjacent land areas are called terrigenous deposits and (2) those derived by biological activity are called the biogenous deposits. There are some other deposits like manganese, phosphorite or barium nodules formed by chemical action and usually occurring in deeper waters are known as chemogenous deposits. The placer deposits belonging to the first group and the calcareous sand deposits derived from corals are important since these can be explored and exploited easily and can get a quick return from these deposits: Only these two deposits are discussed in some detail presently. The placer deposits are resistant, high specific gravity minerals associated with beaches, rivers, dunes and near shore marine environment selectively concentrated due to sorting in these zones. Heavy mineral placers are reported from a number of localities around Indian coasts. Rich deposits occur in Kerala, Tamilnadu , Maharashtra and Orissa. They are being mined at Chavra, Manavalakurichi and Chatrapur-Gopalpur area by the Indian Rare Earths Ltd. Extensive exploration work has been carried out by GSI, AMD, NIO etc in several sectors Calcareous sand deposits derived from the Corals occur extensively in the lagoons and shallow offshore areas of the Lakshadweep islands situated about 200-300 km away from the western Indian coast. Detail survey and exploration has proved the existence of more than 288 m tonnes of very pure calcareous sands upto 1m below the lagoon floor. The sands are suitable for a number of industries like cement; calcium carbide, paper etc. and the resources arc enormous. However it may be relevant to decide to what extent these fragile ecosystems can be used to gain maximum profit without causing any damage to the delicate environmental balance. Shell deposits of Vembanad Lake, Kerala is being used for manufacture of cement.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Western Indian Ocean coral communities: Bleaching responses and susceptibility to extinction

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.; Ateweberhan, M.; Graham, N.A.J.; Wilson, S.K.; Sebastian, C.R.; Guillaume, M.M.M.; Bruggemann, J.H.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 337; 2007; 1-13.

Abstract :A field study of coral bleaching and coral communities was undertaken spanning 8 countries and approx. 35 degrees of latitude in 2005. This was combined with studies in southern Kenya and northeast Madagascar in 1998 and Mauritius in 2004 to develop a synoptic analysis of coral community structure, bleaching response, susceptibility of the communities to bleaching, and the relative risk of extinctions in western Indian Ocean coral reefs. Cluster analysis identified 8 distinct coral communities among the 91 sites sampled, with 2 distinct communities in northern South Africa and central Mozambique, a third in the central atolls of the Maldives, and 5 less differentiated groups, in a swath from southern Kenya to Mauritius, including Tanzania, the granitic islands of the Seychelles, northeast Madagascar, and Reunion. Massive Porites, Pavona, and Pocillopora dominated the central and northern Indian Ocean sites and, from historical records, replaced dominance by Acropora and Montipora. From southern Kenya to Mauritius, coral communities were less disturbed, with Acropora and Montipora dominating, and a mix of subdominants including branching Porites, Fungia, Galaxea, massive Porites, Pocillopora, and Synarea. The survey identified an area from southernmost Kenya to Tanzania as having the least disturbed and highest diversity reefs, and as being a regional priority for management. Taxa vulnerable to future extinction based on their response to warm water, population density, and commonness include largely low-diversity genera with narrow environmental ranges, such as Gyrosmilia interrupta, Plesiastrea versipora, Plerogyra sinuosa, and Physogyra lichtensteini.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Monitoring of heavy metal partitioning in reef corals of Lakshadweep Archipelago, Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Anu, G.; Kumar, N.C.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, S.M.

Source :Environ. Monit. Assess.: 128(1-3); 2007; 195-208.

Abstract :This paper focuses on the partitioning of trace metals in five selected coral species from Lakshadweep Archipelago, which remains as one of the least studied areas in the Indian Ocean. Based on the morphological features, selected coral species are classified as massive (Porites andrewsi), ramose or branching (Lobophyllia corymbosa, Acropora Formosa and Psammocora contigua) and foliaceous (Montipora digitata). Relating trace metal concentrations with morphological features in skeleton, highest concentrations of all the trace metals (except Zn) were reported for the ramose type corals. In tissue, all the metals (essential as well as non essential) showed highest concentrations within the branching type corals. Irrespective of their growth characteristics/pattern, all species except P. contigua displayed higher concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn and Cd within their skeleton compared to tissue which may exemplify a regulatory mechanism to avoid the build up of the concentrations of these metals in their bio-part, strikingly toxic metals like Cd and Pb. The concentrations of trace metals in the skeleton and tissues of these coral species were subjected to 3 way ANOVA based on non standardized original data and the results showed significant differences between metals and between species leading to high skeleton/tissue û species interaction as well as skeleton/tissue û metal interaction. The significant values of studentÆs t calculated are depicted in the form of Trellis diagrams.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :How to influence environmental decision makers? The case of Eilat (Red Sea) coral reefs

Author(s) :Loya, Y.

Source :J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.: 344(1); 2007; 35-53.

Abstract :The purpose of this paper is not to defend my earlier work, or my recent publications dealing with the state of Eilat's reef, but to call attention to the severe state of the reef, (contrasting Rinkevich's declarations) and the urgent need to protect it. Some of the major issues presented in this paper include: (1) Discussion on whether the Eilat reefs have been continuously degrading, severely damaged (especially in the last decade) and at present exists in a critical state (Loya's assertion), or perhaps are exhibiting a recent surprising resurrection/rehabilitation as interpreted and presented by Atkinson et al. (2004) and Rinkevich in his synopsis. (2) Rinkevich's claimthat past long-term baseline studies on Eilat's coral community structure and dynamics are non-representative and therefore insignificant in assessing the reef's state, or whether the opposite is true, as argued in the present paper. (3) Rinkevich's assertion that tourism is the single potential destructive factor on Eilat's reef and that the fish farms are beneficial and actually improve the reef's health, or whether the accelerated reef degradation, in the last decade, results in from a variety of human induced stresses, but in particular from chronic eutrophication of the northern Gulf of Eilat caused by the fish farms (Loya and coworkers' view, see literature above). Another issue is Rinkevich's suggestion that future management efforts should shift from conservation activities to active rehabilitation / restoration measures. Although this subject is fundamental for the reefÆs future, it is wide ranging and a controversial issue that is beyond the scope of this paper. To ease and draw the reader's attention to the major points discussed, Rinkevich's major assertions are first outlined and present a brief rebuttal to his views . Then a æhistoricalÆ perspective to the state of health of the Eilat reef, during the last 35 years, including some of our most recent results obtained during NovemberûDecember 2004 and so far unpublished is presented. Finally, it is repeated that warning and plea that the only chance for restoration of Eilat's reef is immediate and extreme protection measures against all man-made perturbations. In the following, it is hoped to set the record straight, in inviting the scientific community and decision makers to make their own judgment.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Field signatures of the SE-Asian mega-tsunami along the west coast of Thailand compared to Holocene paleo-tsunami from the Atlantic region

Author(s) :Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, S.; Scheffers, A.

Source :Pure Appl. Geophys.: 164; 2007; 413û431.

Abstract :The Andaman-Sumatra Tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004, was by far the largest tsunami catastrophe in human history. An earthquake of 9 to 9.3 on the Richter scale, the extension of waves over more than 5000 km of ocean and run-ups up to 35 m are its key features. These characteristics suggest significant changes in coastal morphology and high sediment transport rates. A field survey along the west coast of Thailand (Phuket Island, Khao Lak region including some Similan Islands, Nang Pha mangrove areas and Phi Phi Don Islands) seven to nine weeks after the tsunami, however, discovered only small changes in coastal morphology and a limited amount of dislocated sediments, restricted to the lower meters of the tsunami waves. This is in striking contrast to many paleo-tsunamiÆs events of the Atlantic region. Explanations for this discrepancy are sought in: (1) Mechanics of the earthquake. A rather slow shock impulse on the water masses over the very long earthquake zone, (2) Shallow water in the earthquake zone, and (3) Bathymetry of the foreshore zone at the impacted sites. Shallow water west of Thailand has diminished wave energy significantly. The differences in geomorphological and sedimentological signatures of this tsunami compared with many paleo-tsunami worldwide makes it unsuitable to be used as a model for old and future tsunami imprints by an event of this extreme energy and extension.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The structuring role of microhabitat type in coral degradation zones: a case study with marine nematodes from Kenya and Zanzibar

Author(s) :Raes, M.; Troch, M.D.; Ndaro, S.G.M.; Muthumbi, A.; Guilini, K.; Venreusel, A.

Source :Coral Reefs: 26; 2007; 113-126.

Abstract :Nematode genus assemblages were identified from four locations in coral degradation zones (CDZs) along the African east coast: Watamu and Tiwi Beach (Kenya) and Matemwe and Makunduchi (Zanzibar). Three microhabitat types were distinguished: coralline sediment, coral gravel and coral fragments. Nematode community composition was comparable to that of other studies dealing with the same habitat. The presence of a common genus pool in CDZs was reflected in the considerable similarities between samples. The addition of coral fragments as a habitat for nematodes resulted in an increased importance of taxa typical for coarse sediments and large substrata. Local and regional turnover were of the same order of magnitude. The structuring effect of microhabitat type clearly overrode the effect on a local and regional scale. Differences in sediment characteristics were more important in structuring the nematode assemblages than differences between the coralline sediment and coral fragments. No effect related to the three-dimensional structure of coral fragments was found. Differences between nematode assemblages in the coralline sediment and on coral fragments were attributed to the exposed nature of the latter habitat, its large surface area and its microbial or algal cover. Differences in available food sources were reflected in nematode trophic composition.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Post-bleaching renewal of the dominant reef-building coral Acropora abrotanoides in the Lakshadweep islands of India

Author(s) :Wallace, C.C.; Muir, P.R.; Venkatesh, M.

Source :Coral Reefs: 26; 2007; p. 45.

Abstract :

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Synchronous daytime spawning of the solitary coral Fungia danai (Fungiidae) in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Mangubhai, S.; Harris, A.; Graham, N.A.J.

Source :Coral Reefs: 26; 2007; p. 15.

Abstract :

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The 'Xarifa' expedition and the atolls of the Maldives, 50 years on

Author(s) :Wallace, C.C.; Zahir, H.

Source :Coral Reefs: 26; 2007; 3-5.

Abstract :This year marks the 50th anniversary of the æXarifaÆ expedition to the Indian Ocean, led by scientist, explorer and filmmaker Hans Hass, with the fish biologist and behaviourist 1. Eibl-Eibesfeldt as its scientific director. Xarifa carried a group of scientists committed to the use of the ænew Scuba equipmentÆ as well as custom-made underwater cameras and television gear for obtaining scientific data about reefs. Among them were coral scientist Georg Scheer, later a founding member of the international society for reef studies, physiologist L. Franzisket, ichthyologist K. Klauswitz and nematologist S. A. Gerlach. Xarifa was a three-masted sailing schooner converted for scientific expeditions by Hass, whose International Institute for Scientific Research was based in Liechtenstein. The expedition had the patronage of Prince Joseph II of Liechtenstein and the support of an advisory committee of 26 distinguished European scientists. Departing Cannes 15 October 1957, and exploring the Red Sea en route, the expeditionÆs major destination was the atolls of the Maldives, followed by the Nicobar Islands and brief visits to Malaysia, Sumatra and Singapore, ending 14 October 1958.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :High genetic connectivity across the Indian and Pacific Oceans in the reef fish Myripristis berndti (Holocentridae)

Author(s) :Craig, M.T.; Eble, J.A.; Bowen, B.W.; Robertson, D.R.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 334; 2007; 245-254.

Abstract :To assess patterns of connectivity among populations of an Indo-Pacific reef fish, mtDNA of the bigscale soldierfish Myripristis berndti (Holocentridae), which is concentrated on reefs at intermediate depths, but occurs to at least 160 m is surveyed. Our multi-scale approach included sampling at 11 sites spanning the entire range of the species from the western Indian Ocean to the eastern Pacific, across 240 degrees of longitude (total N = 278), and 9 islands throughout one of the largest and most isolated archipelagos, the Hawaiian Islands (subtotal N = 147). Analysis of cytochrome b sequences demonstrated the following: (1) common haplotypes are shared among all sample localities, (2) there is modest population structure across the entire species range (phi sub(st) = 0.211; p is less than 0.001), (3) there is no structure among the Hawaiian Islands (phi sub(st) = 0.0004; p = 0.4107), and (4) there is no structure across the central-west Pacific (phi sub(st) = -0.007, p = 0.634). Population separations across the East Pacific Barrier were significant (overall phi sub(st) = 0.278, p is less than 0.001; pairwise range phi sub(st) = 0.107 to 0.424), yet significantly weaker than those across the Indo-Pacific Barrier (overall phi sub(st) = 0.583, p is less than 0.001; pairwise range phi sub(st) = 0.329 to 0.810; Mann-Whitney U-test, p is less than 0.001). When grouped by major biogeographic province, populations showed no difference within the central-west Pacific (phi sub(st) = -0.007, p = 0.634), within the Indian Ocean (phi sub(st) = -0.027, p= 0.528), or within the east Pacific (phi sub(st) = -0.061, p = 0.920). Mismatch distributions and coalescence analysis indicated a rapid population expansion on the order of approx. 500 000 yr before present (range 300 000 to 106 yr depending on mutation rate). Despite having a vast distribution and broad depth range, M. berndti shows the genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and recovery similar to shallow reef specialists that were displaced or extirpated during glacial maxima. Overall, the mtDNA data indicated a dispersal capability in M. berndti which far exceeds that of typical reef fishes. While recent genetic studies demonstrate limited larval dispersal in some reef fishes, it is clear that others, including soldierfishes, are extensive dispersers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seasonal characteristics of the Indian Ocean dipole during the Holocene epoch

Author(s) :Abram, N.J.; Gagan, M.K.; Liu, Z.; Hantoro, W.S.; McCulloch, M.T.; Suwargadi, B.W.

Source :Nature: 445(7125); 2007; 299-302.

Abstract :The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) û an oscillatory mode of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability-causes climatic extremes and socio-economic hardship throughout the tropical Indian Ocean region. There is much debate about how the IOD interacts with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Asian monsoon, and recent changes in the historic ENSO-monsoon relationship raise the possibility that the properties of the IOD may also be evolving. Improving the understanding of IOD events and their climatic impacts thus requires the development of records defining IOD activity in different climatic settings, including prehistoric times when ENSO and the Asian monsoon behaved differently from the present day. Coral geochemical records from the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean is used to reconstruct surface-ocean cooling and drought during individual IOD events over the past approx. 6,500 years. It is found that IOD events during the middle Holocene were characterized by a longer duration of strong surface ocean cooling, together with droughts that peaked later than those expected by El Nino forcing along. Climate model simulations suggest that this enhanced cooling and drying was the result of strong cross-equatorial winds driven by the strengthened Asian monsoon of the middle Holocene. These IOD û monsoon connections imply that the socioeconomic impacts of projected future changes in Asian monsoon strength may extend throughout Australasia

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tsunamis and marine life

Author(s) :Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

Source :The Indian Ocean tsunami. eds. by: Murthy, T.S.; Aswathanarayana, U.; Nirupama, N.Taylor and Francis; London; UK; 2007; 373-391.

Abstract :The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, China, near-shore as well as deep-sea observations by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, National Institute of Ocean Technology, India (NIOT), Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture (CIBA, 2005), India, augmented by observations made by agencies in Sri Lanka and Indonesia. The tsunami impacted both the oceanic waters and the near-shore waters. The massive dislocation of sub-surface deep waters was similar to an upwelling, and was characterized by a decrease in sea surface temperature (SST) by about 1 degree C, increase in suspended particles, and increased nutrients which probably caused an increase in phytoplankton biomass to the northeast of Sumatra, and offChcnnai. The time-series data for chlorophyll a compiled for 2000-2005 showed an increase in phytoplankton biomass (is greater than 0.35 chl-a mu g l sup(-1)) between mid-January and February 2005 soon after the tsunami. Two weeks after the tsunami, in January 2005 a phytoplankton bloom developed with chlorophyll a (greater than 0.5 mu g l sup(-1)) in a 300 x 300 km area to the southeast of Sri Lanka and north of Aceh Province of Indonesia in the Andaman Sea. Similarly, in the near-shore waters near Chennai, a bloom dominated by the diatom Lauderia annulata developed and could be attributed to nutrient enrichment. The submarine land slides, and geomorphic changes resulted in extensive losses in coastal population, structures, mariculture operations, and coral reefs. A schematic analysis of the impacts of the tsunami on various habitats and biotopes is presented.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Molluscan resources of the little Andaman Island, India

Author(s) :Murugan, M.; Sahu, M.K.; Kumar, P.S.; Kannan, L.

Source :J. Nat. Conserv.: 18(2); 20067; 389-396.

Abstract :Molluscan fauna of many Bay Islands of India have been studied and well documented. But, so far, no attempt has been made to prepare a comprehensive account of the malacofauna of the Little Andaman Island, which is known for its rich diversity of marine life, especially corals and molluscs. Hence, an attempt has been made to study the molluscan resources of the Little Andaman Island at Hut Bay, Navel Area, Harbindar Bay, Chandranallah Coast, Dugong Creak, Butler Bay, Nethaji Nagar Coast and Nanjappa Nagar Coast. During the present study, 52 species of gastropods and 25 species of bivalves have been identified. The gastropod species belong to 19 families viz. Trochidae, Angariidae, Turbinidae, Neritidae, Potamididae, Cerithiidae, Strombidae, Cypraeidae, Naticidae, Tonnidae, Cassidae, Ranellidae, Muricidae, Buccinidac, Nassaridac, Olividae, Harpidae, Conidae and Fascilariidae. Bivalves which were present in all the stations of study fall under 12 families viz. Cardiidae. Ostreidae, Mactridae, Arciidae, Veneridae, Pinnidae, Solenidae, Pholadidae, Anomidae, Pteridae, Donacidae and Pectinidae. The bivalve species diversity was much lower than that of gastropods Bivalves were found sparsely distributed at all the stations when compared to the gastropods. Gastropod and bivalve fisheries are of sustenance nature and are used for edible purpose as source of lime, as decorative shells or for industrial purposes. Though the molluscs sustain regular and very productive fisheries in our waters, only a few of the mussels, clams and oysters are now generally eaten and even these are of more poor man's food. Presently observed occurrence of molluscan dead shells could have been due to the impact of tsunami, which has devastated the coral reef habitats of this coast. Among these shells, some of them are of aesthetic, commercial and biomedical values

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A new record of Turbinaria patula (Dana. 1846) (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae) in Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve

Author(s) :Raghuram, K.P.; Venkataraman, K.

Source :J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.: 103(3); 2006; 360-361.

Abstract :Family Dendrophylliidae is solitary or colonial, mostly azooxanthellate except the genera Turbinaria, Duncanopsammia and Heteropsammia which are hermatypic (reef building; Balanophyllia Endopsammia, Tubastrea, Dendrophyllia and Enallopsammia are ahermatypic (non-reef building). In Turbinaria, most of the species are foliose forms (leaf-like or vertical/horizontal plates). The present genus is recorded in all the four major coral reefs in India. Worldwide, eleven species of the genus Turbinaria have been recorded till date. In India, only three species of Turbinaria (T. peltata, T. reniformis and T. mesenterina) are reported, so far, from the four major reefs. The present note reports an additional species to the above genus.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Indian fisheries scenario: a peep into constraint/needs for its future development

Author(s) :Khan, M.F.; Panikkar, P.

Source :Fish. Chimes: 26(9); 2006; 13-20.

Abstract :The constraints that can impede progress of Indian fisheries development and the ways to strengthen the scenario have been discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Macro algal assemblage structure on the reefs of Tuticorin group of islands in the Gulf of Mannar

Author(s) :Raj, K.D.; Mathews, G.; Edward, J.K.P.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 48(2); 2006; 166-172.

Abstract :The algal assemblage on the reefs of Vaan, Koswari and Kariyachalli islands of Tuticorin group in the Gulf of Mannar, India was studied for a period of one year. The amount of algae was high during January to April, whereas it was less during May to September. Meanwhile the percentage of rubbles was higher during May to September and lower in January to May, which indicated the coral algal phase shift. The green algae Halimeda spp. was found to be the dominant algal representative. Its average percentage in Vaan, Koswari and Kariyachalli was 11.56 plus or minus 1.09, 11.12 plus or minus 1.70 and 8.77 plus or minus 1.72 respectively. The ecological importance of algal assemblage in the coral reef ecosystem is discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Crustacean resources of the coral reef environment of the Little Andaman Island, India

Author(s) :Sahu, M.K.; Murugan, M.; Khan, S.M.; Kannan, L.

Source :Fish. Chimes: 26(6); 2006; 56-57.

Abstract :A field survey was carried out for the first time from eight different stations along the east coast of the Little Andaman Island, India to assess the crustacean resources of the coral reefs of the island. During the investigation, 27 species of brachyuran crabs belonging to 19 genera, 13 families and 14 species of hermit crabs belonging to 7 genera, 3 families and a total of 8 species of shrimps, lobsters and stomatopods were recorded. Among the brachyuran crabs, the family Portunidae topped the list with 3 genera and 6 species followed by Ocypodidae, Xanthidae, Leucosidae, Grapsidae, Carpilidae, Plumnidae, Majidae, Calappidae, Mictyridae, Dromiidae, Dorippidae and Plagusiidae. The maximum species (21 species) diversity of brachyuran crabs was recorded at Station 5 (Dugong Creek) and the minimum, (16 species), at Station 6 (Buttler Bay). In the case of hermit crabs, the family Diogenidae topped the list with 4 genera and 11 species followed by Coenobitidae and Paguridae. The maximum species diversity of hermit crabs (13 species) was recorded at Station 1 (Hut Bay) and the minimum was recorded (10 species each) at Stations 2 and 4 (Navel Area and R.K.Pur) (10 species each). Further studies on the west coast of the Island may possibly reveal many more species that would no, have been previously reported from the Bay waters.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seas of the Arabian region (29,S)

Author(s) :Richter, C.; Abu-Hilal, A.

Source :The sea: The global coastal ocean. Interdisciplinary regional studies and syntheses. Part B: The coasts of Africa, Europe, Middle East, Oceania and Polar Regions. eds. by: Robinson, A.R.; Brink, K.H.Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA; USA; 2006; 1373-1412.

Abstract :The seas around the Arabian Peninsula as important repositories of marine biodiversity and non-living resources contribute significantly to the economic, social and cultural prosperity of the region (Gladstone et al., 1999; Sheppard et al., 1992). Their rich resources and services provide subsistence and commercial food supplies to the local communities, domestic and international tourist destinations, important international shipping routes, as well as a rich cultural heritage. Population growth rates in the bordering countries are high by global standards, and industrial and urban development are growing rapidly in many places. The northern Red Sea, for example, boasting some of the most spectacular coral reefs in the world, is subjected to sweeping rates of tourism putting growing pressures on the marine environment. The anthropogenic pressures are particularly damaging, as the extreme environmental regime of temperature and salinity already imposes natural stresses which are close to the physiological limits of the organisms. The restricted water exchange in the almost land-locked Red Sea and Arabian (or Persian) Gulf, render these marginal seas particularly vulnerable

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Source parameters of the great Sumatran megathrust earthquakes of 1797 and 1833 inferred from coral microatolls

Author(s) :Natawidjaja, D.H.; Sieh, K.; Chlieh, M.; Galetzka, J.; Suwargadi, B.W.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.L.; Avouac, J.-P.; Ward, S.N.

Source :J. Geophys. Res. (B:. Solid Earth): 111; 2006; doi:10.1029/2005JB004025, 37 pp.

Abstract :Large uplifts and tilts occurred on the Sumatran outer arc islands between 0.5 degrees and 3.3 degrees S during great historical earthquakes in 1797 and 1833, as judged from relative sea level changes recorded by annually banded coral heads. Coral data for these two earthquakes are most complete along a 160-km length of the Mentawai islands between 3.2 degrees and 2 degrees S. Uplift there was as great as 0.8 m in 1797 and 2.8 m in 1833. Uplift in 1797 extended 370 km, between 3.2 degrees and 0.5 degrees S. The pattern and magnitude of uplift imply megathrust ruptures corresponding to moment magnitudes (Mw) in the range 8.5 to 8.7. The region of uplift in 1833 ranges from 2 degrees to at least 3.2 degrees S and, judging from historical reports of shaking and tsunamis, perhaps as far as 5 degrees S. The patterns and magnitude of uplift and tilt in 1833 are similar to those experienced farther north, between 0.5 degrees and 3 degrees N, during the giant Nias-Simeulue megathrust earthquake of 2005; the outer arc islands rose as much as 3 m and tilted toward the mainland. Elastic dislocation forward modeling of the coral data yields megathrust ruptures with moment magnitudes ranging from 8.6 to 8.9. Sparse accounts at Padang, along the mainland west coast at latitude 1 degrees S, imply tsunami runups of at least 5 m in 1797 and 3û4 m in 1833. Tsunamis simulated from the pattern of coral uplift are roughly consistent with these reports. The tsunami modeling further indicates that the Indian Ocean tsunamis of both 1797 and 1833, unlike that of 2004, were directed mainly south of the Indian subcontinent. Between about 0.7 degrees and 2.1 degrees S, the lack of vintage 1797 and 1833 coral heads in the intertidal zone demonstrates that interseismic submergence has now nearly equals coseismic emergence that accompanied those earthquakes. The interseismic strains accumulated along this reach of the megathrust have thus approached or exceeded the levels relieved in 1797 and 1833.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Potential bird habitats of Gulf of Mannar coast - A study report

Author(s) :Naganathan, V.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Christopher, G.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 110-116.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve covers an area of 10,500 Km2 on the south-east coast of India across from Sri Lanka. It is one of the world's richest regions from a marine biodiversity perspective. The biosphere reserve comprises 21 islands with estuaries, mudflats, beaches, forests of the near shore environment, including marine components like algal communities, sea grasses, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. Among the Gulfs 4,000 plants and animal species, there are the globally endangered species sea cow and six mangrove species endemic to peninsular India. The inhabitants are mainly Marakeyars, a local community principally engaged in fisheries. There are about 125 villages along the coastal part of the biosphere reserve, which support some 100,000 people (200,000 seasonally as of 2001). Major ecosystem type major ecosystem types available are coral reefs, mudflats, beach, island, shallow water, mangrove etc. of coastal / marine component.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine resource management through people participation

Author(s) :Naganathan, V.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 97-101.

Abstract :Gulf of Mannar with all the 21 islands along the 140 km stretch between Tuticorin and Rameswaram (Lat. 8 55-9 15'N and Long. 78 0'-79 16'E) has been rightly considered as a Marine Biosphere Reserve. Biosphere Reserve are being very important subject of concern in the Global waters. Gulf of Mannar harbors a unique diversity of more than 3600 spp. of marine organisms. Coral reefs are considered as one of the most productive and diverse eco-systems on earth. This rich bio-diversity is found threatened in most part of the world due to environmental pollution, coral mining, over fishing in reefs, dynamiting, trawling, boat anchoring and also due to natural forces such as floods, cyclones etc.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Monitoring Gulf of Mannar coastal ecosystem through remote sensing and GIS with higher resolution satellite data

Author(s) :Maheswari, U.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 92-96.

Abstract :The coastal zone is a unique geological, physical, and biological area of vital economic and environmental value. India has a peninsular coast of 3554 nautical miles and has had maritime trade with various countries of the world since time immemorial. India is one of the 12 mega-centers of biological diversity. Two of the major realms and three basic biomes including 10 biographic regions are represented in our country. The Gulf of Mannar biosphere Reserve is one of the six areas chosen on the basis of the significance and diversity of threats, on the one hand and the richness of biological wealth on the other. Coastal and marine areas contain some of the world's most diverse and productive biological systems. They include extensive area of complex and specialized ecosystems, such as enclosed seas and tidal systems, estuaries, salt marshes, coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves that are sensitive to human activities, impacts and interventions. As rapid development and population growth continue in coastal areas, increasing demands are placed on the natural resources and on the remaining natural habitats along the coasts. The Gulf of Mannar is currently under serious threats the study is aimed to design a database to help the decision-makers & stakeholders in effective monitoring and managing the biological wealth of this area.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine resources used in pharmaceutical and nutracuetical applications: Problems and conservation needs

Author(s) :Lipton, A.P.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 85-87.

Abstract :The Indian coastline supports almost 30% of its human population, dependent on the rich exploitable coastal and marine resources. The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea have rich fishing grounds in the South Asian region and contribute to rank as the 7th largest marine fishing nation in the world. The marine biodiversity of India is represented by diverse fish species including medicinal species. The Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu adds further values to the marine habitat and rich biodiversity. The reliance of increasing population on the ocean for food, pharmacological products, recreation, transport and mineral extraction/oil exploration has subjected marine biodiversity to pressures that are changing the structure of marine communities.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Environmental quality assessment of Gulf of Mannar coast

Author(s) :Kumaraguru, A.K.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 79-84.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar is one of the coral reefs rich areas of India situated in the southeast coast of India. The reefs are present around a chain of 21 islands. These islands form a 140 km stretch from Rameswaram to Tuticorin. These islands are protected under wild life act and come under the Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve. The coral reefs need the following for their perfect growth. They are constant salinity, warm water between 27 and 30 degrees C, clear and clean water and sufficient nutrient levels. There have been a lot of developmental activities all along the coast of Gulf of Mannar in the last few decades causing coastal seawater contamination. Therefore a preliminary pilot study regarding the quantitative estimation of physical and chemical components of Gulf of Mannar waters was considered necessary. In connection with this analysis, microbial count in terms of Total Viable Count (TVC) and estimation of Heavy metals in marine waters and their accumulation in the value added marine product such as fish were also considered essential.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal ecosystem restoration and bio-resource conservation

Author(s) :Edward, J.K.P.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 72-74.

Abstract :The coastal areas consist of 20% of the earth's surface. Half of the world's population live within a distance of less than 200 km from the coast, and 37% live no more than 60 km away from the coast. Coastal areas have got rich biological importance as they support various life forms. They have an important role of nutrient cycling in the marine environment. They also support the most productive ecosystems of the world such as coral reefs, mangroves, seagrasses, and estuaries, which provide opportunities for a considerable part of the world's population to find food and livelihood.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Conservation of marine ornamental fishery resources along Gulf of Mannar through aquaculture

Author(s) :Rajagopal, S.; Sethnarayanan, D.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 64-71.

Abstract :The marine ornamental fishes are still untapped in India and their market is in its infancy. With considerable resources distributed over the coral islands of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gulf of Kutch, Maharashtra, Cochin to Vizhinjam in Kerala, Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay in Tamilnadu, there is enormous scope for developing marine ornamental fish trade as a major industry. Unlike freshwater fishes, marine ornamental industry is solely reliant on wild caught fishes and a very small proportion of 1-10% of the fishes and 1% coral species are being captively bred in commercial quantities all over the world.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Role of mangroves in coastal protection, fishery productivity and resilience of reefs in the Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve

Author(s) :Kathiresan, K.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 43-47.

Abstract :Mangrove forests are biologically diverse, ecologically vigorous and exceedingly valuable systems. Many efforts have been made in the last 2-decades for conservation and management of the Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve. However, there is no adequate scientific data available on biodiversity status, merits and demerits of the action taken on conservation of mangrove resources of the area. Hence, it is necessary to assess the current situation for taking action in identified gap areas of mangrove ecology, biodiversity, restoration and coastal protection.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral mining - A bygone threat to Gulf of Mannar

Author(s) :Naganathan, V.; Ramesh, S.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 36-42.

Abstract :Gulf of Mannar, a unique marine ecosystem often referred to as ecological paradise, extends from Rameswaram in the north to Tuticorin in the south. According to a government survey, there are 21 uninhabited islands, from Mandapam to Tuticorin covering 682.76 hactares. The Gulf of Mannar falls in the Indo-Pacific region, considered the world's richest in marine biological resources. Nearly 1.03 lakhs tonnes of different types of fishes, prawn, crap and tiger prawn are caught in this Gulf yearly. This fetches annual revenue of rupees 80 crores. Forty four villages containing 1.5 lakhs fishermen families rely on productivity of these marine resources. The fish production is more in this region than any other coasts in India only because of the presence of complex biological communities coral reefs, seaweeds, sea grasses and mangroves. The Gulf has been chosen as a biosphere reserve primarily because of its biological and ecological uniqueness. The region has a distinctive socio-economic and cultural profile shaped by its geography. It has an ancient maritime history and was famous for the production of pearls, an important item of trade with the Roman Empire as early as the first century A.D. Fishing has historically been the primary livelihood of the coastal communities here and continues to sustain them, although the damage to the coral reefs constitutes a serious threat to this particular livelihood resource. The region has been and continues to be famous for its production of chank (Indian conch). The Gulf of Mannar thus constitutes a live scientific laboratory of national and international value. It has 3,600 species of plants and animals that make it the biologically richest coastal region in India. It is, course, specially known for corals, of which there are 117 species belonging to 37 genera.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status of Gulf of Mannar coral reefs, India

Author(s) :Venkataraman, K.; Raghuram, K.P.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 29-35.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve (GoMBR) is located between 8 degrees 49 minutes to 9 degrees 15 minutes N latitude and 78 degrees 11 minutes to 79 degrees 15 minutes E longitude on the southeast coast of India. The status surveys on coral reefs were initiated in 1998 in GoMBR. In the present study (2002-2003) among the three groups viz. Mandapam, Keelakarai and Tuticorin, Keelakarai group showed higher percentage of live coral cover than Mandapam and Tuticorin. The results of the present study showed the following order of dominance of live coral in the coral reefs: coral massive (CM) is greater than coral branching (CB) is greater than coral foliose (CF) is greater than coral encrusting (CE) is greater than Acropora branching (ACB) and is greater than Acropora tabular (ACT). Massive corals (CM) dominated the coral reefs of all the islands with 15.2% and 13.7% cover in 2002 and 2003 respectively. In GoMBR, five species of genus Acropora, one species of Montipora and Pocillopora were recorded. In addition to the above study, the status and diversity of branching corals in the GoMBR were also analyzed from the results. The Line Intercept Transect showed 1.9% and 1.7% of acropora coral branching (ACB); 10.7% and 9.1% coral branching (CB) in 2002 and 2003 respectively. In the present study, genera such as Acropora, Montipora and Pocillopora were found to be severely affected probably due to illegal coral mining, destructive fishing practices and induced sediment settlement caused by seaweed plucking. Selective mining of Pocillopora damicornis has depleted their population.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Research need for Gulf of Mannar

Author(s) :Khan, S.A.; Rajendran, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 22-28.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar (GOM) is northern side, situated between Lat. 8 degrees 47 minutes-9 degrees 15 minutes N and Long. 78 degrees 12 minutes-79 degrees 14 minutes E along the south east coast of Indian. The coral reefs of Gulf of Mannar are distributed on the shelves of 21 islands, lying between Rameswaram and Kanyakumari. The Gulf of Mannar is one of the Marine Biosphere Reserves (GOMMBRE) in India covering an area of 10,500 sq. km. This area is commonly known as `Biological Paradise` because of their rich biodiversity. They play an important role by providing habitats for seaweeds, seagrasses, corals, pearl oysters, sacred chank, fin and shell fishes, mangroves so also endemic and endangered species. Nearly 3,600 species of flora and fauna are reported so for here. The 21 islands of Gulf of Mannar were declared as Marine National Park in 1986 for the purpose of protecting marine wild life and its environment by Government of India and State Government of Tamil Nadu. Many early studies have concentrated on corals and the distribution of reefs in this area. Extensive study and research on the corals and their distribution have also been carried out from 1960s onwards. As a result, the occurrence of 94 scleractinian coral species belonging to 37 genera have come to light in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay. Also it was found that the southern side of the Gulf of Mannar island is covered with dense and diversified corals than the northern side.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status, problem and management strategies in Gulf of Mannar coral reefs

Author(s) :Sanjeevi, S.B.; Khan, S.A.; Balasubramanian, T.

Source :Conservation and sustainable use of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve's coastal biodiversity. Compilation of research papers. Vol. 1. eds. by: Melkani, V.K.; Naganathan, V.; Maheswari, R.U.(Natl. Research and Monitoring Moderation Workshop; Madurai (India); 15-16 Dec 2006). (GOMBRT Pub.; 5). Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust; Ramanathapuram (India); 2006; 11-21.

Abstract :Coral reefs are distinct and unique habitats. Being lovely and exquisite objects, these are described as the nature's splendour and wonderful creation of Mother Nature, so also as the planet's greatest attraction and beautiful presentations. Coral reefs, and their associated systems of mangroves and seagrasses, are the world's most biologically diverse marine ecosystems. Besides quite a large number of edible species, brilliantly coloured animals. No wonder they have fascinated Man since time immemorial and provided him with food, pleasure and protection from storms and other natural calamities. Constituting an important asset, they contribute much to the national economy through way of fisheries and tourism. In view of these facts, coral reefs are variously described as under water tropical rain forest, fairy land underwater, biologist's paradise, testament of biodiversity, magnificent repository of resources, genetic garden, submerged meadows, treasure house of wealth and one among the most valuable and spectacular places on earth. The coral reefs characterize an ecosystem of high biological diversity, having the greatest number of species of any marine ecosystem. Coral reefs are considered as one of the most important critical resources for various ecological, environmental and socio-economic reasons. They play an important role in global biochemical processes and in the reproduction of food resources in the tropical regions. They act as a barrier against wave action along coastal areas thus preventing coastal erosion. In addition, coral reefs protect mangroves and sea grass beds in certain areas, which are the breeding and nursing grounds of various economically important fauna. Coral reefs are also important breeding, spawning, nesting, and feeding areas for many economically important varieties of fishes and other marine organisms.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A critique towards the development of a marine ornamental industry in India

Author(s) :Gopakumar, G.; Ignatius, B.

Source :Sustain Fish. Proceedings of the International Symposium on 'Improved Sustainability of Fish Production Systems and Appropriate Technologies for Utilization' held during 16-18 March, 2005, Cochin, India. eds. by: Kurup, B.M.; Ravindran, K.(Int. Symp. on Improved Sustainability of Fish Production Systems and Appropriate Technologies for Utilization; Cochin (India); 16-18 Mar 2005). School of Industrial Fisheries, Cochin University of Science and Technology; Cochin (India); 2006; 606-614.

Abstract :The marine ornamental industry has been expanding rapidly in recent years and the global annual marine ornamental trade is estimated at US$ 200 -330 million. Nearly 98% of the marine ornamental species marketed are wild collected mainly from coral reefs of tropical developing countries. This has been threatening the long term sustainability of marine ornamentals due to the indiscriminate exploitation of coral reef area by the use of explosives, electro fishing devices, chemical poisons and intoxicants. In addition to damaging techniques of collection, the over harvesting of target organisms and the high level mortality associated with insensitive shipping and poor husbandry practices also lead to depletion of wild stocks. This calls for an urgent need to evolve biologically sustainable management measures for marine ornamentals. The general strategies of conservation which can be advocated include limited access to fishery, fixing quotas, size limits, creation of marine reserves and temporary closures. India is bestowed with vast marine ornamental resource and even though a good deal of collection of marine ornamentals is in vogue in many of the Indian reef areas, till date no marine ornamental fisheries policies have been formulated. It is time to develop an organized marine ornamental fishery in India by formulating proper policies and management measures to ensure its sustainability. The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute and National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources can jointly develop a certification system on similar lines with the standards developed by the Marine Aquarium Council (MAC). A few entrepreneurs can be licensed to collect suitable species from selected areas by ecofriendly collection methods. Availability of necessary infrastructure for conditioning and maintaining of the harvested species should be one of the prerequisites for issuing license for an entrepreneur. The species thus collected and maintained by entrepreneurs can be certified and an export trade for the same could be developed by the Marine Products Export Development Authority. The impact of exploitation should be closely monitored by scientific institutions and the necessary management measures have to be recommended as and when required. Another option to promote the marine ornamental industry is to develop and improve technologies for culture of desired species for the trade.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine sponges as immunosuppressive drug candidates

Author(s) :Ravichandran, S.; RameshKumar, T.

Source :Seshaiyana: 14(2); 2006; 12-15.

Abstract :Many marine natural compounds are isolated from cone snails, corals, sponges, sea squirts, marine worms, bryozoans, sea slug and sharks. These drugs are used for treating fungal infection, tuberculosis, nematode infection, malarial infection, bacterial infection, viral infection, pain management, cancer and inflammation control. The natural compounds currently under clinical trails are very limited and the potential to discover more potent drugs from the seas could be expected. Apart from human medicines, the research on marine natural products in the last three decades has also led to discoveries of many chemically and biologically interesting molecules.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bioactive substances from marine resources

Author(s) :Vijayabaskar, P.; Lekameera, R.; Somasundaram, S.T.

Source :Seshaiyana: 14(2); 2006; 8-9.

Abstract :Marine biotechnology is the science in which marine organisms are used in full or partially to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses. Many bioactive compounds have been extracted from various marine animals like tunicates, sponges, soft corals, sea horses, sea snakes, marine mollusks, seaweeds, nudibranches, sea slugs and marine microorganisms (Donia and Hamann, 2003). Of late more or less 10,000 metabolites have been isolated from marine organisms. Many of these are endowed with pharmacodynamic properties. Natural products have long been used as food, fragrances, pigments, insecticides, medicines etc. This articles deals with various bioactive substances that are extracted from marine bacteria, marine cyanobacteria, seaweeds, sponges and mollusks.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Great green wall - The coastal barrier

Author(s) :Jeyakumar, S.; Santhanakumar, G.

Source :Proceedings of the National Commemorative Conference on Tsunami, 26-29 December 2005. ed. by: Raj, S.P.(Natl. Commemorative Conf. on Tsunami; Madurai (India); 26-29 Dec 2005). School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources, Madurai Kamaraj Univeristy; Madurai (India); 2006; 132-134.

Abstract :India has a coastline of about 7500 km, and a continental shelf area of around 4 lakh Km sup(2). The coastal zones of Tamil Nadu is characterised by the occurrence of mangroves, coral reefs, sea grasses and sea weeds. Now all these are under threat. These coastal flora are responsible for sustainability of bioresources and biodiversity of marine environment. The coastal environment is receiving rich organic nutrients from land drainage, which enhances the biodiversities, faunal and floral wealth such as coral reefs, sponges, sea grass etc. These organisms are responsible for the enhancement of fishery resources of the sea. The renewability of the same depends upon the above marine biodiversity. The over exploitation of these marine bioresources results in coastal erosion, resource loss and sea-level raise. Another threat to the coastal environment is the human settlement and construction of mega industries on the sea coast. It is estimated that nearly 80 percent of the world&rsquo;s human population are living within 60 km radius of the coastal environment. Inspite of the progress made in agricultural sector resulting in increased production, hunger persists in many parts of the world. The problems of poverty are all the more compounded in coastal community. Hence there is an urgent need to evolve plans for the course of action so as to uplift the coastal environment and also to ensure sustainable yield of fishery resources.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Impact of tsunami on fisheries

Author(s) :Sundararaj, V.; Yuvaraj, D.

Source :Proceedings of the National Commemorative Conference on Tsunami, 26-29 December 2005. ed. by: Raj, S.P.(Natl. Commemorative Conf. on Tsunami; Madurai (India); 26-29 Dec 2005). School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources, Madurai Kamaraj Univeristy; Madurai (India); 2006; 59-65.

Abstract :The earthquake, in the Indian Ocean floor on December 26, 2004 at 7:58:53 in local time, originated on the northern side of Simeulue Island off the western coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The magnitude of the earthquake was severe at 9.0 Richter scale and it was unusually large in geographical extent. According to seismographic reports, the sea bed ruptured for about 400 km long and 100 km wide beneath 30 km of seabed at the first phase. The rupture proceeded at the rate of 2 km/second and lasted for 100 seconds towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tsunami, the resultant of the earthquake, radiated along the entire 1200 km length of the rupture. The general impact on fisheries, shrimp, hatcheries, coral reef and the problems in sampling and assessment procedures are discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Ecological impacts of tsunami

Author(s) :Ramachandran, S.

Source :Proceedings of the National Commemorative Conference on Tsunami, 26-29 December 2005. ed. by: Raj, S.P.(Natl. Commemorative Conf. on Tsunami; Madurai (India); 26-29 Dec 2005). School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources, Madurai Kamaraj Univeristy; Madurai (India); 2006; 1-9.

Abstract :The December 2004 tsunami has affected coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs, estuaries, creeks, lagoons and coastal waters. Considerable changes have occurred in the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The environmental changes will have effects on fisheries both in the short term and in long term. Recent statistics from tsunami affected coastal areas recorded significantly low fish catches including prawns.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef fishery resources of India and their conservation

Author(s) :Kingston, S.D.; Ramadhas, V.

Source :Fish. Chimes: 26(3); 2006; 55-56.

Abstract :India is one among the few nations having coral reefs, which while known as not as extensive as the great Barrier Reef off Australia or the Barrier reef off New Caledonia, are however of impressive dimensions. They occur along Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch and Lakshadweep Islands. These reefs are a national heritage, the home of several fishes. Coral formations are exploited heavily for various purposes, like for making cement, for conversion into jewellery, curios etc. The paper is about distribution of coral reefs, with particular reference to those in India and about the Gulf of Mannar marine Biosphere Reserve that include coral reefs set up in 1980.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Inshore biodiversity and fishery enhancement through artificial reefs

Author(s) :Raj, P.J.S.

Source :Fish. Chimes: 26(2); 2006; 36-40.

Abstract :In this contribution, a list of fish species that aggregated on the artificial reefs deployed off the Periya Neelangarai Kuppam, 25 Km South of Chennai and a fishing Calendar for the reefs is given. Economic valuation of the reefs of the direct parameters like income for fishermen, cost-benefit analysis of reefs and indirect values like the enhancement and breeding of the biodiversity at the reefs and factors influenceing fishing success at the reefs are discussed along with recommendations for an appropriate eco-technology for artificial reefs as applicable for India.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Service provided by artificial reef off Chennai: A case study

Author(s) :Vivekanandan, E.; Venkatesan, S.; Mohanraj, G.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 53(1); 2006; 67-75.

Abstract :The fisheries service provided by an artificial reef (AR) with a pile size of 450 m sup(3) deployed at 20 m depth off Chinnandikuppam, 20 km south of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India was assessed. In 16 months, the fishermen expended 3843.7 hours of hooks & line fishing in the AR ground and landed 6404 kg. The catch index was 14.2 kg/m sup(3) and the total income was Rs.2,74,000. Compared with the income per hour of operation of gillnet fishing in the non-AR grounds (Rs. 52.5 kg/h), the income was 36% higher from hooks & line fishing in the AR ground (Rs. 71.3 kg/h). This was possible due to aggregation of high quality fish such as the snappers, emperor and carangids in the AR. Biological investigations on three resident species in the AR show that juvenile fish colonise in the initial months after deployment, grow to a larger size and spawn in the AR, indicating the service provided by the AR for enhancement of resident fish stocks.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Remote sensing for marine algae

Author(s) :Nayak, S.; Raman, M.; Bahuguna, A.

Source :Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario. Vol. 2: Application and utilization, food and feed, biotechnology, chemistry, drugs and bioactive substances. ed. by: Tewari, A.Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute; Bhavnagar (India); 2006; 1-20.

Abstract :Marine algae are extremely important for their role as primary producers, in regulating global carbon cycle, building calcareous banks and cementing coral reefs. Understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of marine algae is a vital component to study and manage the algal resources. Remote sensing technology has proved to be useful in providing this information. Oceansat-1 carrying Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) - P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) has been operational since July 1999 to quantitatively retrieve phytoplankton biomass concentration in Indian waters and study its dynamics on spatial and temporal time scales for various oceanographic and biological applications. Medium and High resolution IRS LISS HI, RESOURSESAT-1 has helped in mapping macro algal habitats, differentiation between seaweeds and other macro-algae, benthic micro and macro algae, etc., along the Indian coast. This paper gives an overview of the recent advances of remote sensing technology to monitor and manage the marine algal resources.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Field cultivation of Gelidiella acerosa in India

Author(s) :Rao, P.V.S.; Ganesan, M.

Source :Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario. Vol. 1: Seaweed taxonomic identification, aquaculture, resource, environment, fouling and disease. ed. by: Tewari, A.Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute; Bhavnagar (India); 2006; 296-303.

Abstract :Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskal) Feldmann et Hamel is the principal agarophyte in India yielding bacterial and pharmaceutical grade agar. This seaweed was commercially exploited and exported till 1966. As a result of over exploitation the natural resources had been deteriorating year after year. To over come this problem development of cultivation technologies were under taken since 1969. Among the cultivation technologies developed viz; Long line method, Net method, Bottom culture method and Single Rope Floating Raft Technique (SFRT) method, Bottom culture method in the open shore environment involving coral stone as a substratum was found to be the best one. A crop yield of 4.0 tons (dry) hay in 2 harvests was achieved. Because of the limitation of the using the coral stone as substrate, the alternate substrate like holo or solid cement blocks could be utilized for large scale cultivation to generate rural employment and the crop yields like the ones obtained on the coral stone could also be obtained.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Prospects of mariculture of Hypnea species in India

Author(s) :Rao, K.R.; Ganesan, M.

Source :Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario. Vol. 1: Seaweed taxonomic identification, aquaculture, resource, environment, fouling and disease. ed. by: Tewari, A.Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute; Bhavnagar (India); 2006; 288-295.

Abstract :Species of Hypnea constitute a potential source of carrageenan the world over. The genus is pantropic in distribution occurring in subtropical and tropical seas. H. musciformis and H. valentiae are the most dominant species. Its biology, life history, chemistry of its phycocolloid, utilization and cultivation has been extensively studied in many countries. In all extensive studies in India, its biology revealed most valuable information useful for its mariculture. A technique for its field cultivation was developed at Krusadai island in the Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu. A yield of 6.34 kg fresh wt. from 150 meter length of rope in 25 days was obtained in H. musciformis. Recently H. musciformis is being cultivated by long line rope method. During first year from June 2001 to May 2002, average biomass per hectare per month was 1.40 ton fresh. During June 2002 to February 2003, average biomass per hectare per month was 2.08 tons fresh per hectare (which includes nil biomass during December 2001 and January 2002 due to cyclonic wind. H. valentiae was also artificially cultivated from stellate bulbils on coral stones at Krusadai island.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Environmental impact assessment of Kappaphycus cultivation in India in context to global scenerio

Author(s) :Tewari, A.; Basha, S.; Trivedi, R.H.; Raghunathan, C.; SravanKumar, V.G.; Khambhaty, Y.; Joshi, H.V.; Kotiwar, O.S.

Source :Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario. Vol. 1: Seaweed taxonomic identification, aquaculture, resource, environment, fouling and disease. ed. by: Tewari, A.Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute; Bhavnagar (India); 2006; 262-287.

Abstract :The environmental impact of Kappaphycus alvarezii commercial cultivation on the coastal environment of India is presented and discussed with reference to global scenario. The controversial issues like uncontrolled growth of alga, invasion through spores and fragmentation, damage to corals, depletion of nutrients and similar other things are discussed. The environmental impact assessment study in India has shown that commercial cultivation of this alga has many positive impacts and only a few negative impacts to the environment. The negative impacts could be mitigated by planned scientific farming including regular monitoring of environment. The detailed mitigation measures for negative impacts have been presented in this paper. It has also been emphasized that the impact of Kappaphycus farming will differ from environment to environment therefore, the negative impact in one environment may not be necessarily be noticed in another environment. It has been concluded that the commercial cultivation of K. alvarezii is not harmful to the environment under Indian conditions. Similar is the case, in the South East Asian regions. However, in some limited parts of the world it has shown harmful effects.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Maritime archaeological explorations of Goa: Findings and interpretations

Author(s) :Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

Source :Glimpses of marine archaeology in India. Proceedings of the Seventh Indian Conference on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries, 6-7 October 2005. eds. by: Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.(7. Indian Conf. on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries; National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India); 6-7 Oct 2005). Society for Marine Archaeology, NIO; Dona Paula, Goa (India); 2006; 35-41.

Abstract :Maritime archaeological explorations have been initiated in Goa, India waters for locating shipwrecks and port installations in coastal waters and riverbanks. Explorations have been carried out in Sunchi Reef, St George's Reef, Baga, Grande Island, Aguada waters and Gopakapattana. The explorations at Sunchi Reef have brought to light shipwreck remains of an early 17th century AD. The evidence suggests that the wreck belong to the Portuguese Period. The exploration off St George's Reef has revealed the remains of the 19th century shipwreck of the Basel Mission Company. Further, underwater explorations brought to light stone anchors from Sunchi Reef, Grande Island and Baga waters and a number of iron anchors have been retrieved from Aguada waters. Onshore exploration and trial scraping at Gopakapattana revealed stone walls of well- dressed laterite blocks running perpendicularly as well as parallel to the river Zuari. At some places the walls lie buried in the sediment and have also been discontinued. Several bastions occur at regular intervals along one wall; six stone steps lead from the shore to the main wall.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Screening of bioactivity on the natural products from the marine organisms of Andaman Island water: A preliminary report

Author(s) :Karthikayalu, S.; Balajee, B.; Dheenan, P.S.; Poornima, S.; Dharani, G.; Nazar, A.K.; Venkatesan, R.; Kathiroli, S.

Source :Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Marine Antifouling Technology [RAMAT 2006] November 6-8, 2006. eds. by: Kathiroli, S.; Venkatesan, R.; Murthy, P.S.; Misra, P.; Vedaprakash, L.(Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Marine Antifouling Technology (RAMAT 2006); National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 6-8 Nov 2006). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2006; 294-302.

Abstract :Marine environment accumulates a large group of structurally unique natural products. The present investigation was aimed to describe the bioactive potential and diversity of marine organisms in Andaman Island. About 69 different species of sponges, cnidarians and algae were collected from 10 different locations in Andaman Islands. The organisms were extracted with methanol and crude methanolic extract of all 69 species were tested for antimicrobial property against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. Among the 69 species, 18 species (7 algae, 6 sponge and 5 soft coral) were shown to possess varying levels of antimicrobial activity, when tested at a concentration of 50 mu g. This study also revealed the intraspecific and interspecific variation in their bioactivity. The present investigation could form the basis for exploring the antimicrobial potential of the marine organisms in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine microbial eukaryotic diversity, with particular reference to fungi: Lessons from prokaryotes

Author(s) :Raghukumar, S.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 35(4); 2006; 388-398.

Abstract :Novel molecular, analytical and culturing techniques have resulted in dramatic changes in our approaches towards marine eukaryotic diversity in recent years. This article reviews marine fungal diversity in the light of current knowledge, citing examples of how progress in understanding marine prokaryotes has often contributed to this new approach. Both 'true fungi' (termed mycenaean fungi in this review) and straminipilan fungi are considered. Molecular phylogenetic studies of prokaryotes has resulted in their redefinition as belonging to the Kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea. Likewise, major refinements have taken place in the phylogenetic classification of eukaryotes. In the case of fungi, it has now been realized that they are polyphyletic, belonging to the Kingdom Mycenae (Fungi), as well as the Kingdom Straminipila or Chromista. Although the total number of fungi on earth is estimated to be about 1.5 million, only a meagre number of obligate marine fungi, about 450 mycenaean and 50 straminipilan fungi have been described so far. It is likely that most of the true marine fungi have not yet been discovered. These are likely to have evolved between 1,500 million years ago (Ma) when fungi probably evolved in the sea and 900 Ma when they conquered land together with green plants. It now appears that most of the true marine fungi have not been cultured so far, similar to the 'great plate count anomaly' of bacteria. Thraustochytrids, which are abundant in the water column, but not easily culturable from that source is an example. Intelligent and novel culture methods might bring forth unusual and new marine fungi, as happened in the case of Pelagibacter ubique belonging to the SAR 11 group of bacteria. Molecular techniques might bring to light novel marine fungi, as is happening with bacteria. Such fungi may defy our conventional wisdom regarding these organisms in terms of morphology. Thus, several recent studies using 18S rRNA gene community profiles have discovered picoplanktonic marine fungi in the water column. Studies such as those on molecular diversity of eukaryotes in permanently anoxic habitats have also indicated that fungi may be abundant in exotic habitats and possess unusual physiology. A search for fungi in biodiversity-rich habitats, such as the coral reefs and the deep-sea, using a combination of molecular and novel culture methods is likely to reveal a fascinating diversity of marine fungi.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals

Author(s) :Ramaiah, N.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 35(4); 2006; 380-387.

Abstract :It is a well-known fact that diseases affect health, survival and recruitment of any individual susceptible for diseases. As a consequence of disease, harvests from natural resources and, in particular, those from aquaculture dwindle quite severely. While an appreciable volume of information on variety of mycotic diseases in the marine organisms is available on global scale, studies from Indian waters are, at best, very few. This review is an attempt of bringing together a set of information deemed useful for stimulating marine mycopathological investigations in our waters. The information put together here is also to highlight the importance of pathology in general and fungal diseases in particular.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous media by the marine fungus NIOCC 312: Involvement of lignin-degrading enzymes and exopolysaccharides

Author(s) :Raghukumar, C.; Shailaja, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Singh, S.K.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 35(4); 2006; 373-379.

Abstract :The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous culture medium by the lignin-degrading marine fungus NIOCC 312, obtained from decaying seagrass from a coral reef lagoon is reported here. The percentage of phenanthrene removed from the culture supernatant and the fungal biomass after 6 days is estimated. About 60-70% of phenanthrene, at a concentration of 12 mgl sup(-1) (12 ppm) was removed from the culture medium containing live or heat-killed fungus, as estimated by fluorescence spectroscopy method. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the phenanthrene extracted from the fungal biomass revealed that in the heat-killed fungal biomass, the phenanthrene remained undegraded till day 6. On the other hand in the live fungal biomass, no phenanthrene was detected on day 6 suggesting that it was metabolized or transformed into non-aromatic fragments. It is concluded that the disappearance of phenanthrene from the aqueous culture medium is due to its instant adsorption to the fungal biomass owing to the presence of the exopolymeric substance (EPS) around the fungal hyphae. The EPS produced by the fungus was partially characterized. It is hypothesized that phenanthrene thus adsorbed by the live fungal biomass was subsequently degraded by the lignin-degrading enzymes present in the cell wall and the EPS envelope. Thus, the heat-killed fungal biomass could be used only for adsorption of PAHs from contaminated sites whereas use of the live fungal biomass would result in degradation of PAHs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Evaluation, distribution and the coral diversity in some coastal lagoons, Red Sea, Egypt

Author(s) :Mohammed, T.A.-A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 32(Sp. issue); 2006; 180-195.

Abstract :Coral reefs and the factors that affect the biodiversity and richness as well as the human threats on their biological structure were studied in four coastal lagoons along the Red Sea. These lagoons represent different natural and human stresses as; landfilling, boat mooring, overfishing and navigation activities. Line Intercept Transect (LIT) method was applied in the coral reefs evaluation. The highest coral cover was recorded at Safaga Beach and Mersa Shuni lagoons (71.57% and 71.18% respectively), while the lowest coral cover (44.45%) is recorded at Abu-Shaar lagoon. Mersa Shuni lagoon shows high coral diversity, richness, evenness index, number of species and number of colonies (3.4, 7.08, 0.96, 34 and 106 respectively) may be due to absence of the human stresses. The strong positive relationships were observed between the coral diversity, number of species and evenness index in the different lagoons. The environmental characteristic variations and biological interaction between benthos, the anthropogenic activities, lagoon surface area, bottom topography and geomorphology, number of water inlets are major factors controlling the coral distribution

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Possible causes, consequences of changes and future of coral reefs in Dahab, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea Egypt

Author(s) :Ammar, M.S.A.; Boumeester, J.; Riegl, B.; Hausser, J.; Keck, A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 32(Sp. issue); 2006; 160-179.

Abstract :The possible causes and consequences of changes to the coral reefs in different sites of Dahab, South Sinai, Egypt have been studied during the months October to December 2004. A total of 126 species of corals were identified, 107 of which were hard corals. No significant correlation was found between the number of divers (or snorklers) and each of diversity indices or percent dead corals. The percent cover of live corals was significantly lower at Laguna, compared to all the other sites and this is attributed to the effect of crown-of-thoms. Although the dive site of Mashraba is proximate to the flood zone, no impact due to excessive sedimentation or reduced salinity has been detected. Soft corals tended to increase with the flood distance and dead corals tended to decrease, but the correlation of both of them with the distance of the annual floods was not significant. Lighthouse is the most commonly used reef in Dahab as it is closer to most diving centers. Dahab is becoming more and more popular for tourism; number of divers per sites exceeds the diver carrying capacity (DCC). Construction of hotels, roads and beach cafes all pose potential threats. Damage is present and needs to be slowed down if we want to conserve these unique ecosystems for future generations. Coral reefs generate numerous benefits, defined as ecosystem services that has been also impacted and needs innovative government policies and effective monitoring to be restored.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sedimentological and geochemical studies on some island sediments of the Red Sea, Egypt

Author(s) :Mansour, A.M.; Mohamed, A.W.; Osman, M.R.; Dien, AH.N.; Tahoen, M.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 32(Sp. issue); 2006; 105-130.

Abstract :The island areas have suffered from a number of stresses caused by human activities that has caused observable reduction in environmental quality. They can be summarized as pollution by oil and litters coral reef damage, illegal fishing, buildings or camping on the islands, and animal disturbing. Seventy six samples were collected in 2002 from the beach and intertidal area of the studied islands (Abu Minqar, Giftun and wadi El Gimal). Analyses of grain size, major and trace elements, total organic matter (TOM), organic carbon (OC), and carbonates have been carried out to identify the environmental impact of these islands. Results of analysis indicate that the sediments of Abu Minqar island have the highest clay content due to the occurrence of mangrove swamps and the nature of the island rocks. The island sediments of Wadi El Gimal and Big Giftun have the highest carbonate contents reflecting their biogenic origin from the rocky coral reefs of the islands. High organic productivity in some areas due to seagrass and algae bottom facies is the reason for their high total organic matter and organic carbon contents in most samples of different islands. Toursity activites are the for their high total organic matter and organic carbon contents in some samples of these areas (Big Gigtun and Abu Minqar islands). Also the increase of the sediments is the reason for their high total organic matter and organic carbon contents in most samples in Abu Minqar island. The sediments of Wadi El Gimal Island have the highest Fe and Mn contents are related to source rock of the island and may be associated to the marine carbonate and may be due to the effects of Wadi El Gimal. Most samples of Wadi El Gimal island and some samples of Abu Minqar island indicating that the increase of Zn, Ni and Cu metal concentrations are related to the nature of island and the type of source, rock, bottom facies and the effect of Wadi El Gimal. Also most samples of Abu Minqar island and some samples of Wadi El Gimal island have highest concentration of Fb probably due to Motor boats.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bio-mineralization processes and heavy metal incorporations in the scleractinian coral skeletons, Red Sea, Egypt

Author(s) :Dar, M.A.; Mohammed, T.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 32(Sp. issue); 2006; 87-104.

Abstract :The bio-mineralization processes of the heavy metals in the skeletal frameworks were studied in eight Irving coral species belonging to three dominant forms; branching, massive and encrusting corals collected from three environmental and anthropogenic different' localities. The organic matrix (T) of each spacemen including; mucus, zooxanthallae and organic tissue was sequestrated from the underlying aragonite skeleton (S) in the laboratory, subsequently; the metal contents in the organic matrices and the corals skeletons were measured separately. The heavy metals mineralization inside the skeletal framework of scleractinian corals is controlled essentially by; the exposing surface area, the bulk density, the organic matrix thickness and the continuality of the supplying sources. Fe, Zn, Ni and Pb concentrations are pronouncedly high in the organic matrices; their occurrences in the tissues are a function to their contents in the underlying skeletons which mean that the metals increasing in tissue supervened by the same increasing in the skeletons. Mn, Cu and Cd are not belonging this role, they behave mineralization mechanism in the coral skeletons from the surrounding seawater rather than the incorporation from the overlying organic matrix. T/S ratios illustrated distinctly the metal quantities that can mineralize in, the skeletal framework of the corals. T/S ratios in the branching corals are higher than those in the massive and encrusting corals. The increasing ratio deals to that the incorporated metals in the organic matrices are much higher than the mineralized in the-skeletal frameworks, subsequently, the excess metals are rejecting to the surrounding seawater according to the following the sequence; Fe greater than Pb greater than Zn greater than Cu.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Ecological observations on the abundance, distribution of Holothuroids (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in the Red Sea coast, Egypt

Author(s) :Razek, F.A.A.; El-Shimy, N.A.; Rahman, S.H.A.; Omar, H.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 32(1); 2006; 346-361.

Abstract :Deposit-feeding holothurians are prominent members of many shallow and deep benthic communities. Increasing attention is being given to the effects of international trade on the environment, especially in situations where biodiversity conservations is opposed to exploited industries such as fisheries. Effect of habitat conditions on abundance, distribution and population structure of three important holothurian species in Red sea Hurghada area was studied. Individual of Holothuria atra population were found to vary between 9.5 and 28.5 cm length with a model length of 21.5 cm. It was abundant during winter and spring in algal and sea grass habitats. Holothuria hawaiiensis Individuals were found to vary between 15.5 cm & 43.5 cm in length. Its frequent length categories starting from 25.5 cm to 41.5 cm. This species was abundant during winter and spring in sandy habitat with algae, as well as living and dead coral with a clear occurrence in site III. Bohadshia vitiensis individuals had length range varying between 14.0 & 42.0 cm length with most frequent categories varying from 21.5 up to 35.5 cm length. A narrow seasonal fluctuation in abundance was noted. The distribution of this species was found to be correlated with sand, algae and sea grass habitats. There was a high correlations between the gut sediment contents of the studied species and the sediment composition of the surrounding sites. The continuation of this study on all the other areas of Red Sea world make it possible to introduce sustainable management measures.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of physico-chemical factors and human impacts on coral distribution at Tobia Kebir and Sharm El Loly, Red Sea-Egypt

Author(s) :Ammar, M.S.A.; Mahmoud, M.A.

Source :Egypt. J. Aquat. Res.: 32(1); 2006; 184-197.

Abstract :Using SCUBA equipment and the line intercept transect (LIT), the effect of physical factors and human impacts on coral distribution were studied in two Red Sea sites (Sharm El Loly and Tobia Kebir) throughout the period from September, 2003 to October, 2004. The percentage cover of coral species in Northern Sharm El Loly was higher than in Tobia Kebir which might be attributed to optimum temperature and better light intensity. Diving, swimming, boat anchoring and fish feeding by divers are the main human impacts decreasing the percentage cover of corals at Tobia Kebir but fishing seems to have no role due to its limited level. The lower recorded amount of dead corals at Sharm El Loly though it is highly affected by fishing boats, is due to the fact that these boats anchor on the Sharm terminal, away from the reef and go to open water through the middle of the Sharm. Massive corals, especially Porites sp., were more abundant than branching corals in Tobia Kebir as they can tolerate turbidity and less susciptible to breakage caused by trampling, diving and swimming. However, the hydrocoral Millepora dichotoma was most dominant in Sharm El Loly as it prefers high illumination. A total of eleven species of corals were recorded in Tobia Kebir, compared to thirty-five species in Sharm El Loly. Besides, the diversity values were lower at Tobia Kebir than at Sharm El Loly, especially on the reef flat and 1-5 m depth zone, due to the higher sedimentation rate in the former site.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Temperature threshold as biogeographic barrier in northern Indian Ocean macroalgae

Author(s) :Schils, T.; Wilson, S.C.

Source :J. Phycol.: 42; 2006; 749-756.

Abstract :The most eastern point of the Arabian Peninsula, Ras Al Hadd, marks the boundary between the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. This geographic landmark coincides with an abrupt floristic turnover, probably one of the sharpest biotic transitions known in marine biogeography. The floras of different Arabian localities across this floristic break were compared using macrophyte distribution data throughout the Indian Ocean and seasonal seasurface temperature (SST) data. The localities from the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman differ significantly from those of the Arabian Sea based on their species richness, species composition, average distribution range per species, general temperature affinity of the composing species, and seasonal temperature data of the coastal waters. Pooling the temperature data into two groups (SST sub(3avg), average SST of the three warmest seasons; SST sub(min), minimum of the seasonal SSTs) revealed a temperature limit at 28 degrees C using both the temperature affinity data of the floras and the seasonal temperatures recorded for the specific Arabian localities, which significantly separates the Arabian Sea from localities of both Gulfs. Finally, SST data of the Indian Ocean were analyzed using this upper temperature threshold of macrophytes at 28 degrees C and the lower temperature limit of corals at 251 degrees C, revealing general macrophyte diversity patterns.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Autecology of the toxic Dinoflagellate Cambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo (Dinophyceae) in central coastal areas of Tanzania

Author(s) :Lugomela, C.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 5(2); 2006; 213-221.

Abstract :The spatial and temporal variability of the toxic dinoflagellate Gamberdiscus toxicus in central costal areas of Tanzania was studied over a period of 14 months between February 2003 and March 2004. G. toxicus density on coral rubble algal tufts and seagrasses ranged from 0 to 879.5 cells/gFW and from 0 to 92.6 cells/gFW, respectively. Significantly higher density (U=208.4, p is less than 0.05) was found on coral rubble algal tufts collected near Bawe Island, Zanzibar, compared to coral rubble algal tufts collected near Mbudya Island, Dar es Salaam. However, there was no significant difference in the density of G. toxicus collected on coral rubble algal tufts (U=67.6, p is greater than 0.2) between the northern and southern monsoon periods. Also, there were no significant correlations between the- biomass of G. toxicus with any of the environmental parameters measured in this particular study i.e., water temperature, salinity, nitrate and phosphate concentrations. It is concluded that G. toxicus exists in the Tanzanian coastal waters in background concentrations similar to those reported from areas where ciguatera outbreaks has been reported. That algal tufts covering dead corals seems to provide good substrate for developments of G. toxicus in the area. A monitoring programme is therefore called for in order to safeguard the health of seafood consumers in the country.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of coral reefs: Preliminary results on community structure, species distribution and reproductive biology in Juan de Nova Island (Southwest Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Gravier-Bonnet, N.; Bourmaud, C.A.-F.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 5(2); 2006; 123-132.

Abstract :The first field investigation of the marine life at Juan de Nova gave an opportunity to study hydroid diversity in April-May 2004. Species richness was high, with 95 species belonging to 26 families and 44 genera. Thecates dominated (72%), with three families particularly diverse: Haleciidac, Sertulariidae and Aglaopheniidae. There were four different sub-communities with a few species in common: two intertidal and two subtidal. One was located on reef flats subject to strong hydrodynamic conditions, and included rheophilic and photophilic species such as Millepora exaesa, Nemalecium sp., Dynamena crisoides, Tliyroscyphusfruticosus, Thyroscyphus sp. and Aglaophenia cupressina. The second was found where the reef flat experienced calmer conditions, and comprised mainly Plumularioidea and Haleciidac species with small sized colonies (l-3cm) and large populations, densely covering the nurd substrata of coral patches. The third sub-community colonized the reef platform (5-20m), with hydroids widespread and diverse. The fourth was on the outer slope, deeper (30m), and was characterized by the presence of four Solanderia species, several Aglaophenids and Thyroscyphus aequalis. Most of the species were brooders (84%). Present data arc discussed regarding environmental parameters, and compared with data from the lies Glorieuses, other islands of the Mozambique Channel.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Biological and chemical study of some soft corals and sponges collected in Mauritian waters

Author(s) :Wah, H.L.K.; Jhaumeer-Laulloo, S.; Yive, R.C.K.; Banaigs, B.B.; Marie, D.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 5(2); 2006; 115-121.

Abstract :Thirty-seven samples of soft corals and sponges collected in July 2004 between the north and west coasts of Mauritius at depths varying from 6-26 metres have been biologically screened against inhibition of urchin egg cell division, brine shrimp lethality test, anti-acetylcholinesterase test and against two bacteria Escherichia colt and Micrococcus luteus. The sponges Rhabdastrella sp. aff. providentiae (Dendy) (M03 SP3 FF) and Pericharax heterorhaphis (M03 SP4 FF) were found to be active against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus respectively at a concentration of 1 mu g/mL and the sponge Liosina paradoxa (M03 SP3 BC) exhibited anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. Fractionation and purification of the crude extract of the soft coral M03 SCI GB using flash, open column and high performance liquid chromatography resulted in the isolation of one secondary metabolite (Guaianediol). Seventeen sponges have also been taxonomically identified.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :East African soil erosion recorded in a 300 year old coral colony from Kenya

Author(s) :Fleitmann, D.; Dunbar, R.B.; McCulloch, M.; Mudelsee, M.; Vuille, M.; McClanahan, T.R.; Cole, J.E.; Eggins, S.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 34; 2006; doi:10.1029/2006GL028525, 5 pp.

Abstract :Soil erosion is a key socio-economic and environmental problem in Kenya, which has been poorly documented due to the lack of long, continuous records. Here we present Ba/Ca records from Porites corals from the Malindi coral reef documenting the flux of suspended sediment from the Sabaki River with a sub-weekly resolution for the last 300 years. While sediment flux from the Sabaki River is almost constant between 1700 and 1900, a continuous rise in sediment flux is observed since 1900, first due to British settlements and afterwards due to steadily increasing demographic pressure on land use. The peak in suspended sediment load and hence soil erosion occurred between 1974 and 1980 when there is a five to tenfold increase relative to natural levels. This is attributed to the combined effects of dramatically increasing population, unregulated land use, deforestation and severe droughts in the early 1970's. It is concluded that despite laudable attempts to instigate soil conservation measures, it is unlikely that there will be a sustainable reduction in soil erosion without a significant improvement in socioeconomic conditions.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Paired coral Sr/Ca and delta sup(18)O records from the Chagos Archipelago: Late twentieth century warming affects rainfall variability in the tropical Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Pfeiffer, M.; Timm, O.; Dullo, W.-C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

Source :Geology: 34(12); 2006; 1069-1072.

Abstract :Understanding the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation is a significant challenge for climate models, particularly for the tropics. A new monthly coral Sr/Ca record from the tropical Indian Ocean (Chagos Archipelago) that extends from 1950 to 1995 is presented. The coral Sr/Ca ratio shows a stationary relationship with local SST, and documents a warming of 0.3 degrees C since 1950. Previous work has shown that the delta sup(18) O values measured in the same coral core provide a proxy record of precipitation in the tropical Indian Ocean. The coral delta sup(18)O record shows a nonstationary relationship with local SST, and a correlation between delta sup(18)O and SST only emerges in the 1970s. It was proposed that this nonstationary behavior is due to an increase in mean SSTs in the tropical Indian Ocean. During the 1970s, SSTs reached a critical threshold (28.5 degrees C) beyond which small SST anomalies can have a significant impact on atmospheric convection. As a result, the covariance between SST and precipitation in the tropical Indian Ocean increased. Our new Sr/Ca data confirm that the warming of the Indian Ocean during the late twentieth century affects atmospheric convection and rainfall variability. Moreover, our proxy data show that the relationship between SST and precipitation is nonlinear and characterized by threshold behavior

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Rodrigues, Mauritius, and Reunion Islands field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Author(s) :Okal, E.A.; Sladen, A.; Okal, E.A.-S.

Source :Earthquake Spectra: 22(S3); 2006; S241-S261.

Abstract :The effects of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on the islands of Rodrigues, Mauritius, and Reunion were surveyed in March 2005. Runup and inundation were obtained at 35 sites. Measured runup ranges from 2.9 m on the southeastern coast of Rodrigues to negligible values further west on the same island, with most variations expressing the effect of differences in the structure of the coral reef. Most of the damage on Reunion was concentrated in harbors. At the main harbor of Le Port on Reunion, a 196-m vessel broke loose from its moorings and began drifting, inflicting damage on port infrastructure; this incident took place significantly later than the passage of the maximum-amplitude waves. There is a potential hazard to the Mascarene Islands from any future large earthquake in southern Sumatra

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The coast of Kenya field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Author(s) :Weiss, R.; Bahlburg, H.

Source :Earthquake Spectra: 22(S3); 2006; S235-S240.

Abstract :A field survey of the coast of Kenya was conducted after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The coast between Mombasa and the Ngomeni Peninsula north of Malindi from 25 February to 4 March 2005 are visited. The tsunami struck the coast during the rising tide, but it caused little damage because warnings had been issued effectively and because large stretches of the coast are protected by reefs. These large stretches of protected coast end at Malindi, and the coasts to the north include sandy beaches and spits like the Ngomeni Peninsula. The maximum recorded runup at this peninsula was 3 m at 43 m from the water level at the time of the tsunami impact

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Andaman seacoast of Thailand field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Author(s) :Siripong, A.

Source :Earthquake Spectra: 22(S3); 2006; S187-S202.

Abstract :The post-tsunami runups on the damaged Andaman Sea coastline of Thailand from the tsunami of 26 December 2004 were surveyed by Thai and Korean teams for 99 transects from 23 January to 7 February 2005. The highest runup in Thailand was 15.68 m at Cape Coral, in Phang-nga province, and the longest inundation distance was 3 km at Bang Nieng, in Phang-nga province. The causes of the variation in runup were analyzed by using the method of splitting tsunami (MOST) model, tide gauges, satellite imagery, and field data with topographic charts. The distribution of runups reflects the effects of bathymetry, coastal topography, coastline configuration and slope, the pattern and density of land use, and the biological and geomorphological characteristics of offshore and near-shore areas

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sri Lanka field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Author(s) :Goff, J.; Liu, P.L.-F.; Higman, B.; Morton, R.; Jaffe, B.E.; Fernando, H.; Lynett, P.; Fritz, H.; Synolakis, C.; Fernando, S.

Source :Earthquake Spectra: 22(S3); 2006; S155-S172.

Abstract :An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) consisting of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka evaluated the impacts of the 26 December 2004 transoceanic tsunami in Sri Lanka two weeks after the event. Tsunami runup height, inundation distance, morphological changes, and sedimentary characteristics of deposits were recorded and analyzed along the southwest and east coasts of the country. Preliminary results show how local topography and bathymetry controlled the limits of inundation and associated damage to the infrastructure. The largest wave height of 8.71 m was recorded at Nonagama, while the greatest inundation distance of 390 m and runup height of 12.50 m was at Yala. At some sites, human alterations to the landscape increased the damage caused by the tsunami; this was particularly evident in areas of coral poaching and of sand dune removal

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Maldives field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Author(s) :Fritz, H.M.; Synolakis, C.E.; McAdoo, B.G.

Source :Earthquake Spectra: 22(S3); 2006; S137-S154.

Abstract :The tsunami of 26 December 2004 severely affected the Maldives at a distance of 2,500 km from the epicenter of the magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The Maldives provide an opportunity to assess the impact of a tsunami on coral atolls. Two international tsunami survey teams (ITSTs) surveyed a total of 13 heavily damaged islands. The islands were visited by seaplane on 14-15 and 18-19 January 2005. Tsunami heights of up to 4 m on Vilufushi on the basis of the location of debris in trees and watermarks on buildings is recorded. Each watermark was localized by means of a global positioning system (GPS) and was photographed. Numerous eyewitness interviews were recorded on video. The significantly lower tsunami impact on the Maldives as compared with Sri Lanka is largely due to the topography and bathymetry of the atoll chain

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Geologic and geodetic aspects of the December 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman and 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquakes

Author(s) :Hudnut, K.W.

Source :Earthquake Spectra: 22(S3); 2006; S13-S42.

Abstract :Geologic data from field observations and satellite imagery analysis contribute a constraint on the æpivot lineÆ between uplift and subsidence of coral reefs, indicating the downdip rupture extent. Geodetic global positioning system (GPS) data contribute vector displacements of points on islands along the archipelago, indicating amount and direction of slip alongstrike of the rupture. Geodetic and geologic data are sensitive not only to rapid coseismic fault movement, but also to slower motion across the plate interface that occurs postseismically. Consequently, the source dimensions and slip pattern estimates based on various geodetic and geologic data differ from purely seismic estimates. A more complete understanding is emerging, based upon joint inversions that use various combinations of all available data, of ways in which sudden slip and gradual afterslip occurred in each of these two major plate boundary ruptures

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Quantifying the environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on KenyaÆs coral reef ecosystems

Author(s) :Mangi, S.C.; Roberts, C.M.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 52(12); 2006; 1646-1660.

Abstract :The environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on coral reef ecosystems were studied in the multi-gear fishery of southern Kenya to evaluate which types of gear have the greatest impact on coral reef biodiversity. The gear types studied were large and small traps, gill nets, beach seines, hand lines and spear guns. Levels of coral damage, proportion of juvenile fish and discards, size and maturity stage at first capture were quantified and compared amongst the gear types. Results indicate that fishers using beach seines, spears and gill nets cause the most direct physical damage to corals. Spear fishers showed the highest number of contacts to live corals per unit catch followed by fishers using gill nets (12.6 plus or minus 1.8 and 5.9 plus or minus 2.0 coral contacts per kg fish caught per trip respectively). Apart from discarding 6.5% of their daily catch in the sea, as it was too small, beach seine fishers also landed the highest percentage of juvenile fish (68.4 plus or minus 15.7%), a proportion significantly higher (p is less than 0.001) than in any other gear. The size and maturity stage at first capture for 150 of 195 species caught by all gear types was well below the lengths at which they mature. For example, 100% of Lethrinus xanthochilus, 99% of Lethrinus nebulosus and 94% of Lethrinus harak caught were juveniles. Across all gear types, 50.1 plus or minus 22.7% of the catch consisted of juvenile fish, indicating serious growth over fishing. Field assessment of levels of coral density showed that fishing grounds where beach seines were still in use had a significantly lower density than where beach seining was not used. This correlation is likely to arise in part because seines cannot be used in the most coral rich areas, and in part because coral loss is a consequence of seine use. On a per gear basis therefore, beach seines had the most impact on coral reef biodiversity. This study emphasizes the need to enforce restrictions on destructive gear and mesh sizes.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Continued post-bleaching decline and changed benthic community of a Kenyan coral reef

Author(s) :Lambo, A.L.; Ormond, R.F.G.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 52(12); 2006; 1617-1624.

Abstract :During the global coral bleaching event of 1997/1998 Kenyan reefs experienced between 50% and 90% coral mortality, with coral cover at Malindi being reduced from 35û45% (pre-bleaching) to 10û20%. Even before this event there was concern that these reefs were being impacted by increased sediment loads from the nearby Sabaki River. It is reported that since 1998 coral cover has declined yet further with, in 2004, means of 5.1% being recorded at North Reef (within the non-.shed Malindi Marine National Park) and 2.3% on Leopard Reef (within the fished Marine Reserve). Prior to bleaching 55 coral genera were recorded from the area, currently only 23 are found. Meanwhile algal cover, especially the calcareous green alga Halimeda, has increased, and on Leopard Reef is twice that on North Reef. Taken with the evidence of previous studies, these data suggest a combined impact of coral bleaching with sedimentation and fishing.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Disequilibrium effect in oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of modern foraminifera from Lakshadweep, India

Author(s) :Saraswati, P.K.; Rogers, K.M.; Raja, R.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 68(6); 2006; 1003-1007.

Abstract :Oxygen isotope palaeothermometry can be applied to biogenic carbonates only if they are precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with the ambient water. The selection of species satisfying this condition is therefore vital to the integrity of palaeoclimatic interpretation. This paper analyzes delta sup(18)O and delta sup(13)C of seven coexisting species of benthic foraminifera from the lagoon waters of Lakshadweep, India. It aims to (1) select the species secreting their tests in isotopic equilibrium and (2) assess the amount of disequilibrium for species not precipitating their tests in isotopic equilibrium. It is found that Marginopora vertebralis and Amphisorus hemprichii precipitate their tests in oxygen isotopic equilibrium and, therefore, these species are suitable for calibration in isotopic palaeotemperature reconstructions. Sorites is enriched by 0.3 ppt and Heterostegina depressa, Neorotalia calcar, Amphistegina lessonii and Nummulites venosus are depleted by up to 0.8 ppt in delta sup(18)O. The carbon isotopic composition of miliolid foraminifera are depleted by <2 ppt and the rotaliid foraminifera are depleted by about 4 ppt and more. The equilibrium to minor disequilibrium of oxygen isotopic compositions and positive linear correlations between delta sup(18)O and delta sup(13)C suggest that metabolic fractionation may be having only a minor effect on the oxygen isotopic compositions of the analyzed benthic foraminifera.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral records from the Northern Indian Ocean: Understanding the monsoon variability

Author(s) :Chakraborty, S.

Source :(Int. Workshop on the Indian Monsoon and Climate Variability during the Holocene; Geological Society of India, Bangalore (India); 17-18 May 2004). J. Geol. Soc. India: 68(3); 2006; 395-405.

Abstract :The oxygen isotopic composition of scelactinian corals has been shown to be a reliable indicator of the surface ocean and atmospheric conditions and variabilities. In the equatorial Indian Ocean coral records track the movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and strongly respond to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variabilities of the equatorial Pacific. Corals from the Arabian Sea seem to respond both to the Indian monsoon precipitation as well as to ENSO. However, those from the extreme northern Red Sea appear to be controlled by the Middle East climate. The characteristic behaviour of coral oxygen isotopes in this region of the Indian Ocean reveals the nature of the large-scale forcings. It appears that the ENSO influences the equatorial Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) through an atmospheric teleconnection, which in turn, interacts with the sub-tropics through changes in land-ocean temperature gradients that enhance the wind strength. The effect of this interaction is manifested in the northern Arabian Sea coral oxygen isotopes more during the northeast, than during the southwest monsoon.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Indian monsoon as a component of the climate system during the Holocene

Author(s) :Kelkar, R.R.

Source :(Int. Workshop on the Indian Monsoon and Climate Variability during the Holocene; Geological Society of India, Bangalore (India); 17-18 May 2004). J. Geol. Soc. India: 68(3); 2006; 347-352.

Abstract :The Indian summer monsoon is fundamentally a giant land-sea breeze produced by the heating of the Eurasian land mass and the relative cooling of the Indian Ocean. It is a significant component of the climate system as it has global linkages through El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other factors. Changes in the land-ocean temperature contrast can have a profound influence on the strength of the monsoon winds and precipitation. Although India is fortunate to have instrumental records of rainfall dating back to the 18th century, it is important to investigate how on geological time scales, the monsoon may have responded to variations in the incoming solar energy, the earth`s orbital characteristics and glacial boundary conditions. For reconstructing past monsoon episodes, recourse has to be taken to proxy data as indirect evidence of what the conditions might have been like. There are many high-resolution proxy indicators such as width and density of tree rings in the Himalayan forests, geochemical characteristics of Arabian Sea corals, laminated ocean-floor sediment cores off the west coast of India, lake-bed pollen sequences from northwestern India, and high-elevation ice cores from the Tibetan region. It must be realised that inferences drawn from proxy studies are bound to have limitations and uncertainties and cannot be expected to match the accuracy of analyses carried out with recent meteorological data. However, for studies on time scales of hundreds to thousands of years, there is perhaps no alternative to the use of proxy data. It is now generally agreed that the climate of the Holocene was relatively stable, but was characterised by millennial scale variability and long-term trends including changes in the nature of ENSO. As more results emerge from proxy studies, we would be in a better position to re-construct past monsoons, droughts and floods over the Indian region. If parallels to the present global warming trend were discovered in the historical past, they would help in building better monsoon prediction models.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Ocean - An eternal source of drugs

Author(s) :Ravi, R.

Source :Seafood Export J.: 36(4); 2006; 17-23, 31.

Abstract :Novel natural biomedical products have been isolated from cone snails, corals, sponges, sea squirts, marine worms, bryozoans, sea slug and sharks and these drugs are being used for treating a range of disorders like fungal, bacterial and viral infections, malaria, tuberculosis, nematode infection, pain allevaiation, inflammation control and cancer.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2005-2006

Corp. Body :National Inst. of Oceanography, Dona Paula-Goa (India).

Source :NIO; Dona Paula, Goa (India)NIO/TR-07/2006; 2006; 28 pp.

Abstract :As a part of the institutional project,`Application of Geological and Geophysical methods in Marine Archaeology and Underwater Explorations, (OLP 0008)`, exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from 23 Jan 2006 to 21 Feb 2006 for 11 days in Sunchi Reef, Amee shoals, Aguada Bay and Cabo, off Goa waters (India). The objectives of the survey were three fold: (1) To locate and explore new wreck sites which are mentioned in the Hydrographic chart No: 2020, (2) Further explorations in and around the Sunchi wreck site to find new antiquities and artifacts, (3) Deployment of echosounder to understand the seabed topography of the region. Positions of all underwater explored sites were obtained in Global Positioning System (GPS). Artefacts found during exploration were collected for further research and analysis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of UV-B on photosynthesis, membrane lipids and MAAs in marine cyanobacterium, Phormidium corium (Agardh) Gomont

Author(s) :Bhandari, R.; Sharma, P.K.

Source :Indian J. Exp. Biol.: 44(4); 2006; 330-335.

Abstract :UV-B radiation (0.8 plus or minus 0.1 mW cm sup(-2)) and UV-B radiation supplemented with low intensity PAR (approx. 80 mu mol m sup(-2) s sup(-1)) affected photosynthesis at the level of antenna system as well as PS 2nd reaction center (F sub(o) and F sub(m) declined) in Phormidium corium (Agardh) Gomont. UV-B radiation resulted in decline in sugar content, peroxidation of membrane lipids as well as quantitative and qualitative changes in phosphoglycolipids and neutral lipids. Fatty acid profile did not show any qualitative changes due to the treatment, however, UV-B supplemented with low PAR resulted in slightly higher level of unsaturation. P. corium synthesized MAAs in response to UV-B. Quantity of MAAs increased when UV-B treatment was supplemented with low level PAR.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reflection of boxing day tsunami on coral reef ecosystem of India

Author(s) :Kannan, L.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sridhar, R.

Source :Geomatics in tsunami. eds. by: Ramasamy, S.M.; Kumanan, C.J.; Sivakumar, B.R.; Singh, B.New India Publishing Agency; New Delhi (India); 2006; 167-177.

Abstract :Coral reefs, the marine representatives of tropical forests, coupled with the sea grasses contribute considerably to the coastal productivity. Damages to these ecosystems will immediately affect the fishery productivity of the region. Due to this, the long-term ecological impact of the recent tsunami will be a serious set back to the local, national and regional economy than the immediate losses. Andaman and Nicobar reefs represent the second largest coral reef format ion next to the Great Barrier Reef and are also comparable to the coral reefs of Indonesia and Philippines in terms of diversity of species and associated floral and faunal components. The recent mega - subduction of the Indian plate below the Burmese micro -plate in Andaman - Sumatra region has not only deepened the southern and uplifted the northern group of Andaman - Nicobar islands but also created a disastrous tsunami on Dec 26, 2004. While such tectonic changes are expected to cause longterm changes in the coral reefs of Andaman, Nicobar group of islands, the tsunami has damaged the coral reefs instantaneously. However, the coral reefs of the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay: are not much affected by the tsunami by virtue of their geographic position in the shadow region of Sri Lanka.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Drugs from the sea

Author(s) :Ojha, S.K.; Sharma, C.

Source :Sci. Rep. (New Delhi): 43(5); 2006; 39-42.

Abstract :Scientists are studying marine organisms with a view to develop new drugs against deadly diseases. Many marine derived products are in advanced stages of development or are expected to reach the market very soon against a wide variety of cancer, infectious diseases and pain. This article highlights extraction of drugs from songes, corals, fishes, crustaceans, cone snails, bryozoans etc.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Change of coastal land use, its impact, and management options

Author(s) :Untawale, A.G.

Source :Multiple dimensions of global environmental change. ed. by: Sonak, S.TERI Press; New Delhi (India); 2006; 23-43.

Abstract :In the recent past, coastal zone is increasingly being used in an unplanned way, which has resulted in its degradation. There are unique living ecosystems along the coasts, such as mangroves, sand dune vegetation, corals, seaweeds, benthos, and fisheries. The coastal communities directly and also indirectly depend upon these ecosystems for their livelihood. These are some of the most productive natural systems and are ecologically and economically very significant. However, due to monitory benefits, vested interests as also lack of information and awareness, the natural as well as designated coastal land use has been changed at several places along the Indian coast. Deforestation, reclamation, and pollution have become routine practices in spite of legislative protection like Coastal Regulatory Zone, Wildlife Protection Act (1972), etc., being in place. There have been efforts towards preservation and conservation of the coastline in the form of biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, marine parks, germplasm preservation centres, and protected areas. It is concluded that for sustainable development and utilization of the natural coastal living and non-living resources, there is a need for more awareness. Efforts to understand the natural processes and man-made changes are essential for proper coastal land-use plan.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome

Author(s) :Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 90(5); 2006; 720-724.

Abstract :A pink-line syndrome (PLS) was reported in the reef building coral Porites lutea in Kavaratti island of the Lakshadweep archipelago. The affected corals had dead patches colonized by a cyanobacterium Phormidium valderianum and the bordering coral tissue was pink. The histological changes associated with the PLS-affected tissue were examined. Results showed that the zooxanthellae were released from the gastrodermal cells into the coelenteron. Gastrodermal cells undergo necrosis and detachment from the basal membrane. The basic staining of the cytoplasm in the gastrodermal cells bordering the calicoblastic layer suggests accumulation of calcium ions. The ectodermal epithelium and calicoblastic cells showed destruction through 'apoptosis-like' processes. Cell swelling and vacuolation were observed in the gastrodermal and ectodermal cells. In this communication how the presence of the cyanobacterium adjacent to the PLS-affected tissue could cause the observed damage is discussed, bring about imbalance and a shift in the coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Isotopic fractionation of boron in growing corals and its palaeoenvironmental implication

Author(s) :Xiao, Y.K.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zhang, C.G.; Wei, H.Z.; Liu, W.G.; Zhou, W.J.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 90(3); 2006; 414-420.

Abstract :Isotopic compositions of boron delta sup(11) B sub(c)) value and elemental concentrations of B, Ca, Mg, Fe and Al in growing corals from Sanya Bay, China and Kavaratti Lagoon, India along with delta sup(11) B sub(sw) values and pH values of the coexisting sea water have been measured in this study using TIMS. The delta sup(11) B sub(c) values of growing corals behave inconsistently and are not related to the concentrations of Fe and Al in corals. The higher delta sup(11) B sub(c) values of corals imply additional amount of trigonal species of boron to be incorporated into corals. Based on the measured delta sup(11) B values of growing corals and coexisting sea water as well as the pH of co-existing sea water, a new isotopic fractionation factor alpha sub(43) between two boron species, B(OH) sub(4) sup(-) and B(OH) sub(3), has been measured to be 0.980, consistent with the well accepted alpha sub(43) of 0.981 established by earlier workers. The significance of alpha sub(43) value established by recalculating the sea water pH considering the published delta sup(11) B values of marine carbonates and using the reported alpha sub(43) values of 0.968, 0.981, 0.984 and one alpha sub(43) of 0.980 observed in this study, gave the average pH values of sea water to be 8.85, 8.17, 7.76 and 8.22 respectively. This indicates the closeness of alpha sub(43) value of 0.980 with that of the well-accepted reported alpha sub(43) of 0.981 as the recalculated pH values of sea water obtained using these are nearly the same. The alpha sub(43) value of 0.980 observed in this study can therefore be considered an acceptable value for reconstructing the past sea water pH values.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Disposal of dredge spoil from Sethusamudram Ship Channel Project

Author(s) :Seralathan, P.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 90(1); 2006; 146-147.

Abstract :The Sethusamudram Ship Channel Project (SSCP), Tamil Nadu, India involves dredging or a length of about 35 km in the Adam's Bridge sector and about 54 km across the Palk Strait and will generate respectively 48 and 34.5 million cubic meters of sediments. The materials dredged from Adam's Bridge area will be dumped in the Gulf of Mannar region at 20-30m water depths with in the Indian territorial waters about 30 km away from Adam's Bridge. The sediments dredged from Palk Bay will be dumped in the Indian Ocean at about 25-30m water depths. Dumping of sediments in open sea will cause turbidity in the water column and submergence of large bottom community by the sand contained in the dredged sediments. Such environmental effect over vast areas for considerably long time span will have long-term impact. Instead the dredge spoil can be dumped at one place in the sallow western Palk Bay at water depths of about 10 or 12m (30-35 km off Tondi) so that an island with land area of about 6-8 km sup(2) can be created. Alternatively the dredge spoil can also be used to enhance the size and relief of a section of the narrow spit of the northeastern Rameswaram Island, as it is vulnerable for erosion. The land area that can be reclaimed between Rameswaram town and Dhanuskodi using the sediments dredged from Adam's Bridge area alone is about 10 km sup(2). As the proposed dumpsites are considerably away from the coral islands of the Gulf Mannar, suspended sediments may not be able to reach the coral island areas.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :In situ measured seasonal variations in Fv/ Fm of two common Red Sea corals

Author(s) :Winters, G.; Loya, Y.; Beer, S.

Source :Coral Reefs: 25(4); 2006; 593-598.

Abstract :Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) Xuorometry has been suggested as a tool for estimating environmental stresses on corals. However, information regarding natural changes in maximal quantum yields Fv /Fm) of corals during 'normal` (i.e. non-bleaching) years has been limited. In this study, seasonal variations in Fv /Fm for Stylophora pistillata and Favia favus, measured in situ, correlated with seasonal changes in solar irradiance but not in sea temperature. Interactions between sea temperature and irradiance were further studied by growing these corals and Pocillopora damicornis under controlled conditions. Exposure to high light with normal or high temperatures resulted in lower Fv / Fm values than exposure to low light at both temperatures. Thus, high irradiances may cause decreased Fv/Fm values in corals at least as much as, if not more than, high temperatures. Such seasonal variations should be taken into account when using PAM Xuorometry as a diagnostic tool for predicting coral bleaching.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :New and little known Aoridae, Corophiidae, Kamakidae, Photidae and Unciolidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Indo-Pacific

Author(s) :Krapp-Schickel, T.; Myers, A.A.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.: 86(5); 2006; 1083-1096.

Abstract :In Malaysia, Indonesia and Polynesia, samples of algae and coral rubble were taken in order to collect the Amphipoda (Peracarida: Crustacea) inhabiting them. Eight species: five from Indonesia (among which two are new to science, one Atlantic genus found for the first time in the tropics), one from Malaysia (reported there for the first time) and two were found from Moorea (one new to science, the taxonomic status of the other one not fully resolved) are reported

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tidal power potential in the submerged channels of Dar es Salaam coastal waters

Author(s) :Dubi, A.M.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 5(1); 2006; 95-104.

Abstract :This is a study conducted in the coastal waters off Dar es Salaam between three reef islands, Mbudya, Pangavini and Bongoyo, to assess the characteristics of tidal currents and their potential for tidal power in submerged channels. The study entailed detailed bathymetric surveying of the area, measurement of currents and data analysis. Tidal currents were measured on the tidal plateau, shallow water area on the sand banks and in the submerged channels, using self-recording multi-sensor current meters. A self-recording current meter type RCM9 (www.aadi.no) was deployed on the tidal plateau. Two South African PUV-type of current meters (Sea Pac and MCM), both of which were manufactured by CSIR (www.csir.co.za), were deployed in shallow water and in the submerged channels respectively. Results from in-situ measurements show that currents on the sandbank and the tidal flat, in water depths from 0.5 m to 3.0 m, are directed opposite the main tidal current in the deeper waters. Current velocities vary during a tidal cycle and are strongest in the middle of the cycle. Generally, velocities on the tidal flat are around 0.1 m/s during the SE monsoon winds and only half that during the NE monsoon winds. In the submerged channels, below 6 m, velocities are more than 0.5 m/s. In the deepest part of the test area, velocities reach 1.5 m/s. Flood and ebb current velocities were comparable. The mass flux reached 20 m sup(3)/s in the submerged channels and decreased with decreasing depth. The potential for use of tidal power is discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A biosocioeconomic evaluation of shipwrecks used for fishery and dive tourism enhancement in Kenya

Author(s) :Crabbe, M.; McClanahan, T.R.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 5(1); 2006; 35-53.

Abstract :The use of artificial reefs as a management tool to enhance both dive tourism and fisheries has been poorly studied, often resulting in permanent structures created with little knowledge of their impacts. This study specifically evaluated the use of three shipwrecks, off the coast of Kenya, using biosocioeconomic assessments to quantify the benefits. The results show a short-term increase in fish catch for speargun fishermen but a decrease for hook and line fishermen and no evidence for the sustainable use. The economic benefit to the speargun fishermen was estimated to be an additional US$1,000 annually, although from the use of semi-structured interviews, the fishermen perceived little benefit from the shipwrecks. The economic benefit from enhanced dive tourism was estimated as US$75,000-$174,000 annually and there was generally a high awareness by all stakeholders of the social benefits of the shipwrecks to the local community. The results from the present study suggest that the major use of shipwrecks is to enhance dive tourism and not the enhancement of fisheries. Diver operators are the main beneficiaries of shipwrecks and should, therefore, be closely involved in the sinking and management, such that conflicts do not arise among marine resource users.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Growth and survival rates of exploited coral reef fishes in Kenyan marine parks derived from tagging and length-frequency data

Author(s) :Kaunda-Arara, B.; Rose, G.A.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 5(1); 2006; 17-26.

Abstract :Growth increments were obtained from 157 recaptured fishes and yielded estimates of absolute growth rates (cm day sup(-1)) for 11 species and growth parameters (K, L infinity for 7 species. A total of 3,916 exploited coral reef fishes were tagged within Malindi and Watamu National Marine Parks, Kenya, in 2001 and 2002. Growth rates ranged over an order of magnitude among species. Of the dominant commercial species, the whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor, had both the highest absolute growth rate (21.9 plus or minus 14.6 cm yr sup(-1)) and growth coefficient (K = 1.2 yr sup(-1)), whereas emperors (Lethrinus spp.) had somewhat lower rates (overall mean 10.95 plus or minus 3.65 cm yr sup(-1); maximum for L. nebulosus, 4.6 plus or minus 7.3 cm yr sup-1); K = 0.92 yr sup(-1)). In contrast, the orangestriped triggerfish, Balistapus undulatus, had an average annual growth rate of only 2.0 plus or minus 1.9 cm. Growth coefficient (K) estimated for S. sutor and the sky emperor, Lethrinus mahsena, using length-frequency analysis (LFA) indicated a lower growth rate (K=0.54 yr sup(-1)) for S. sutor than derived from tagging, but for L. mahsena the LFA-derived growth rate (K=0.64 yr sup(-1)) was comparable to the K derived from tagging (0.57/year). Growth rates estimated here for most, but not all species (L. mahsena in particular) were similar to those reported from other coral reef regions. Annual survival rates (S) derived from length-converted catch-curves were higher for S. sutor (0.145) than for L. mahsena (0.029), whereas, natural annual mortality rates (M) were comparable for the species (S. sutor, 1.12; L. mahsena, 1.25).

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Molecular evidence of fungal signatures in the marine protist Corallochytrium limacisporum and its implications in the evolution of animals and fungi

Author(s) :Jebaraj, C.S.; Raghukumar, S.; Kasbekar, D.P.; Raghukumar, C.

Source :Protist: 157(4); 2006; 363-376.

Abstract :Fungi, animals, and single-celled organisms belonging to the choanozoans together constitute the supergroup Opisthokonta. The latter are considered crucial in understanding the evolutionary origin of animals and fungi. The choanozoan Corallochytrium limacisporum is an enigmatic marine protist of considerable interest in opisthokontan evolution. Several isolates of the organism were obtained from a coral reef lagoon in the Lakshadweep group of islands of the Arabian Sea. The capability of these cultures to grow on media containing inorganic nitrogen sources prompted us to examine the possible presence of fungal signatures, namely the enzyme alpha-aminoadipate reductase (alpha-AAR) involved in the alpha-aminoadipate (AAA) pathway for synthesizing lysine and ergosterol, in one of the isolates. These features, as well as the sterol C-14 reductase gene involved in the sterol pathway of animals and fungi, were detected in the organism. Phylogenetic trees based on the alpha-AAR gene suggested that Corallochytrium limacisporum is a sister clade to fungi, while those based on the C-14 reductase gene did not adequately resolve whether the organism was more closely related to fungi or animals. While many studies indicate that Corallochytrium is a sister clade to animals, it is suggested that further studies are required to examine whether this protist is in fact more closely related to fungi rather than to animals.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Exploration of a Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters, western coast of India

Author(s) :Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

Source :Bull. Aust. Inst. Marit. Archaeol.: 30; 2006; 127-136.

Abstract :Maritime archaeological explorations have been initiated in Goa waters since 1997 for locating port installations and shipwrecks both in coastal waters and riverbanks. Exploration off Sunchi reef in 3 to 6 m water depth brought to light a barrel of a hand gun, guns, Chinese ceramics, sherds of Martaban pottery (stone ware), elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth, a number of dressed granite blocks, a cast iron cannon ball, lead pieces, copper vessel and strip, stone and clay bricks, pieces of glass bottles, etc. These findings suggest that the ship might have arrived from Portugal via African countries to Goa and grounded due to lack of knowledge of the topography of the area. Thermoluminescence dating of Martaban pottery (stone ware), the radiocarbon dating of ivory and comparative study of the æAdmiralty Pattern Long ShankedÆ type of iron anchor indicate that the wreck could be dated to the early 17th century AD. The findings of Sunchi Reef show the evidence of the Indo-Portuguese maritime trade and are the oldest wreck observed so far in the nautical archaeology of India.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Algal assemblages associated with Stegastes sp. territories on Indo-Pacific coral reefs: Characterization of diversity and controls on growth

Author(s) :Gobler, C.J.; Thibault, D.B.; Davis, T.W.; Curran, P.B.; Peterson, B.J.; Liddle, L.B.

Source :J. Exp. Mar. Bio. Ecol.: 336(1); 2006; 135-145.

Abstract :Herbivorous fish occupy an important niche in coral reef ecosystems. Specifically, damselfish of the genus Stegastes have been shown to have a significant impact on coral community structure and algal assemblages. This study investigated the algal communities associated with Stegastes territories of the Indo-Pacific (Fiji, Solomon Islands, and Tonga), while concurrently examining the effects of nutrient enrichment and herbivore exclusion (alone and in unison) on these communities. Results evidenced differences in species composition, percent cover, and algal growth rate between Stegastes territories and non-Stegastes sites and between control sites and treatment sites. Stegastes territories consistently displayed a greater abundance of turf algae than non-Stegastes sites; the two main genera of turf algae observed at all sites were Polysiphonia and Ceramium. Although non-Stegastes sites in Fiji, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga showed a greater percent coverage of macroalgae, they contained fewer algal species compared to Stegastes territories. In Fiji, red macroalgae decreased in the herbivore exclusion treatments, while brown macroalgae increased significantly in the herbivore exclusion and nutrient treatments. The combined effect of the herbivore exclusion and nutrient treatment at this location yielded a significantly increased turf algae growth rate compared to control sites. Growth rates of turf algae in the Solomon Islands and Tonga increased significantly in caged treatments, suggesting that damselfish of the genus Stegastes can play an important role in maintaining cropped algal beds. In summation, the results demonstrated that Stegastes sustains distinct algal assemblages which may be disrupted by reduced grazing and/or eutrophication

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Local processes strongly influence post-bleaching benthic recovery in the Lakshadweep Islands

Author(s) :Arthur, R.; Done, T.J.; Marsh, H.; Harriott, V.

Source :Coral Reefs: 25(3); 2006; 427-440.

Abstract :The atoll reefs of the Lakshadweep, in the Indian Ocean suffered a catastrophic mortality of hard coral in the wake of the El Nino event of 1998. This study tracked changes to coral and other benthic elements in three atolls in the Lakshadweep from 2000 to 2003. The recovery of coral was highly site-specific, and appeared to be driven by differences in post-settlement survival of coral recruits, that were in turn, influenced by the local hydrodynamics of the atolls. Post bleaching recovery was highest on west-facing reefs, while recovery on east-facing reefs was very limited. However, no phase-shiftÆ to macroalgal dominated reefs was evident. High herbivore pressures were perhaps the most important control of macroalgae. Five years after the mass mortality, the genera that showed the maximum gains represented a mix of different susceptibilities to bleaching, while some genera that were not particularly susceptible to bleaching showed significant declines. These results suggest that decline or recovery of coral is likely dependent on individual life history strategies, post-recruitment survival, and contingency.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

Author(s) :Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.

Source :J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.: 339(2); 2006; 236-240.

Abstract :Surge (non-linear) uptake of ammonium, measured by incorporation of sup(15)N, was investigated in three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Soliera robusta (Greville) Kylin (Rhodophyta) and Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux (Phaeophyta)) from Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep, India). Addition of ammonium (up to 20 mu mol L sup(-1)) led to pronounced uptake within 4û6 min, with the amount of ammonium taken up during surge phase (b4 min) accounting for from about half to 10 times that taken up during the remaining period of incubation (5û30 min). Amount of ammonium taken up during surge related linearly to the concentration of ammonium given. Surge uptake in the dark was also substantial, averaging 80% of that in light. Capability for rapid uptake of pulses of ammonium released by heterotrophs during the day or night could thus be an important mechanism of survival and proliferation of macroalgae in the N-impoverished atoll waters

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Exploration of the Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters

Author(s) :Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

Source :J. Inst. Res. Social. Sci. Humanities: 1(1); 2006; 31-47.

Abstract :The history of Portuguese shipwrecks began in Goa water since the first quarter of the sixteenth century. The marine and other related documents state that between sixteenth and eighteenth centuries a number of ships has been wrecked off Goa, Cochin and Orissa during their journey from Portugal to India and back. The majority of them have occurred due to storms, hidden rocky reefs, woodborers, unskilled navigation, etc. The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India, has undertaken the exploration of the Portuguese shipwreck in Sunchi Reef off Goa, which led to the recovery of storage jars, barrel and handgun, Chinese ceramics, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, guns, iron anchor, gun shot, bases of glass bottles, lead pipe and sheets, copper strap, stone and terracotta bricks and a number of dressed granite blocks. Among the shipwrecks explored in Indian waters the wreck at Sunchi Reef is the oldest and is an evidence of Indo-Portuguese trade and commerce of that time

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Low variation in partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial sequences in the coralline demosponge Astrosclera willeyanaacross the Indo-Pacific

Author(s) :Worheide, G.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 148(5); 2006; 907-912.

Abstract :Partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) were analysed from individuals of the coralline demosponge Astrosclera willeyana sensu lato out of ten Indo-Pacific populations from the Red Sea to the central Pacific. This taxon is widely distributed in cryptic coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific and is regarded as a modern representative of long-extinct, formerly reef-building stromatoporoid-type sponges. The aims were to clarify phylogeographic and taxonomic relationships in this æliving fossilÆ and to explore mitochondrial DNA sequence variation over a wide geographic range. Very low variability was observed across the Indo-Pacific, as only three COI haplotypes were identified, with a maximum p-distance of 0.418% and low nucleotide diversity (p=0.00049). Very low genetic structure was revealed among populations: Haplotype 1 was found in all specimens from nine Pacific populations (N=45), separated by distances of more than 7,000 km; haplotype 2 was restricted to the Red Sea population (N=4); haplotype 3 was only found in the Tuamoto specimens (N=7). COI data presented here do not support the hypothesis of at least two sibling species belonging to genus Astrosclera in the Pacific. Considering the maximum geographic distance of more than 20,000 km between sampled populations, mtDNA COI sequence variation observed here is among the lowest reported to date for a diploblastic taxon and adds to the growing evidence of a general mtDNA conservation in sponges. It is argued that this low mtDNA variation in A. willeyana s.l. is due to a low rate of mtDNA evolution caused by a combination of long generation time and low metabolic rate.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :ITS ribosomal DNA distinctions and the genetic structures of populations of two sympatric species of Pavona (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) from Mauritius

Author(s) :Pillay, K.R.M.; Asahida, T.; Chen, C.A.; Terashima, H.; Ida, H.

Source :Zool. Stud.: 45(1); 2006; 132-144.

Abstract :The genetic differences between Pavona cactus and P. decussata has been examined, two of the major components of the shallow reef flat coral communities in Mauritius, which not only occur in sympatry but are often intricately associated. Using sequences of ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITSs), phylogenetic, population, and nested clade analyses (NCA) on both species sampled from Bambous Virieux on the southeastern coast and Trou aux Biches on the northwestern coast of the island is conducted. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence types supported the distinct species status of P. cactus and P. decussata. The significant difference detected by the NCA indicated that both P. cactus and P. decussata in Mauritius constitute statistically distinguishable lineages. No population structure was detected between the two geographic locations. P. cactus and P. decussata remain distinct evolutionary units despite their ecological uniqueness in Mauritius

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The dangers of ocean acidification

Author(s) :Doney, S.C.

Source :Sci. Am.: 294(3); 2006; 38-45.

Abstract :Much of the carbon dioxide given off from the burning fossil fuels goes into the ocean, where it changes the acid balance of seawater. The repercussions of marine life may be enormous. The ocean has absorbed fully half of the fossil carbon released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. As the ocean becomes more and more acidic, the upper shelf friendly portion will become thinner. Many coral reefs are already in decline and ocean acidification may push some over the edge into nonexistence

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Phosphogenesis on selected low atolls in the near-equatorial part of the western Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Shkol'nik, E.L.; Baturin, G.N.; Zhegallo, E.A.; Nikolaev, S.D.

Source :Oceanology: 46(2); 2006; 242-255.

Abstract :The compositions, structures, and microstructures of different types of phosphorites and poorly phosphatized rocks from low atolls in the near-equatorial part of the Western Indian Ocean are described. The rocks were examined under optical and scanning microscopes using microprobing techniques and etching of selected samples with weak solvents as well as with the help of chemical analyses. It is proved that phosphorites have been formed owing to the uneven phosphatization of the primary carbonate rocks; the degree of their phosphatization ranges from traces to 40% P sub(2) O sub(5). In the phosphorites, numerous organic remains were encountered; they included fragments of plankton, debris of tortoise shells, and coccoidal and filamentous bacteria-like formations. It is suggested that the phosphorites were formed due to the high local biological productivity over the outer edges of coral reefs and are not related to guano accumulation or to endoupwelling.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Enhanced multidecadal climate variability in the seventeenth century from coral isotope records in the western Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Damassa, T.D.; Cole, J.E.; Barnett, H.R.; Ault, T.R.; McClanahan, T.R.

Source :Paleoceanography: 21(2); 2006; doi:10.1029/2005PA001217; 15 pp.

Abstract :The slowly growing coral Diploastrea heliopora affords a novel opportunity to obtain multicentury records of paleoclimate, including details of the interannual rhythms associated with the El NinoûSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) system. Climate variability in an ENSO-teleconnected region using new oxygen isotope records from D. heliopora is examined, spanning most of the twentieth (1896û1998) and seventeenth (1622û1722) centuries, from the Mafia archipelago, Tanzania. The modern record demonstrates coherency with relevant instrumental and proxy time series, documents twentieth century warming, and displays significant power at ENSO periodicities. The seventeenth century record lacks any trend, exhibits interannual variance comparable to the modern record, and displays a pronounced interdecadal signal not evident in the twentieth century that correlates with other tropical and hemispheric climate records. We find no clear evidence of solar irradiance influence on interannual variability in the western Indian Ocean during these intervals, although the mean sea surface temperature appears to vary inversely with insolation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tidal activity pattern and feeding behaviour of the ophiuroid Ophiocoma scolopendrinaon a Kenyan reef flat

Author(s) :Oak, T.; Scheibling, R.E.

Source :Coral Reefs: 25(2); 2006; 213-222.

Abstract :Ophiocoma scolopendrina exhibits a distinctive pattern of feeding activity on intertidal reef platforms off Kenya. With the first wave of the flooding tide, dense aggregations of these ophiuroids (up to 320 m sup(-2)) engage in a 1û2 min burst of surface-film feeding, vigorously sweeping the air-water interface and associated sea foam with the ventral surface of 2û4 arms. Suspension feeding (with arms extended in the water column) is the primary feeding mode throughout the rest of the tidal cycle (involving 25û65% of the population at a time), while bottom feeding (with arms extended along the substratum) is infrequent (<10%). Field experiments showed that surface-film feeding is regulated by water depth and can be triggered by suspended particles. This feeding mode appears to be an adaptation to the intertidal habitat, enabling the ophiuroids to exploit a nutrientrich surface film during a temporal refuge (low tide) from fish predation. Dense populations of O. scolopendrina may represent an important trophic link between producers of particulate organic material and higher-level consumers in coral reef environments.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Antimicrobial activity of Red Sea corals

Author(s) :Kelman, D.; Kashman, Y.; Rosenberg, E.; Kushmaro, A.; Loya, Y.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 149(2); 2006; 357-363.

Abstract :Scleractinian corals and alcyonacean soft corals are the two most dominant groups of benthic marine organisms inhabiting the coral reefs of the Gulf of Eilat, northern Red Sea. Antimicrobial assays performed with extracts of six dominant Red Sea stony corals and six dominant soft corals against marine bacteria isolated from the seawater surrounding the corals revealed considerable variability in antimicrobial activity. The results demonstrated that, while the majority (83%) of Red Sea alcyonacean soft corals exhibited appreciable antimicrobial activity against marine bacteria isolated from the seawater surrounding the corals, the stony corals had little or no antimicrobial activity. From the active soft coral species examined, Xenia macrospiculata exhibited the highest and most potent antimicrobial activity. Bioassay-directed fractionation indicated that the antimicrobial activity was due to the presence of a range of compounds of different polarities. One of these antibiotic compounds was isolated and identified as desoxyhavannahine, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 48 mu g ml sup(-1) against a marine bacterium. The results of the current study suggest that soft and hard corals have developed different means to combat potential microbial infections. Alcyonacean soft corals use chemical defense through the production of antibiotic compounds to combat microbial attack, whereas stony corals seem to rely on other means.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine macro-algae of Orissa, east coast of India

Author(s) :Rath, J.; Adhikary, S.P.

Source :Algae: 21(1); 2006; 49-59.

Abstract :A total of twenty one species of marine macro-algae were reported from 460 kms long Orissa coast in the east coast of India. Of these 9 species belongs to Chlorophyta, 2 to Phaeophyta and 10 to Rhodophyta. The low species richness compared with southern and western coasts of India was due to lack of rocky and/or coral substratum. Enteromorpha usneoides and Gelidium divaricatum were reported first from India. Enteromorpha linza, E. clathrata, Colpomenia sinuosa, Dictyota dichotoma, Catenella impudica, Compsopogon aeruginosus and Grateloupia lithophila were the new records for Orissa coast.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Pink-line syndrome, a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea

Author(s) :Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 149(2); 2006; 347-356.

Abstract :Coral diseases are one of the major factors that alter coral cover and their diversity. The æPink-line syndromeÆ (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea wherein a colored band appears between the dead and healthy tissue of a colony is reported earlier. About 20% of the P. lutea colonies were affected in Kavaratti of the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea during April 1996 and the incidence increased fourfold within the next 4 years. Fungi were associated in both PLS-affected and healthy specimens, whereas the cyanobacterium Phormidium valderianum occurred exclusively in the PLS-affected specimens. There was an increased expression of a 29 kDa protein without any significant increase in total protein content in the PLSaffected colonies. A reduced number of zooxanthellae and an increase in zooxanthellae size, mitotic index, and chl a concentrations were some of the characteristics of the PLS-affected colonies. PLS induction experiments conducted using selected fungi and the cyanobacterium P. valderianum isolated from the affected colonies and abiotic factors, such as CO sub(2) enrichment and the effect of cyanobacterial photosynthesis inhibition, indicated that the CO sub(2) build-up around the host tissue caused the pink coloration. It is hypothesized that these physiological changes disturb the mutualism between the zooxanthellae and the host. When the symbiosis is disturbed by the external CO sub(2), the host loses control over the zooxanthellae, causing their uncontrolled division. This process may lead to a break in photosynthate transfer to the host, thereby resulting in starvation and finally leading to partial mortality. It is hypothesized that these degenerative processes are triggered by the CO sub(2) produced by P. valderianum through its carbon concentration mechanism. In this context, any opportunistic cyanobacteria or other agents having potential to interfere with the physiology of the host or the symbiont can cause such a physiological disorder. The mechanism of PLS formation is an early warning to protect corals as the increasing atmospheric CO sub(2) could induce PLS-like physiological disorder in corals.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Stability of breakwater defenced by a seaward submerged reef

Author(s) :Shirlal, K.G.; Rao, S.; Ganesh, V.; Manu

Source :Ocean Eng.: 35(5-6); 2006; 829-846.

Abstract :The stability of a uniformly sloped conventional rubble mound breakwater defenced by a seaward submerged reef is investigated using physical model studies. Regular waves of wide ranging heights and periods are used. Tests are carried out for different spacings between two rubble mound structures (X/dZ2.5û13.33) and for different relative heights (h/dZ0.625û0.833) and relative widths (B/dZ0.25û1.33) of the reef. It is observed that a reef of width (B/d) of 0.6û0.75 constructed at a seaward distance (X/d) of 6.25û8.33 breaks all the incoming waves and dissipates energy and protects the breakwater optimally.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Molecular diversity of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) in scleractinian corals of Kenya

Author(s) :Visram, S.; Douglas, A.E.

Source :Coral Reefs: 25(1); 2006; 172-176.

Abstract :In this first sequence analysis of æzooxanthellaeÆ (symbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium) in scleractinian corals in Africa, seven Kenyan species sampled in 2001û2002 were analysed by RFLP and sequencing of a PCR-amplified fragment of the LSU rRNA gene. Zooxanthellae of phylotypes A, C and D, all described previously in corals from other regions of the world, were detected. All sequences of phylotype D were identical, while phylotype C was variable, with 14 distinct sequences, seven of which clustered in a previously unreported subgroup of phylotype C, among the 22 samples. These data on the diversity of zooxanthellae in Kenyan corals 3û4 years after the 1998 bleaching event are of potential value for longitudinal studies of temporal changes in zooxanthella diversity in Kenyan corals, especially in relation to future large-scale bleaching episodes.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef diversity refutes the neutral theory of biodiversity

Author(s) :Dornelas, M.; Connolly, S.R.; Hughes, T.P.

Source :Nature: 440(7080); 2006; 80-82.

Abstract :The global decline of coral reefs highlights the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate community structure and sustain biodiversity in these systems. The neutral theory, which assumes that individuals are demographically identical regardless of species seeks to explain ubiquitous features of community structure and biodiversity patterns. A test of neutral-theory predictions with the use of an extensive species level data set of Indo-Pacific coral communities is presented. It is shown that coral assemblages differ markedly from neutral-model predictions for patterns of community similarity and the relative abundance of species. Within local communities, neutral models do not fit relative abundance distributions as well as the classical log-normal distribution. Relative abundances of species across local communities also differ markedly from neutral-theory predictions: coral communities exhibit community similarity values that are far more variable, and lower on average, than the neutral theory can produce. Empirical community similarities deviate from the neutral model in a direction opposite to that predicted in previous critiques of the neutral theory. Instead, the results support spatio-temporal environmental stochasticity as a major driver of diversity patterns on coral reefs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Plate-boundary deformation associated with the great SumatraûAndaman earthquake

Author(s) :Subarya, C.; Chlieh, M.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Avouac, J.-P.; Bock, Y.; Sieh, K.; Meltzner, A.J.; Natawidjaja, D.H.; McCaffrey, R.

Source :Nature: 440(7080); 2006; 46-51.

Abstract :The SumatraûAndaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is the first giant earthquake (moment magnitude M sub(w) > 9.0) to have occurred since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology. It therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these enormous and rare events. Estimates of the ground displacement associated with this event, using near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra combined with in situ and remote observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs is reported. These data show that the earthquake was generated by rupture of the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of greater than 1,500 kilometres and a width of less than 150 kilometres. Megathrust slip exceeded 20 metres offshore northern Sumatra, mostly at depths shallower than 30 kilometres. Comparison of the geodetically and seismically inferred slip distribution indicates that approx. 30 per cent additional fault slip accrued in the 1.5 months following the 500-second-long seismic rupture. Both seismic and aseismic slip before our re-occupation of GPS sites occurred on the shallow portion of the megathrust, where the large Aceh tsunami originated. Slip tapers off abruptly along strike beneath Simeulue Island at the southeastern edge of the rupture, where the earthquake nucleated and where an M sub(w) = 7.2 earthquake occurred in late 2002. This edge also abuts the northern limit of slip in the 28 March 2005 M sub(w) = 8.7 NiasûSimeulue earthquake.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Summer surface circulation along the Gascoyne continental shelf, Western Australia

Author(s) :Woo, M.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Schroeder, W.

Source :Cont. Shelf Res.: 26(1); 2006; 132-152.

Abstract :The Gascoyne continental shelf is located along the north-central coastline of Western Australia between latitudes 21 degrees and 28 degrees S. This paper presents CTD and ADCP data collected in November 2000 together with concurrent wind and satellite imagery, to provide a description of the summer surface circulation pattern along the Gascoyne continental shelf and slope. It is shown that the region comprises a complex system of currents that are influenced by offshore eddies, wind stress, varying shelf-widths, coastal topography and outflow from the hypersaline Shark Bay. Four different water types and current systems were identified from the field measurements. The Leeuwin Current (LC) is the major current flowing through the region. It transports lower salinity, warmer water along the 200m isobath, poleward. The signature of the LC gradually transformed from a warm (24.7 degrees C), lower salinity (34.6) water in the north to a cooler (21.9 degrees C), more saline (35.2) water in the south resulting from geostrophic inflow of offshore waters. The width and depth of the current also changed continuously responding to the changing bottom topography and the orientation of the coastline: in the northern section under the influence of the narrow shelf and steep slope, the current was strong (approx. 0.75 ms_1) and extended deeper into the water column. In contrast, the current decelerated (to approx. 0.2û0.4 ms sup(-1)) when flowing past the wider continental shelf offshore of Shark Bay and then accelerated along the southern section along the steep continental slope. Downwelling events were persistently associated with the current. The Ningaloo Current (NC) was confined to the northern Gascoyne shelf within 35km of the coast. Although upwelling was detected along the northern section of the study region, adjacent to the Ningaloo coral reef, water properties suggest a recirculation of LC water from the south. Changes in the shelf width at Point Cloates have a significant influence on the NC resulting in bifurcation of the northward current. The higher salinity outflow from Shark Bay influences the continental shelf region immediately offshore of the main entrances to the Bay through the mixing of the higher salinity outflow water with the shelf waters. The Capes Current, a wind-driven current originating to the south of the study region was identified as a cooler, more saline water mass flowing northward.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Policy issues for marine fisheries management in India

Author(s) :Sathiadhas, R.

Source :The Seventh Indian Fisheries Forum Proceedings. eds. by: Vasudevappa, C.; Basavaraju, Y.; Seenappa, D.; Ayyappan, S.; Reddy, S.R.(7. Indian Fisheries Forum; Bangalore (India); 8-12 Nov 2005). Asian Fisheries Society; Mangalore (India); 2005; 348-366.

Abstract :Fisheries contribute about 1 per cent of India's GDP, which forms about 4.12% of the agricultural GDP (2003-04). The sector provides employment to about 28 lakh people in its primary, secondary and tertiary segments. Economic evaluation of marine fish landings at 2004 price level is about Rs.13,019 crore at first sales and Rs.22,653 crore at last sales. Surpassing the domestic marketing pattern, the export market is still wide as crustaceans and cephalapods alone generates 50 % of the gross earnings. An overview of the price movements of food products for the last four decades reveals that fish and fishery products displayed the highest increase in price level. The private capital investment in marine fishery sector also recorded phenomenal growth both in harvest and post-harvest sectors primarily oriented towards export market. The overcapitalisation of fishing fleets, excess capacity of export-oriented processing plants, disguised unemployment, inter and intra sectoral marginalisation, inequitable distribution of income, increasing fishing pressure on high resource-rent varieties, economic loss due to discards and juvenile fish catch, divergent trend of production and earnings, harvesting strategies for deep-sea and oceanic resources, integration of inshore fisheries with coastal mariculture, socio-legal problems of open sea mariculture, development and launching of artificial reefs, product development and market diversification, credit requirements and constraints, quality control and promotion of exports complying with WTO regulations, parallel development of internal marketing system, community based conservation strategies including awareness on responsible fisheries, HRD for research and development personnel, crisis and disaster management, development of infrastructure and marine fisheries information system, proper utilisation of information technology and rural network of knowledge centres and comprehensive approach for coastal zone development are some of the aspects, which requires appropriate policy interventions. The escalating pressure on the coastal biodiversity is another major concern, in view of consistent and sustainable deliverables for the future generation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine pearl culture as an alternate income generation activity for fisher folk - A model

Author(s) :Victor, A.C.C.; Jagadis, I.

Source :The Seventh Indian Fisheries Forum Proceedings. eds. by: Vasudevappa, C.; Basavaraju, Y.; Seenappa, D.; Ayyappan, S.; Reddy, S.R.(7. Indian Fisheries Forum; Bangalore (India); 8-12 Nov 2005). Asian Fisheries Society; Mangalore (India); 2005; 108-115.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar (GoM) is rich in biodiversity and bio-resources. Annually about one lakh tons of fishes comprising fin fishes, prawns, crabs and lobsters are being harvested from the Gulf of Mannar. Approximately 1.5 lakh fisher folk living in about 90 fishing hamlets on the shore of the GOM depend on this fishery and seaweed resources for their livelihood. However, owing to over fishing and increased fishing population and damage to the coral reefs, sea grass beds and other ecosystems by trawlers, the fish catch is declining, leading to poverty among the fisher folk. Additional income for the fisher folk could be achieved by adopting some of the mariculture technologies perfected by R & D organizations as co-activity. Marine pearl culture is suggested for this purpose. This paper deals with the basics of marine pearl culture, collective discussions of NGO's, beneficiary and R&D institutions for encouraging fisher folk on the usefulness of the programme and to form cooperatives, detailed responsibilities of the participating agencies, schematic programme schedule of pearl culture and a model economic implication and returns.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Assessment of species diversity and coral cover of Velapertumuni Reef, Palk Bay, India

Author(s) :Sukumaran, S.; George, R.M.; Kasinathan, C.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 47(2); 2005; 139-143.

Abstract :Velapertumuni Reef, a fringing reef of Palk Bay, Tamil Nadu, India was surveyed for the assessment of the coral cover and biodiversity during September 2004, following the Line Intercept Transect Method and their geographical positions were fixed using the Global Positioning System. The percentages of live and dead coral cover at each site were derived and a total of 12 hard coral species were found on the transects; Porites solida was the major species at 6 sites, followed by Favia pallida at 2 sites and Acropora Cytherea and Porites lutea were dominant in 5th and 8th sites respectively. Therefore, except for one site the massive corals were dominant in all other areas. The total live and dead coral cover for the reef as a whole was estimated as 44% and 26% respectively and the remaining part was covered with coralline algae, sand and rubble. Dead coral cover was dominated by poritids, but acroporids showed the highest ratio of dead coral to live coral cover. Further, relative abundance values were derived for each species and they were assigned status as dominant/abundant/common/uncommon/rare. Accordingly, P. solida was the only species in the dominant category; P. lutea and F. pallida belonged to the category abundant and all other species were given either common or uncommon status. The Shannon indices of diversity in most of the sites were low varying from 0-2 and the reef as a whole showed a diversity of 1.47. The species richness and evenness values also showed low values of 5.4 and 0.59 respectively.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :On the fishery and some aspects of the biology of dogtooth tuna, Gymnosarda unicolor (Ruppell) from Minicoy, Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Sivadas, M.; Anasukoya, A.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 47(1); 2005; 111-113.

Abstract :The results of a study, on the fishery and biology dogtooth tuna, Gymnosarda unicolor (Ruppell), conducted at Minicoy, Lakshadweep, India during 1995 to 1999 are presented. The resource is exploited from around the reef areas during July-August or september for sustenance when the usual fishing activities like pole and line and trolling are suspended. The total catch in a season varied from 56 to 481 kg. The size ranged from 44 to 126 cm fork length with the modal group at 58 and 62 cm. The length-weight relationship was found to be Log W =-4.5337 + 2.77 Log L. Fish below 70 cm size was found to be immature.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of initial starvation on the larval survival and development of the inshore water crab, Philyra corallicola Alcock

Author(s) :kannupandi, T.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Soundarapandian, P.; Samuel, N.J.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 47(1); 2005; 97-100.

Abstract :Effect of early starvation on larval survival and developmental duration in the inshore water crab Philyra corallicola was studied. Six different feeding regimes were tested. Point of Reserve Saturation (PRS sub(50)) for 50% individuals were 2.4 days and Point of -No-Return for 50% individuals was 0.7 days. Early starvation re individuals was 0.7 days. Early starvation resulted in delayed development and reduced survival.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Encrusting form of coral as a biofouler in the marine environment of southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Marimuthu, N.; Wilson, J.J.; Kumaraguru, A.K.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 47(1); 2005; 88-91.

Abstract :Encrusting form of coral Montipora sp. belonging to the family Acroporidae, was found to settle on vertically submerged biofouling test panels installed at Pudhumadam coastal waters in the Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. No other types of corals were found to settle on these test panels. The recruitment and growth of the coral occurred during March and November. Only 2% of the total number of test panels showed coral attachment. A range of 7-15% of the surface area of the panels was covered by the coral growth. Out of four different types of test panels employed, the one which was made of concrete, showed no coral settlement.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sedimentation of silt in the coral reef environment of Palk Bay, India

Author(s) :Wilson, J.J.; Marimuthu, N.; Kumaraguru, A.K.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 47(1); 2005; 83-87.

Abstract :The sedimentation of silt at five locations in the coral reef environment of Palk Bay, India was studied during May to October 2004 for a rapid assessment. The rate of sedimentation ranged from l mg/cm sup(2)/d to 42 mg/cm sup(2)/d. It was greater during June coinciding with the onset of south-west monsoon season. Areas of greater sedimentation indicated less live coral coverage. Corals of the family Acroporidae were found to he severely affected.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Community organization of coral reef fishes in the rubble sub-habitat of Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep, India

Author(s) :Anand, P.E.V.; Pillai, N.G.K.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 47(1); 2005; 77-82.

Abstract :A visual census of the coral reef fishes, conducted during January 199l to June 1992, indicated the occurrence of 64 species belonging to fifteen families in the rubble sub-habitat of Kavaratti Atoll (Lat. 10 degrees 33 minutes N; Long. 72 degrees 38 minutes E) in Lakshadweep, India. The community diversity for families and species was 2.68 and 3.58 respectively. Family assemblages were not stable during different seasons. Labridae and pomacentridae made use of the rubble zone efficiently. Pomacentrids were characteristically site attached but varied in relative abundance. Rhinecanthus aculeatus among balistids depended on rubble for food and nesting sites. The occurrence of chaetodontids was due to their flexible feeding habits, in the absence of coral cover. Availability of food strongly determined the distribution of the surgeonfish, Acanthurus triostegus. The abundant turf algae harbored by rubble attracted schools of sub-adult herbivores resulting in variations.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Detection of submerged reef banks in the Lakshadweep Sea using IRS-P4 OCM satellite data

Author(s) :Chauhan, P.; Nayak, S.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 89(3); 2005; 557-560.

Abstract :The coral reef systems of the Lakshadweep region are unique from an ecological perspective. The region around Lakshadweep Islands is characterized by shallow submerged reef banks. This study demonstrates the use of IRS-P4 OCM satellite data in deciphering information about the extent of submerged reef banks in this area. The short wavelength OCM spectral bands have been found to be useful in detecting submerged reef banks as deep as 50-60 m below the ocean surface. This information is useful for updating navigational charts and to minimize ecological losses for the reefs of this region.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A new record of the coral Pavona venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (Scleractinia, Agariciidae) from Anaipar Island, Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve

Author(s) :Raghuram, K.P.; Venkataraman, K.

Source :J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.: 102(3); 2005; 358-359.

Abstract :The present report deals with the new record of Pavona venosa (Ehrenberg 1834) (Scleractinia: Agariciidae) from Anaipar Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coralline algae from Alibag Formation (Late Oligocene to Basal Miocene), Bomaby Offshore Basin, India and their paleoenvironmental significance

Author(s) :Kundal, P.; Bhagat, M.B.; Humane, S.K.

Source :Indian J. Pet. Geol.: 14(2); 2005; 39-48.

Abstract :Present paper documents four nongeniculate coralline algae viz., Lithoporella sp., Spongites sp., Mesophyllum sp. and Lithophyllum sp. and two geniculate coralline algae viz. Corallina sp. and Arthrocardia sp. from the core samples of limestone belonging to the Alibag Formation (Late Oligocene to Basal Miocene) of Bombay Offshore Basin, India. The coralline algal assemblage suggests that the Alibagh Formation was deposited under moderately high energy conditions at a depth of 20 m in tropical warm waters.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Field study on corals and coral living organisms in Van Tivu, in the Gulf of Mannar

Author(s) :Sakthivel, M.; Ramathilagam, G.; Pushparaj, A.

Source :Fish. Technol. Soc. Fish. Technol. (India): 42(1); 2005; 11-16.

Abstract :The results of the study on corals in the Van Tivu island in the Gulf of Mannar, are presented. Eighteen species of stony corals were recorded in our study area. Favia, Porites, Acropora, Tubipoira, and Montipora spp., were found to contribute about 80% of the total coral population in Van tivu. The northeast and southwest transects were found to have higher percentage of corals. The molluscs alone contributed about 30% of the total reef fauna. The northeast transect had a good numerical data of molluscs. The vulnerable molluscan species from this area was found to be Sepia spp. Different types of coral reef fishes were present in the Van tivu. The notable ones are Butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae), Parrot fishes (Scaridae), Clown and Damsel fishes (Pomacentridae) and Lion and Scorpion fishes (Scorpaenidae). Coral reef destruction was found to be caused by bio-eroding organisms. The common bio-eroders observed during our field study were lion fish, butterflies, wrasses, Echinometra mathei (Echinoderm) and Lambis spp. (Gastropods) and Tridacna spp. (Bivalves).

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Occurrence of juvenile fishes on the seagrass beds of Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep, India

Author(s) :Anand, P.E.V.; Pillai, N.G.K.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 52(4); 2005; 459-467.

Abstract :In the atolls of Lakshadweep, juveniles of Acanthuridae and Labridae were most abundant on seagrass beds, the former during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods and the latter in pre-monsoon. Schooling species showed variable recruitment. Non-schooling species were rare. Peak settlement was observed during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Continuous occurrence of juveniles in different size ranges confirms the continuous spawning habits. Chaetodontids and holocentrids occurred consistently round the year. Seasonality in occurrence was most pronounced in Carangidae and Siganidae, but not so in Apogonidae, Lutjanidae and Mullidae. Seasonal abundance of juveniles was influenced by summer peaks, timing and magnitude of settlement, adult spawning and local migrations. Abundance of larvae increased with salinity. Juvenile abundance, independent of environmental parameters seemed to be controlled by seasons, tides and currents. Lunar phases and abundance of juveniles were found to be co-related.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Antibacterial activity of the epidermal layer of coral associated fishes of Tuticorin coast

Author(s) :Kumar, R.R.; Kumar, S.S.; Edward, J.K.P.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 52(1); 2005; 119-124.

Abstract :The methanolic extracts of epidermal layer of 10 species of coral fishes were screened against ten human pathogenic bacteria using standard disc diffusion method. The extracts of Diagramma pictum exhibited higher antibacterial activity than other species. The ethyl acetate phase of the partitioned crude extract showed broad spectral activity indicating the non-polar nature of the active substance. The highest inhibition was observed against Streptococcus pyogenes. The extract showed promising activity against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus inirabilis and Vibrio cholerae. The crude extracts which exhibited potential activity were partially purified by column chromatography and again tested for antibacterial activity. The purified extract inhibited all the 10 pathogens assayed at 30 mg concentration.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine prostaglandins

Author(s) :Anon.

Source :Bioactive marine natural products. Bhakuni, D.S.; Rawat, D.S.Anamaya Publishers; New Delhi (India); 2005; 329-354.

Abstract :The chapter deals with the prostanoids of marine organisms. The isolation and characterization (15R)-PGA sub(2), methyl ester acetate of (15R)-PGA sub(2); PGE sub(2); 13-14-cis-PGA sub(2);-15-acetate; 13, 14-dihydro-PGA sub(2); PGF sub(2); 5-trans PGA sub(2);-9-0-acetate methyl ester from Caribbean soft coral Plexaura homomalla (Esper); chlorovolones; clavulones; claviridenones and C-20 acetoxy clavulones from stolonifer Clavularia viridis Quoy and Gaimara, a soft coral from Okinawa, Japan; methyl-11-acetoxy, 9,15-(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-12-trans-prostadienoate; methyl-11, 18-diacetoxy-9, 15-(S)-hydroxy-5-cis, 13-trans prostadienoate, and the corresponding acetate and diacetate of free acids from Lobophyton depressum, a soft coral collected in the Gulf of Eilat (The Red Sea); unusual prostanoids, punaglandins from the octocoral Telesto riisei and PGF sub(2) from the marine red alga Gracilaria lichermids from West Head, Victoria, Australia have been discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bioactive marine peptides

Author(s) :Anon.

Source :Bioactive marine natural products. Bhakuni, D.S.; Rawat, D.S.Anamaya Publishers; New Delhi (India); 2005; 278-328.

Abstract :The chapter deals with the structure, conformation and biological activities of bioactive marine peptides. The chemistry and biological activities of bioactive peptides and modified peptides of marine algae, sponges, tunicates, ascidians, coelenterates, and molluscs have been discussed and reviewed. The chemical nature and biological properties of cone snail venoms, sperm activating peptides of sea urchin egg jelly, peptides of marine worms and marine vertebrates have also been reviewed and analyzed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bioactive metabolites of marine invertebrates

Author(s) :Anon.

Source :Bioactive marine natural products. Bhakuni, D.S.; Rawat, D.S.Anamaya Publishers; New Delhi (India); 2005; 26-63.

Abstract :The chapter deals with the bioactive metabolites of the marine invertebrates. The chemistry and biological activity of the bioactive steroids, terpenoids, isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid compounds, quinines, brominated compounds, nitrogen heterocyclics and nitrogen-sulphur heterocyclics from marine invertebrates have been discussed. The chapter also reviews the bioactive secondary metabolites isolated in recent past from the marine sponges, jelly fish, sea anemones, corals, bryozoans, molluscs, echinoderms, tunicates and crustaceans.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Avian diversity in and around mangroves of Bhatye Estuary, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

Author(s) :Terdalkar, S.; Kulkarni, A.S.; Berde, V.B.

Source :J. Aquat. Biol.: 20(2); 2005; 79-83.

Abstract :Avian fauna from the mangroves and surrounding areas of Bhatye estuary, Ratnagiri was studied from March-2004 to February-2005. The species diversity and density of birds in and around mangroves, mudflats and riverside of Bhatye estuary (73 degrees 15 degrees East and 16 degrees 51 minutes North) was studied at regular intervals. Exposed mudflats at ebb tide, served as ideal feeding grounds for winter visitors, like Little Stint, Common Sandpiper, Plovers, Egrets etc., Mud flats were separated by thin water currents and bordered by dense mangroves like Avicennia marina, A. officinalis etc and reclaimed land. At few places thick mangrove patches were seen as islands. The mudflats and nearby areas inhabit all most 9 orders. 18 families and 34 genera of birds. Members of families Ardeidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Charadriidae, and Scolopacidae showed dominance over other families may be due to their adaptability to estuarine climatic condition. Little Cormorant, Little Egret, Median Egret, Western Reef-egret, Cattle egret, Black Bittern, Red- wattled Uipwing. Common Sandpiper, Small Blue Kingfisher, White breasted Kingfisher, Brahminy kite, Black kite were the most commonly occurring birds in the study area. Maximum diversity was observed in the months of November and December-2004. The present study will contribute in providing baseline data, for planning effective management to study bird diversity and also provide clues for developing this estuary as an ecotourism center. Further, studies on their relation with other biotic factors will be useful in understanding their ecology

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Physico-chemical characteristics of the coral reef environs of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, India

Author(s) :Balasubramanian, R.; Kannan, L.

Source :Int. J. Ecol. Environ. Sci.: 31(3); 2005; 265-271.

Abstract :Environmental (meteorological and physico-chemical) conditions play a major role in governing die ecology, distribution, productivity and health of the organisms of any ecosystem including the coral reef ecosystem. Having this in mind, hydrological features of the coral reef islands (Manoli and Krusadai) of the Gulf of Mannar were studied for a period of two years. The ranges of values recorded for different parameters were as follows: air temperature (25 - 330 C), surface water temperature (23 - 330 C), salinity (27 - 36.5 ppt), pH (7.5 - 8.6), dissolved oxygen (3.9 - 7.2 ml/lit), particulate organic carbon (7.5 - 65.2 mu gC/lit), total phosphorus (6.4 - 2.3 mu M), total nitrogen (6.4-44.2 mu M), nitrite (0.12 - 1.32 mu M), nitrate (1.3 - 13.3 mu M), reactive silicate (0.09 - 12.3 mu M), calcium (130-810 mg/lit) and magnesium (1060- 1710 mg/lit). Interactions between these parameters and the spatial differences between the two stations have been studied through statistical interpretations.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The coral reefs of Bazaruto island, Mozambique, with recommendations for their management

Author(s) :Schleyer, M.H.; Celliers, L.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci: 4(2); 2005; 227-236.

Abstract :Coral collections and qualitative observations were made on the Bazaruto coral reefs in the Parque Nacional do Bazaruto. A checklist of species found on the reefs is presented with descriptions of their nature. Both the Alcyonacea and Scleractinia are well-represented on the reefs and their biodiversity is discussed in a regional context. The reefs constitute a valuable resource for ecotourism and recommendations are made for their sustainable use.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Using otolith weight to estimate total mortality of blackspot snapper, Lutjanus fulviflamma (Lutjanidae) at Mafia Island, Tanzania

Author(s) :Kamukuru, A.T.

Source :(West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci). : 4(2); 2005; 211-217.

Abstract :The relationships between fish age and the length, height and weight of their otoliths are unknown for many marine fish species in East Africa. In this study, results indicate a significant positive linear relationship between age of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskal, 1775) and otolith weight and an exponential function with otolith length and height. No statistical difference in instantaneous total annual mortality (Z) of blackspot snapper was found between that estimated from true age determined from annuli reading in sectioned otoliths and predicted age from otolith weight. Therefore, it is suggested that otolith weight could present an easy, quick and reliable technique to estimate Z and population age structure of blackspot snapper ù both important for fisheries management purposes. For the method to provide an accurate measure of age, counting of annuli in otoliths of a sub-sample of the population is needed for calibration.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reef fish inventory of Juan De Nova's Natural Park (Western Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Chabanet, P.; Durville, P.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci: 4(2); 2005; 145-162.

Abstract :This paper constitutes the first study on reef fish communities at Juan de Nova, one of the Eparses Islands in the Mozambique Channel. These remote islands, with no permanent habitation, except a small military base, represent sites which experience minimal direct human influence. Sampling was firstly done by underwater visual observations, using SCUBA diving gear, at 31 stations distributed equally over the coral reef, between depths ranging from 0-15 m, and secondly, by using an anaesthetic in littoral rockpools. A total of 299 species belonging to 55 families were recorded. Nearly half of the observed species belong to five main families: Labridae (41 species), Pomacentridae (28 species), Acanthuridae (24 species), Serranidae (22 species), and Chaetodontidae (18 species). Among the reported species, 73% are carnivores, 16% herbivores and 11% omnivores. Some families are well represented, especially the carnivores such as sharks (Carcharhinidae, 6 species), the groupers (Serranidae, 20 species) and the snappers (Lutjanidae, 10 species), which are common at nearly every station sampled. The presence of these carnivorous species could be related to the absence of fishing pressure in the area. However, some species known to be common in the area seemed rare (e.g. Chaetodon trifascialis, Dascyllus carneus, Labroides bicolour) or entirely absent (Pseudanthias cooperi, Cephalopholis miniata, Chaetodon unimaculatus, Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus and Lepidozygus tapeinosoma). From a biogeographic point of view, this study revealed a fairly diverse reef fish community for such a small, isolated island, located on the westward extreme (approx. 45 degrees E, 15 degrees S) of the Indo-Pacific. The absence or the paucity of certain species and/or families could be the consequence of the 1998 massive coral bleaching. There is a need for long-term studies in order to better understand the resilience of coral reef communities to environmental disturbances.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of recreational fish feeding on reef fish community composition and behaviour

Author(s) :Hemery, G.; McClanahan, T.R.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci: 4(2); 2005; 123-133.

Abstract :Feeding fish with bread or other food is widely used by tour operators to enhance human-animal interactions in coral reefs. Little is known, however, about the effects of recreational fish feeding on fish community structure and fish behaviour. These two issues were examined in this study within three marine protected areas of Kenya by comparing data from sites frequently used to feed fish and control sites not frequently visited by tour operator. The effects of feeding on community structure and fish behaviour were investigated through underwater visual surveys and fish feeding experiments, using bread. The numbers of individuals and species of fish at the feeding sites were higher than at control sites. This result suggests that the abundance of bread-feeding fish does not significantly negatively effect non-bread feeder population or total biodiversity. The main result of the fish behaviour study was that the reaction to bread at feeding sites was quicker than at control sites, which indicates that some species learn to feed on this novel source of food.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Recovery probabilities of coral reef communities after Acanthaster planci infestation: A case study at Shabror Umm Gam'ar, Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt

Author(s) :Ammar, M.S.A.

Source :Egyptian J. Aquat. Res.: 31(2); 2005; 103-112.

Abstract :Recovery patterns of coral reef benthic communities were estimated by linear extrapolation after Acanthaster planci outbreak of 1998 at Shabror Umm Gam'ar. Hurghada of the Egyptian Red Sea. The significance of using linear extrapolation was tested in a range often sites by comparison with the actual average Nearly recovery rates. A total of 15 permanent transects, each is 10m long, were monitored at 10m and 12m depths in both Shabror Umm Gam'ar and the ten selected sites. The recovery rate estimated by linear extrapolation did not significantly differ from the recovery rate of stony corals in the ten selected sites. Moreover, an error of +7.69% to +17.5% increase in the extrapolated recovery rate exists and should be considered while handling the extrapolated recovery patterns of coral reef benthic communities. Stony corals were characterized by having an extrapolated slow recovery time of 64.9 years in spite of the last recovery rate (0.67 % cover/year) and this is virtually due to the large cover required for restoration as a result of the large devastation by A. planci. In contrast, soft corals were characterized by-having both fast recovery time (RT) and recovery- rate (RR) as they are not preferred preys by the COTs. The correlation coefficient is negative between recovery time (RT) and recovery rate (RR) strong between RT and cover required for complete recovery CR and weak between CR and RR. Diversity had an estimated fast recovery time (RT) of 4.3 years indicating that, the space cleared by A. planci improves the diversity faster than improving the percent cover.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A predictive regression model for the geochemical variability of iron and manganese in a coral reef ecosystem

Author(s) :Gopinath, A.; Kumar, N.C.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Padmalal, D.; Nair, S.M.

Source :Environ. Forensics: 6; 2005; 301-310.

Abstract :This article focuses on the influence of nutrient forms (nitrogen/phosphorous forms) and parameters like pH and organic carbon in the distributional characteristics of two important trace metals, viz. iron and manganese, in different sedimentary microenvironments of coral reef ecosystem of Lakshadweep Archipelago. Positive correlations of Fe/Mn with nutrient forms attributes to a similar pattern of remineralization and depositional characteristics involved in their accumulation. Negative correlations indicates selective removal of Fe/Mn or some other mechanisms operating with microbial assistance or both which may act in opposition to one another. In the first stage, in order to formulate a predictive regression model to assess the geochemical variability of Fe/Mn, the influence of sedimentalogical characteristics as well as their first-order interaction effects in all the islands irrespective of there differences (n = 57) is taken into account. On the basis of this regression model, influencing factors are categorized as limiting factors, which by their mere occurrence reduce the concentration of Fe/Mn, and as controlling factors, which are enhancing their concentrations. In the second stage, the sample observations are divided into two subsamples of 30 samples and 27 samples each. For the first subsample, a model using only the highly significant nutrients (/r/ > 0.2616), if any, and the highly significantly correlated nutrients (/r/ is greater than 2616) is incorporated. The model is developed as above and determined so that it is validated using the second subsample. The model has been found to be validated with 43% efficiency. A good understanding and prediction of manganese and iron concentrations and distribution in sediments (as a result of different influencing factors) may help in forensic studies dealing with various natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Demographic characteristics of selected epinepheline groupers (family: Serranidae; Subfamily: Epinephelinae) from Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles

Author(s) :Grandcourt, E.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 539; 2005; 199-216.

Abstract :Sagittal otoliths were extracted from samples of six species of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) caught with hand lines around the periphery of Aldabra atoll (southwest Indian Ocean) in December 2000: Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (n = 26), E. multinotatus (n = 33), E. polyphekadion (n = 77), E. tukula (n = 62), Plectropomus laevis (n = 22) and Variola louti (n = 101). Growth increments consisting of alternating translucent and opaque bands were observed in transverse sections of sagittae. The von Bertalanffy growth function was fit to size and increment number data, values of the growth coefficient (k) ranged from 0.13 for E. tukula to 0.48 for V. louti, with a mean value of 0.24 for all species. Estimates of the annual instantaneous rate of natural mortality ranged from 0.13 yr sup(-1) for E. polyphekadion to 0.28 yr sup(-1) for V. louti. The maximum number of putative annuli observed in transverse sections of sagittae ranged from 15 for V. louti to 31 for E. polyphekadion. While the study demonstrates the utility of structural increments in sagittal otoliths for establishing key demographic characteristics, parameters derived from age estimates are preliminary given the need to validate the periodicity of increment formation. Nevertheless, the results suggest that groupers in general are long-lived, slow-growing species that have low rates of natural mortality. The findings are important to fisheries management and conservation authorities as they support the contention that these species have a low resilience to exploitation and their populations may be particularly vulnerable to overfishing

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) abundance and size structure among coral reef habitats in Maldives

Author(s) :Sluka, R.D.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.: 538; 2005; 189-198.

Abstract :The abundance and size of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulates) among 36 sites comprising five habitat types at one atoll in the Republic of Maldives were assessed through underwater visual observation. Humphead wrasse were observed more often in channel habitats than all others. The average size of sited individuals was not significantly different among the three habitats where size data was available

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diversity patterns of bivalves in a coral dominated shallow-water bay in the northern Red Sea - High species richness on a local scale

Author(s) :Zuschin, M.; Oliver, P.G.

Source :Mar. Biol. Res. : 1; 2005; 396-410.

Abstract :Bivalve species richness in the Northern Bay of Safaga, northern Red Sea, was assessed through original collecting activity in water depths from the intertidal to greater than 50 m and by incorporating selected literature records. One-hundred-and-ninety-three samples, yielding 16,320 shells (dead and living), were taken from a coral-dominated coastal area that covers approximately 75 km sup(2). Two-hundred-and-forty-three bivalve species were recognized; this is the highest number of species reported to date for any coastal area of comparable size. This high species richness can be related to the great habitat variety in the bay and the major sampling effort, including quantitative and qualitative samples from hard and soft substrata, which enabled us to detect many rare species. Species accumulation curves suggest that the full range of species in the bay was considerably under-estimated. Additional species would most likely be detected at depths from 20-50 m, where sampling intensity was much lower than in shallower parts of the bay. Additional species are also likely to be small and rare; they will probably have unusual life habits and will probably be detected in bulk samples from soft substrata, from systematic sampling in cryptic habitats and from commensal associations. The consideration of dead shells in this survey helped us to recognize species that were rare or that colonize very specialized habitats. The probability of finding them alive within a reasonable time was low, with a reasonable number of samples, or without destructive sampling methods. Surveys of this type may help to identify areas of conservation importance, especially where living bivalves are only present in low numbers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Radiocarbon in corals from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and implications for Indian Ocean circulation

Author(s) :Hua, Q.; Woodroffe, C.D.; Smithers, S.G.; Barbetti, M.; Fink, D.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 32(21); 2005; doi:10.1029/2005GL023882, 4 pp.

Abstract :Annual bands of a Porites coral from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, eastern Indian Ocean, were analysed by radiocarbon for 1955û1985 AD. A rapid oceanic response of the site to bomb sup(14)C is found, with a maximum delta sup(14)C value of 132ë in 1975. This value is considerably higher than those for the northwestern Indian Ocean, suggesting that surface waters reaching Cocos are not derived from the Arabian Sea. Instead, &#916;14C values for Cocos and those for Watamu (Kenya) agree well over most of the study interval, suggesting that the South Equatorial Current carries sup(14)C-elevated water rather than sup(14)C-depleted water westward across the Indian Ocean. This implies that oceanic upwelling in the northwestern Indian Ocean is spatially confined with little contribution to the upper limb of the global thermohaline circulation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Near-field observations on the co-seismic deformation associated with the 26 December 2004 Andaman-Sumatra earthquake

Author(s) :Earnest, A.; Rajendran, C.P.; Rajendran, K.; Anu, R.; Arun, G.M.; Mohan, P.M.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 89(7); 2005; 1237-1244.

Abstract :The tectonics of the Andaman and Nicobar region since 2001 is being studied, for mapping geomorphological features such as elevated and subsided landforms, both of which are associated with subduction tectonics. Eight GPS control points along the arc are also established and had completed four GPS campaigns, the last pre-earthquake survey having ended three months prior to the great earthquake of 26 December 2004. During the post-earthquake surveys permanent changes in the landforms at many locations were mapped, subsided coastal tracts and emerged colonies of corals, all of which are indicative of co-seismic de-formation. GPS data indicate that the co-seismic offsets along the arc are nonuniform, the southern islands having been displaced by greater than 6 m in the southwest direction. The observations indicate two regions characterized by higher and lower slips, the Nicobar and the Andaman segments respectively. Geomorphological observations indicate widespread uplift along the west coast of the Andaman segment and subsidence on the eastern part. The little Andamans and the northern part of the Andaman region generally show uplift. The GPS measurements indicate vertical displacement of -1.36 to +0.63 m along the arc.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sethusamudram Ship Canal Project: Oceanographic/geological and ecological impact on marine life in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay, southeastern coast of India

Author(s) :Kathal, P.K.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 89(7); 2005; 1082-1083.

Abstract :Sethusamudram Ship Canal (SSC) to be dredged, across a natural chain of shoals of the Adam's Bridge connecting the Gulf of Mannar to Palk Bay along the south-eastern Indian coast of India may trigger ecological imbalance in the region. Environmentally stressed factors like turbidity caused by dredging/displacement of around 9.7 million cubic meter bulk of rock, shoal and sediments during the operation will disturb the O sub(2)-CO sub(2) ratio, imperative for life and health of phytoplanktons. This in turn will retard photoinhibitation and lower the pH of water, amidst a slow pace of photosynthesis besides encouraging an abundant growth of anaerobic organisms that may affect the health of other organisms including marine algae, fish and corals within a very short span of time. A few ecological indicators have been suggested enabling the resource managers to minimise the environmental impact of the canal with affordable procedures in order to safe-guard the earth's second highest marine biodiversity.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems

Author(s) :Kathiresan, K.; Qasim, S.Z.

Source :Hindustan Publishing; New Delhi (India); 2005; 251 pp.

Abstract :Mangroves are unique coastal ecosystems, constituting a rich storehouse of biodiversity and one of the most productive ecosystems known so far. The mangroves are the only forest ecosystems, situated at the interface between land and sea of tropical and subtropical latitudes and they support genetically diverse groups of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This is because the mangrove environment includes diversified macrohabitats such as forests, litter floor, mudflats, water bodies, adjacent coral reefs and seagrass ecosystems. The remarkable coverage of biodiversity, mangroves provide is still not properly understood and the numbers of species that actually exists in them are not fully documented. The mangroves form ecosystems of great ecological and economic values. They protect the coastline from erosion and from destructive forces of cyclones, generate substantial quantities of fishery resources and provide many useful forestry products. Unfortunately, despite the enormous benefits they gave, the mangroves continue to shrink globally. Over the past 50 years, nearly one-third of the world's mangrove forests have been lost along with the disappearance of a host of biological species. In the light of this, it was considered necessary to collect as much information as possible on the varieties of plants and animals that have been reported from mangroves from time to time. This is the genesis of the present publication entitled 'Biodiversity of Mangrove Ecosystems'. It has been prepared with a hope that it will simulate the interest of readers and research workers by providing basic information about the coastal mangrove ecosystems, their functions, ecological role and biodiversity (with reference to India). Major causes of destruction and degradation, uses, conservation strategies and management options have also been included. It is greatly hoped that all these information would be of help to understand the importance and usefulness of the mangrove ecosystems.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the coral reef environment of Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay in the southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Kumaraguru, A.K.; Jayakumar, K.; Wilson, J.J.; Ramakritinan, C.M.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 89(10); 2005; 1729-1741.

Abstract :The live coral cover of 48.5% in the Gulf of Mannar was reduced to 36% after the tsunami of 26 December 2004. Corals showing partial bleaching, infestation with disease, silt-smothered live corals, recently killed corals, broken corals, upturned corals and sea grass damage were found in many places around the 21 islands. The coral cover under stress was 6.7%, which included corals showing partial bleaching and those infested with pink line disease syndrome. The silt-smothered coral cover was 30%. Damage to corals due to tsunami was 6.7% that included recently killed corals, upturned corals and broken corals. Sea grass damage was also found in low quantities. Landscape alterations revealed that Shingle, Mulli, Valai, Thalaiyari, Upputhanni, Van, Kasuwar and Karaichalli islands experienced more shore erosion compared to the other islands. Uprooted trees were found in all the islands. Corals lying closer to the shore in all the islands were affected by sedimentation. The live coral cover of 26.7% in the Palk Bay was reduced to 19.2% after the tsunami. The coral cover under stress was 2.8%, which included those showing partial bleaching and those with infestation of pink line disease. Silt-smothered coral cover was 10.5%. Unlike the islands in the Gulf of Mannar, there was no change in landscape structure in the Palk Bay region. Only inundation of sea water was noticed in some places. There was substantial increase in sedimentation rate after the tsunami in the Palk Bay showing 12, 54 and 13 mg/cm 2 /d during Nov. 2004, Dec. 2004 and Jan. 2005 respectively.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Ecological impact of tsunami on Nicobar Islands (Camorta, Katchal, Nancowry and Trinkat)

Author(s) :Ramachandran, S.; Anitha, S.; Balamurugan, V.; Dharanirajan, K.; Vendhan, K.E.; Divien, M.I.P.; Vel, A.S.; Hussain, I.S.; Udayaraj, A.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 89(1); 2005; 195-200.

Abstract :Assessment of tsunami-inflicted damage to island eco-systems assumes great importance owing to the life sustaining and livelihood support abilities of the ecosystems. Apart from damages caused to life and property, significant damages were caused to ecosystems, which will have long-lasting effects. The tsunami-induced damage to coastal ecosystems was studied in four Nicobar Islands, viz. Camorta, Katchal, Nancowry and Trinkat. The extent of damages assessed ranged from 51 to 100% for mangrove ecosystems, 41 to 100% for coral reef ecosystems and 6.5 to 27% for forest ecosystems. The severity of damages and their consequences suggest the need for a definite restoration ecology programme.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Farming of Hypnea valentiae (Turner) montagne at Minicoy lagoon (Lakshadweep)

Author(s) :Mohammed, G.

Source :Seaweed Res. Util.: 27(1-2); 2005; 93-98.

Abstract :The red Hypnea valentiae (Turn.) Mont. is one of the carrageenan producing seaweeds. Experiment was carried out at Minicoy Lagoon of Lakshadweep during 1998 to find out the feasibility of farming of H. valentiae. Two sites were selected in the intertidal zone of Minicoy lagoon, namely South end and Fisheries Jetty and farming was carried out in three seasons (pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon). Single line bottom coir rope method was adopted for farming. The vegetative fragments of H. valentiae collected from wild were inserted between the twists of long coir ropes. Both ends of the ropes were tied to the coral stones and introduced in the intertidal waters of the lagoon. During the first harvest maximum yield of 6 fold increase was obtained in 37 days and in the second harvest during monsoon months 25 fold increase was recorded in 40 days. Large scale farming of H. valentiae without causing any damage to the lagoon ecosystem by adopting single bottom coir rope method may be taken up by the fishermen during the lean fishing season.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Role of the coralline alga Halimeda gracilis Harvey ex. J. Agardh in sediment development at Minicoy Island (Lakshadweep) during monsoon months

Author(s) :Mohammed, G.; Nasser, A.K.V.

Source :Seaweed Res. Util.: 27(1-2); 2005; 11-18.

Abstract :The green algae Halimeda is a producer not only of carbon but also of loose carbonate sediment that is important for the building of a reef. Borings through the lagoon floor carried out at Bikini, Enewetak and other atolls of the Marshall Islands indicated that Halimeda segments are a major constituent of many lagoon deposits. The aged, white segments are shed from the Halimeda thallus by a natural separation from the node. Eventually, by process of disintegration, cementation and recrystallization, they are bound with order reef organisms into carbonate rock. H. gracilis is the abundant species found at Minicoy. It performs two important sedimentary functions. The first one is the trapping of sediments, which are leached out from the beaches during monsoon. Secondly, it contributes to atoll mass by shedding the carbonate segments. The present study was carried out during the monsoon months at the southern reef flat, eastern shore reef and on the seagrass beds. In July, maximum sediment entrapment was noticed at reef flat with a value of 534 plus or minus 315 g/sq.m, whereas in August it was maximum at shore reef (922 plus or minus 520 g/sq.m). The contribution by the dead portion of H. gracilis plants was the highest at reef flat during July and August followed by shore reef and seagrass beds.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tsunami - Waves of destruction

Author(s) :Sarkar, S.K.; Alam, M.A.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 13(1); 2005; 98-107.

Abstract :'Tsunami' is a Japanese word meaning 'harbour wave' and can be treated as the most destructive coastal hazards in the world. Tsunami is a very large wave up to 30 m in height, which is activated by earthquakes, other movements in the lithosphere, as well as other factors that cause the seas to swell way beyond their normal wave patterns. The height of a tsunami depends on the intensity of the earthquake. A very long wave of the order of kilometers that often remains undetected offshore. On December 26, 2004, tsunami hit Southeast and South Asia and caused havoc devastation killing about 3 laks coastal people and its aftereffects are still persisting. The alteration of Asia map, faster earth spin and severe damage of the coral reefs, mangroves and other coastal forests are important examples to be enlisted in the damage list. In order to minimize the number of causalities and reduce damage due to tsunamis, tsunami warning systems can be property implemented. With the help of satellite map and data base, the nature of damage can be assessed in terms of change of land pattern, erosion of land and loss of property.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Kaleidoscopic corals

Author(s) :Chatterjee, S.

Source :Sci.Rep. (New Delhi): 42(6); 2005; 22-27.

Abstract :Corals are delicate and beautiful denizens of the marine ecosystem. But today their existence stands threatened due to destruction of habitat and changing environmental conditions.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India

Author(s) :Tripati, S.; Sujatha, M.; Rao, R.V.; Rao, K.S.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 89(6); 2005; 1022-1027.

Abstract :The use of timber in the boat building or shipbuilding industry is as old as the construction of boats and ships. Various kinds of timber are used in different regions of India in the construction of vessels. The Yuktikalpataru (the wishing tree of artifice) composed by the king Bhoja of Dhar (11th century AD) gives a detailed account of boats, ships and the variety of wood used for construction and classification of ships. Further, the text also mentions the quality of timber that is required for construction of seagoing ships, which could resist the action of waves, currents and marine biofouling; above all, it would bring joy and wealth. In order to locate the remains of ships, cargo and their history, maritime archaeological explorations were carried out off Goa, which brought to light timber from the centuryold shipwreck off St George's Reef and an iron anchor with a wooden stock 300 years old from Aguada waters. Radiocarbon dating and anatomical analysis of these two timbers were obtained to understand their age and to know the tree species. This communication details the anatomical analysis of timber and associated findings from the sites. Their tentative dates are ascribed to the findings in relation to the maritime history of the Goa region along the central west coast of India. Additionally, the study put forth the view that Indian teak was extensively used by Indian and foreign shipbuilders because of its high quality.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Isolation of antagonistic marine bacteria from the surface of the gorgonian corals at Tuticorin, south east coast of India

Author(s) :Gnanambal, K.M.E.; Chellaram, C.; Patterson, J.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 34(3); 2005; 316-319.

Abstract :Culturable heterotrophic bacteria present on the surface of two gorgonian corals, Subergorgia suberosa and Junceella juncea were isolated and the number of pigmented and non-pigmented strains was noted. The antagonistic effect of the marine isolates was tested against 8 human pathogens and 7 fish pathogens. It was observed that 82% (289) of the isolated bacterial strains were found to be non-pigmented and 61% (214) were identified as Gram-negative. Only 13% (46) of the isolated bacteria were found to be antagonistic against both human and fish pathogens. 74% (34) of the producer strains were found to be non-pigmented, however, mild antagonistic activity was found to be exhibited also by the pigmented strains. Percentage of Gram-negative strains showing activity was found to be 68% (145). All the indicator strains tested were inhibited by at least 10 of the antagonistic marine bacteria. A higher degree of inhibition was conferred by 3 of the isolates (G sub(110), G sub(111) and G sub sub(113) with maximum zones of inhibition against Escherichia coli (5.5 mm) by the strain G sub(113). The strains showing higher degree of inhibition against human pathogens (G sub(110), G sub(111) and G sub(113) showed potent inhibition against the fish pathogens too with maximum inhibition against Proteus mirabilis (5mm) by the strain G sub(110). The symbiotic bacteria present on the surfaces of these gorgonian corals may yield novel metabolites.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Eco-geomorphological zonation of the Bangaram reef, Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Deshmukh, B.; Bahuguna, A.; Nayak, S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Jagtap, T.G.

Source :Photonirvachak: 33(1); 2005; 99-106.

Abstract :Coral reefs, which are known for rich biological diversity and productivity, are being threatened throughout the world by various natural and anthropogenic activities. The present study concentrates on establishing methodology to zone the geo-morphological and ecological zones of the Bangaram reef (of atoll type), Lakshadweep islands, using remotely sensed data and adequately supported by field data. Classification system has been evolved to zone the reefs. Comparative studies have also been carried out using image processing techniques in order to establish the suitable technique for studying the Indian reefs. The IRS LISS 3 images representing three different tidal conditions of the period 1998-2000 were analyzed. The unsupervised classification of both the raw images as well as principal component images gave similar information. The classified product was subjected to contextual editing. Misclassification among various classes was found to increase with the increase in the depth of the water column present over the reef. The zones identified on the image are central deep lagoon, reef knolls (rising steeply from the central deep lagoon floor), reef edge, reef platform, coralline shelf, broad shallow sandy-bottomed lagoon, beach and two islets. The zonation has helped in getting information on the presence of live corals on the Bangaram reef. This kind of study is a valuable input in assessing the health of the reefs and its diversity.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2004-2005

Corp. Body :National Inst. of Oceanography; Dona Paula, Goa; India.

Source :NIO; Dona Paula, Goa (India)NIO/TR-02/2005; 2005; 29 pp.

Abstract :As a part of the Institutional Project, 'Application of Geological and Geophysical methods in Marine Archaeology and Underwater Explorations, (STS 0004)', exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from Nov 24-Dec 02 2005 for 06 days only in Sunchi Reef off Goa, India. The objectives of this survey were three fold: (1) Extensive exploration in and around the wreck site to find new artifacts, (2) To document the underwater findings of Sunchi Reef wreck through videography, (3) To explore new wrecks, if any, in the adjoining areas of Sunchi Reef and Grande Island. After ascertaining the distribution of the artifacts, positions were obtained by Global Positioning System (GPS) and artifacts were collected for further research and analysis. In the course of exploration a copper vessel, lead sheet, copper strap, Chinese ceramic, Martaban jar and lid sherds, bases of glass bottles and square terracotta bricks were found at 3 to 6 m water depth. Marine growth is noticed on almost all the artifacts. Chinese ceramic sherds with blue on white paintings belong to rimless shallow dishes, bowls and plates. The bases of glass bottles are round with conical inside. Even the square bases are not full flat and plain, they are also little elevated. Iron guns and granite stone blocks located earlier were also noticed. The wreck remains has been scattered over 75 to 100 m on the east, northeast and northwest side of the guns but not much artifacts noticed on southern and western sides.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Anti-HIV and anti-cancer activities of a diterpene and a sequiterpene from soft corals off the Indian coast

Author(s) :Sarma, N.S.; Rao, S.R.

Source :Proc. AP Akad. Sci.: 9(2); 2005; 183-184.

Abstract :A new diterpene ether of the sclerophytin family viz., sclerophytin F methyl ether and a known sesquiterpene isolated from the soft corals Cladiella kremfi and Nephthea sp., of the Lakshadweep islands and the Gulf of Mannar respectively were tested in vitro for anti-HIV and anti cancer activities. Sclerophytin F methyl ether showed moderate activity as an anti-HIV agent, and the sesquiterpene, a mild suppressing action against CNS-cancer.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A novel rearranged sesquiterpenoid from Indian Ocean soft coral

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Rao, V.L.; Sastry, V.G.; Rao, D.V.

Source :Proc. AP Akad. Sci.: 9(2); 2005; 139-142.

Abstract :A novel rearranged sesquiterpenoid, trocheliophorin (1) was isolated from the soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum besides the known sarcophytin, methyl arachidonate, and two polyhydroxy steroids (24S)-24-methylcholestane-3 beta, 5 beta, 6 beta, 25-tetrol-25-monoacetate and (24S)-24-methylcholestane-3 beta, 5 beta, 6 beta, 25-tetrol. Its structure was elucidated from its spectral data.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Andamansterol and nicobarsterol: Novel sterols with 3,9,11,21-tetrahydroxylated and 11, 21-epoxy-9, 11-secosteroid skeletons from a Sclerophytum sp. of soft coral

Author(s) :Kobayashi, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Venkataramana, K.; Rao, Ch.V.L.; Rao, D.V.; Rao, Ch.B.

Source :Proc. AP Akad. Sci.: 9(2); 2005; 79-86.

Abstract :The lipid extract of a Sclerophytum sp. of soft coral, collected off the coast of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, afforded two new polyhydroxy sterols, designated andamansterol 3 and nicobarsterol 4. The structures of compounds 3 and 4 was shown to be gorgost-5-ene-3 beta, 9 alpha, 11 alpha, 21-tetrol and (11R, 24S)-3 beta, 6 alpha, 11-trihydroxy-11, 21-epoxy-9, 11-secoergostan-9-one, respectively, by spectral analysis (sup(1)H-sup(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC), X-Ray crystallography of andamansterol 3 confirmed the proposed structure, including the configuration at C-20. Lead tetra acetate treatment of andamansterol 3 gave the 9, 11-seco derivative 6 having the same seven-membered hemiacetal ring as nicobarsterol 4.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Participatory monitoring of changes in coastal and marine biodiversity

Author(s) :Wagner, G.M.

Source :(Workshop on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity of Indian Ocean Countries; Goa (India); 12-15 Dec 2003). Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 34(1); 2005; 136-146.

Abstract :This study reports results obtained from participatory monitoring conducted in Tanzania in two types of keystone ecosystems, mangrove forests and coral reefs. The report also analyses participatory monitoring as an effective tool in environmental conservation and management. Participatory monitoring data collected from three mangrove areas subjected to different levels of human impacts, low, moderate and high, clearly indicated the effects on mangrove basal area and species diversity. Participatory coral reef monitoring clearly showed degradation due to human impacts in one are and definite positive trends over time due to management interventions in another area. Participatory monitoring produces large amounts of informative data in a short time at low cost. Moreover, it has profound positive impact on the participants in terms of enhancing their environmental awareness, creating a feeling of 'ownership' of the environment and motivating them to protect and restore the ecosystems they monitor. However, in order for participatory monitoring to be successful, there should be proper selection of participants, adequate training and on-going supervision by experts.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal and marine biodiversity of La Reunion

Author(s) :Bourmaud, C.A.F.; Abou∩dane, A.; Boissier, P.; LeclΦre, L.; Mirault, E.; Pennober, G.

Source :(Workshop on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity of Indian Ocean Countries; Goa (India); 12-15 Dec 2003). Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 34(1); 2005; 98-103.

Abstract :Runion Island marine biota comprise 4374 taxon records. Algae, scleractinians, hydrozoans, molluscs (except nudibranchs and cephalopods) and vertebrates are the better known taxa. Sponges, cnidarians (except hard corals and hydroids), crustaceans and echinoderms are zoological groups that need more investigations. Species diversity of ctenophores, platyhelminthes and others worms, lophophorates and tunicates is completely unknown. In order to increase accessibility to these records, taxa and species distribution data have been recorded in a new online interoperable database, developed by software engineers of Runion University, and integrated in the information system of the coastal zone network project (Systeme d'information du Littoral, SIL). Rocky coasts constitute the largest coastal marine habitat of Runion Island, but coral reefs have been more investigated. Among them, the Saint-Gilles/La Saline coral reef complex is the most studied area and the other reefs and platforms have been neglected so far. Further, hardly any studies exist for the rocky coast and the deep-water ecosystems. Although Runion coral reefs shelter 191 species registered either in IUCN red list (2003), CITES, CMS and regional Nairobi conventions, the marine biodiversity and the coastal habitats are under increasing anthropogenic threats. In spite of the high species richness, the high number of threatened species and the numerous economic activities that depend of the health of coral reefs, no marine protected areas exist as yet in Runion, mainly because of disagreements between stakeholders.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Biodiversity of the Indian Ocean from the perspective of staghorn corals (Acropora spp)

Author(s) :Wallace, C.C.; Muir, P.R.

Source :(Workshop on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity of Indian Ocean Countries; Goa (India); 12-15 Dec 2003). Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 34(1); 2005; 42-49.

Abstract :The Indian Ocean represents a vital link in the knowledge of where modern reef-building corals began existence, how they survived changes in the configuration of world oceans and how they will survive into the future. To address the central questions of the Census of Marine Life (CoML) for the Indian Ocean, the dominant modern reef-building coral genus Acropora as an exemplar is used, working from a large database of world-wide distributions. Previous biodiversity and biogeographic studies of this genus indicated a demarcation between Indian and Pacific Ocean faunas, despite predominantly widespread distribution ranges. From the distribution of modern and fossil Acropora assemblages, it is evident that the genus Acropora evolved in either the western Indian Ocean or Mediterranean regions of the late Tethys Sea, rather than the central Indo-Pacific as is often assumed from ôcentre of originö models. In this paper, additional data on Acropora biodiversity from regions of the Indian Ocean is examined to give a preliminary indication of the nature and origin of their biogeographic relationships. The Indian Ocean has unique faunas particularly in the region of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. While it is open to influx of Pacific Ocean species via the Indonesian Throughflow current, there is little likelihood of migration of Indian Ocean species into the Pacific. In the event of continuation of global warming, southerly migration of coral species ranges may also take place. Monitoring for such changes could be built into a further detailed compilation of Acropora species composition from sites within the Indian Ocean, which will also lead to finer-scale resolution of the distribution patterns shown here.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal biodiversity in the Indian Ocean: The known, the unknown and the unknowable

Author(s) :Keesing, J.; Irvine, T.

Source :(Workshop on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity of Indian Ocean Countries; Goa (India); 12-15 Dec 2003). Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 34(1); 2005; 11-26.

Abstract :In this review, the biodiversity of the coastal marine regions of the Indian Ocean is contrast with that of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The important types of coastal habitats (coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass meadows) in the Indian Ocean and their use as proxies for biodiversity are discussed. An overview of what is known of coastal marine biodiversity in different parts of the Indian Ocean is assessed by using comparable information on some of the better-known taxonomic groups including corals, mangroves, seagrasses, fishes, marine mammals, turtles, crustaceans and molluscs. Also discussed important gaps in our knowledge and aspects of the biodiversity that will never be determined either because of changes that have already occurred or because we cannot increase our knowledge at a rate relative to anthropogenically induced change. A framework is proposed for the Indian Ocean based around international cooperation to increase our understanding of biodiversity based on ecosystem bioregionalisation and linkage of this to mechanisms ensuring protection of important and representative areas of coastal marine biodiversity.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Isolation by distance in the scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrixfrom the Red Sea

Author(s) :Maier, E.; Tollrian, R.; Rinkevich, B.; Nurnberge, B.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 147(5); 2005; 1109-1120.

Abstract :Pelagic dispersal of larvae in sessile marine invertebrates could in principle lead to a homogeneous gene pool over vast distances, yet there is increasing evidence of surprisingly high levels of genetic differentiation on small spatial scale. To evaluate whether larval dispersal is spatially limited and correlated with distance, a study on the widely distributed is conducted, viviparous reef coral Seriatopora hystrix from the Red Sea where we investigated ten populations separated between -0.150 km and -610 km. These questions addressed with newly developed, highly variable microsatellite markers. Moderate genetic differentiation among populations based on both FST and RST (0.089 vs. 0.136, respectively) as well as considerable heterozygote deficits are detected. Mantel tests revealed isolation by distance effects on a small geographic scale (ú 20 km), indicating limited dispersal of larvae. The data did not reveal any evidence against strictly sexual reproduction among the studied populations

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :New model of reef-island evolution: Maldives, Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Kench, P.S.; McLean, R.F.; Nichol, S.L.

Source :Geology: 33(2); 2005; 145-148.

Abstract :A new model of reef-island evolution, based on detailed morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating of three islands in South Maalhosmadulu Atoll, Maldives, is presented. Islands initially formed on a foundation of lagoonal sediments between 5500 and 4500 yr B.P. when the reef surface was as much as 2.5 m below modern sea level. Islands accumulated rapidly during the following 1500 yr, effectively reaching their current dimensions by 4000 yr B.P. Since then the high circum-island peripheral ridge has been subject to seasonal and longer-term shoreline changes, while the outer reef has grown upward, reducing the energy window and confining the islands. This new model has far-reaching implications for island stability during a period of global warming and raised sea level, which will partially reactivate the energy window, although it is not expected to inhibit upward reef growth or compromise island stability

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral climate proxy data from a marginal reef area, Kuwait, northern ArabianûPersian Gulf

Author(s) :Gischler, E.; Lomando, A.J.; Alhazeem, S.H.; Fiebig, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Oschmann, W.

Source :Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.: 228(1-2); 2005; 86-95.

Abstract :The first coral climate proxy data (Sr/Ca, delta sup(18)O, delta sup(13)C) from the PersianûArabian Gulf using a Porites lutea coral collected offshore Kuwait is presented. Both oxygen isotope- and Sr/ Ca-ratios of the coral core investigated are statistically correlated with instrumental sea surface temperatures (SST) for the area from 1980û2002. However, the temperature calibration curve for Sr/Ca differs from other published curves in that its slope is much lower. The correlation coefficient between delta sup(18)O sub(coral) and instrumental SST is at the lower limit as compared to other sites. These differences most likely relate to insufficient data representation of cold winters and hot summers, and indicates that much higher sampling resolution is needed in marginal reef areas such as Kuwait with extreme environmental fluctuations, i.e., intra-annual SST-variation of 16û34 degrees C, as compared to low latitude locations with relatively low SST variation. Variations of carbon isotopes of the coral skeleton do not exhibit climate control, however, a negative excursion in 1991 might be attributed to the massive oil field fires of the 2nd Gulf War

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effects of geography, taxa, water flow, and temperature variation on coral bleaching intensity in Mauritius

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.; Maina, J.; Moothien-Pillay, R.; Baker, A.C.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 298; 2005; 131-142.

Abstract :This study describes the response of common coral taxa at 15 sites to a warm-water anomaly in Mauritius in March 2004. Sites circumscribed the island and differed in their water flow and thermal history as a result of variation in local current patterns. 2 distinct positive responses of coral taxa to the anomaly that correlated with their local abundance are observed with a group of sparse (22 taxa covering less than 5 cm m sup(û1)) and abundant taxa (7 taxa covering greater than 5 cm m sup(û1)). The 2 most dominant taxa Acropora and Montipora were among the most susceptible genera in the abundant group, while Seriatopora and Alveopora were the most susceptible taxa in the sparse group. This suggests that a temperature anomaly that is sufficient to cause mortality will remove taxa from 2 positions in the community spectrum with consequences for both ecological functions and diversity. It is found that bleaching intensity at the sites was positively associated with water flow, with the most intense bleaching and highest currents on the windward and offshore sites. The algal symbiont communities in nearly all of the corals sampled on both sides of the island and 2 depths were dominated by diverse Symbiodinium in Clade C, indicating that the observed differences in response among coral taxa and sites were unlikely to be greatly affected by the types of symbionts they contained. It is suggested that high water flow reduces background stress and acclimation, and results in corals that are less tolerant of rare temperature anomalies

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Benthic metabolism and degradation of natural particulate organic matter in carbonate and silicate reef sands of the northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Wild, C.; Rasheed, M.; Jantzen, C.; Cook, P.; Struck, U.; Huettel, M.; Boetius, A.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 298; 2005; 69-78.

Abstract :The influence of natural particulate organic matter (POM) input on sedimentary oxygen consumption (SOC) in permeable carbonate and silicate sediments close to a coral reef was investigated in front of the Marine Science Station in Aqaba, Jordan (northern Red Sea). Seven in situ experiments in stirred benthic chambers are conducted. Without additional POM input, SOC rates were similar and not significantly different (p is greater than 0.5) in carbonate and silicate sands, with average rates of 20 plus or minus 4 (n = 10) and 16 plus or minus 2 (n = 3) mmol O sub(2) m sup(û2) d sup(û1), respectively. Gross photosynthesis in the carbonate and silicate sands accounted for 15 to 23 mmol produced O sub(2) m sup(û2) d sup(û1), characterising both sands as largely independent of allochthonous carbon input. SOC of unamended carbonate sands showed no significant variation in 5 in situ experiments conducted within a period of 19 d. Addition of 2 energyrich sources of naturally occurring POM (coral mucus and clam eggs) resulted in significantly (p is less than 0.0001) increased SOC rates in the carbonate sands, but not in the silicate sands. Addition of a suspension containing high concentrations of zooxanthellae did not result in higher SOC in the carbonate sands, indicating that zooxanthellae cannot easily be degraded in reef sediments. Results highlight the short cut between coral mucus production and degradation in the adjacent reef sands. Suspended particles are initially trapped by the cohesive mucus on the coral surface, and ensuing mucus strings sink to the seafloor at a short distance from the mucus-producing coral. Carbonate sands as porous filter systems obviously harbour more active heterotrophic microbial communities than silicate sands, and thus may constitute a major site of organic matter degradation in the reef ecosystem

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Late Quaternary sea-level highstands in the central and eastern Indian Ocean: A review

Author(s) :Woodroffe, C.D.

Source :Global Planet. Change: 49(1-2); 2005; 121-138.

Abstract :The relative sea-level history of several atolls in the central and eastern Indian Ocean, including the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Chagos Archipelago, and the MaldivesûLaccadive Archipelagoes, has been debated for over a century but takes on a particular significance in the face of anticipated climate change. For each of these central and eastern Indian Ocean atolls Pleistocene limestone is encountered at depths of 6û20 m below sea level. On the Cocos (Keeling) Islands this has been dated to Last Interglacial age. Conglomerate platform underlies the reef islands on Cocos within which a sequence of fossil microatolls of massive and branching Porites records a gradual fall of sea level relative to the atoll. In the Maldives, the significance of outcrops of dreef rockT has been vigorously debated without resolving sea-level history. Although in situ Heliopora occurs on the reef flat of Addu Atoll, dated at around 2700 radiocarbon yrs BP, other evidence for higher sea level remains poorly constrained. Conglomerates of a similar age have been described from the Chagos Archipelago, but it has not been unequivocally demonstrated that they formed under conditions of relatively higher sea level. In contrast to reefs further west in the Indian Ocean, each of these atolls has living microatolls of massive Porites that have been constrained in their upward growth by sea level. Interpretation of the upper surface of two such specimens from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands indicates broad fluctuations in the sea surface over the past century; similar microatolls are described from the Maldives implying little change in sea level over recent years. Regardless of minor past fluctuations, most reef islands in the Maldives are particularly low-lying and appear vulnerable to inundation, and extracting a more detailed sea-level history remains an important challenge

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Abundance of giant sea anemones and patterns of association with anemonefish in the northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Chadwick, N.E.; Arvedlund, M.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK: 85(5); 2005; 1287-1292.

Abstract :Patterns of distribution and abundance of giant sea anemones and anemonefish were compared among coral reefs along the coastline of Sinai in the northern Red Sea. The sea anemones varied widely in abundance between reef areas containing different habitat types. They were rare on steep reef slopes with abundant coral cover (= low-density anemone sites, 0.09-0.68 anemones per 1000 m sup(2) of reef area), but were common at a site containing patch reefs interspersed with sand (= high-density anemone site, 6.00-8.11 anemones per 1000 m sup(2)). Distributions of the endemic two-band anemonefish (Amphiprion bicinctus) varied significantly between the two main host anemone species. At the high-density site, individuals of the sea anemone Heteractis crispa either did not contain anemonefish, or were occupied by single juvenile fish as shown in previous studies. At low-density sites H. crispa usually hosted clusters of juvenile anemonefish. In contrast, individuals of the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor hosted either single adult fish (highdensity site) or pairs of breeding adults (low-density sites), frequently in addition to some juvenile fish. Mechanisms that prevent anemoneósh from reaching adult size and forming breeding pairs in H. crispa may include high fish mortality above a size threshold because this host cannot adequately protect them from predation when they become large, active emigration of fish to E. quadricolor as described in previous reports, and/or environmentally-controlled cessation of fish growth. It is concluded that in the northern Red Sea, individuals of H. crispa potentially serve as nurseries for anemonefish

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bacterial Strain BA-3 and a filterable factor cause a white plague-like disease in corals from the Eilat coral reef

Author(s) :Barash, Y.; Sulam, R.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.

Source :Aquat. Microb. Ecol.: 40(2); 2005; 183-189.

Abstract :During the last 2 years a white plague-like disease has spread over the Eilat coral reef, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Two of the major reef-building coral genera, Favia and Goniastrea, were most affected by this disease. Approximately 10% of these corals showed progressive signs of the disease or were already dead as a result of the disease. Controlled aquarium experiments demonstrated that the disease is infectious and that transmission from diseased to healthy corals does not require direct contact. Infection was not genus-specific, since diseased F. favus infected 3 other coral genera. Although diseased F. favus contained 80 to 10 000 times more culturable bacteria than healthy specimens, none of the 25 isolates initially tested infected healthy corals. Filtration of aquarium water containing diseased F. favus indicated that the infectious agent was larger than 0.2 ╡m and smaller than 3 ╡m. Microorganisms retained by the 0.2 ╡m filter did not infect corals; however, when the retentate was combined with the 0.2 ╡m filtrate, infection took place. This suggested that the infectious agent requires a filterable factor to cause the disease. Combining the 0.2 mu m-filtered water from an aquarium containing a diseased coral with each of the 25 pure cultures previously obtained from diseased F. favus allowed for the recognition of 1 strain that caused rapid lysis of F. favus. The pathogen, referred to as BA-3, is a Gram-negative bacterium whose 16S rDNA sequence indicates it is a new species and possibly a new genus. Attempts to re-isolate Strain BA-3 from diseased corals in the field were unsuccessful. The nature of the filterable factor, which is >5000 molecular weight (MW) and heat sensitive, remains to be determined.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :An antimalarial cembranolide from Tanzania soft corals, Lobophytum crassum (vol Marenzeller 1886) and L. rotundum (Tixier-Durivault (1957)

Author(s) :Said, S.A.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 4(1); 2005; 95-98.

Abstract :Bioscreening guided fractionation of the extracts of soft corals Lobophytum crassum and L. rotundum using brine shrimp larvae cytotoxicity assay led to the isolation of a cembranolide diterpene (E,E,E)-6,10,14-trimethy 1-3-methylene-3a, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 15a-octahydrocylotetradeca[b]furan-2(3H)-one (1). This diterpene, identified as cembranolide compound 1, was found to be active against the multidrug-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in vitro. It also possessed cytotoxic properties

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Distribution and community structure of butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae) in Southern Mozambique

Author(s) :Pereira, M.A.M.; Videira, E.J.S.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 4(1); 2005; 39-46.

Abstract :Even though Mozambique has the greatest reported diversity of butterflyfishes (24 species) of the continental states of the Western Indian Ocean region, aspects of the ecology and distribution of this group in Mozambique are poorly documented. The distribution, diversity and community structure of butterflyfishes were studied on nine reefs in southern Mozambique using the point count method. Nineteen species from four genera were identified. Three with generalist feeding habits (i.e. Chaetodon auriga, C. guttatissimus and C. interruptus) were the most abundant with a wide distribution range. The butterflyfish communities of intertidal reefs at Inhaca Island differed from those of the offshore, subtidal reefs, as shown by uni- and multivariate analysis of abundance and diversity data. This is attributed to differences in habitat structure and food availability. However, most species occurred on both reef types. The butterflyfish diversity of the area is considered high and comparable to other high latitude reef areas in the world. These results emphasize the high biodiversity of the region and constitutes a latitudinal biodiversity peak. These findings also highlight the need for effective conservation measures

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Comparative study of three transect methods to assess coral cover, richness and diversity

Author(s) :Beenaerts, N.; Berghe, E.V.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 4(1); 2005; 29-37.

Abstract :Three different transect methods were compared at two different sites in Kenya, on their efficiency to estimate hard coral cover, genus richness and Shannon diversity index. For a modified line transect method (LTM) and a linear point intercept (LPI) method the relative efficiency of the three methods was calculated with respect to the tested parameters. The three methods were examined along identical transect lines (10 m ) and a total of 27 transect triplets were recorded in Vipingo and 21 in Mombasa. The correlation coefficients for all three ecological parameters were calculated for the three possible pairs of methods, and the accumulation curves plotted for each of the parameters using number of transects as the independent variable. Results from the three methods were virtually indistinguishable. When the parameters were plotted using measuring time on the x axis, the curves for the LPI method converged twice as fast as those for LTM, while LIT time was intermediate. It is suggested that the LPI method might be most suitable for assessing coral cover, richness and diversity where time and effort are significant constraints

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Population genetic status of the Western Indian Ocean: What do we know?

Author(s) :Ridgway, T.; Sampayo, E.M.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 4(1); 2005; 1-9.

Abstract :Population genetics offers a useful technique for studying the population structure of marine organisms and has relevance to both systematics and the conservation of biodiversity. The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is faced with increasing evidence of degradation and effective management initiatives are needed to curtail the environmental decline. The management of the WIO region can therefore benefit from the information that population genetics can provide. Extensive literature searches revealed only 31 genetic references for the WIO region. From a biogeographic point of view, the WIO shows little genetic exchange with the rest of the Indo-Pacific, but from a regional perspective, the limited information that exists points towards widespread genetic structuring in the reefs off tropical Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, and greater connectivity amongst southeast African reefs. However, much more information is needed in the region before the true strength of population genetic data can be used as a primary tool for management

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Nutrient &64258;ux fuels the summer primary productivity in the oligotrophic waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

Author(s) :Badran, M.I.; Rasheed, M.; Manasrah, R.; Al-Najjar, T.

Source :Oceanologia: 47(1); 2005; 47-60.

Abstract :The thermohaline characteristics of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depict a well defined seasonal pattern of winter mixing from December to April and summer stratification from Ma to November. This thermohaline structure is a major controlling factor of the nutrient, chlorophyll a and primary productivity seasonal cycles. The nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration records generated down to 200 m at a vertical resolution of 25 m ûweekly during 1994, 1995 and every two weeks from April 1997 through to December 2000 ûare employed to assess the nitrogen flux across the summer thermocline of the Gulf of Aqaba. The flux calculations are based on a simple discussion model that incorporates the physical stress eddy diffusivity factor K sub(z) and a biological stress factor k. Both K sub(z) and k are calculated using the Michaelis-Menten equation and the nitrate concentration gradient. The total nitrate flux of the Gulf of Aqaba during the seven summer months (MayûNovember)is estimated at 0.52 mole N m sup(-2). In relation to established primary productivity values (75.5 g C m sup(-2) May November)) the generated chlorophyll a records, this yields an f fraction of new to total primary production of 0.50.This relatively high f value is discussed with respect to the geophysical characteristics of the Gulf of Aqaba and similar oceanic basins. The remaining 50% is accounted for b cross-sectional flow from the relatively nutrientrich coral reef coastal habitat and rapid recycling, triggered by high irradiance and water temperature

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seasonal dynamics of Sargassum ilicifolium (Phaeophyta) on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

Author(s) :Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J.H.; Breeman, A.M.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 292; 2005; 159-171.

Abstract :The seasonality of Sargassum ilicifolium was studied in the southern Red Sea by monitoring thallus density, thallus size and the initiation, growth, reproduction and survivorship of primary laterals. Thallus density showed slight but significant seasonal variation; it was highest at the end of the hot season and lowest at the end of the cold season. Mean thallus and lateral lengths peaked in the second half of the cold season. Initiation of new laterals was highest in the first half of the cold season. High lateral densities suppressed new lateral initiation. In the first month after initiation, laterals grew out to the same length as those formed earlier in the year. Thus, elongation rates of young laterals were highest during the period of maximum canopy height. In older laterals, growth rates decreased with length, due to increased tissue loss. Growth rates were independent of reproductive status. Reproduction occurred in the second half of the cold season and was independent of lateral size, but laterals had to be at least 1 to 2 mo old before reproducing. Highest loss rates of laterals occurred at the end of the growth season. Survivorship was independent of lateral size or reproductive status. Loss rates were lowest in the hot season. It is concluded that there is no direct trade-off between reproduction and growth/survival of the laterals, and that the dynamics of S. ilicifolium are directly related to the seasonal extremes in environmental conditions. Morphogenetic responses at the level of individual laterals also contribute to the overall phenological pattern

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral recruitment to the reefs of Eilat, Red Sea: Temporal and spatial variation, and possible e&#64256;ects of anthropogenic disturbances

Author(s) :Abelson, A.; Olinky, R.; Gaines, S.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 50(5); 2005; 576-582.

Abstract :The accelerating deterioration of the coral reefs of Eilat has raised debate over the exact causes and how they affect the reefs. The hypothesis of the present study was that a low recruitment rate of reef-building coral species may play an important role in the decline of the Eilat reefs. Our goal was to assess spatial and temporal recruitment patterns in Eilat, focusing on examining the possible impact of human activities. The results of coral recruitment to 10 series of ceramic tiles on metal racks, revealed very low overall recruitment relative to other geographical regions. In addition, it is found that the recruitment rates and recruit survival were lowest at sites closest to the major eutrophication sources in Eilat. The low recruitment rates may be chronically too low to compensate for the elevated coral mortality rates of recent years. The significant differences between the present study and a similar study carried out during the same period using a different method emphasize the crucial need for a standardized method for recruitment assessment in coral reefs worldwide.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seasonal patterns of biomass, growth and reproduction in Dictyota crevicornis and Stoechospermum polypodioides (Dictyotales, Phaeophyta) on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

Author(s) :Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J.H.; Breeman, A.M.

Source :Bot. Mar.: 48(1); 2005; 8-17.

Abstract :Seasonal patterns in thallus length, biomass, reproduction, total biomass m sup(-2) and size structure were monitored in populations of Dictyota cervicornis and Stoechospermum polypodioides on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea. These tropical reef flats are exposed to extreme temperatures of about 34 degrees C in summer and to temperatures of about 25 degrees C in winter. Both species showed peaks in length, biomass and reproduction in winter; macrothalli were absent in summer. Thallus length, biomass and the proportion of reproductive thalli showed a strong negative correlation with seawater temperature. Young thalli first appeared in November, following a drop in seawater temperature from about 33 to 31 degrees C. Macroscopic thalli had disappeared in May, when temperatures had reached the same values as those at the start of the growth season (33 degrees (C). When reef substrata collected in summer were kept at sub-ambient temperatures (29-31 degrees C), macroscopic thalli of D. cervicomis developed. Size structure varied over time, probably because of non-synchronous development and tissue loss among thalli. Reproduction was size-dependent. It is concluded that D. cervicornis and S. polypodioides have highly seasonal patterns of growth and reproduction related to the seasonal variation in the environment, especially temperature

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Evolution of fringing reefs: Space and time constraints from the Gulf of Aqaba

Author(s) :Shaked, Y.; Lazar, B.; Marco, S.; Stein, M.; Tchernov, D.; Agnon, A.

Source :Coral Reefs: 24(1); 2005; 165-172.

Abstract :This study documents the pattern and rate of reef growth during the late Holocene as revealed by unique geological conditions at the subsiding NW Gulf of Aqaba. It is discovered that the modern fringing reef near the city Elat grows on top of a fossil submerged mid-Holocene reef platform. Four coral cores from the fossil platform were dated using the radiocarbon and U-Th methods. The fossil corals range from 5.6 plus or minus 0.1 to 2.4 plus or minus 0.03 ka, constraining the initiation of the modern reef to 2,400 years ago at most. The detailed morphology of the reef using aerial photographs and scuba diving are documented. The survey shows that at its northern end, growth of the 2-km-long reef is inhibited by an active alluvial fan, and it is composed of isolated knolls that are just approaching the sea surface. Towards the south, the knolls are progressively larger and closer together, until they form a continuous reef platform. Along this north-to-south trend followed the evolution of reef morphology, changes in coral distribution, and the development of a lagoon separated from the open sea. Based on these observations, suggested a four-stage reef growth model: (1) the reef initiates as coral colonies, forms knolls, and begins to grow upward, limited by the sea surface. (2) Upon reaching the surface, the knolls spread laterally, preferentially parallel to the dominant wave direction assuming an elongated morphology. (3) Continued growth results in adjacent knolls eventually coalescing to form a continuous jagged reef. The spurs-and-grooves morphology that can be traced across the reef at Elat as remnants of the original trends of knolls is interpreted. (4) While reef expansion continues, the original knoll trends may be obscured as a massive reef front takes shape. Considering reef growth rates and observations from the modern reef at Elat, this evolution scheme predicts an age range of 10 sup(3) years for corals on the reef platform. The range and distribution of radiometric ages we obtained from the fossil reef platform underlying the living Elat reef conform this hypothesis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis indicates the importance of both asexual and sexual reproduction in the fissiparous holothurian Stichopus chloronotus(Aspidochirotida) in the Indian and Pacific Ocean

Author(s) :Uthicke, S.; Conand, C.

Source :Coral Reefs: 24(1); 2005; 103-111.

Abstract :Asexual reproduction in the fissiparous holothurian species Stichopus chloronotus from eight populations between Madagascar and the Great Barrier Reef (total N =149) was investigated using Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers; and results compared to previous allozyme studies. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) genetic diversity in this species is reduced in the West Indian Ocean and that (2) some populations rely nearly exclusively on asexual reproduction. Using 21 polymorphic markers obtained by two primer combinations) resulted in 51 genotypes in the whole sample, with up to 20 individuals (nearly all within populations) having the same genotype. These repeated genotypes most likely represent clones. In most populations, more than 50% of individuals were inferred to result from asexual reproduction. In two extreme populations, both of which are comprised nearly entirely of male individuals (Great Palm Island, Trou d Æeau), only up to 20% of all individuals were sexually produced. Although, the genetic diversity in two populations of La Re ┤union was reduced, the fact that diversity is high in a third population and on Madagascar showed that low genetic diversity in S. chloronotus is not a general feature of the West Indian Ocean. Cluster analysis using Rogers Ægenetic distance did not result in distinct geographic clusters. This supports previous suggestions that although asexual reproduction is important for the maintenance of populations, large distance dispersal of sexually produced larvae provides the genetic link between populations.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Intrabasin comparison of surface radiocarbon levels in the Indian Ocean between coral records and three-dimensional global ocean models

Author(s) :Grumet, N. S.; Duffy, P.B.; Wickett, M.E.; Caldeira, K.; Dunbar, R.B.

Source :Global Planet. Change: 19; 2005; doi:10.1029/2004GB002289, 17 pp.

Abstract :Oceanic uptake and transport of bomb-produced radiocarbon is used as a diagnostic in global ocean models to test parameterizations of mixing and air-sea gas exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. A modelÆs ability to simulate bomb-produced sup(14)C is also a good indicator of its ability to predict uptake of anthropogenic CO sub(2). A model-data comparison of surface radiocarbon time series is conducted from coral records from the coasts of Kenya and Sumatra and a suite of dynamical three-dimensional ocean models that were included in the second phase of the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project. The coral records comprise the first intrabasin record of surface water Delta sup(14)C variability in the equatorial Indian Ocean and provide an independent evaluation of model performance. Differing treatments of lateral subgrid scale mixing in different models appear to be less important than other, unknown factors in explaining differences in results between the models. Those models that include a dynamic vertical mixing scheme appear to be more capable of matching observed coral radiocarbon time series. However, among models with the same parameterization of lateral subgrid scale mixing, there is a large degree of variation, suggesting that at both sites, factors such as resolution, topography, physical forcing and horizontal advection are more important than mixing parameterization in explaining intermodel differences. None of the models reproduce the time lag in the rate of bomb sup(14)C response between the Kenya and Sumatra coral sites. Future efforts are needed to improve model simulation of radiocarbon in surface waters in the equatorial Indian Ocean.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Nonstationary ENSO-precipitation teleconnection over the equatorial Indian Ocean documented in a coral from the Chagos Archipelago

Author(s) :Timm, O.; Pfeiffer, M.; Dullo, W-C.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 32; 2005; doi:10.1029/2004GL021738, 4 pp.

Abstract :This study proposes a mechanism that explains the marked shift in the correlation between the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the isotopic composition (delta sup(18) O sub(c)) of a Porites coral from the Chagos Archipelago (71 degrees E/5 degrees S). Only after the mid-1970s a strong ENSO signal emerges in the delta sup(18) O sub⌐ during the analyzed period 1950û1994. In the 1970s, the increasing sea surface temperature (SST) shifted the mean SST closer to the deep convection threshold at about 28.5 degrees C. ENSO-related SST variability largely controls the deep convection and precipitation in the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO) when the SST is at this critical level. The anomalies in the precipitation induce changes in the isotopic composition of the surface ocean waters. The precipitation signal amplifies the SST signal in the coral delta sup(18) O sub(c) and raises the correlation to ENSO. The presented results have important implications for the reconstruction of ENSO indices from corals within the Indian Ocean.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Wave-driven circulation across the coral reef at Bamburi Lagoon, Kenya

Author(s) :Angwenyi, C.M.; Rydberg, L.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. on Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 63(3); 2005; 447-454.

Abstract :Sea level, current and wave measurements were carried out within and outside an open-ended bar reef lagoon on the East African coast. The oceanic tides in this area are semidiurnal with a tidal range varying from 3 m at spring to 1 m at neap. Reef submergence relative to the mean sea level is 0.7 m. Waves with significant wave height of typically 0.5 m and periods of 8 û10 s continuously break on the reef-top and on the reef-edge during most of the tidal cycle. This results in a wave set-up on the reef-top and a lagoon-ward flow across the reef. The set-up drives a time-dependent circulation, which is larger during neap tide when the reef is moderately submerged, than during spring tide. The wave driven circulation, though small compared to the tidally driven circulation, is still important because it hinders in flow of polluted water from tidal creeks that enter the ocean north and south of the lagoon itself.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Photosynthesis rates in cyanobacteria-dominated sub-tidal biofilms near Zanzibar, Tanzania

Author(s) :Lugomela, C.; Soederbaeck, E.; Bjoerk, M.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. on Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 63(3); 2005; 439-446.

Abstract :The surface cover (during 1998) and photosynthesis rates (measured intermittently between 1998 and 2000) of submerged cyanobacteria-dominated biofilms near a patchy reef in Zanzibar were determined using a line intercept transect method and pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer (PAM), respectively. The biofilm surface cover ranged between 5 and 56% with an annual average value of 25%. Photosynthetic activity on deep-dwelling biofilms was low light adapted compared to shallow-dwelling biofilms. Biofilms also regulated their photosynthetic activity depending on the light regime over the day, manifesting high light utilization coefficient (Alpha), light saturation index (E sub(k)) and maximum electron transport rate (ETR sub(max) )values at around noon compared to morning and evening measurements. Carbon fixation rates of 0.05,0.3 and 0.5 kg C m sup(-2) y sup(-1) for thin (approx. 0.5 mm), medium (approx. 1 mm) and thick (approx. 2 mm) biofilms is calculated, and estimated an overall primary production rate of 0.14 kg C m sup(-2) y sup(1) at depths of about 5 m. This study shows that biofilms in the area actively fix carbon and may contribute substantially to the primary productivity of coastal ecosystems. More experiments are required to precisely determine the absorption factor for robust determination of the ETR and to explain the significance of the biofilms on the overall productivity of coastal ecosystems.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Feeding ecology of the Indo-Paci &64257;c bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus)incidentally caught in the gillnet &64257;sheries off Zanzibar,Tanzania

Author(s) :Amir, O.M.; Berggren, P.; Ndaro, S.G.M.; Jiddawi, N.S.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. on Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 63(3); 2005; 429-437.

Abstract :The stomach contents of 26 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) incidentally caught in gillnet fisheries around Unguja Island (Zanzibar) between February 2000 and August 2002 were examined. The relative importance of each prey species was assessed through indices of relative importance. In total, 1403 prey items comprising 50 species of bony fish and three species of squid were identified from food remains. Five species of fish, Uroconger lepturus, Synaphobranchus kaupii, Apogon apogonides, Lethrinus crocineus, Lutjanus fulvus, and three species of squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Sepia latimanus and Loligo duvauceli, were the most important prey species. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, U. lepturus proved to be the most important prey species of mature dolphins whereas A. apogonides was the preferred prey of immature dolphins. These results indicate that Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off the coast of Zanzibar forage on a relatively large number of prey species, but that only a few small-and medium-sized neritic fish and cephalopods contribute substantially to the diet. Further, the ecology and behavior of the preferred fish prey species indicate that the dolphins forage over reef or soft bottom substrata and near the shore.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Assessment of the seabird community of the Mozambique Channel and its potential use as an indicator of tuna abundance

Author(s) :Corre, M.L.; Jaquemet, S.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. on Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 63(3); 2005; 421-428.

Abstract :Tropical seabirds are known to associate with aggregations of surface dwelling predators, like tunas when feeding. Some species are even regarded as near obligate commensals of tunas. As food is one of the main factors that shape breeding strategies and determine breeding success of seabirds, it is of interest to test the hypothesis that variations in tuna abundance may have effects on foraging success and thus on breeding parameters of tropical seabirds. The Mozambique Channel is appropriate for such a study because relative tuna abundance is assessed annually (through fishery catches) and seabird populations are abundant. A regional synopsis shows that at least 3.034 million pairs of seabirds breed on islands of the Mozambique Channel, 99.3% being sooty terns. This super-abundant seabird is strongly associated with tuna and marine mammals when feeding. More than 99%of the sooty tern population of the Mozambique Channel breeds at three remote coralline islands, namely Juan de Nova (66%), Europa (25%)and Glorieuses (9%). Various breeding parameters (breeding population size, breeding time, growth rate of the chicks, daily food intake, diet) are studied at these three sites in order to investigate their relation to the marine environment (including tuna abundance). A preliminary estimate is made of the quantity of food eaten by the sooty tern population.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Modelling reef zonation in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park,South Africa

Author(s) :Schleyer, M.H.; Celliers, L.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. on Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 63(3); 2005; 373-384.

Abstract :East Africa has a rich coral fauna that extends to Maputaland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At this latitude, considered high and marginal for coral distribution and development, they form a veneer on limited, late Pleistocene reefs rather than forming the accretive, aragonite structures known as coral reefs. It is thus more appropriate to refer to them in this region as coral communities, the environment being rendered marginal for their development by reduced temperatures, light and aragonite saturation state. Subsequent to their discovery, the reefs were afforded protection within two Marine Protected Areas (the St Lucia and Maputaland Marine Reserves). They are found primarily within three reef complexes, with only the central complex being readily accessible to the public for ecotourism at present. With the creation of the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, a World Heritage Site, and the expectation of an accompanying increase in ecotourism, the status quo seems set to change. The reefs are thus the current focus of a modelling initiative to provide decision support in their management. This paper examines the unique nature of the South African communities, their vulnerability and importance in the regional and global context, and, using representative data from the model, how an anticipated increase in their use could affect their sustainability. The case for scientifically based zonation for their use is presented.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Resilience and climate change:Lessons from coral reefs and bleaching in the Western Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Obura, D.O.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. on Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 63(3); 2005; 353-372.

Abstract :The impact of climate change through thermal stress-related coral bleaching on coral reefs of the Western Indian Ocean has been well documented and is caused by rising sea water temperatures associated with background warming trends and extreme climate events. Recent studies have identified a number of factors that may reduce the impact of coral bleaching and mortality at a reef or sub-reef level. However, there is little scientific consensus as yet, and it is unclear how well current science supports the immediate needs of management responses to climate change. This paper provides evidence from the Western Indian Ocean in support of recent hypotheses on coral and reef vulnerability to thermal stress that have been loosely termed æresistance and resilience to bleachingÆ. The paper argues for a more explicit definition of terms, and identifies three concepts affecting coral-zooxanthellae holobiont and reef vulnerability to thermal stress previously termed æresistance to bleachingÆ: æthermal protectionÆ, where some reefs are protected from the thermal conditions that induce bleaching and/or where local physical conditions reduce bleaching and mortality levels; æthermal resistanceÆ, where individual corals bleach to differing degrees to the same thermal stress; and æthermal toleranceÆ, where individual corals suffer differing levels of mortality when exposed to the same thermal stress. æResilience to bleachingÆ is a special case of ecological resilience, where recovery following large-scale bleaching mortality varies according to ecological and other processes. These concepts apply across multiple levels of biological organization and temporal and spatial scales. Thermal resistance and tolerance are genetic properties and may interact with environmental protection properties resulting in phenotypic variation in bleaching and mortality of corals. The presence or absence of human threats and varying levels of reef management may alter the influence of the above factors, particularly through their impacts on resilience, offering the opportunity for management interventions to mitigate the impacts of thermal stress and recovery on coral reefs. These concepts are compiled within an overarching framework of spatial resilience theory. This provides a framework for developing linked scientific and management questions relating to the larger scale impacts of climate change on coral reefs, their management needs and prospects for their future

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Structure and development of detrital reef deposits in turbid nearshore environments, Inhaca Island, Mozambique

Author(s) :Perry, C.T.

Source :Mar. Geol.: 214(1-3); 2005; 143-161.

Abstract :Coral communities are intermittently developed along the seaward margins of wide (up to 500 m) intertidal flats that fringe the western margins of Inhaca Island, southern Mozambique. The coral communities occur in an environment that can be considered as marginal for coral growth in the sense that they are subject to high turbidity levels (which results in rapid light attenuation) and to the effects of periodic smothering and burial associated with a mobile, siliciclastic-dominated sediment substrate. These constraints limit coral community development both spatially and bathymetrically. In addition, historical evidence suggests that the main sites of coral growth shift over decadal timescales due to periodic sediment remobilisation. Such rapid rates of turnover restrict the development of rigid framework deposits and, in contrast, the main depositional product of coral growth is an abundance of branched (mainly Acropora sp.) coral rubble. Rubble production is aided both by intense internal bioerosion (sponge, bivalve and worm traces) and by periodic storm damage. Much of this rubble accumulates along the channel margins and provides a substrate for subsequent coral recruitment. The deposits can be distinguished from those associated with clear water reef environments by (1) the lack of a rigid reef framework either comprising of in-situ coral or encrusted coral rubble, (2) the distinct lack of rubble encrustation/syn-depositional cementation, and (3) the predominance of a siliciclastic-rich sediment matrix. Sup(14)C dating indicates that most of the rubble deposits date from the period 6500û4700 years BP, which corresponds to a period of regional sea level highstand. A detailed growth chronology cannot be established due to the lack of in-situ coral, but rapid rubble deposition and reef flat progradation (around 350 m) can be inferred for this period (equivalent to an average progradation rate of around 0.2 m year sup(-1)). Over the subsequent 4700 years, progradation of only around 25 m has occurred. This may be attributed to reworking and erosion of the seaward margin of the deposits during periods of fluctuating sea level between 4700 and 900 years BP, or to a lack of seaward accommodation space.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology (A community profile)

Author(s) :Debnath, H.S.

Source :Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; Dehra Dun (India); 2004; 133 pp.

Abstract :'Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and Ecology (A Community Profile)' is a concise descriptive overview of mangrove plants, with emphasis on the mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It deals with general features of mangroves, including physical conditions of mangrove formations, extent and distribution, community types, substrates and water quality, autecology, connections between mangrove, sea grass, coral reef ecosystems in the coastal zone, impact of climatic change and sea level rise on mangroves and management implication. Consideration is given to these physiological specializations that allow mangrove to grow in sea water and an assessment of the value of mangrove is also included. Large part of the volume is systematic survey of mangrove plants and mangrove associates of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This section covers the categorization, structure, taxonomic uses and identification.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Note on a rare coral fish Cheilinus undulatus (Ruppell, 1835)

Author(s) :Nair, R.J.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 46(2); 2004; 234-236.

Abstract :The Humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus (Ruppell, 1835), also known as Napoleon wrasse, is the biggest member of the family Labridae and a giant among reef fishes. Morphometric and meristic measurements are given. C. undulatus is protogynous; its natural history renders it highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. With its increasing demand in the LRFFT, there is urgent need to protect this fish by law.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Recruitment of epibenthic communities on artificial reefs in Tuticorin coastal waters, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Ramkumar, R.; Edward, J.K.P.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 46(1); 2004; 108-112.

Abstract :Recruitment of epibenthic organisms on artificial reefs deployed in different depths off Tuticorin coastal waters, Tamil Nadu, India was studied for a period of one year from June 2002 to May 2003. Algal mats were formed all over the modules and the epibenthic communities recruited included barnacles, sponges, hydroids, molluscs, echinoderms and ascidians. The percentage occurrence of organisms varied between the AR sites and was high on the modules deployed in the deeper area with particular domination by barnacles (55%). The studies indicate that the artificial reefs support a variety of faunal communities belonging to various ecological niches and make the area ecologically sound. The assemblage of epibenthic communities in different AR stations and their seasonal variations are discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :An introductory study on the biogeochemical features of the coral sediments of the Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Gopinath, A.; Kumar, N.C.; Nair, S.M.

Source :Indian J. Environ. Prot.: 24(2); 2004; 113-120.

Abstract :This paper reports the preliminary investigation made on the biogeochemical characteristics of the sedimentary environment of Minicoy Island located in Lakshadweep Archipelago. Considering the granulometric characteristics of coral sediments, stations with fine sand fractions (compraises organic carbon in low percentages) retained comparatively higher amount of total nitrogen. Whereas in the case of total phosphorus, an appreciable amount of total P was associated with coarse sand as it was bound with the shells and bones of organisms in the coral ecosystem; apart from the contribution from mineral phosphorus of the carbonate rich coral sediments. Thus, the higher accumulation of phosphorus fractions in the shells and bones of animals lead to low N : P as well as C : P ratio. The exceedingly higher concentration of calcium over sodium and potassium in the study area is reflected by the presence of coral fragments composed of calcium carbonate. Further, the predominantly sandy nature of sediments posses low retention capacity for organic carbon and organic matter.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Affinity and zoogeography of the gorgonid fauna off Gopalpul (orissa) coast (Bay of Bengal)

Author(s) :Thomas, P.A.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.

Source :Ecol. Environ. Conserv.: 10(3); 2004; 243-248.

Abstract :Collection of 25 species of gorgonids is reported for the first time from the newly found ridge reefs of Gopalpur coast (Orissa, India), Bav of Bengal between 25 m and 35 m isobaths. The gorgonids belonged to 6 families and I8 genera under two sub-orders of Order, Gorgonaceae. Holaxonian species (20) dominate over Scleraxonian species (4) and the family, Muriceidae Verrill represents 8 genera. The structure and composition of the major taxa and also the number of genera falling under the various families are in full agreement with those collected from any part of the Indo-Pacific

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Community organization of reef fishes in the live coral sub-habitat of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India

Author(s) :Anand, P.E.V.; Pillai, N.G.K.

Source :Indian J. Fish.: 51(1); 2004; 87-95.

Abstract :Data on the community organization of coral reef fishes of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India were collected during the period January 1991 to June 1992. Species were enumerated by visual census on the live coral sub-habitat for frequency of occurrence, abundance, composition, diversity, evenness and seasonal variation in community parameters. As the live coral zone was composed of a single species of ramose coral (Acropora formosa), only 14 families and 39 species of reef fishes made use of this zone, the community diversity being 1.84 and 3.16. Chaetodontids, labrids and pomacentrids were comparatively more abundant. Varying habitats of chaetodontids explain their restricted distribution. Live coral does not seem to be a preferred habitat of labrids. The occurrence of epinephelids was influenced by readily available prey. Most species among live coral were resident, variations resulted from factors affecting new recruits rather than habitat shifts.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Occurrence of reef associated fishes in Vellar Estuary, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Vasagam, K.P.K.; Rajkumar, M.

Source :Seshaiyana: 12(2); 2004; p. 13.

Abstract :The Vellar estuary (lat. 11 degrees 29 minutes N - long. 79 degrees 46 minutes E) supports traditional fisheries of the Parangipettai Coast. Many research reports, published earlier have information on the diversity of fishes in Vellar estuary. However, most of these only list common estuarine fishes, which have food value. No information is available regarding the reef associated fishes in this estuary except Acanthurus xanthopterus. The occurrence of reef fishes in Vellar estuary is presumably attributed to the presence of a coral reef in Parangipettai coastal waters. However the depth and extent of the reef is not known (Reef Base, 2000). Detailed study on diversity of fishes in this coral reef vis-a-vis reef fish diversity in Vellar estuary will add to your understanding of reef fish resource in Parangipettai waters

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Conservation of marine living resources of Andaman and Nicobar islands

Author(s) :Krishnamurthy, V.; Soundararajan, R.

Source :Large marine ecosystems: Exploration and exploitation for sustainable development and conservation of fish stocks. ed. by: Somvanshi, V.S.(Int. Symp. on Large Marine Ecosystems: Exploration and Exploitation for Sustainable Development and Conservation of Fish Stocks; Kochi (India); 25-27 Nov 1998). Fishery Survey of India; Mumbai (India); 2004; 499-506.

Abstract :Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which are oceanic, are very rich in biodiversity as they possess varied ecosystems like tropical rainforests, mangroves, tidal marshes, coral reefs, seagrass beds and other oceanic habitats. Each ecosystem has its own unique floral and faunal resources, which have evolved/developed over many centuries through remoteness and isolation. There are many records of endemism in territorial flora and fauna and eventhough endemism is not so pronounced in marine habitats, many marine organisms like blacklip pearl oyster, giant clams, gastropods like Trochus, Turbo, abalone, king and queen conches and many other species, sea cucumbers etc., which are of the commercial importance have special status in these islands as they are not so common in Indian mainland coast. The resource potential of these species has not been assessed properly and many species are selectively exploited, leading to over exploitation in some cases. In the absence of proper assessment and monitoring of status of resources, it is difficult to formulate appropriate strategies for conservation of the resources while exploiting them. Further, the ecosystems like mangroves and coral reefs, even though are extensive in these islands, are vulnerable to human impacts arising out of increased population and excessive dependence on these systems in limited areas. The present status of the vulnerable coastal ecosystems and the conservation strategies for their many exploited resources along with suggestions for sustainable exploitation of diversified under-exploited resources are presented in the paper.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Grouper fish resources of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Author(s) :Rajan, P.T.

Source :Large marine ecosystems: Exploration and exploitation for sustainable development and conservation of fish stocks. ed. by: Somvanshi, V.S.(Int. Symp. on Large Marine Ecosystems: Exploration and Exploitation for Sustainable Development and Conservation of Fish Stocks; Kochi (India); 25-27 Nov 1998). Fishery Survey of India; Mumbai (India); 2004; 340-347.

Abstract :A taxonomic study revealed 42 species of grouper fishes (Family : Serranidae, subfamily : Epinephelinae) from the Andaman and Nicobar waters. The study reports as many as 11 species for the first time from these islands including Epinephelus coindes, E. faveatus, E. macrospilos, E. polystigma, E. quoyanus, Plectropomus areolatus and Variola albimarginata which are new to the fauna of Indian coasts. Their habitats, fishery importance, prospects of cage culture etc. are discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Techniques and fishing methods employed for the assessment of fish stocks and their exploitation for sustainable development

Author(s) :Hameed, M.S.

Source :Large marine ecosystems: Exploration and exploitation for sustainable development and conservation of fish stock. ed. by: Somvanshi, V.S.(Int. Symp. on Large Marine Ecosystems: Exploration and Exploitation for Sustainable Development and Conservation of Fish Stocks; Kochi (India); 25-27 Nov 1998). Fishery Survey of India; Mumbai (India); 2004; 122-126.

Abstract :Assessment of potential resources in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone has been primarily based on scientific trawl surveys or derived from primary production estimates. While trawl surveys would continue to form an important tool in resource assessment, acoustic resource surveys integrated with gear sampling and environmental data (CTD; substratum) sampling, conducted synoptically with multiple vessels would improve speed, reliability and usefulness of the data sets in stock assessment. Important considerations should be apart from survey design and vessel requirements, development and adoption of standard sampling gear with known selectivity characteristics for demersal and pelagic resources to support the acoustic surveys; selection of acoustic equipment and signal processing system; development of protocols for equipment setting, data logging and system calibration. Attention has to be focused on ecosystem assessment and development of robust yield models appropriate for tropical resources systems. This would involve development and adoption of selective fishing gears which would minimize discards and non target bycatch; development and adoption of energy saving and eco-friendly fishing gears and practices, in addition to general fishery resource conservation and enhancement measures such as control of total fishing effort, area and seasonal closures, protection of nursery grounds, fish sanctuaries, fishing ground restriction, artificial reefs and fish aggregation devices. Recent advances in the detection of Potential Fishing Zones based on remote sensing and wider availability of Global Positioning System have provided opportunity to improve the catches with less effort.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Strides of CAS in coral reef research

Author(s) :Kannan, L.

Source :Seshaiyana: 12(1); 2004; 10-13.

Abstract :Coral reefs are tropical shallow water ecosystems, largely restricted to the seas between the latitudes 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S. Reefs protect the coastline against waves, prevent erosion and contribute to the formation of sandy beaches and sheltered harbours. Biodiversity of such coral reef ecosystems in unique in embracing a plethora of flora and fauna. The Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University has carried out studies on many interesting aspects from microbes to pollution in the coral reef environments of the east coast of India in the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay and Great Nicobar island.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Microbial diversity: An ignored aspect

Author(s) :Duraisamy, A.; Kathiresan, K.; Rajendran, N.

Source :Seshaiyana: 12(1); 2004; 1-6.

Abstract :Microbial diversity comprises of a wide range of microbes, exhibiting far greater diversity than any other living organisms of the world. This rich diversity is due to existence of microbes in all niches where life is possible, including many extreme environments in which no other life can exist: high temperatures (80-110 degrees C), high salinity (e.g. the dead sea, greater than 320 g/l), high pressure (deep ocean greater than 600 atm), very acid (below pH 2) and extreme cold (e.g. crypto-endoliths in Antarctica, which photosynthesize at -8 degrees C). Only is less than5% of microbial species have been discovered and named (Hawksworth, 1991) and in many cases their ecological and biogeochemical roles are unclear. Hundreds of species of fungi (even at a single site and by bacteria of several genera) are involved in decomposition of lignin (Meyer, 1993). These can occur in succession and may attack different lignocellulose bonds. Some transformations, such as nitrification and sulphate reduction require multiple groups to complete the process (ammonium oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers, sulphate reducers and sulphur reducers, respectively). However, microbial diversity and its role in ecology is poorly understood and hence has greatly been underestimated especially in the marine environment. Hence, a serious attention is highly warranted to acquire better understanding of microbial diversity in the present context of knowledge of biodiversity and its conservation receiving great attention all over the world.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral bleaching - Problems and remedies

Author(s) :Sarkar, S.K.; Banerjee, K.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 12(3); 2004; 487-495.

Abstract :Coral reef is a very vibrant ecosystem and nurtures a wide array of flora and fauna resulting a high biological productivity. Existing coral reefs have been formed since the last of three glacial periods in the Pleistocene epoch, 10,000 years ago. Coral reefs of the world have continued to decline since the previous GCRMN report in 1998. Assessments to late 2000 are that 27% of the world's reefs have been effectively lost, with the largest single cause being the massive climate-related coral bleaching event of 1998. This destroyed about 16% of the coral reefs of the world in 9 months during the largest El Nino and La Nina climate changes ever recorded. Unprecedented coral bleaching throughout the Southern Hemisphere during the first half of 1998 and similar are expected in the Northern Hemisphere. Data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationÆs satellites show that during the first half of 1998, more ocean area in the tropics experienced exceptionally high sea surface temperatures or 'hot spots' than observed in any full year since 1982. An increase of just one or two degrees above the usual maximum temperatures can be deadly to these animals. During the El Nino of 1982-83, large areas of coral reef around the world were severely damaged by high water temperatures associated with coral bleaching. Approximately 50 countries have reported coral bleaching since 1997. While many corals normally recover from short bleaching events, long-term or frequent bleaching may severely weaken the corals leaving them more vulnerable to disease, damage or death.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :An approach to island development

Author(s) :Sharma, M.K.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 12(3); 2004; 469-486.

Abstract :Island have long conjured up images of ôparadiseö, but increasingly their azure lagoons, coral reefs and lush rain forests are tainted by signs of stress. As island societies strive to raise living standards for growing numbers of people and struggle to survive in a complex global economy, they often sacrifice the fragile ecosystem, which are among their most valuable assets. International assistance is need to help island reverse this trend.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Degradation of coral reefs in gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India - With special reference to land use/land cover changes: A remote sensing and GIS approach

Author(s) :Thanikachalam, M.; Ramachandran, S.

Source :Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004). Proceedings. eds. by: Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; JayaKumar, S.(3. Indian Natl. Conf. on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004); NIO, Goa (India); 7-9 Dec 2004). National Institute of Oceanography; Dona Paula, Goa (India): 2; 2004; 587-598.

Abstract :Coral reef and land use/land cover maps were prepared using multi-date remote sensing data to assess the current status and changes of coral reefs and land use/land cover in Gulf of Mannar. The changes in land use/land cover indicate that the major changes occurred in crop land, fallow land, agriculture plantation, forest plantation, scrub land, sandy area and tanks. Data also reveals a reduction of 25.52 km in coral reef lost over a period of ten years, due to changing land use/land cover and other anthropogenic activities along Gulf Mannar coast. This study also reveals that in Gulf of Mannar, nearly 67.2% of the corals were dead, 13.1% coral reefs are directly removed by coral mining and remaining 19.6% were live corals.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Influence of crest width on hydraulic performance of submerged reef

Author(s) :Shirlal, K.G.; Rao, S.; Ganesh, V.

Source :Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004). Proceedings. eds. by: Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; JayaKumar, S.(3. Indian Natl. Conf. on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004); NIO, Goa (India); 7-9 Dec 2004). National Institute of Oceanography; Dona Paula, Goa (India): 1; 2004; 73-80.

Abstract :In the present experimental investigation, an attempt has been made to study the hydraulic performance of a submerged reef of height. The reef, which is a homogeneous pile of armour units without a core, breaks the steeper waves and dissipate a major portion of their energy. The wider reef can decrease the wave transmission further. This paper investigates the influence of varying reef crest width on the wave transmission at the submerged reef breakwater.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Padal fishing - A unique fishing method in the Ashtamudi Estuary of Kerala (south India)

Author(s) :Thomas, J.V.; Kurup, B.M.

Source :NAGA, WorldFish Cent. Q.: 27(3-4); 2004; 24-27.

Abstract :Bush park fi shing / padal fishing is an indigenous fishing method widely employed in the Ashtamudi estuary of Kerala (south India). An artificial reef made from twigs and leaves of trees is planted in the shallow areas of the estuary. The aim is to harvest fish that find shelter in these structures for the purpose of feeding and breeding. Though the State Department of Fisheries has banned this method of fishing in the inland waters of Kerala, 400 padals are operating in this estuary. About 300 of them are anchored in the western parts of the estuary (west Kayal). Fish are harvested in the padals at monthly intervals almost round the year and this results in the destruction of a sizeable quantity of juveniles and sub-adults of the commercially important fishes, such as Pearl spot and mullets, from the estuary. These padals pose a major threat to the sustainability of the fishery resources of this estuary and, therefore, need to be phased out by providing alternative occupations for the fishermen who are dependant on the padals.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reefs and their management in Tanzania

Author(s) :Wagner, G.M.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. 'Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources'; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 3(2); 2004; 227-243.

Abstract :Coral reefs are very important in Tanzania, both ecologically and socio-economically, as major fishing grounds and tourist attractions. Numerous fringing and patch reefs are located along about two-thirds of TanzaniaÆs coastline. These reefs have been partially to severely degraded by human (primarily destructive fishing practices) and natural (particularly coral bleaching) causes. These immediate human causes have been brought about by various socio-economic root causes, particularly poverty and lack of proper management. After decades of human and natural impacts there has been only limited reef recovery. This paper presents a region-by-region analysis of trends in the condition of coral reefs in Tanzania in relation to the causes of damage. While earlier approaches to management were aimed at non-use of coral reefs in marine protected areas (seldom achieved), recent approaches have aimed at integrated coastal management (ICM) (whether in programs or conservation areas), where zonation into core protected areas and multiple-use areas is based on participatory decision-making involve fishing communities and other stakeholders. Some management initiatives also involve communities in reef monitoring, restoration and ecotourism. This paper examines the management approaches and strategies implemented by various ICM programs, conservation areas and marine parks in Tanzania. It also provides recommendations for further research and coral reef management strategies

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Participatory mapping of terrestrial fishery resources in Kwala District, Kenya

Author(s) :Kimani, P.; Obura, D.

Source :(3. Scientific Symp. 'Promoting Marine Science for Management in Eastern Africa: Multi/trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources'; Maputo; Mozambique; 15-18 Oct 2003). West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 3(2); 2004; 209-220.

Abstract :A participatory mapping study was conducted in Kinondo location of Kwale district in Kenya. The area is subject to high human population and development pressure in the north, where tourism and urban development is intense, compared to lower population pressure in the south where such development is low. Our focus was to document information about these resources that have maintained fishing for many generations and to address issues of their conservation and management. The study focused on the spatial arrangement, access, ownership and use of land-based resources, mainly shrubs, grasses and trees, at four landing sites along the north-south population gradient. Participatory techniques (sketch maps, livelihood diagrams and transect walks) were applied, where trained fishers led other fishers in mapping, and the local Digo language was used for recording names. Resources were arranged in distinct vegetation zones parallel to the beach. A north-south increase in resource availability and abundance was recorded, inversely related to the higher population pressure in the north compared to the south. While much of the land on which vegetation resources are located was publicly accessible, a significant part is owned by absentee landlords, concentrated in the north. This over time results in increasingly restricted access to resources by fishermen, as shown in the more developed, northern section of the study site. Fishers also experience problems with access routes to landing sites on the beach due to encroachment on routes by beachfront development. The mapping activity revealed the potential for conflict over resource access and the need for solutions to maintain fishersÆ access to terrestrial resources important for fishing

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Spatial and temporal distribution of reef fish spawning aggregations in the Seychelles - An interview-based survey of Artisanal fishers

Author(s) :Robinson, J.; Isidore, M.; Marguerite, M.A.; Ohman, M.C.; Payet, R.J.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 3(1); 2004; 63-69.

Abstract :Many coral reef fish species aggregate at specific times and locations for the purpose of spawning. This study examined the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning aggregations in the Seychelles. An interview-based survey of the principal stakeholders, mainly artisanal fishers, yielded 89 reports of aggregation fishing for 26 demersal and semi-pelagic fish species. Grouper aggregations were largely concentrated in the outer coralline islands of the exclusive economic zone, whilst those of snappers and rabbitfishes were mainly reported from locations on the Seychelles Bank. The spatial patterns among fish families were attributed to a combination of differences in species abundance and distribution as well as variation in fishing effort. Spawning periodicity by fishers indicated that for snappers and rabbitfishes, the most activity occurred across a protracted period of October to April/May, with peaks in activity at either end of that period. Grouper spawning activity was concentrated in the northeast monsoon months of November to January. The findings of this study suggest that several spawning aggregations are targeted by fishers on a regular basis, a practice that constitutes a primary issue for artisanal fisheries research and management in the Seychelles

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Changing fisheries practices and their socioeconomic implications in South Coast Kenya

Author(s) :Ochiewo, J.

Source :(3. WIOMSA Scientific Symp. on Advances in Marine Science in Eastern Africa: Multi / Trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; Oct 2003 ). Ocean Coast. Manage.: 47(7-8); 2004; 389-408.

Abstract :A study conducted in South Coast, Kenya to determine the factors that influence the harvesting of fish in the area, assess the changes that have occurred in local fishing practices and their socioeconomic impacts; establish stakeholder characteristics in relation to changing fishing practices; and identify the winners and losers in the changing fisheries management regimes. Information and data were collected from four sites, namely Vanga, Shimoni, Msambweni and Gazi. It was established that changing, fishing practices in the area have led to over-exploitation of the fish stocks from the coral reefs. Regression analysis of the data indicated a significant inverse relationship between fish harvesting rate and price. This is inconsistent with the theory of production, which predicts output to increase with increase in price. In the study area, when the price of fish is low, fishermen tend to spend more hours per day fishing in order to compensate for the lost income due to price decrease. This results in over-fishing within the coral reef. Similarly, the output has a significant inverse relationship with distance to the fishing ground. There is a significant positive relationship between effort and output; when fishing effort increases by one unit, output increases by 0.43 units in weight. The other explanatory variables, particularly income, education and age, have a positive but insignificant relationship with output; the adjusted R sup(2) is 0.714, which means that these variables explain 71%of the variation in output. From the estimation of a transformed log ûlog model, the results obtained are consistent with the estimates of the original model.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Evaluating a marine protected area in a developing country: Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania

Author(s) :Kamukuru, A.T.; Mgaya, Y.D.; Oehman, M.C.

Source :(3. WIOMSA Scientific Symp. on Advances in Marine Science in Eastern Africa: Multi / Trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; Oct 2003 ). Ocean Coast. Manage.: 47(7-8); 2004; 321-337.

Abstract :The benefits of marine protected areas (MPAs) to fish productivity remain debated, and comprehensive research projects have been suggested to assess MPA function. This study evaluated MPA performance in a developing country in the context of local needs. Density and size of the blackspot snapper, Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskal 1775), in Mafia Island Marine Park (MIMP), Tanzania is compared with adjacent intensively fished areas (IFA) using underwater visual censuses (a total of 105,50-m transects) as well as investigating the catches in the local fishery. The target species was over four times more numerous, its biomass six to ten times higher and individual sizes on an average 37% larger on reefs in MIMP compared to the IFA. Fish numbers and biomass were negatively correlated with fishing intensity and positively correlated with hard coral cover and structural complexity. This study supports predictions that MPAs can play a key role in the conservation of habitats and management of a fishery. It is suggested that for the purpose of management, it is possible to evaluate MPA performance with limited resources by focusing on key information.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Collaborative coastal management improves coral reefs and fisheries in Tanga,Tanzania

Author(s) :Verheij, E.; Makoloweka, S.; Kalombo, H.

Source :(3. WIOMSA Scientific Symp. on Advances in Marine Science in Eastern Africa: Multi / Trans-disciplinary Research for Improved Management of Resources; Maputo; Mozambique; Oct 2003 ). Ocean Coast. Manage.: 47(7-8); 2004; 309-320.

Abstract :This paper describes the impact of 8 years of collaborative coastal management in the three coastal districts of Tanga region, northeastern Tanzania. Declining fish catches, destructive fishing practices, including dynamite fishing, and illegal mangrove cutting were the priority environmental issues. Through a participatory approach, six collaborative management areas were delineated. Each of the collaborative management areas has its own collaborative management area plan (CMAP), which is jointly implemented by the communities and the District Council. The joint management efforts include the closure of reefs for replenishment, enforcement and monitoring. Monitoring of the impact of the management interventions is carried out by a reef monitoring team comprised of villagers, and is co-ordinated by district staff. Since the implementation of the CMAPs, dynamite fishing has significantly declined and coastal marine resources have recovered.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Albian limestone building algae of Cauvery Basin, South India

Author(s) :Misra, P.K.; Rajanikanth, A.; Jauhri, A.K.; Kishore, S.; Singh, S.K.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 87(11); 2004; 1516-1518.

Abstract :The present communication deals with the calcareous algal assemblage of the Kallakudi Limestone, Uttatur Group, Ariyalur-Pondicherry Sub-basin of the Cauvery Basin. Eight species of calcareous algae (red and green) - Parachaetetes asvapattii, Sporolithon sp., Lithothamnion sp., Lithophyllum sp., Pseudoamphiroa propria, Neomeris cretaceae, Salpingoporella verticelata and Agardioliopsis cretaceae are reported in the present study. Among these eight species, two, i.e. P. propria and S. verticilata have not been reported earlier from the Indian succession. Occurrence of the former in the Alpine Carpathian and the latter in the western Carpathian is known. Although species such as Lithophyllum sp., P. asvapattii, N. cretacea and A. cretaceae were known from other sequences in South India, the present report from the Kallakudi Lime stone is significant. Among the eight species, two belong to family Dasycladaceae, phylum Chlorophyta; and six belong to four families of the phylum Rhodophyta (Solenoporaceae, Sporolithaceae, Corallinaceae, Solieriaceae). Corallinaceae is dominant in the studied assemblage, whereas Solieriaceae is rarely represented.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A record of live corals along the Saurashtra coast of Gujarat, Arabian Sea

Author(s) :Raghunathan, C.; SenGupta, R.; Wangikar, U.; Lakhmapurkar, J.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 87(8); 2004; 1131-1138.

Abstract :The occurrence of live corals along the Saurashtra coast of Gujarat, India was recorded. Five species of corals, viz. Gorgonium sp., Polycyathus verrilli, Porites lutea, Tubastrea aurea and Turbinaria crater were recorded from four different places along this coast. The mean numerical density of polyps comprising all species ranged from 53 to 500/m sup(2) and their biomass 195 to 1000 g/m sup(2). Among the different physico-chemical parameters of sea water analysed from the study area, the total suspended solids steadily increased from dwarka to Mahuva. It registered 305 mg/l for the former and 763 mg/l for the latter respectively. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons showed higher value (23.28 mu g/l) at Veraval and lower value (9.38 mu g/l) at Mahuva. The primary and secondary productivities of the coastal waters from the study region were also estimated. The phytoplankton cell count ranged from 14.59 x 10 sup(2)/l at Mahuva to 75.8 x 10 sup(2)/l at Diu, whereas zooplankton numerical density varied between 7288 and 15,600/100 m sup(3) at Dwarka and Diu respectively. Coral-associated macrobenthic fauna from the Saurashtra coast were predominantly predatory gastropods, which may cause severe pressure to these coral communities. This study suggests the possibility for the existence of coral reefs along the sub-tidal region of this coast.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A survey of bivalve molluscs along north Andhra coast

Author(s) :Pramod, G.; Maruthi, Ch.S.S.K.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 12(1); 2004; 145-153.

Abstract :A study 54 of species of bivalve molluscs, collected from sandy and rocky littoral shores during the period 2002-2003, shows that the North Andhra Coast has a rich diversity of bivalve species in near shore waters and sheltered backwaters, creeks and estuaries. The bivalve fauna is of moderate diversity and shows distribution in relation to depth, substrate type and local physical factors.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands - Their ecosystems and strategies for development and conservation

Author(s) :Verma, M.C.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 12(1); 2004; 88-102.

Abstract :Small islands, with their unique ecosystems, have problems of survival relating not only to the fragility of the immediate environment, but also economic and even social fragility on account of limited population. The Indian subcontinent has two major groups of such islands, the A&N Islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. Recent scientific evidence on global warming or rise in sea levels has shown that the environmental fragility is specially visible and alarming in the case of coral islands of Lakshadweep group. Problems of the existing population, to sustain their life style, are quite serious even in respect of economic viability, education, health care, social care, employment in local industries, agriculture, services, etc., and in keeping sustainability of the existing life style inherited from their fore-fathers. The A&N Islands have much more physical, geographical and mineral resources, and have larger levels of population. Therefore, the problems of sustainability of this group of islands are slightly less serious. However, from the security considerations at various levels, the Central Government, in its own larger interests, has to give more subsidy to the islanders of both the groups. The world experience suggests that poorly administered or neglected groups of islands can become safe havens for all kinds of notorious activities including the new terrorism.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A new oxygenated tricyclic sesquiterpene from a soft coral of Nephthea species of Anadman and Nicobar coasts of Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Rao, Ch.B.; Sekhar, V.C.; Sarvani, B.; Rao, D.V.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B Org. Med.): 43(6); 2004; 1329-1331.

Abstract :A new oxygenated tricyclic sesquiterpene, 1alpha-hydroxy-(+)-cyclocolorenone 2, together with (+)-cyclocolorenone 1, has been isolated from a soft coral of Nephthea species from Andaman and Nicobar coasts of Indian Ocean. Their structures are deduced by using high resolution spectral data.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A field guide to stony corals (Scleractinia) of Tuticorin in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Edward, J.K.P.; Patterson, J.; Venkatesh, M.; Mathews, G.; Chellaram, C.; Wilhelmsson, D.

Source :(SDMRI Res. Publ.). Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute; Tuticorin (India): 4; 2004; 89 pp.

Abstract :An attempt is made to document the available fauna. Total of 53 species belonging to 22 genera recorded by SCUBA diving in and around Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu, India) are discussed here. Investigation of the line as well as possibility of culturing corals to strengthen eco-development is undertaken. This field guide will be a valuable document for future researchers in the area.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Princes Royal û Excavation of ancient shipwreck in the Arabian Sea

Author(s) :Tripathi, A.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 86(9); 2004; 1246-1250.

Abstract :A historic shipwreck lying on the outer slope of coral reef, in a depth of 9-54 m, with abundance and diversity of objects of archaeological significance, off Bangaram Island in the Arabian Sea was identified for archaeological excavation. A large number of artifacts of iron, copper, stone, wood, glass, pottery, bricks, etc. were identified lying on the slope. Six trenches in the southern sector and two trenches in deeper depths were excavated. A large number of bricks, pieces of brown glazed thick storage jars, pieces of wood, corroded and cemented parts of the ship, copper vessels, shard of porcelain, pottery with embossed design, complete brown glazed pots, green glazed shard, bowl, etc. were retrieved from the trenches. One of the cannons was also lifted. The anchor of the ship is lying in 40 m depth. The entire hull was covered with a thin sheet of copper to protect the hull from woodborers. Excavated material evidence suggests it was a sailing ship of last quarter of 18th century. A bronze bell recovered from the site was inscribed with the name and date of the ship. It can be concluded that the bronze bell inscribed with Princes Royal û 1792 belongs to this ship. Archaeological evidence excavated from the wreck site corroborated with historic documents will shed light on the maritime history and trade in the Indian Ocean.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Shipwreck archaeology of Goa: Evidence of maritime contacts with other countries

Author(s) :Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 86(9); 2004; 1238-1245.

Abstract :Shipwrecks contain clues to our maritime heritage. The shipwreck history of Goa is as old as the maritime history, which dates back to 2nd century BC. However, information on shipwrecks prior to the Portuguese period in Goa waters is not available. The NIO, Goa, India has been exploring shipwrecks in the Sunchi Reef and the St George's Reef off Goa since 1989. The findings of the Sunchi Reef include a brass barrel of a handgun, Chinese ceramic, Martaban pottery, bases of glass bottles, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, lead pipe, rectangular and square stone bricks (?) and dressed granite stone blocks. Exploration off the St GeorgeÆs Reef has brought to light the remains of a shipwreck containing various types of artefacts such as bricks, tiles, drum, capital, etc, intended for house construction. The Sunchi shipwreck findings are further compared with other Portuguese shipwreck findings found elsewhere in the world. The findings of the St GeorgeÆs Reef show the trade contact of the Basel Mission Company with other parts of the world and its impact on people of coastal Karnataka, West Coast of India.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Molecula identification of bacteria associated with the coral reef ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar marine biosphere reserve using rRNA sequences

Author(s) :Babu, T.G.; Nithyanand, P.; Kannapiran, E.; Ravi, A.V.; Pandian, S.K.

Source :Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research, January 22-23, 2004 - Supplement. eds. by: Abidi, S.A.H.; Ravindran, M.; Venkatesan, R.; Vijayakumaran, M.(Natl. Semin. on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 22-23 Jan 2004). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2004; 47-53.

Abstract :With an objective of identifying the bacterial diversity associated with coral reef ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, bacteria were isolated from the coral tissues. Isolates exhibiting different morphological features were selected for molecular identification. Nine isolates exhibited differences in morphological features and these bacteria were subjected to molecular identification. 16S rRNA genes were successfully amplified from the genome of the selected isolates using Universal Eubacterial 16S rRNA primers. The resulted amplification products were subjected to Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using Hinfl to identify different polymorphic groups among amplicons. The ARDRA analysis revealed five different polymorphic groups. Based on the results of ARDRA analysis, 16S rDNA amplicons of the five representative strains were subjected to automated DNA sequencing. Partial 16S rDNA sequences obtained were compared directly with sequences in the NCBI database using BLAST as well as with the sequences available with Ribosomal Database Project (RDP). The sequence analysis revealed that four isolates belong to the Bacillus sp and the fifth one being Enterobacter cloacae.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Conservation and management of coral reef ecosystems of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands

Author(s) :Venkataraman, K.

Source :Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research, January 22-23, 2004 - Supplement. eds. by: Abidi, S.A.H.; Ravindran, M.; Venkatesan, R.; Vijayakumaran, M.(Natl. Semin. on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 22-23 Jan 2004). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2004; 21-45.

Abstract :In the mainland coast of India, the coral reefs are distributed along the east and west coasts at restricted places however fringing and barrier reefs are found in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and atoll reefs are found in Lakshadweep. With expanding coastal populations, small islands such as Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep are finding that their coral reef areas, which formerly they had been taken for granted, are becoming less available for their use and enjoyment. This is leading to conflicts over access and recreation, traditional uses, sea defenses and pollution. The reefs resources of islands in general have traditionally been a major source of food for local inhabitants and of major economic value in terms of commercial exploitation. There are millions of poor fishers whose livelihood depends mainly on coral reefs. Coral reefs provide up to 25% of all the fisheries harvested and 75% of animal protein consumed. Thus, the aspect of coral reefs is significant to the livelihood and social welfare of island communities. In recent days, a lot of construction and developmental activities are going on in many areas of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Construction of Jetty, road and buildings needs a lot of sand material. Sand mining is the major activity that leads to destruction of coral reefs in many islands in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. Collection of coral reef associates such as Trochus and other shells as well as other reef resources are also causing damage. Invasion of crown of those starfish (Acanthaster planchi) and white band disease are reported in many reefs in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Other than bleaching, the main causes for the loss of reef biodiversity are coral mining, dredging of navigational channels, unsustainable fishing practices, coastal development activities, souvenir collection and other population associated pressures. This paper discuss the importance of coral reefs biological diversity of the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the increasing major threats faced by these fragile ecosystem, the conservation measures taken by the government of India and major gaps in the conservation measures.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The fishery, trade and conservation of seahorses along the Indian coast

Author(s) :Salin, K.R.; Yohannan, T.M.; Nair, C.M.

Source :Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research, January 22-23, 2004. eds. by: Abidi, S.A.H.; Ravindran, M.; Venkatesan, R.; Vijayakumaran, M.(Natl. Semin. on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 22-23 Jan 2004). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2004; 513-526.

Abstract :Seahorses are among the most unusual fishes in existence, and are intended primarily for medicine rather than food. An organised fishery and trade of seahorses existed in India along the Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar coasts. At the Palk Bay coast, seahorses are targeted by divers along with sea cucumbers and chanks. In the Gulf of Mannar, which provides a less suitable habitat, most of the seahorses are landed as by-catch of shrimp trawling. Seahorses are also fished from Kerala as a by-catch of trawling, though there exists no organised fishery and trade. A total of six species of seahorses were identified from the Palk Bay coast whereas only two species were obtained from Kerala. Most seahorses from India were exported to Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia and UAE from Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The volume of dried seahorse trade from India was estimated to be 9.75 MT as derived from the catch data in 2001, which was much higher than the official MPEDA statistics of 4.34 MT exported from India during 2001-02, underlying the fact that a lionÆs share of the exports might be through non-conventional means and had gone undeclared. Seahorses are vulnerable to degradation of their preferred sea grass, mangrove and coral reef habitats, apart from fishing. A holistic approach, based on a detailed study of the population dynamics of seahorses that is integrated with coastal zone protection measures and the known strategies of fisheries management, is critically important to conserve the seahorses

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A study on the gorgonid bed off Chennai and its qualitative appraisal

Author(s) :Rajalakshmi, S.; George, R.M.

Source :Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research, January 22-23, 2004. eds. by: Abidi, S.A.H.; Ravindran, M.; Venkatesan, R.; Vijayakumaran, M.(Natl. Semin. on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 22-23 Jan 2004). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2004; 487-499.

Abstract :Gorgonian corals or horny corals are common tropical and subtropical octocorallian cnidarians having biomedical importance. This group includes the sea fans, sea feathers and sea whips. The discovery of prostaglandins and other natural products from gorgonids triggered off a worldwide hunt for this chemically rich animals. The present paper describes the status of taxonomy of seven species collected from the Kovalam shore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. They are referable to three families and five genera. Species such as Echinomuricea indica Thomson and Simpson, Gorgonella umbraculum (Ellis and Solander) and Pseudothesea pallida (Nutting) forms the mainstay of Kovalam waters, off Chennai. Detailed descriptions of all species, their classification, distribution, size attained, etc. are presented in this paper with sketches of spicular complements of species of biomedical applications to facilitate easy identification.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A preliminary study on the biodiversity potential of marine organisms containing bioactive compounds in the south and middle Andaman regions

Author(s) :Balajee, B.; Karthikayalu, S.; Mercy, P.S.; Nazar, A.K.; Kirubagaran, R..; Venkatesan, R.; Yogeeswaran, G.; Ravindran, M.

Source :Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research, January 22-23, 2004. eds. by: Abidi, S.A.H.; Ravindran, M.; Venkatesan, R.; Vijayakumaran, M.(Natl. Semin. on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 22-23 Jan 2004). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2004; 479-486.

Abstract :In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the distribution of marine flora and fauna containing bioactive compounds around Andaman and Nicobar islands in the Bay of Bengal. For this purpose, five sampling sites were selected in the South and Middle Andaman regions. The locations include North Bay, South Point, Chidiatappu and Havelock Island in the South Andaman and Rangat in the Middle Andaman. Meticulous attention was given not to sample any of the species listed in the Scheduleû1st of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Sampling sites were selected and identified upto the accuracy of plus or minus 10 m using a handheld GPS. The sampling sites were about 0.5 km from the shore in North Bay and South Point, less than 0.5 km in Rangat, about 1.0 km in Chidiatappu and 1.5-2.0 km in Havelock Island. Except in North Bay, sampling was done in low tide at all locations. Sampling was done by SCUBA diving upto a depth of 12 metres at all locations except at Rangat, where samples were collected in low tide by hand picking. Abundance of organisms was calculated on the basis of mean distribution per sq.m. area. In North Bay, soft coral was found to be the dominant species, while in South Point and Chidiatappu algal species dominated the zone. Amm Kunj beach in Rangat serves as the rich ground for seaweeds especially for Sargassum sp. This study concludes that there is richness in the species and the marine biodiversity, thus offers great potential to explore for the bioactive compounds in South and Middle Andaman regions.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Conservation strategy for Andaman and Nicobar Islands ecosystem

Author(s) :Sundaramoorthy, T.; Badrinath, P.S.; Kumar, L.P.

Source :Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research, January 22-23, 2004. eds. by: Abidi, S.A.H.; Ravindran, M.; Venkatesan, R.; Vijayakumaran, M.(Natl. Semin. on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 22-23 Jan 2004). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2004; 237-246.

Abstract :The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are known for their forest, mangrove and marine ecosystems. Mangroves occupy about 10% of the land area. This serves as a spawning and breeding ground for fish, prawns and lobsters. The marine ecosystem has a tremendous variety of species of phytoplankton, marine invertebrates, and vertebrates. The continental shelf along the Andaman Sea is narrow and slopes down to great depths. The seas around the islands contain a variety of organisms such as dolphins, dugongs, sea turtles, starfish, and many more marine organisms. The islands also have the most diverse and largest spatial cover of coral reefs. They are home to a wide variety of plants and animals. Large scale destruction of mangroves for fuel and development activities, deforestation along the coastal regions and its consequent soil erosion, sand mining, encroachments, tourism, excessive fishing with the usage of mechanized boasts, trawlers, increased use of pesticides for agriculture and extensive bleaching have affected the island ecosystem, particularly the marine species and coral reefs. These problems are mainly due to the lack of enforcement and implementation of environmental laws such as Coastal Regulation Zone notification etc., besides lack of environmental awareness amongst the people. This paper aims to focus on the problems of the unique marine ecosystems in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The modalities of implementation of the Coastal Regulation Zone provisions and other environmental laws for the protection of marine ecosystem and a joint strategy for environmental education and awareness are also explored. The paper also puts forth a conservation strategy for Andaman and Nicobar Island marine ecosystems calling forth a multi-pronged stakeholder approach involving the Government agencies, voluntary organizations and individuals.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of soft coral extracts on isolated tissues

Author(s) :PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.

Source :Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research, January 22-23, 2004. eds. by: Abidi, S.A.H.; Ravindran, M.; Venkatesan, R.; Vijayakumaran, M.(Natl. Semin. on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai (India); 22-23 Jan 2004). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2004; 41-45.

Abstract :Methanolic extracts of eleven species of soft corals collected from Lakshwadeep islands in the Arabian Sea and Mandapam in the east coast of India were tested for their antispasmodic, antiarrhythmic and oxytocic activity on guinea pig ileum, atrium and uterus respectively. Lobophytum schoedei caused a decrease in nictotine induced contration. L. denticulatum and Sinularia leptoclados caused a dose-dependent decrease in all spasmogens tested (acetylcholine, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, nicotine and barium chloride). Cladiella pachyclados and C. kremfi collected from Kalpeni and Kadamath Islands showed difference in activity. None of the soft corals exhibited any anti-arrhythmic property on guinea pig atrium.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :ENSO and Indian Ocean subtropical dipole variability is recorded in a coral record off southwest Madagascar for the period 1659 to 1995

Author(s) :Zinke, J.; Dullo, W.-C.; Heiss, G.A.; Eisenhauer, A.

Source :Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett.: 228(1-2); 2004; 177-194.

Abstract :The Ifaty coral record from off SW Madagascar provide a 336-year coral oxygen isotope record that is used to investigate the natural variability of the western Indian Ocean subtropical SST dipole and ENSO. The coral oxygen isotope record primarily reflects past sea-surface temperature (SST) variability on seasonal to multidecadal scales. To validate the SST reconstructions derived from oxygen isotopes, Sr/Ca ratios were obtained for selected time windows (1973-1995, 1863-1910, 1784-1809, 1688-1710). The period 1675-1760 was found to be the coolest period of the entire record with anomalies of 0.3-0.5 degrees C that includes the Late Maunder Minimum (1675-1710). The warmest periods, as indicated by our data, occur between 1880 and 1900 and the upper part of the Ifaty record (1973-1995). A time series of coral delta sup(18) O is generated for different seasons of the year to investigate austral winter and summer SST variability that influences rainfall intensity over southern Africa. Winter coral delta sup(18) O is coherent with winter SST on decadal and multidecadal time scales between 1854 and 1995. It is suggested that the Ifaty winter time series provides a record of winter SST variability over the Mozambique Channel/Agulhas Current region over 336 years. Strong Indian Ocean subtropical dipole events, occurring during austral summer, are displayed in the Ifaty record. The austral summer coral delta sup(18) O is coherent and in phase with ENSO indices on interannual time scales (2-4 years) between 1880-1920, 1930-1940 and after 1970. The data indicate that the impact of ENSO on SW Indian Ocean SST and atmospheric circulation was also strong between 1680-1720 and 1760-1790, in agreement with other studies. The evidence shows that these variations are caused by changes in the regional hydrologic balance. The results demonstrate that the impact of ENSO cycles in the region of the SW Indian Ocean has changed significantly since 1970 and relate to a warming of southwestern Indian Ocean surface waters altering the spatial signature of ENSO.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :New C sub(21) Delta sup(20) pregnanes, inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain,from Indopacific octocoral Carijoa sp.

Author(s) :Ciavatta, M.L.; Gresa, M.P.L.; Manzo, E.; Gavagnin, M.; Wahidullah, S.; Cimino, G.

Source :Tetrahedron Lett.: 45(41); 2004; 7745-7748.

Abstract :Two new compounds, pregnanes 1 and 2, the known pregnane 3 and a series of known chlorinated prostanoids (4-9) have been isolated from the Indian octocoral Carijoa sp. Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly by 1D and 2D NMR. The new compounds were potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diagenetic effects on the distribution of uranium in live and Holocene corals from the Gulf of Aqaba

Author(s) :Lazar, B.; Enmar, R.; Schossberger, M.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Halicz, L.; Stein, M.

Source :Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta(22); 2004; 4583-4593.

Abstract :The effects of diagenetic alteration (dissolution, secondary aragonite precipitation and pore filling) on the distribution of U in live and Holocene coral skeletons are investigated. For this, we drilled into large Porites lutea coral-heads growing in the Nature Reserve Reef (NRR), northern Gulf of Aqaba, a site close to the Marine Biology Laboratory, Elat, Israel, and sampled the core material and porewater from the drill-hole. In addition, Holocene corals and beachrock aragonite cements are sampled from a pit opened in a reef buried under the laboratory grounds. The concentration and isotopic composition of U in the coral skeletal aragonite, aragonite cements, coral porewater and open NRR and Gulf of Aqaba waters measured. Uranium concentration in secondary aragonite filling the skeletal pores is significantly higher than in primary biogenic aragonite (17.3 plus or minus 0.6 compared to 11.9 plus or minus 0.3 nmol g sup(-1), respectively). This concentration difference reflects the closed system incorporation of uranyl tri-carbonate into biogenic aragonite with a U/Ca bulk distribution coefficient (K sub(D)) of unity, versus the open system incorporation into secondary aragonite with K sub(D) of 2.4. The implication of this result is that continuous precipitation of secondary aragonite over approx. 1000 yr of reef submergence would reduce the coral porosity by 5% and can produce an apparent lowering of the calculated U/Ca - SST by approx. 1 degrees C and apparent age rejuvenation effect of 7%, with no measurable effect on the calculated initial U isotopic composition. All modern and some Holocene corals (with and without aragonite cement) from Elat yielded uniform delta sup(234) U=144 plus or minus 5, similar to the Gulf of Aqaba and modern ocean values. Elevated delta sup(234) U values of approx. 180 were measured only in mid-Holocene corals (approx. 5000 yr) from the buried reef. The values can reflect the interaction of the coral skeleton with delta sup(234) U-enriched ground-seawater that washes the adjacent granitic basement rocks. It is concluded that pore filling by secondary aragonite during reef submergence can produce small but measurable effects on the U/Ca thermometry and the U-Th ages. This emphasizes the critical importance of using pristine corals where the original mineralogy and porosity are preserved in paleooceanographic tracing and dating

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Homing and site fidelity in the greasy grouper Epinephelus tauvina (Serranidae) within a marine protected area in coastal Kenya

Author(s) :Kaunda-Arara, B.; Rose, G.A.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.: 277; 2004; 245-251.

Abstract :Homing ability and site-fidelity in the greasy grouper Epinephelus tauvina (Serranidae) were studied at Malindi Marine Park (6.3 km sup(2) ), coastal Kenya, from January to April 2002 using acoustic telemetry. Displacement experiments involving 12 groupers (mean size 57.9 cm) from multiple capture sites resulted in a 67% homing success. Upon release at displacement sites (0.5 to 2.6 km from the point of capture), most initial movements were small-scale and non-directional. Neither the tidal range nor time of day influenced the magnitude of these daily movements. Returns to the capture sites were sudden, occurring predominantly (88%) on spring tide dates. Fish displaced at the spring tide returned to capture sites faster (8.6 d) than those displaced at the neap tide (14.3 d). Time taken to return to capture sites ranged from 4 to 19 d (mean 9.6 d) and was not correlated with distance of displacement. However, time taken for the fish to home was negatively correlated with tidal range at displacement. Home ranges established after homing (0.07 to 0.73 km sup(2)) were stable and negatively correlated with fish size, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in home range development.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Do clades of symbiotic dinoflagellates in scleractinian corals of the Gulf of Eilat (Red Sea) differ from those of other coral reefs?

Author(s) :Karako-Lampert, S.; Katcoff, D.J.; Achituv, Y.; Dubinsky, Z.; Stambler, N.

Source :J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.: 311(2); 2004; 301-314.

Abstract :The symbiotic association between corals and zooxanthellae has been a major contributing factor in the success of reef-building corals. Most of these endocellular microalgal symbionts belong to the dinoflagellate genus QiSymbiodinium. However, considerable genetic diversity was revealed within this taxon, as is evident in the several clades of Symbiodinium found in association with hermatypic corals all over the world. The coral reefs of Eilat (Aqaba), where winter temperature minima of 21 °C are close to threshold values that prevent reef development, are among the northernmost reefs in the world. Furthermore, due to the circulation patterns of the Gulf, the extremely high evaporation, and lack of any riverine inputs, the Gulf's waters are highly saline (40.5 ppt). In spite of the extreme location, a high diversity of coral species has been reported in this area. In this study, using PCR, we specifically amplified zooxanthellae 18S ribosomal DNA from symbionts of 11 coral species, and analyzed it with respect to RFLP and DNA sequence. Of the several clades described from the same coral hosts in other localities, only A and C were found in the present study. Symbiodinium populations in the host examined from Eilat were different relative to other parts of the world. This distribution is discussed in relation to reproduction strategy: broadcasting versus brooding. Based on our results, we suggest that clade A is transferred through a closed system. As mass bleaching in the Gulf has never been observed, we suggest that the adaptive mechanisms presumably favoring clade diversity were not yet significant in our relatively cool area

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Understanding the Red Sea response to sea level

Author(s) :Siddall, M.; Smeed, D.A.; Hemleben, C.; Rohling, E.J.; Schmelzer, I.; Peltierc, W.R.

Source :Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.: 225(3-4); 2004; 421-434.

Abstract :The paper outlined a new pragmatic methodology to derive relative sea-level estimates from central Red Sea oxygen isotope records based on a previously published model. In this paper, the methodology is described in detail, and it is shown that sea-level change is the dominant factor responsible for the recorded variability in Red Sea delta sup(18) O (PDB) for sea level changes greater than 12 m. Variables such as temperature or net evaporation are shown to have relatively small effects on the oxygen isotope record. The modelled delta sup(18) O (PDB) to sea level relationship is given in terms of a fifth order polynomial which may be used to describe relative sea level from central Red Sea oxygen isotope records. We show how established sea level records from fossil reef terraces for the last 20 kyr are successfully simulated from central Red Sea oxygen isotope records. We also examine the spatial variability of delta sup(18)O (PDB) in the basin over the last 13 kyr.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Periphyton indicate effects of wastewater discharge in the near-coastal zone, Perth (Western Australia)

Author(s) :Cosgrove, J.; Walker, D.; Morrison, P.; Hillman, K.

Source :Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 61(2); 2004; 331-338.

Abstract :Periphyton communities on artificial substrata were successfully utilised as a biological indicator of the potential eutrophic effects of wastewater discharge into coastal waters off Perth, Western Australia. Biomass and percentage carbonate content measurements of periphyton communities grown in situ indicated that the periphyton primary production (organic weight) was enhanced in the vicinity of the discharge outlets, with a significant negative correlation between distance north of the northern outlet in Whitfords Lagoon and periphyton organic weight (OW) observed in autumn at a depth of 4 m (r = 0.704, P is less than 0.001). However, this response was primarily limited to the relatively calm autumn season and substrata at depths of 2 m and 4 m. Thus, in favourable conditions phytoplankton and high relief reef communities are more likely to exhibit a eutrophic influence (in the form of enhanced primary production) of the treated wastewater discharge. Laboratory studies confirmed that treated wastewater, diluted 100-fold to estimate surface concentrations above the wastewater outfalls in the field, stimulates periphyton growth above levels recorded in unpolluted seawater (F = 12.485; P = 0.0073)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Climate change impacts on natural ecosystems in India

Author(s) :Sukumar, R.

Source :Proceedings of the Workshop on Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation due to Climate Change on Indian Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Ecosystem. eds. by: Ravindranath, N.H.; Sharma, S.K.; Garg, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Murthy, I.K.(Workshop on Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation due to Climate Change on Indian Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Ecosystems; Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; India; 18-19 Jul 2003). Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India; New Delhi; India; 2004; 163-169.

Abstract :India having a large geographical area, varied topography, climatic regions, long coastline, and oceanic islands is endowed with a diverse set of natural biomes ranging from desert to alpine meadows, tropical rainforests to temperature pine forests, mangroves to coral reefs and marsh land to high altitude lakes. This paper reviews the existing status of these natural ecosystems and the level of their degradation due to exploitation and alteration by humans. Additional stresses that these systems are likely to incur due to climate change are also qualitatively described here

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The skeleton eroding band disease on coral reefs of Aqaba, Red Sea

Author(s) :Winkler, R.; Antonius, A.; Renegar, D.A.

Source :Mar. Ecol.: 25(2); 2004; 129-144.

Abstract :The occurrence and distribution of the coral disease Skeleton Eroding Band (SEB) has been studied at the Jordanian coast in the Gulf of Aqaba, the northernmost extension of the Red Sea. The SEB syndrome is caused by the colonial, heterotrich ciliate Halofolliculina corallasia: an advancing front of these protists destroys polyps, coenosarc, and surface of the coenosteum. In recent years SEB was registered in reefs of Australia, Mauritius, and the Red Sea. Along the Jordanian coast, disease frequency at four study sites was investigated and afflicted coral genera and species were documented. The study sites were MSS (Marine Science Station)-north, MSS-south, the tourist area near the middle of the coast, and the industrial area adjacent to the Saudi Arabian border. Corals and infections were counted inside randomly placed 1 m sup(2) frames in reef flats and in 5, 10, and 15 m depths. In order of increasing affectedness of sample sites, MSS-south was the healthiest (12%, 4%, 4%, 16% of infected corals from shallow to deep), followed by MSS-north (19%, 28%, 24, 24%), to tourist area (51%, 23%, 16%, 41%), and the industrial area (14%, 30%, 39%, 31%). By far the most frequently encountered coral species were Acropora spp. and Stylophora sp., while relative infection-rates were highest among Seriatopora sp. (75%), as well as Stylophora sp., Hydnophora sp., and Galaxea sp. (50% each). This was followed in steadily decreasing order from 44% to 5% by Pocillopora, Mycedium, Montipora, Echinopora, Acropora, Lobophyllia, Goniastrea, Millepora, Platygyra, Fungia, Favia, Porites, Goniopora, Favites, and Pavona. SEB was found to a depth of 30 m, but may occur even deeper

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tides and sea level in the Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat)

Author(s) :Monismith, S.G.; Genin, A.

Source :J. Geophys. Res. (C: Oceans): 109(4); 2004; 6 pp.

Abstract :In this paper, observations of tidal variations in currents and elevation taken in the Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat) over the fringing coral reef at Eilat, Israel are discussed. Both currents and elevations appear to be strongly affected by conditions in the main body of the Red Sea. Tidal currents, which vary considerably in strength throughout the year, appear to be associated with internal waves generated at the Strait of Tiran where density-driven exchanges between the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea take place. Water level also has significant annual and interannual variations; as seen in other studies of the Red Sea, these appear to be associated with corresponding variations in winds acting on the entire Red Sea.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Late glacial to post glacial sea levels in the Western Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Camoin, G.F.; Montaggioni, L.F.; Braithwaite, C.J.R.

Source :Mar. Geol.: 206; 2004; 119-146.

Abstract :Late glacial to post glacial sea-level changes provide direct evidence of the progress of melting of large ice sheets during the ast deglaciation but, although the correlation between ice and ocean volumes is incontrovertible, the causal link is commonly obscured. Local effects including tectonics, isostatic and hydroisostatic responses and equatorial ocean-syphoning impose additional signals that hide the true picture. A detailed regional study of the Western Indian Ocean based on the analysis of drill cores carried out through modern reefs, in combination with observations and sampling of reef foreslopes, and investigations of outcrops provides a comprehensive data base. Sites from a range of tectonic settings include the microcontinental margins of Madagascar, the granitic Seychelles, and the isolated volcanic islands of Reunion, Mauritius and the Comoros in which the effects of subsidence can be shown to be small. These cover a range of latitudes, and comparisons with adjacent sites on continental margins allow the construction of sea-level curves that closely reflect the eustatic response and disengage this from the effects of other mechanisms. The Mayotte foreslope in the Comoro Islands provides the first coral reef record of sea-level change during the early deglaciation in the Indian Ocean (110-115 m below present sea level between 18,000 and 17,000 yr BP). Two distinctive reef terraces, at 90 and 60 m water depth are dated at 13,600 yr BP and partly attributed to the Younger Dryas period (12,700 - 11,600 cal yr BP). Reef drowning at around 13,500 yr BP may correspond to Meltwater Pulse 1A, and although there were surges in the rate of sea-level rise, most notably between 11,950 and 11,350 yr BP, there is little evidence to support a well-defined Meltwater Pulse 1B. Reconstructed Holocene sea-level curves are in good agreement and reflect a rapid sea-level rise of about 6 mm yr sup(-1) between 10,000 and 7500 yr BP, followed by a clear inflection around 7500 yr BP when the rate fell to 1.1 mm yr sup(-1). Modern reefs started to grow 8000-9000 years ago. In the post-glacial period the rate of sea-level rise was 1-1.5 mm yr sup(-1) before stabilization at its present level 3000-2500 years ago. Curves for the 10,000-6000 yr sup(-1) BP interval correspond closely with those predicted by theoretical models but lie below these in the subsequent period. In particular, and with the exception of the margins of the Madagascar microcontinent influenced by hydroisostatic processes, they do not reflect predicted higher sea-level stands during the late Holocene.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral communities are regionally enriched along an oceanic biodiversity gradient

Author(s) :Karison, R.H.; Cornell, H.V.; Hughes, T.P.

Source :Nature: 429(6994); 2004; 867-870.

Abstract :Ecological communities are influenced by processes operating at multiple scales. Thus, a better understanding of how broad as well as local-scale processes affect species diversity and richness is increasingly becoming a central focus in modern community ecology. Here, in a study of unprecedented geographical scope, significant regional and local variation in the species richness of coral assemblages across an oceanic biodiversity gradient is shown. The gradient that were sampled extends 10,000 km eastwards from the world's richest coral biodiversity hotspot in the central Indo-Pacific. Local richness and the size of regional species pools decline significantly across 15 islands spanning the gradient. In addition, richness declines across three adjacent habitats (reef slopes, crests and flats). In each habitat, a highly consistent linear relationship between local and regional species richness indicates strong regional enrichment. Thus, even on the most diverse coral reefs in the world, local coral assemblages are profoundly affected by regional-scale processes. Understanding these historical and biogeographical influences is essential for the effective management and preservation of these endangered communities

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the coral reef skeleton of the Egyptian Red Sea coast

Author(s) :El-Nemr, A.; El-Sikaily, A.; Khaled, A.; Said, T.O.; Abd-Allah, A.M.A.

Source :Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.: 72(6); 2004; 1195-1202.

Abstract :Chlorinated organic compounds have a wide range of industrial and agricultural applications. They include pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and lindane (gamma-HCH or gamma-hexachloro-cyclohexane) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are used in a range of industrial applications including dielectrics in electrical transformers. Organochlorines have been implicated in reproductive and immunological abnormalities observed in birds and marine mammals. The highest concentrations of organochlorines have been associated with centers of urbanization in most studies. Synthetic organochloronies have been considered a serious threat to the long-term health of the marine environment for many years. The main reasons are their strong accumulation in lipid tissues of marine biota as well as their high toxicity for marine organisms and slow degradation for several members of this group. Various effects of pollution on coral reef organisms and communities have been documented. However, these efforts were made mainly to the coral reef environment and not to the coral reef itself. There are numerous reports about the prevalence of organochlorine residues in the Egyptian Coastal marine environment; however, there are no reports about the coral reef in the Egyptian coasts

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Exploration of Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters of India: With special reference to Sunchi reef

Author(s) :Tripati, S.

Source :Proceedings of the Conference on the Application of Recent Advances in Underwater Detection and Survey Techniques to Underwater Archaeology. eds. by: Akal, T.; Ballard, R.D.; Bass, G.F.(Conf. on the Application of Recent Advances in Underwater Detection and Survey Techniques to Underwater Archaeology). Ulu Burun Publishing; Bodrum; Turkey; 2004; 19-29.

Abstract :India had overseas trade contacts from the 4th-3rd Millennium BC. The history of Portuguese shipwrecks in Goa waters began with the arrival of Vasco da Gama at Kapukad (Kappat) a few kilometers north of Calicut (Kozhikode) in Kerala, India on 17 May 1498. Since then there had been frequent sailing of ships between India and Portugal and to the other Portuguese colonies. The ships sailed from Southeast Asian countries to Portugal enroute Goa, Mombasa and other Portuguese colonies around the Indian Ocean and they exchanged cargo at different ports. The Portuguese Empire had excellent knowledge in the field of construction of coastal forts, organization of navy, shipbuilding technology and they had their dockyard and shipbuilding centres at Old Goa. The Portuguese marine records, which are housed at Goa State Archives, Panaji and India House, Lisbon, state that between 1497 to 1612 a number of ships were wrecked off the Indian coast during their journey between Portugal and Goa. According to the recorded sources the majority of shipwrecks have occurred due to storms, hidden rocky reefs, woodborers, unskilled navigation, etc. The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India has brought to light the remains of Portuguese shipwrecks of 17th century in Goa waters. The finding includes Martaban pottery, Chinese ceramic, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, metal handle (?), guns, iron anchor, gun shot, bases of glass bottles, barret of handgun and a number of dressed granite blocks. The Sunchi Reef is the oldest wreck so far explored in Indian waters. The paper discusses the significance of findings, probable causes and period of the wreck. These findings are further compared with other Portuguese shipwreck findings found elsewhere in other parts of the world

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Variability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone recorded in coral isotopic records from the central Indian Ocean (Chagos Archipelago)

Author(s) :Pfeiffer, M.; Dullo, W.-C.; Eisenhauer, A.

Source :Quatern. Res.: 61(3); 2004; 245-255.

Abstract :The stable oxygen isotopic composition of two Porites corals from the Chagos Archipelago, which is situated in the geographical center of the Indian Ocean is analyzed. Coral sup(18)O at this site reliably records temporal variations in precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Precipitation maxima occur in boreal winter, when the ITCZ forms a narrow band across the Indian Ocean. The Chagos then lies within the center of the ITCZ, and rainfall is strongly depleted in 18O. A 120-yr coral isotopic record indicates an alternation of wet and dry intervals lasting 15 to 20 yr. The most recent 2 decades are dominated by interannual variability, which is tightly coupled to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This is unprecedented in the 120 yr of coral record. As the ITCZ is governed by atmospheric dynamics, this provides evidence of a major change in the coupled ENSO-monsoon system.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Inventory of the Maldives coral reefs using morphometrics generated from Landsat ETM+ imagery

Author(s) :Naseer, A.; Hatcher, B.G.

Source :Coral Reefs: 23(1); 2004; 161-168.

Abstract :Exact measures of the number, area, and basic morphometric statistics for every single reef of the Maldivian archipelago is presented, as derived from the interpretation of remotely sensed data collected by the Landsat-7 ETM+ earth-observing satellite sensor. Seven morphological attributes of reefs (6 marine habitats and reef-top islands) are classified and mapped to 30-m depth at 30 x 30 m spatial resolution (pixel size) for the entire archipelago. The total archipelagic area (all coral reef and lagoon habitats) of the 16 atolls, five oceanic faros, and four oceanic platform reefs which comprise the Maldives is 21,372.72 plus or minus 1,068.64 km sup(2) (approx. 20% of the Maldives Territorial Sea). A total of 2,041 plus or minus 10 distinct coral reef structures larger than 0.01 km sup(2) occur in the Maldives, covering an area of 4,493.85 km sup(2) (including enclosed reef lagoons and islands) to 30-m depth. Smaller areas of coral reef substratum cover another 19.29 km sup(2), bringing the total area of Maldivian coral reefs to 4,513.14 plus or minus 225.65 km sup(2). Shallow coral platforms thus occupy 21.1% of the total area of the archipelago (0.0052% of the EEZ area of the Maldives). Of these reefs, 538 are rim and oceanic reefs, covering 3,701.93 km sup(2) (82.5% of the total reef area), and 1,503 are patch reefs within the atoll lagoons, covering 791.92 km sup(2) (17.5% of the total reef area). Islands occupy only 5.1% of the total reef area. Mapping the Maldives coral reefs at high spatial resolution is only possible with remote sensing and spatial analysis technologies. These greatly reduce the large uncertainty around current estimates of reef area. Our accurate measure of total reef area is only 50.6% of the current best estimate, a result having significant implications for predictions of the Maldives reef productivity and response to global climate change. Here we present current best practice and compare the methods and measures with previous approaches

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :High genetic diversities and complex genetic structure in an Indo-Pacific tropical reef fish (Chlorurus sordidus): Evidence of an unstable evolutionary past?

Author(s) :Bay, L.K.; Choat, J.H.; Herwerden L. van; Robertson, D.R.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 144(4); 2004; 757-767.

Abstract :Historical sea level fluctuations have influenced the genetic structure and evolutionary history of marine species and examining widespread species across their species ranges may elucidate some of these effects. Chlorurus sordidus is a common and widespread parrotfish found on coral reefs throughout the Indo-central Pacific. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and cladistic analyses are used to examine the genetic composition and population structure of this species across most of its latitudinal range limits. 354 bp of the mitochondrial control region 1 in 185 individuals from nine populations is sequenced. Populations of C. sordidus displayed high levels of genetic diversity, similar to those recorded for widespread pelagic fish species, but much greater nucleotide diversity values than those previously recorded for other demersal reef fishes. Both phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses detected strong genetic subdivision at the largest spatial scale (i.e. among oceans). The Pacific Ocean was characterised by weak population genetic structure. Separation of the Hawaiian location from other Pacific and West Indian Ocean sites was evident in phylogenetic analyses, but not from analysis of molecular variance. NCA and isolation-by-distance tests suggested that the genetic structure of this species was the result of multiple contemporary and historical processes, including long-distance colonisation and range expansion arising from fluctuating sea levels, limited current gene flow, and isolation by distance. This pattern is to be expected when historically fragmented populations come into secondary contact. It is suggested that the patterns of population genetic structure recorded in C. sordidus are caused by large local population sizes, high gene flow, and a recent history of repeated fragmentation and remixing of populations resulting from fluctuating sea levels.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral recruitment: a spatio-temporal analysis along the coastline of Eilat, northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Glassom, D.; Zakai, D.; Chadwick-Furman, N.E.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 144(4); 2004; 641-651.

Abstract :Recruitment rates of stony corals to artificial substrates were monitored for 2 years at 20 sites along the coast of Eilat, northern Red Sea, to compare with those recorded at other coral reef locations and to assess variation in recruitment at several spatial scales. Coral recruitment was low compared to that observed on the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, but was similar to levels reported from other high-latitude reef locations. Pocilloporids were the most abundant coral recruits in all seasons. Recruitment was twofold higher during the first year than during the second year of study. There was considerable spatial variability, with the largest proportion of variance, apart from the error term, attributable to differences between sites, at a scale of 10 sup(2) m. Spearmans ranked correlation showed consistency in spatial patterns of recruitment of pocilloporid corals between years, but not of acroporid corals. During spring, when only the brooding pocilloporid coral Stylophora pistillata reproduces at this locality, most coral recruitment occurred at central and southern sites adjacent to well-developed coral reefs. During summer, recruitment patterns varied significantly between years, with wide variation in the recruitment of broadcasting acroporid corals at northern sites located distant from coral reefs. Settlement was low at all sites during autumn and winter. This work is the first detailed analysis of coral recruitment patterns in the Red Sea, and contributes to the understanding of the spatial and temporal scales of variation in this important reef process.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seed production and juvenile rearing of the tropical abalone Haliotis varia Linnaeus 1758

Author(s) :Najmudeen, T.M.; Victor, A.C.C.

Source :Aquaculture: 234; 2004; 277-292.

Abstract :Spawning, larval and juvenile rearing of the tropical abalone Haliotis varia L. were studied. Brood stock abalone were induced to spawn by exposure to air for 2 h at 27 degrees C. Female abalone spawned a mean of 76,530 eggs. Fertilised eggs measured 180 m in diameter. Seventy percent survival was obtained during larval rearing. Larvae passed trochophore, veliger, gliding and creeping stages and were induced to settle on a mat of diatoms containing Nitszchia sp. and Navicula sp. The larval rearing period of H. varia ranged from 4 to 6 days at 27 degrees C. The settled spat vigorously fed on the diatom mat until the 50th day of postfertilisation and coralline red algal film, until the 70th day of postfertilisation. First respiratory pore was formed on the 27th day of postfertilisation. Juvenile abalones were reared on three algal diets such as coralline red algae, green filamentous algae and Ulva lactuca from the 71st to 200th day of postfertilisation. Those fed with coralline algae showed best and consistent growth. Shell colour of juveniles was affected by diet. The present study on the production of juveniles in the hatchery is a baseline information to initiate abalone aquaculture in India and to help augment the natural population.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and model for the deposition of the Abdur Reef Limestone: Context for an important archaeological site from the last interglacial on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea

Author(s) :Bruggemann, J.H.; Buffler, R.T.; Guillaume, M.M.M.; Walter, R.C.; von Cosel, R.; Ghebretensae, B.N.; Berhe, S.M.

Source :Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.: 203(3-4); 2004; 179-206.

Abstract :In the present paper the stratigraphy, facies types and faunal composition from 25 measured sections of the tool-bearing Abdur Reef Limestone (ARL) are documented in detail and interpreted to provide a palaeoenvironmental context for the stone artefacts and a model for the deposition of the ARL. The ARL represents a complex marine terrace sequence. Erosional surfaces indicative of interrupted sedimentation are locally observed at two levels within the ARL. They subdivide the complex into three subunits, named 5e sub(1), 5e sub(2), and 5e sub(3), representing different stages of the marine isotope stage 5e sea level highstand, comprising six depositional phases (1-6) of the ARL. Subunit 5e sub(1) begins with the initial transgression of the 5e sea level highstand leading to the deposition of widespread lag gravels on which rich oyster beds developed in shallow water (phase 1). It further records rapid deepening accompanied by the deposition of low-energy carbonates with scarce corals (phase 2), and later shoaling characterised by local development of a fringing reef tract in a sedimented environment (phase 3). Subunit 5e sub(1) is capped locally by a burrowed hardground that is laterally equivalent to depositional discontinuities, interpreted as caused by a globally recognised mid-5e sea level low stand (phase 4). Extensive reef build-up in response to sea level rise and improved conditions for coral growth characterises subunit 5e sub(2) (phase 5). A possible second sea level drop during the 5e highstand is inferred from the oyster-encrusted upper surface of subunit 5e sub(2). Subunit 5e sub(3) encompasses restricted coral patches that developed on the upper surface of the underlying subunit during the last stage of the 5e marine high stand (phase 6). The distribution of these tools suggests that foraging activities of early humans varied with environmental setting. The Abdur Archaeological Site represents a late example of the Acheulian/MSA transition, seen as a benchmark for early modern human behaviour, and is, to date, the earliest well-dated example of early human adaptation to marine food resources.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Comparing bleaching and mortality responses of hard corals between southern Kenya and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia tmcclanhan@

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.; Baird, A.H.; Marshall, P.A.; Toscano, M.A.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 48(3-4); 2004; 327-335.

Abstract :The bleaching and mortality response (BMI) of 19 common scleractinian corals to an anomalous warm-water event in 1998 is compared to determine the degree of variation between depths, sites, and regions. Mombasa corals experienced a greater temperature anomaly than those on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sites and this was reflected in the greater BMI response of most taxa. Comparing coral taxa in different sites at the same depth produced high correlation coefficients in the bleaching response in Kenya at 2 m (r=0.86) and GBR at 6 m depth sites (r=0.80) but less in the GBR for shallow 2 m sites (r=0.49). The pattern of taxa susceptibility was remarkably consistent between the regions. Coral taxa explained 52% of the variation in the response of colonies to bleaching between these two regions. Stylophora and Pocillopora were consistently susceptible while Cyphastrea, Goniopora Galaxea and Pavona were resistant in both regions. Three taxa behaved differently between the two regions; Acropora, and branching Porites were both moderately affected on the GBR but were highly affected in Kenya while the opposite was true for Pavona. These results suggest that a colonies response to bleaching is phylogenetically constrained, emphasizing the importance of features of the host's physiology or morphology in determining the response to thermal stress.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral cover and partial mortality on anthropogenically impacted coral reefs at Eilat, northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Wielgus, J.; Chadwick-Furman, N.E.; Dubinsky, Z.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 48(3-4); 2004; 248-253.

Abstract :A photographic analysis was conducted at five shallow reef sites (5-6 m) at Eilat (northern Red Sea) to study changes in live coral cover during a 2-year period. Logit regression analysis showed that levels of total oxidized nitrogen (TON; NO sub(2) + NO sub(3)) and the presence of SCUBA divers were significant explicative variables of coral partial mortality, while sedimentation rate was not significant. Sites exposed to mean TON levels above 0.4 mu M TON showed significantly lower live stony coral cover and abundance per m sup(2), and higher partial mortality of coral colonies than sites exposed to lower TON. These findings may be useful in establishing limits for TON levels at Eilat, but must be interpreted with caution due to the complexity of nutrient dynamics in coral reefs, the uncertainty of the effects of nutrients on coral physiological processes, and the possibility of interactions among multiple coral stressors.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Limited effects of grazer exclusion on the epiphytes of Posidonia sinuosa in South Australia (dominic.keuskamp@flinders.edu.au

Author(s) :Keuskamp, D.

Source :Aquat. Bot.: 78(1); 2004; 3-4.

Abstract :The role of grazing in regulating the abundance and biomass of epiphytes of the seagrass Posidonia sinuosa Cambridge et Kuo was investigated at an oligotrophic site in lower Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Prosobranch gastropods greater than7 mm in size were excluded from 0.25 m super(2) plots of seagrass for 3 months with four steel mesh cages, compared with four partial cages used to control for cage artefacts, and also four uncaged control plots. Abundances of epiphytic algae, invertebrates and epiphytic mass (DW, AFDW and calcium carbonate) were recorded regularly. The indirect effect of grazer exclusion on seagrass leaf mortality (necrosis) was also measured. Grazing effects on the epiphytic assemblage were detected despite some cage artefacts. Filamentous algal abundance and epiphytic biomass (AFDW) increased in response to grazer exclusion. Caging per se reduced crustose coralline algal cover and calcium carbonate during the experimental period but after 3 months, no artefact or treatment effect was discernible. Abundances of invertebrate taxa were little affected by grazer exclusion although caging per se reduced the density of spirorbid polychaetes. Grazer exclusion did not affect seagrass necrosis. In comparison with similar studies and given the duration of exclusion, the sum of treatment effects on epiphytes and seagrass was small. Rather, the role of epiphyte grazing in this nutrient-poor area appears to be limited to the maintenance of an epiphytic assemblage that is free of filamentous algae and dominated by crustose corallines

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status and trends of TanzaniaÆs marine artisanal fisheries

Author(s) :Jiddawi, N.S.

Source :Proceedings of the Indian Ocean Conference held at IIT Madras, Chennai, India, 9-13 October 2001. ed. by: Kumar, K.G.(Indian Ocean Conf.; IIT Madras, Chennai; India; 9-13 Oct 2001). International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF); Chennai; India; 2003; 132-138.

Abstract :About 95 per cent of the fishery in Tanzania is artisanal, involving traditional boats and gear. The inshore fishery has recently been showing signs of overexploitation, especially in Zanzibar. The high seas within the exclusive economic zone, rich in migratory species such as tuna, sailfish and marlin, remain unexploited, though their resource potential is not known. Most of the fishing practices are destructive and have caused significant damage to the reefs. The problem persists due to the lack of monitoring, control and surveillance. This paper looks at these issues, while also focusing on the state of fisheries research in Tanzania, which, though begun at the start of the century, is proceeding at a slow pace

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India

Author(s) :Anand, P.E.A.; Pillai, N.G.K.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 45(1); 2003; 88-98.

Abstract :Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reef slope of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India was studied by the visual census method during January 1991 to June 1992. Twenty seven families represented by 121 species, the highest for any sub-habitat of the atoll were recorded. The community diversity, also the highest both for families and species was 3.32 and 4.45 respectively. Family assemblages were not stable between censuses and pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Labridae, Chaetodontidae, Balistidae, Pomacentridae and Acanthuridae were the most specious families. Low abundance of coral feeders indicated unhealthy reef condition. While dominance of some surgeonfish indicated availability of algal food, balistids provided clues for topographic complexity.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Observations on the recruitment of the Scleractinian coral in the Gulf of Mannar, India

Author(s) :Muthiah, P.; Chandrasekar, N.; Victor, A.C.C.; Esterson, D.C.V.; Rajan, R.R.; Gopinath, R.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 45(2); 2003; 235-237.

Abstract :Techniques to enhance natural recruitment in the restoration of coral reefs are being developed in many reef areas around the World. The Indian reefs, which were subjected to widescale destruction in the past due to several factors, natural as well as anthropogenic, also demand the understanding of coral recruitment patterns as the first step to evolve restorative measures. This study reports coral recruitment patterns at a reef location in Gulf of Mannar along southeast coast of India. Though the results of this study are preliminary, subsequent observations are recommended for a complete understanding on species-wise behavioural patterns and seasonal role in recruitment.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reefs of the Gulf of Kachchh: A sub-tidal videography

Author(s) :SenGupta, R.; Patel, M.I.; Ramamoorthy, K.; Deshmukhe, G.

Source :Gujarat Ecological Society; Vadodara, Gujarat (India); 2003; 82 pp.

Abstract :Gujarat Ecological Society (GES), Gujarat, India has been videographically exploring the subtidal coral reefs of the Gulf of Kachchh since its pioneering study in 1999. GES has already generated a considerable amount of original and significant data and visual part of which has been presented as underwater documentaries. The knowledge and information acquired from these efforts is presented in this monograph.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Handbook on hard corals of India

Author(s) :Venkataraman, K.; Satyanarayana, Ch.; Alfred, J.R.B.; Wolstenholme, J.

Source :Zoological Survey of India; Kolkata (India); 2003; 266 pp.

Abstract :The present 'Handbook on the hard corals of India' is the maiden work on taxonomic and photographic guide for the identification of corals that inhabit Indian waters. The aim of this guide is to document the biodiversity of Indian corals identified both during the Aus-Aid, India-Australia Training and Capacity Building Project, Coral Taxonomy Training (Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville: October 2001 - January 2002) as well as from other such earlier occasions. This guide is designed for students, snorkelers, divers, and in those interested in coral taxonomy

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Incidence of sipunculan worm in the mangrove substratum of Kerala coast south India

Author(s) :Kumar, R.S.

Source :J. Ecobiol.: 15(3); 2003; 207-210.

Abstract :Occurrence of the sipunculan worm in Cochin mangrove substratum in Kerala coast, India is reported for the first time. The most fluctuating ecological factor, being salinity and the very rare distribution of the worm within the intertidal substratum enriched with detritus during the minimum (0.63 ppt) and maximum (28.65 ppt) salinity conditions has generally showed the tolerance of species to wide salinity variations. Sediment type was sandy (greater than 84% sand fractions) in nature and remained more or less unchanged irrespective of seasons that explain no correlation to the occurrence of species. From the point of economic importance, more biological aspects of the sipunculan worm and their ecological distribution need to be studied in Indian coast.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Socioeconomic monitoring of reef resource users in Therespuram of Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar, India

Author(s) :Kumaraguru, A.K.; Kannan, R.; Sundaramahalingam, A.; Rajee, M.; Ramakritinan, C.M.

Source :South Asian Anthropol.: 3(1); 2003; 27-44.

Abstract :Fishermen of Therespuram fishing colony is inhabited exclusively by vallam owned fishermen and labourers involved in fishing activity. Fishers in this region are economically backward, due to improper management of their earnings obtained mainly as wages through fish catching. Fishers of Therespuram are fishing, and collecting chanks. The literacy level is very less i.e. only 8 per cent. This is mainly due to the ignorance and poverty among fishers, which made their children stop education even before they reach 14 years of age. One of the significant observations in this region is the exploitation of the subsistence level of fishers by middlemen. Another reason for their indebtedness might be chronic alcoholism. Vallam owners have been affected much more than the labourers engaged in fishing activities. Fishermen's problems, alternative employment, conservation of marine resources, etc. have been discussed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Food and feeding habits of Nemipterus randalli, Russell, 1986 off Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Author(s) :Rao, P.Y.

Source :J. Aqua. Biol.: 18; 2003; 55-57.

Abstract :Nemipterus randalli is a benthic cornivore, feeding on shrimp, teleosts, squilla, crabs, cephalopods and other occasional items like fish eggs, fish scales, polychaetes, coelenterates and coral polyps in the order of importance. This species is a sight feeder and feeding activity is much reduced during night. Nature of food varies with size, lower length groups preferring shrimp and higher length groups preferring other items especially teleosts. Cannabalism also has been observed in N. randalli. There is no marked difference in food composition between males and females.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A new sphingosine derivative from a soft coral of Nephthea species of the Andaman and Nicobar coasts

Author(s) :Rao, C.B.; Sekhar, V.C.; Rao, D.V.; Sarvani, B.; Lakshmi, D.K.M.

Source :Asian J. Chem.: 15(2); 2003; 1161-1163.

Abstract :A new sphingosine derivative, 2-N-nonanoyl-4, 5-dihydrosphingosine was isolated from a soft coral of Nephthea species of the Indian Ocean. Structure elucidation of the compound is based on interpretation of the spectral data

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Laboratory studies on the stability of Tandem breakwater

Author(s) :Shirlal, K.G.; Rao, S.; Ish, M.

Source :Indian Soc. Hydraul. J. Hydraul. Eng.: 9(1); 2003; 36-45.

Abstract :Tandem Breakwater consists of a submerged reef breakwater constructed at some distance in front of a conventional non-overtopping rubble mound breakwater. The submerged reef breakwater breaks the high waves and the stilling basin between two breakwaters attenuates them. Hence, smaller waves approach the non-overtopping rubble mound breakwater and break on it. Therefore, the non-overtopping rubble mound breakwater may be designed for smaller waves, resulting in relatively lighter armour stones. In the model studies, it has been found that for relative breakwater spacing X/d varying from 3.33 to 4.29 between the breakwaters, the damage of a tandem Breakwater is 20% to 60% less as compared with a single breakwater for similar operating criteria

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Record of Abudefduf sordidus (Forskal) (Pomacentridae: Pisces) from Kottapuzha Estuary, Kerala, with a note on the ecological attributes of the estuary

Author(s) :Gopi, K.C.; Palot, M.J.

Source :Zoos Print J.: 18(10); 2003; 1233-1234.

Abstract :Abudefduf sordidus (Forska\), commonly called the 'Grey-banded Sergeant Major', is a small to moderate-sized species, known to be an exclusive marine dweller, very common and widely distributed in Indo-Pacific Oceans including the Red Sea and Hawaii. Its main habitat being rocky pools and reefs, this species is seldom known to make forays to estuarine brackish waters in the coastline areas. Day (1875-1878) has recorded this species - as Glyphidodon sordidus (Forskal) from the Sind (Pakistan) coasts of Indian Ocean, indicating its wide distribution, but nothing as regards its estuarine visitations.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Affinity and zoogeography of the gorgonid fauna off Gopalpur Orissa coast (Bay of Bengal)

Author(s) :Thomas, P.A.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.

Source :Ecol. Environ. Conserv.: 9(3); 2003; 263-267.

Abstract :Collection of 25 species of gorgonids is reported for the first time from the newly found ridge reefs off Gopalpur coast (Orissa, India), Bay of Bengal, between 25 m and 35 m isobaths. The gorgonids belonged to 6 families and 18 genera under two sub-orders of order, Gorgonaceae. Holaxonian species (20) dominate over Scleraxonian species (4) and the family Muriceidae Verrill represents 8 genera. The structure and composition of the major taxa and also the number of genera falling under the various families are in full agreement with those collected from any part of the Indo-Pacific

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Review of pole and line fishery and livebait fishes in Lakshadweep and their relevance to tuna tagging

Author(s) :Somvanshi, V.S.; John, M.E.; Bhargava, A.K.

Source :(5. Session of the IOTC Working Party on Tagging; Victoria (Seychelles); 10-13 Jun 2003). IOTC Proc.WPT-03-02: 6; 2003; 5 pp.

Abstract :With the increase in fishing pressure on the yellowfin tuna and skipjack resources in the Indian Ocean since the mid-eighties the exploitation of juvenile yellowfin tuna in surface schools is a matter of particular concern. There is an organized tuna fishery in Lakshadweep islands where catches are taken mostly by small-scale pole and line boats. Bait-fish is abundantly available in the coral reefs and lagoons along the island group. In the coastal areas of mainland India, though there is no targeted fishery for tunas, skipjack and young yellowfin are landed in gillnet fishery. A small-scale tuna tagging programme is proposed from the pole and line fishery around Lakshadweep group of islands. The tagging programme will enable to refine estimates of growth of juvenile yellowfin tuna and also that of larger yellowfin and skipjack tuna. In India a number of studies have been conducted on the live bait fishes used in pole and line fishing. The paper presents a reviewed brief of skipjack tuna fishery and the live baitfishes.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Nongeniculate coralline algae from Lower Pliocene to Late Pleistocene of Dwarka - Okha area, Jamnagar, Gujarat

Author(s) :Kundal, P.; Dharashivkar, A.P.

Source :ONGC Bull.: 40(2); 2003; 31-58.

Abstract :Fossil coralline algae are the most widely distributed group of fossil calcareous algae and are the most important sediment contributors. They are also known as reef building algae. The present day corallines are generally found in tropical to subtropical waters. In the present work, ten species of nongeniculate coralline algal genera Lithothamnion Philipi and Mesophylum Lemoine of Subfamily Melobesioideae belonging to Family Corallinaceae, Division Rhodophyta from Lower Pliocene to Late Pleistocene sediments of Dwarka-Okha area, Jamnagar District, Gujarat, India are described. Out of ten species, eight species belong to genus Lithothamnion and two species belong to genus Mesophyllum. Both the species of genus Lithothamnion from Kalyanpur Limestone Member of Dwarka Formation are long ranging and, therefore, do not support the Lower Pliocene age. Out of eight species only one species Lithothamnion aucklandicum supports Middle to Late Pleistocene age for Okha Shell Limestone Member of Chaya Formation. All the other species are widely distributed and are not useful for age conclusion. At these fossil corallines are having wide occurrences and can not directly be used for deducing paleoenvironment. However, the present species occur in association with ichnofossils and suggest that the Kalyanpur Limestone Member (Lower Pliocene) of Dwarka Formation and Okha Shell Limestone Member (Middle to Late Pleistocene) of Chaya Formation were deposited in littoral to sublittoral high energy sandy shore.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral transplant damage under various management conditions in the Mombasa Marine Natural Park, Kenya

Author(s) :Cros, A.; McClanahan, T.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 2(2); 2003; 127-136.

Abstract :Two coral species, Porites palmate and P. lutea, were transplanted into three distinct management areas adjacent to the Mombasa Marine National Park, Kenya: A no-fishing MPA; a gear-restricted reserve with no beach seining; and a reserve with beach seining. Corallivory by fish or breakage by fishing gear was measured over a 57-day period. P. palmate, the branching species, was more susceptible to disturbance than P. lutea, the massive species, which showed no difference in mortality rate between the three management areas. P. palmate was affected more by corallivory than fishing gear and therefore, suffered more damage from coral predators in the no-fishing MPA. Coral transplanted into the gear-restricted fishing site had the highest survival. The damage from predators was small and seldom resulted in total colony mortality, which was common in the fishing area with beach seining

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Long-term trends in coral reef fish yields and exploitation rates of commercial species from coastal Kenya

Author(s) :Kaunda-Arara, B.; Rose, G.A.; Muchiri, M.S.; Kaka, R.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 2(2); 2003; 105-116.

Abstract :Analysis of long-term (1978-2001) marine fisheries data showed that Kenyan coral-reefs produced an estimated 2-4 metric t/km sup(2) year of demeresl fish. A rapid overall decline in landings occurred during the 1990s. Yields (t/km sup(2)/year) showed bimodal peaks in 1982 (2.98) and 1991(2.90). The average total landings dropped by 55% during the last decade following peak landings in 1982. Landings of the commercially important families (e.g., Siganidae, Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae and Serranidae) declined by about 40% during the last decade, with the groupers (Serranidae) showing the steepest (72%) decline. Analysis of landings per administrative district showed a 78% decline in the densely populated Mombasa district between the periods 1983-1991 and 1992-2001. The less populated districts have registered stable (e.g., Kilifi) to increasing (e.g., Kwale) catches over time. An autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) model forecast of landings predicted a gradual decline in catches during the next decade (2002-2011) with a trend slope of û0.01 t/km sup(2). Length-frequency analysis for the commercially important species indicated above optimum exploitation (E) and fishing mortality (per year) rates for the sky emperor, Lethrinus mahsena (E=0.64; F=2.48) and lower but strong rates for the emperor, L. sangueinus (E=0.51; F=0.93). The more abundant and commercially important whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor, showed equally strong rates (E=0.56; F=1.44/year). A precautionary approach in the management of KenyaÆs coral-reef fisheries is recommended

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Visual census of the reef fishes in the natural reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Durville, P.; Chabanet, P.; Quod, J.P.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 2(2); 2003; 95-104.

Abstract :This paper constitutes the first qualitative study of coral reef fish populations in the archipelago of the Glorieuses Islands (northern Mozambique Channel). Sampling by visual census techniques, at depths between 0 and 15 meters, was carried out at 30 stations spread over the whole reef. Three hundred and thirty-two (332) fish species belonging to 57 families were registered in this way. These relatively high numbers show that isolated coral reef formations, even of small size, can be endowed with a great specific richness of reef ichthyofauna. These results may be explained by an oceanic flow that favours recruitment, a diversified habitat, and low anthropogenic impact

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The fringing reef coasts of Eastern Africa - Present processes in their long-term context

Author(s) :Arthurton, R.

Source :West. Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci.: 2(1); 2003; 1-13.

Abstract :Sea-level changes through the Quaternary era have provided recurrent opportunities for the biosphere to significantly shape the coastal geomorphology of eastern Africa. Key agents in this shaping have been the calcium carbonate-fixing biota that have constructed the ocean-facing fringing reefs and produced the extensive backreef sediments that form the limestone platforms, cliffs and terraces that characterize these coasts. TodayÆs reefs comprise tough, algal-clad intertidal bars composed largely of coral rubble derived from their ocean front. They provide protection from wave attack to the inshore platforms with their sediment veneers and their beach and beach plain sands that are susceptible to erosion. If the eastern African coasts are subjected to the rise of sea-level that is predicted at the global scale during the coming century, the protective role of the reef bars will be diminished if their upward growth fails to keep pace. Favourable ocean temperatures and restraint in the destructive human pressures impacting the reef ecosystems will facilitate such growth

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Eco-morphological zonation of selected coral reefs of India using remotely sensed data

Corp. Body :Space Application Cent.; Indian Space Research Organ.; Ahmedabad; India.

Source :SAC/RESIPA/MWRG/MSCED/SN/16/2003; 2003; 109 pp.

Abstract :Methodology has been developed to zone the reefs based on their morphological as well as ecological characteristics using IRS LISS 3 and PAN data. The reefs have been studied during the period 1998-2000. Various ecological as well as morphological components of the reefs could be delineated using satellite data. The classification accuracy achieved is 77-95% at 90% confidence level.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Species (Animals) named after India

Author(s) :Ramesh, S.; Lyla, P.S.

Source :Seshaiyana: 11(2); 2003; 10-12.

Abstract :India is one among the twelve countries blessed with megabiodiversity. The rich biodiversity of India is represented by ever green tropical rain forests, numerous rivers, lakes, desert besides the world's largest mangrove in Sundarban, rich corals, diverse fish species including the whale sharks, whales, dolphins, dugong and a plethora of economically important arthropods and molluscs. The worldÆs largest marine turtles breeding ground, migratory waterfowl and AsiaÆs largest brackishwater lake Chilka add further values to the coastal and marine biodiversity of India. No wonder many species have been named after this great country and the following table gives information about the species named after India. The list is not complete as many more new species are believed to occur in India. While efforts should be taken to bring them to light, protection of these important species is also highly important.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Ecological studies on major beds of Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka, Gramminae, and its immediate associated biota along the central west coast of India

Author(s) :Bhosale, S.H.

Corp. Body :University of Pune, Pune (India).

Source :Ph.D.. ; 2003; xii+ 134 pp.

Abstract :Wetlands are considered to be of great ecological and socioeconomic values as they are very productive in nature. They are classified in to saline and fresh water and further categorized based on flooding, nature of water body and type of vegetation. The coastal wetlands include littoral zones, brackish water and estuarine regions, lagoons and coral reefs, and constitute approximately 70% of the total wetlands of the country. The littoral rocky regions generally harbor marine algae while lagoons sustain mainly seagrasses and associated marine algae. The swamps influenced by the tidal waters along estuaries and bays are mostly dominated by mangroves as well as members of Cyperaceae and Poaceae. The total mangrove cover in the country has been estimated to be approximately 4871 km sup(2). The mangrove regions harbour variety of associated flora of significant ecological importance (Jagtap, 1985). Among the associated flora, the estuarine seagrass Halophila beccarii and a Poaceae member P. coarctata are considered to be the pioneer species in the formation of mangroves along the Central West Coast (CWC) of India. Mangroves and seagrasses along the CWC have been studied for th eir distribution, composition and ecological aspects. However, absolutely no efforts have been made to study the distribution and ecological aspects, as well as associated mycoflora of P. coarctata, particularly from the west coast of India. Therefore, considering the ecological significance of P. coarctata in the mangrove formations, the selective Porteresia habitats from CWC of India were studied for its structure and composition of associated mycoflora. Efforts have also been made to identify bioactive potential form Poteresia and its major associated mycoflora.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Natural aquatic ecosystems of India: Thematic biodiversity strategy and action plan

Author(s) :Vekataraman, K.

Source :Zoological Survey of India; Chennai (India); 2003; 272 pp.

Abstract :Provides a set of strategies designed to support national aspirations in understanding, using and caring for the natural aquatic ecosystems of India. This report identifies a number of short-term and long-term priorities and strategies as well as organisations to be involved. The theme deals with different aquatic ecosystems such as lentic, lotic, marine, estuary, mangrove, coral reef, seaweed, seagrass pelagic and benthic ecosystems of India.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Goatfishes

Author(s) :Vivekanandan, E.; Rajkumar, U.; Nair, R.J.; Gandhi, V.

Source :Status of exploited marine fishery resources of India. eds. by: Joseph, M.M.; Jayaprakash, A.A.Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute; Kochi (India); 2003; 158-163.

Abstract :Goatfishes (family: Mullidae) are easily distinguishable by their bright colour with shades of red or yellow predominating, and distinctive dark, yellow, orange or brown bands or strips; and the presence of two long, unbranched barbels on the chin. They are usually found on sandy or muddy bottom, whereas a few species are often associated with coral reefs. They inhabit shallow coastal waters and their concentration is generally restricted to a depth of 40 m or less and they rarely occur beyond 60 m depth. Upeneus sulphureus often enters estuaries. U. sulphureus, U. vitatus and U. bensai form small schools whereas other species such as U. tragula are solitary.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Perches

Author(s) :Mathew, G.

Source :Status of exploited marine fishery resources of India. eds. by: Joseph, M.M.; Jayaprakash, A.A.Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute; Kochi (India); 2003; 102-109.

Abstract :Perches are generally large sized Perciform fishes belonging to the families Serranidae, Lutjanidae and Lethrinidae, commonly called rock cods, snappers and pigface breams respectively. Perches occur all along the Indian coast. Most of the species belonging to this group inhabit the rocky grounds and the coral reef areas, while a few prefer the seagrass beds and muddy and sandy bottoms. They are particularly abundant in the rocky and coral grounds off Kerala, off Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch, off Paradeep and in the Andaman Seas. These larger perches constitute roughly 2% of the total marine fish production in the country with an average annual landing of 28,800 t during 1990-2000 period. As per the estimates by the Government of India, the potential of all perches within the 50 m-depth zone is about 1,14,000 t and that beyond 50 m is 1,25,000 t. Most of the fishing grounds being not amenable to trawling operations, the major perches are exploited mainly by other gears like hooks and lines, traps and the drift net. The experimental and exploratory fishing carried out by various agencies like the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, the Fishery Survey of India and the erstwhile Indo-Norwegian Project provided valuable information on the abundance and distribution of the major perches in the Indian EEZ. Almost the entire array of species are excellent food fishes and in great demand in the export market, both in the live and frozen form. Of late, these are gaining importance for commercial mariculture in various countries including India.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Application of GIS in management of coastal critical habitats

Author(s) :Usha, T.; Sundaramoorthy, S.; Shunmugaraj, T.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Kankara, R.S.

Corp. Body :National Inst. of Ocean Technology. Chennai (India).

Source :Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal and Ocean Technology, December 10-12, 2003. (Int. Conf. on Coastal and Ocean Technology; Chennai (India); 10-12 Dec 2003). Allied; New Delhi (India); 2003; 15-24.

Abstract :Effective monitoring and management of coastal critical habitats require data and information for making timely and appropriate decisions on the problems at hand and to understand the spatial relationships that exist therein. GIS, along with remote sensing is being increasingly used for resources management and to improve the land use. Spatial and non-spatial data on various aspects such as landuse, soils, geology, hydrology, topography, etc. need to be analysed for management decisions. Satellite remote sensing provides a convenient means for deriving such data. Integration of GIS and RS technologies thereby provides an efficient way for resource management. IndiaÆs long coastline is dotted with critical habitats, which are sensitive and fragile ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs. These critical habitats are under threat due to both natural and anthropogenic activities and this paper discusses the applications of GIS and Remote Sensing in the management of these critical habitats.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral bleaching 2002 in the Palk Bay, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Kumaraguru, A.K.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramakritinan, C.M.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 85(12); 2003; 1787-1793.

Abstract :The bleaching of corals and their recovery in chosen study sites of the reefs of Palk Bay, southeast coast of India were monitored. The bleaching phenomenon occurred during the period from April to June 2002. A minimum of at least 50% and a maximum of 60% bleaching were noticed among the six different sites monitored. The coral-bleaching phenomenon might have occurred due to unusual rise in surface sea-water temperature, which was 32 degrees C in the peak of summer. This, confounded with the failure of the southwest monsoon winds during this period, might have exerted a stress on the corals leading to expulsion of zooxanthellae from their bodies, causing the bleaching phenomenon. Coral bleaching might affect the distribution of coral-associated animals, especially the food fishes which depend on the corals for feeding and breeding. This, in turn, can affect the livelihood of the reef resource users, particularly the fishermen in the Palk Bay region.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Shoreline and coral reef ecosystem changes in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Thanikachalam, M.; Ramachandran, S.

Source :Photonirvachak: 31(3); 2003; 157-173.

Abstract :Changes in shoreline, coral reef and seafloor have been mapped using remote sensing satellite data of IRS LISS-III (1998), IRS LISS-II (1988), Survey of India Topographic sheet (1969), Naval Hydrographic Chart (NHO) 1975 and bathymetry data (1999) with ARC-INFO and ARC-VIEW GIS. The analysis of multi-date shoreline maps showed that 4.34 and 23.49 km sup(2) of the mainland coast and 4.14 and 3.31 km sup(2) areas of island coast have been eroded and accreted, respectively, in the Gulf of Mannar. The analysis of multi-date coral reef maps showed that 25.52 km sup(2) of reef area and 2.16 km sup(2) of reef vegetation in Gulf of Mannar have been lost over a period of ten years. The analysis of multi-date bathymetry data indicates that the depth of seafloor has decreased along the coast and around the islands in the study area. The average reduction of depth in seafloor has been estimated as 0.51 m over a period of twenty four years. The increased suspended sediment concentration due to coastal and island erosion, and raised reef due to emerging of coast by tectonic movement are responsible for coral reef degradation in the Gulf of Mannar. Validation by ground truth has confirmed these results.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Distribution and diversity of marine flora in coral reef ecosystems of Kadmat Island in Lakshadweep archipelago, Arabian Sea, India

Author(s) :Desai, V.V.; Komarpant, D.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull: 506; 2003; 1-23.

Abstract :The coral reef of Kadmat Island of Lakshadweep was assessed for its biological components along with relevant hydrological characteristics. Corals were represented by 12 species, the most dominant being Acropora and Porites. The distribution of coral was mainly confined to the reef slope and fore reef; however, the cover was very poor except for a few patches on the fore reef towards northwest (less than 10%). The lagoon and reef flats were almost devoid of corals. The low counts (0-80 x 10 sup(3) cells l sup(-1)) and poor composition (11 spp.) of phytoplanktons could be due to oligotrophic waters around the island. The high contents of dissolved oxygen (DO) might be due to photosynthetic activities of macrophytes in the lagoon. Seagrass meadow occupied only 0.14 km sup(2) area of the lagoon leaving 98% of it barren. It was more prominent in the mid- and landward region of the lagoon due to fine and well-sorted thick sediment. Seagrass flora was comprised of two species and was dominated by Cymodocea rotundata. Biomass was estimated to be more (26-30.5 g m sup(-2) dry weight) during premonsoon season. The marine algae were represented by 23 spp. and mainly occurred in the seagrass beds but contributed negligibly to the biomass. Acanthophora spicifera, Padina boergesenii and Jania capillaceae were common during premonsoon season. Sand-dune flora was represented by 39 spp. of which 16 spp. were perennial. The most dominant forms were Spinifix littoreas and Ipomea pes-caprae. The sand-dune region is under constant threat of reclamation for cultivation of vegetables and dwellings. Poor composition, particularly of corals, indicated that the reefs around Kadmat Island were converting into algal or detrital reefs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Quaternary stratigraphy and micropaleontology of rocks of south Andaman, Bay of Bengal, India

Author(s) :Rajshekhar, C.; Reddy, P.P.

Source :(18. Indian Colloq. on Micropaleontology and Stratigraphy; Nagpur; India; 14-16 Jan 2002). Gondwana Geol. Mag.: 6; 2003; 33-38.

Abstract :The Neill West Coast Formation of Srinivasan and Azmi (1976a) has been emended to accommodate the Holocene beach rocks under Chidyatapu Member. Accordingly, the Neill Formation of Archipelago Group comprised of the Late Pliocene Silty Mudstone Member, Pleistocene Neill Limestone Member and the Holocene Chidyatapu Member in ascending stratigraphic order. The Chidyatapu Member is characterized by beach rocks. The radiocarbon dates of beach rocks indicate the Wandoor beach rocks are younger to that of Chidyatapu beach rocks. The benthic foraminifera together with the other reported foraminifera from this exhibit Indo-Pacific affinity to the Chidyatapu Member and thus indicate that the Holocene Andaman Sea has retained its Indo-Pacific affinity despite the closing and opening of Indonesian seaway during Late Cenozoic Period (Srinivasan and Sinha, 2000). At places e.g. at Chidyatapu the beach rocks show bryozoan encrustations indicating development of hard grounds. Petrographically the beach rocks belong to algal-biocalcarenite facies. They show the dominance of aragonitic cement and the coralline articulated algal genus Corallina. The radiocarbon dates of the raised beach deposits indicate the neotectonic activity and thereby reflect the tectonically active nature of Andaman Ridge

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef ecosystem

Author(s) :Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

Source :Sustainable management of wetlands: Biodiversity and beyond. eds. by: Parikh, J.; Datye, H.SAGE Publications; New Delhi; India; 2003; 117-154.

Abstract :Briefly discuss coral reefs in general and the Indian reefs in particular. While the ecology, growth forms and distribution of the reefs are well known and need only be mentioned briefly, the constraints to their sustainability and problems of management are diverse and region-specific

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Survival, growth and gonad development of two hermatypic corals subjected to in situ fish-farm nutrient enrichment

Author(s) :Bongiorni, L.; Shafir, S.; Angel, D.; Rinkevich, B.

Source :Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.: 253; 2003; 137-144.

Abstract :Nutrient enrichment in oligotrophic tropical waters is considered one of the main causes for coral reef degradation. In the present study, the impacts of net-pen fish-farming in the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea, on coral biology were evaluated by investigating survival, growth and gonad development in 2 common branching coral species. From 10 Acropora eurystoma genotypes (colonies) 200 branches were collected and suspended for 7 mo from PVC plates adjacent to a commercial fish farm. They grew 3 times faster than a similar set of branches taken from the same 10 colonies and suspended on PVC plates at a non-enriched reference site. The increase in branch weight and volume was 2.7 and 4.3 times greater, respectively, at the fish farm than at the reference site. Survival rates were 100% at both sites. Nubbins of Stylophora pistillata deployed on plates at the 2 sites initially (first 4 mo) grew more rapidly at the reference site, but after 13 mo, the vertical extension levels were significantly larger at the fish-farm site (19.2 plus or minus 6.1 vs 16.3 plus or minus 4.6 mm, respectively). The average number of oocytes polyp sup(-1) and the number of polyps with developing testes in mature S. pistillata colonies were significantly higher at the fish farm than at the reference site. It is suggested that nutrients released from intensive mariculture may not necessarily lead to the demise of coral reefs, as is commonly presumed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reefs in a high-latitude, siliciclastic barrier island setting: Reef framework and sediment production at Inhaca Island, southern Mozambique

Author(s) :Perry, C.T.

Source :Coral Reefs: 22(4); 2003; 485-497.

Abstract :Inhaca Island (southern Mozambique) is located in a high-latitude setting along the seaward margins of the estuarine Maputo Bay and is subject to fluctuations in temperature and salinity, and high sedimentation and turbidity levels. Coral reefs are developed sporadically along the margins of intertidal channels, but framework development is severely restricted. Coral growth is bathymetrically limited (never exceeding 6-m depth), and framework accumulation is only present in the upper 1-2 m. Massive Porites sp. produce a basic reef structure, with other coral genera (mainly Acropora sp., Favia sp., Platygyra sp., Pocillopora sp., and Montipora sp.) colonizing available substrata. Sediment samples also indicate restricted carbonate sediment production, with siliciclastics (mainly quartz) a major sediment contributor (often >90%) and carbonate grain assemblages differing from those normally associated with lower-latitude reefs. Although corals, molluscs and coralline algae (including rhodoliths) represent dominant grain constituents, Halimeda is absent and there is a low diversity (four species identified) of benthic foraminifera (mainly Amphistegina sp.). Grain associations are therefore somewhat transitional in character, comprising elements of both tropical (chlorozoan) and temperate (foramol) grain assemblages. These patterns of reef and associated carbonate production emphasize the marginal character of these reef environments, which form one end member in a broad spectrum of marginal reef systems that are now being identified in a range of both high- and low-latitude settings.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral communities of the northwestern Gulf of Aden (Yemen): Variation in framework building related to environmental factors and biotic conditions

Author(s) :Benzoni, F.; Bianchi, C.N.; Morri, C.

Source :Coral Reefs: 22(4); 2003; 475-484.

Abstract :Coral communities were investigated in the northwestern Gulf of Aden, Yemen, for their composition, structure, and bioconstruction potential. Although no true reef was encountered, high cover coral carpets were found where hard substrate was available. Seven different types of coral communities were differentiated, and both non-framework and framework coral communities were found. Monotypy or oligotypy seem to be consistent characteristics of framework-building coral communities in the study area. Apart from substrate availability, proximity to the upwelling area and exposure were found to be the most important environmental factors influencing coral communities structure, composition, and bioconstruction potential.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas (Arabian Gulf, South Africa)

Author(s) :Riegl, B.

Source :Coral Reefs: 22(4); 2003; 433-446.

Abstract :The findings in this paper show that Arabian Gulf (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah) corals have already been measurably affected by climate change and further negative impacts are expected. Corals in South Africa have been only weakly impacted and are expected to persist in this likely refuge. The Arabian Gulf has recently experienced high-frequency recurrences of temperature-related bleaching (1996, 1998, 2002). First evidence may suggest that bleaching patterns in corals changed due to phenotypic adaptation after two strong bleaching events in rapid succession, because Acropora, which during the 1996 and 1998 events always bleached first and suffered heaviest mortality, bleached less than all other corals in 2002 at Sir Abu Nuair and recovered at Jebel Ali and Ras Hasyan. In South Africa, reef corals largely escaped the mass mortalities observed across the tropics in the late 1990s, although bleaching has also increased since 1999. These reefs are protected by local small-scale upwelling events in summer that, if they occur at the right time, keep temperatures below bleaching levels. Both areas, the Arabian Gulf and South Africa, have rich coral faunas but little to no recent reef-framework production. Sea-level rise by up to 0.88 m is expected to be a problem in some low-lying areas, like the southern Arabian Gulf. Ocean aragonite saturation state is predicted to fall throughout the ocean but may not change reef dynamics in the two study areas.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Stable oxygen isotopes in Porites corals monitor weekly temperature variations in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

Author(s) :Al-Rousan, S.; Al-Moghrabi, S.; Paetzold, J.; Wefe, G.

Source :Coral Reefs: 22(4); 2003; 346-356.

Abstract :In order to assess the ability of Porites corals to accurately record environmental variations, high-resolution (weekly/biweekly) coral delta super(18)O records were obtained from four coral colonies from the northern Gulf of Aqaba, which grew at depths of 7, 19, 29, and 42 m along one transect. Adjacent to each colony, hourly temperatures, biweekly salinities, and monthly delta super(18)O of seawater were continuously recorded over a period of 14 months (April 1999 to June 2000). Contrary to water temperature, which shows a regular and strong seasonal variation and change with depth, seawater delta super(18)O exhibits a weak seasonality and little change with depth. Positive correlations between seawater delta super(18)O and salinity were observed. The two parameters were related to each other by the equation delta super(18)O sub(Seawater) (ppt, VSMOW) = 0.281 x Salinity - 9.14. The high-resolution coral delta super(18)O records from this study show a regular pattern of seasonality and are able to capture fine details of the weekly average temperature records. They resolve more than 95% of the weekly average temperature range. On the other hand, attenuation and amplification of coral seasonal amplitudes were recorded in deep, slow-growing corals, which were not related to environmental effects (temperature and/or seawater delta super(18)O) or sampling resolution. It is proposed that these result from a combined effect of subannual variations in extension rate and variable rates of spine thickening of skeletal structures within the tissue layer. The results demonstrate that coral delta super(18)O from the northern Gulf of Aqaba is a reliable recorder of temperature variations, and that there is a minor contribution of seawater delta super(18)O to this proxy, which could be ignored.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Food selection in two corrallivorous butterflyfishes, Chaetodon austriacus and C. trifascialis, in the Northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Alwany, M.; Thaler, E.; Stachowitsch, M.

Source :Mar. Ecol.: 24(3); 2003; 165-177.

Abstract :Using an in situ observational approach, the food preferences among hard corals were examined for the two obligate coral-feeding butterflyfishes Chaetodon austriacus and C. trifascialis in the Northern Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt. C. austriacus is a generalist coral feeder that feeds mainly on three genera of abundant hard corals (Acropora, Porites and Pocillopora). In contrast, C. trifascialis is a specialist coral feeder on Acropora spp. and Pocillopora verrucosa. In general, C. austriacus had a lower feeding rate than C. trifascialis (both species in the Northern Red Sea reefs had high feeding rates compared with other reefs). Ivlev's electivity index was calculated for the two species. This index shows that C. austriacus prefers Montipora and Pocillopora, and avoids Lobophyllia and Favites. On the other hand, C. trifascialis prefers Acropora valida and avoids Porites solida. Thus, the feeding preference and avoidance of these chaetodontids depend on both biting rate and food availability in the environment rather than on biting rate alone

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Alcyonacean metabolites VIII - Antibacterial metabolites from Labophytum crassum of the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Vanisree, M.; Subbaraju, G.V.

Source :Asian J. Chem.: 14(2); 2002; 957-960.

Abstract :Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the soft coral Lobophytum crassum yielded a cembranoid diterpene ((7E, 1lE, lR, 2S, 3R, 4R, 14S)-14-acetoxy-3,4-epoxycembra-7, 11, 15-triene-17, 2-olide, 1] as the potent anti-bacterial metabolite exhibiting activity against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. A new ceramide (2) with moderate antibacterial activity besides two known polyhydroxysterols and batyl alcohol were also isolated

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Use of carbon and oxygen isotopes in paleoceanography and paleoclimatology

Author(s) :Ahmad, S.M.

Source :Indian J. Geochem.: 17; 2002; 1-11.

Abstract :Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes are widely used in earth sciences to unravel mysteries of the past climate and in understanding chemical and physical processes. In this review paper an attempt is made to discuss various applications of C and O isotopes in earth and ocean sciences particularly their utility in paleoclimatic research. An elaborate overview of the potential of delta sup(13)C and delta sup(18)O in the area of paleoceanography and paleoclimatology is provided with examples from deep sea core results from the North Indian Ocean. Importance of carbon and oxygen isotopes in high-resolution paleoclimate investigations using natural archives, such as the scleractinian corals is also discussed in detail. Oxygen isotopes of foraminifera mainly represent the changes in sup(18)O/sup(16)O ratio of seaware associated with the waxing and waning of the polar continental ice, the other part is due to the changes in temperature or salinity. Carbon isotopes of surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera are indicators of productivity and nutrient concentrations, whereas for deep dwelling benthic foraminifera they are mainly dependent upon the history of the deep waters. The longer the time since the last exchange with atmospheric CO sub(2) the more negative is the isotopic ratio of the total dissolved carbon, and of the carbonate foraminifera deposited. Stable isotopes in ocean sediments vary considerably as a consequence of local climate change and their interpretation require careful considerations of other paleoclimatic indicators. The delta sup(13) C and delta sup(18)O values of carbonate rocks are utilized to study the carbon and oxygen budget since the Precambrian time. Stable isotopic compositions of Protcrozoic carbonates are useful in determining the boundary events and to investigate paleo-environments of their formation. They are also extremely important in understanding the process of dolomitization of limestones.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Validation of anomaly from the seismic data: A case study from Saurastra offshore area

Author(s) :Singh, B.N.; Singh, S.N.

Source :J. Geophys.: 23(3-4); 2002; 97-107.

Abstract :Non uniqueness of geophysical anomalies have always been a stumbling block in geophysical interpretations. The observed seismic responses often lead to different explanations where as the real expected solution is unique. In the context of oil exploration, it has been difficult at times, in distinguishing the seismic anomalies caused by major structural features e.g. salt domes, shale diapir, igneous intrusions, basement horst etc., owing to the similarities of the response manifestation on seismic section. This has led to pitfails in seismic data interpretation and have necessitated studies in convincingly inferring the nature of causative bodies, as well as have made the integrated studies imperative in the industry. During the exploration venture pursed by Oil India Limited (OIL) in Saurashtra Offshore area, a few similar cases were encountered where the uniqueness in interpretation and thus a unanimous conclusion on the nature of the causative body could not be ascertained. In an attempt to explain the anomalies, a study was carried out by the authors with preclusion that these seismic anomalies are worth investigating from hydrocarbon exploration point of the view. Special and advanced processing such as wavelet processing, PSDM (Pre Stack Depth Migration) etc. have been carried out to enact the anomalies and the environment better. The result of gravity and magnetic observation have been interpreted and integrated to validate the different possibilities. This paper deals with the validation of one of such seismic anomalies which resembles a response which could be due to various type of causative bodies viz. flow structure, volcanic intrusion, solution collapse, gas chimney, basement horst or due to reef builds ups. The systematic analysis of all the possibilities and elimination of the less probable, led to the inference that the causative body be due to subsequent reef builds up on the basement horst viz. the top patch shape (reef) and the bottom domal part (basement) with an in between shadow zone due to reef

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Community structure and biogeography of shore fishes in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

Author(s) :Khalaf, M.A.; Kochzius, M.

Source :Helgol. Mar. Res.: 55; 2002; 252-284.

Abstract :Shore fish community structure off the Jordanian Red Sea coast was determined on fringing coral reefs and in a seagrass-dominated bay at 6 m and 12 m depths. A total of 198 fish species belonging to 121 genera and 43 families was recorded. Labridae and Pomacentridae dominated the ichthyofauna in terms of species richness and Pomacentridae were most abundant. Neither diversity nor species richness was correlated to depth. The abundance of fishes was higher at the deep reef slope, due to schooling planktivorous fishes. At 12 m depth abundance of fishes at the seagrass-dominated site was higher than on the coral reefs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a strong influence on the fish assemblages by depth and benthic habitat. Fish species richness was positively correlated with hard substrate cover and habitat diversity. Abundance of corallivores was positively linked with live hard coral cover. The assemblages of fishes were different on the shallow reef slope, deep reef slope and seagrass meadows. An analysis of the fish fauna showed that the Gulf of Aqaba harbours a higher species richness than previously reported. The comparison with fish communities on other reefs around the Arabian Peninsula and Indian Ocean supported the recognition of an Arabian subprovince within the Indian Ocean. The affinity of the Arabian Gulf ichthyofauna to the Red Sea is not clear.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seco-sethukarailin, a novel diterpenoid from the soft coral Sinularia dissecta

Author(s) :Reddy, NS.; Goud, T.V.; Venkateswarlu, Y.

Source :J. Nat. Prod.: 65; 2002; 1059-1060.

Abstract :Seco-sethukarailin (1), a novel diterpenoid, has been isolated along with known sesquiterpenes ó9(15)-africanene, Γ-elemene, african-1-ene, 6R,7R-6,7-epoxycaryophyll-3(15)-ene, and known diterpenoids sethukarailin and isomandapamate, from the soft coral Sinularia dissecta collected from Mandapam Coast, South India. The structure of the novel diterpenoid seco-sethukarailin (1) was characterized by interpretation of spectral data.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Horiolide, a Novel Norditerpenoid from Indian Ocean Soft Coral of the Genus Sinularia

Author(s) :Radhika, P.; Rao, P.V.S.; Anjaneyulu, V.; Asolkar, R.N.; Laatsch, H.

Source :J. Nat. Prod.: 65; 2002; 737-739.

Abstract :A novel norditerpenoid, horiolide (1), has been isolated from an Indian Ocean soft coral of the genus Sinularia. The structural elucidation was achieved by a study of its spectral characteristics. This compound is structurally characterized by a new carbon skeleton having one six-membered cyclohexane ring bearing an isopropylene moiety, a carbonyl group, and one seven-membered ring attached to a five-membered lactone moiety.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Note upon additional specific statistical needs of purse seiners fleets during the IOTTP

Author(s) :Fonteneau, A.

Source :IOTC Proc.WPDCS-02-06: 5; 2002; p. 43.

Abstract :The tagging programme presently planned by the IOTC, the so-called IOTTP (Indian Ocean Tuna Tagging Programme), will introduce new statistical requirements. These new statistical needs will be essential to allow a full efficiency of the data processing of tag recoveries. The major new statistical requirement will be in relation with the tracability of fish marketing. In the present statistical system, the only requirement is to know the landed weight of tunas at the end of each trip. A new statistical requirement should now be introduced as soon as possible (for instance early in 2003) in the IOTC statistical system during the IOTTP. It this new system, the following information should be recorded set by set, and fully computerized in all national data bases : 1) If the fish is landed by the vessel in the landing port, targeting a local cannery. 2) Or if the fished is transshipped on a reefer, and in this case the final destination (port) of this reefer. This information will be used in conjunction with the estimates of rates of tag 'identification' by fishermen and canneries that will be estimated for each port and landing process/final market (using results obtained from tag seeding experiments that will be planned by the IOTTP). This information upon marketing itineraries will be essential to allow to do optimal analysis of tag recovery rates.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Spatial distribution pattern and biology of tuna live-bait fishes in Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Pillai,P.P.; Gopakumar,G.; Koya, K.P.S.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 44(1-2); 2002; 231-236.

Abstract :This paper embodies the results of the aimed exploratory baitfish survey conducted in all the lagoons, reefs and par areas in Lakshadweep, India utilizing the vessel facility of FORV Sagar Sampada during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. Potentially rich baitfish grounds were located around Cheriyapaniyam and Baliyapaniyam reef areas, which are hitherto unexplored and unexploited realms. Species diversity indices were high at Minicoy, Kavaratti, Suheli Par, Kadamat Cheriyapaniyam and 13aliyapaniyam reef areas. Caesionids constituted the dominant group (40%) followed by apogonids (18%), pomacentrids (17%), dussumierids (sprats) (17%), emmelichthyds (1%) and others (7%). Catch rate (catch per haul) of baitfishes was maximum at Kavaratti (1164g) and it ranged between 850-950g at Suheli Par, Minicoy, Chetiat, Kadamat and Baliyapaniyam Reef; 500-750g at Perumul Par, Bangaram-Tinnakara-Parali group, Kalpeni, Agatti and Cheriyapaniyam Reef, and 100-310g at Bitra and Kiltan islands. Biological characteristics such as size distribution, fecundity-length relationship and food and feeding habit are presented. The results obtained were compared with those documented based on the survey conducted during the post-monsoon period of 1987, and the recurring fluctuation in their availability and abundance discussed from an ecological point of view.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reproductive biology of some common coral reef fishes of the India

Author(s) :Anand, P.E.V.; Pillai, N.G.K.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India: 44(1-2); 2002; 122-135.

Abstract :The reproductive biology of some common coral reef fishes from the Lakshadweep (8 degreess tt, 12 degreess N and 71 degreess 45 minutes to 73 degreess 45 minutes E) and the Gulf of Mannar (8'48' to 9 degreess 14 minutes N and 79 degreess 9 minutes to 79 degreess 14 minutes E) in the Indian EEZ during January 1991 to June 1992 is reported. Protogyny was prominent in labrids, while other species either matured synchronously or differentially, with males maturing earlier or later than females. Sex-ratio indicated that females were dominant in most species. Fecundity estimates varied greatly, from 700 to 2,25,850 ova per female. Whenever the environment is favourable the coral reef fish spawn on a daily, weekly, fortnightly and monthly basis. Total fecundity per year, therefore, is presumably very high. Most species appeared to be perennial spawners, some showed small breaks, while very few indicated biannual spawning. Continuous occurrence of juveniles in different size ranges confirmed the continuous spawning habits. Spawning activity was minimum during monsoon seasons, evidently an adaptation to tide over adverse environmental conditions prevailing at that time lest the egg and larvae are transported far and wide. This was corroborated by peak settlement during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal sponge communities of the West Indian Ocean: Taxonomic affinities, richness and diversity

Author(s) :Barnes, E.A.; Bell, J.J.

Source :Afr. J. Ecol.: 40; 2002; 337-349.

Abstract :Sponges assemblages were sampled in four coastal study regions (Malindi, Kenya; Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique; Inhaca Island, Southern Mozambique and Anakao, Madagascar) in the west Indian Ocean. Sponge species were counted in multiple 0.5 m sup(2) quadrats at depths of between 0 and 20 m at a number of sites within localities within each region. Despite the relatively small areas sampled, sponge samples comprised a total of 130 species and 70 genera of the classes Demospongiae and Calcarea. Sponges are clearly a major taxon in these regions in terms of numbers of species, percentage cover or biomass, although their ecology in the west Indian Ocean is virtually unknown. Nearly half of the genera, e.g. Iotrochota, found were species with a so-called Tethyan distribution. Most of the other genera were cosmopolitan, e.g. Clathria, but some were cold water (Coelo-sphaera), Indo-Australian (Ianthella ) or circum-African (Crambe ).Many of the species encountered in the present study occurred in at least two study regions, many in more and could occupy large areas of substratum. Some of these, e.g. Xestospongia exigua, are commonly found throughout the Indo-west Pacific region where they also occupy much space. The endemicity of the shallow water sponge faunas in East Africa (20-25%) seem to be high within the Indo-Pacific realm but are lower than northern Papua New Guinea. The tropical regions (Kenya and Northern Mozambique) were more speciose than subtropical regions (southern Mozambique and Madagascar) but not significantly more diverse (Shannon H' ). Although latitude was not a major influence on sponge community patterns, hard substratum assemblages did form a cline from the tropics to Southern Mozambique, linked by Madagascar. Sponge assemblages of soft substrata were much more dissimilar, both within and between habitats, than those on hard substrata. There was a predictable variability in species richness between hard substratum habitats: coral reefs being speciose and caves being less so. Our findings showed that both patterns and influences on species richness may be decoupled from those influencing diversity. In our data species richness, but not diversity, showed striking regional and bathymetric trends. In addition, sponge species richness mainly split at coral reef vs. non-reef habitats, whilst diversity divided principally into assemblages on hard and soft substrata.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal sponge communities of the West Indian Ocean: Taxonomic affinities, richness and diversity

Author(s) :Barnes, D.K.A.; Bell, J.J.

Source :Afr. J. Ecol.: 40; 2002; 337-349.

Abstract :Sponges assemblages were sampled in four coastal study region (Malindi, Kenya; Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique; Inhaca Island, Southern Mozambique and Anakao, Madagascar) in the west Indian Ocean. Sponge species were counted in multiple 0.5 m super(2) quadrats at depths of between 0 and 20 m at a number of sites within localities within each region. Despite the relatively small areas sampled, sponge samples comprised a total of 130 species and 70 genera of the classes Demospongiae and Calcarea. Sponges are clearly a major taxon in these regions in terms of numbers of species, percentage cover or biomass, although their ecology in the west Indian Ocean is virtually unknown. Nearly half of the genera, e.g. lotrochota, found were species with a so-called Tethyan distribution. Most of the other genera were cosmopolitan, e.g. Clathria, but some were cold water (Coelosphaera), Indo-Australian (Lanthella) or circum-African (Crambe). Many of the species encountered in the present study occurred in at least two study regions, many in more and could occupy large areas of substratum. Some of these, e.g. Xestospongia exigua, are commonly found throughout the Indo-west Pacific region where they also occupy much space. The endemicity of the shallow water sponge faunas in East Africa (20-25%) seem to be high within the Indo-Pacific realm but are lower than northern Papua New Guinea. The tropical regions (Kenya and Northern Mozambique) were more speciose than subtropical regions (southern Mozambique and Madagascar) but not significantly more diverse (Shannon H'). Although latitude was not a major influence on sponge community patterns, hard substratum assemblages did form a cline from the tropics to Southern Mozambique, linked by Madagascar. Substratum nature (habitat) was most important in influencing the suite and number of species present. The findings showed that both patterns and influences on species richness may be decoupled from those influencing diversity. In our data species richness, but not diversity, showed striking regional and bathymetric trends. In addition, sponge species richness mainly split at coral reef vs. non-reef habitats, whilst diversity divided principally into assemblages on hard and soft substrata. It is considered that this dichotomy of findings between species richness and diversity values to be important, as these are two principal measures used for the interpretation of biodiversity

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coastal sponge communities of the West Indian Ocean: Morphological richness and diversity

Author(s) :Barnes, D.K.A.; Bell, J.J.

Source :Afr. J. Ecol.: 40; 2002; 350-359.

Abstract :Sponges are a reasonably ubiquitous, abundant and highly morphologically plastic taxon. They are very unusual in showing considerable morphological plasticity, not only within higher taxa but within species and at macro and micro scales. In this study the prevalence of sponge morphologies at four coastal study regions in the west Indian Ocean is determined. It is shown that the tropical and subtropical assemblages (in the present study) can be separated on the basis of morphological composition along (by greater than 4% arborescent forms or presence of palmate forms in the former). Inter-tidal sponge assemblages can also be separated from those in the subtidal to a high degree of certainty, also on prevalence of morphologies (absence of tubular or branching forms in the former). The species diversity of many sponge assemblages has been quantified in various environments but, typically, only by specialists. Rarely have equivalent measures been made of morphological diversity. Values of morphological diversity (Shannon H') were similar, though more variable, to those measured in temperate waters. Substratum nature had a major influence on morphological diversity and evenness, in contrast to geography and bathymetry. As coral reefs were the most diverse and caves and boulders the least, suggests that substratum heterogeneity and water-flow complexity are probably the chief determinant of sponge assemblage morphological diversity

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A summary of the geology of the Iranian Makran

Author(s) :McCall, G.J.H.

Source :The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea region. eds. by: Clift, P.D.; Kroon, D.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.(The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region Meet.; Geological Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly; UK; 4-5 Apr 2001). (Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ.; 195). Geol. Soc.; London; UK; 2002; 147-204.

Abstract :The Iranian Makran has been entirely mapped geologically on a scale of 1:250000, except for a narrow coastal strip, which exposes the very youngest Cenozoic sediments of the main Makran accretionary prism. The geology of the Makran is less widely known than the geology of Oman, because it has been published in detail only in reports of the Geological Survey of Iran. There is no extension of the geological formations of Oman into the Makran, the only extension of Oman ophiolitic formations into Iran being at Neyriz and Kermanshahr. Hundreds of kilometres to the NW. This summary is based on field mapping, photo-interpretation being used only to connect traverse lines. The oldest rocks are metamorphic rocks, which form the basement to the Bajgan-Dur-kan microcontinental 'sliver', a narrow block that extends hundreds of kilometres from the Bitlis Massif in Turkey, through the Sanandaj-Sirjan Block of the Zagros, to north of Nikshahr in the east of the Makran. Other metamorphic rocks form the Deyader Complex near Fannuj on the southern margin of the Jaz Murian Depression. There are discontinuous development of Eocene-Oligocene neritic sediments unconformably above the older rocks (ophiolites, platform limestones, metamorphic rocks), and to the north of the southern edge of the Jaz Murian Depression, the northern limit of the Makran, there is evidence of the survival here of a very shallow sea through Neogene time and the formation of small patches of reefal Oligocene-Miocene limestones, and Eocene to Pliocene shallow-water clastic sediments. A 150 km wide tract separates the coast from the trench, the total Cenozoic accretioanry prism being 500 km wide. Extension from the Murray Ridge affects the extreme east of the region. The Saravan accretionary prism, it is suggested faced a gulf, comparable with the Gulf of Oman, and this Saravan Gulf filled up and closed up by Early Oligocene time. Seismological evidence suggests that there is now active continental collision continuing along this suture

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Application of GIS in critical habitat management

Author(s) :Subramanian, B.R.

Source :Advances in marine and Antarctic science. eds. by: Sahoo, D.; Pandey, P.C.A.P.H. Publishing Corp.; New Delhi (India); 2002; 217-251.

Abstract :Geographic Information System (GIS) forms an important tool for the management of critical habitats such as mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds and wetlands. These form breeding and nursery grounds for many commercially important species. Most of these have become very vulnerable to intense human activities resulting in the loss of unique ecosystems. Mangrove forest cover in India, both on the east and west coasts, amounts to 6740 km@u2@@. Pichavaram mangroves located in Tamilnadu has large areas of degraded mangrove forests caused by human activities. There are data on biodiversity of flora and fauna, and socio-economic factors available from GIS network. Similar information exists on Coringa mangroves of Andhra Pradesh located south of Kakina Bay. Sunderbans which stretches from Hooghly River to Meghna River in Bangladesh. The Government of India has declared Sunderbans as a Biosphere Reserve in 1989. The Gulf of Khambat (Cambay) forms a large marine ecosystem where the tidal range is vary large (7-11 m). Satellite data indicate that the gulf is characterised by extensive mudflats and mangrove cover occupies 54 km@u2@@. Coral reef ecosystems are found in the Gulf of Mannar, which has also been declared as a National Biosphere Reserve. In this the coral reef and seagrass area have been identified around different islands. Similarly, on one of the atolls of the Lakshadweep group (Kadmat), using satellite data, coral reef areas and the area of the lagoons, which contains seagrasses and seaweeds, has been delineated. Bleaching of corals has been widespread. Along the west coast of India, Malvan (Maharashtra) has rich fauna and flora including corals. On the east coast, Gulf of Kachchh has been studied for corals and mangroves. Among the areas, rich in biodiversity are the islands of Cochin and Karwar. Largest rockery for the nesting of marine turtles is found at Gahirmatha. Thus, the use of GIS has provided very valuable information for the management of critical habitats.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Strontium anomaly as evidence of enhanced surface biological production in the southwestern Bay of Bengal during the last glacial

Author(s) :Venu, K.G.; Sarma, N.S.

Source :Advances in marine and Antarctic science. eds. by: Sahoo, D.; Pandey, P.C.A.P.H. Publishing Corp.; New Delhi (India); 2002; 139-148.

Abstract :A gravity core lifted off Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India from the seafloor at water depth of 875 metres was subjected to sedimentological and geochemical study with a view to probing the influence of quaternary sea level changes on the chemistry of its sediments. Sr attains peak concentrations (mean = 736 ppm) in the 295-365 cm sandy clay horizon (sand approx. 30% and clay approx. 60%) against a background of ca. 200 ppm in the rest of the core which is predominantly clayey (clay approx. 90% and sand less than 1%). The Sr maxima, as well as the Sr/Al/Ca@dB@@ (biogenic calcium) occur at the same horizon attributed to glacial sedimentation by the distribution of planktonic foraminifera. Transported coralline debris is ruled out as the possible source of Sr. Even the SE monsoon was weak debris is ruled out as the possible source of Sr. Even though the SW monsoon was weak, the NE monsoon which was at its peak at that time around the study area, should be helping peak primary production via upwelling of the cool nutrient-rich sub-surface water. The tiny, fast calcifying biogenic particles may lead to a heterogeneous precipitation of Sr-enriched ooids, aided by cool temperature and the limit of solution concentration.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Radiocarbon dates of corals, gastropods and foraminifers from Saurashtra Peninsula, Gujarat and their implications for sea levels studies

Author(s) :Mathur, U.B.; Pandey, D.K.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 60(3); 2002; 303-308.

Abstract :High precision Acceleration Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dates of corals, gastropods and smaller foraminifers from a coral-algal stratigraphical sequence, exposed 2.73-4.20 m above the present msl, near Mithapur on Dwarka-Okha coast, have been reported in the present paper. The age ranges from ca. 41.2 to 18.3 ka BP. The mineralogy, petrology and delta@u13@@ C values of the samples indicate that the dates are reliable within the limitations of the dating method. Confirmatory U/Th dating will, however, be useful to strengthen the conclusion. Since the samples are from the intraplate area of the Saurashtra Peninsula, the present position of 41.2 and 18.3 ka old sea level recorders cannot be explained by a large-scale uplift. At the same time, they cannot be taken as the records of the sea level stands of approx. 40 ka and approx. 18 ka BP, as the generally accepted data suggest very low sea level stands of the periods. Therefore, an epeirogenetic model is to be evolved that satisfactorily superposed younger approx. 18 ka sediments, but also the corals of 118 - 176 ka BP ages that co-exist at low altitudes at Mithapur.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Cenozoic coralline algal assemblage from southwestern Kutch and its importance in palaeoenvironment and palaeobathymetry

Author(s) :Ghosh, A.K.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 83(2); 2002; 153-158.

Abstract :Little contribution has been made on the study of coralline algae from the Cenozoic sediments of southwestern Kutch. Some of the limestone units belonging to Oligocene and Miocene sediments of southwestern Kutch were known to be potential sources for the recovery of coralline algae. There are some reports on the occurrence of coralline red algae from the early Oligocene, late Oligocene and early Lower Miocene rocks of southwestern Kutch. Taxonomic revision of majority of these taxa has to be made following the diagnostic characters used in present-day taxonomy. Presently, the extinct coralline algae are being studied based on new anatomical characters applicable to extant coralline algae. The present study has been carried out following current methodology of taxonomic consideration on freshly collected samples from the late Oligocene (Chattian) limestone belonging to Bermoti Member of Maniyara Fort Formation. The assemblage is dominated by the genera @iLithophyllum@@ and @iMesophyllum@@. Both these taxa have been analysed with the concept of open nomenclature. Attempts have been made to interpret the palaeoenvironment and palaeobathymetry based on the analysis of recovered algal assemblage. The distribution pattern of coralline red algae recorded so far from the Cenozoic sediments of southwestern Kutch has been summarized.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :@iCopidognathus waltairensis@@, a new species of halacaridae (ACARI) from Visakhapatnam Coast, Bay of Bengal

Author(s) :Chatterjee, T.; Annapurna, C.

Source :Proc. Andhra Pradesh Acad. Sci.: 6(1); 2002; 69-72.

Abstract :A new species of halacaridae (Acari) @iCopidognathus waltairensis@@, inhabiting the seaweeds @iCaulerpa racemosa@@ and @iGracilaria corticata@@ from the rocky strip of Palm Beach, near Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. The present species appears to be closely related to @iCopidognathus corallorum@@ (Trouessart, 1899), @iC. guttatus@@ (Bartsch, 1977), @iC. pontellus@@ (Bartsch, 1981). But it markedly differs from the above species by the presence of denticulus process on tibiae 1st and 2nd.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Microspatial variability inside epilithic algal communities within territories of the damselfish @iStegastes nigricans@@ at La Reunion (Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Loma, T.L. de; Ballesteros, E.

Source :Bot. Mar.: 45(4); 2002; 316-323.

Abstract :Species composition and spatial variability inside algal turf communities within territories of the damselfish @iStegastes nigricans@@ have been studied in a shallow reef flat environment of the Saint Gilles-La Saline reef complex, at La Reunion Island. The sampling of 50 small portions (2 cm long) of staghorn coral @iAcropora@@ branches and accurate identification and quantification of algal species under a dissecting microscope provided a list of 19 species. Green algae @iEnteromorpha clathrata@@ and @iCladophora socialis@@ and red algae @iAnotrichium tenue@@ and @iGelidiopsis intricata@@ were the most abundant species in the turfs overgrowing @iAcropora@@ coral branches. A correspondence analysis applied to the samples revealed three major groups of species characterised by (1) @iE. clathrata@@, (2) @iC. socialis@@, and (3) @iG. intricata@@. A gradient has been observed from @iE. clathrata@@ turfs usually occurring at the apical parts of the coral branches, to @iG. intricata@@ turfs present at the basal parts of the branches. The algal composition of the gut contents of @iS. nigricans@@ was analysed and compared to the algal composition in the field. The feeding selectivity of the fish was established for several algal species. It was suggested that @iE. clathrata@@- dominated turfs correspond to initial aspects of algal colonisation of recently dead corals, while @iG. intricata@@-dominated turfs correspond to mature communities; @iC. socialis@@-dominated turfs would correspond to the most intensively grazed turfs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Phosphatized limestones from the Seychelles Islands

Author(s) :Baturin, G.N.; Gorshkov, A.I.; Zhegallo, E.A.; Bogdanova, O.Yu.; Isaeva, A.B.; Magazina, L.O.

Source :Oceanology: 42(3); 2002; 430-436.

Abstract :The chemical composition and microstructures of phosphatized calcareous sandstone and phosphatized coral from African Island (Seychelles group, Indian Ocean) were studied. The samples consist of low-fluorine carbonate apatite with minor lithogenic admixtures. Examination under a scanning electron microscope showed that the microstructures of the phosphatic matter are represented by globular, microgranular, collomorphic, incrustate, acicular, and lenticular varieties. Some tubular formations are also present, representing phosphatized microfossils whose morphology resembles cyanobacteria, as well as recent remains of diatoms. The origin of these phosphorites is evidently related to the diagenetic processes in the coastal sediments and subsequent transformation of this matter in the subaerial environment

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Discrimination of coral reflectance spectra in the Red Sea

Author(s) :Minghelli-Roman, A.; Chisholm, J.R.M.; Marchioretti, M.; Jaubert, J.M.

Source :Coral Reefs: 21(3); 2002; 307-314.

Abstract :Benthic populations can potentially be mapped from remotely acquired spectral imagery, provided that they have distinctive reflectance signatures. The spectral reflectance characteristics of 14 genera of Red Sea coral using a submersible spectroradiometer are examined. Coral spectra varied quantitatively and qualitatively over the depth interval 5-20 m. Tissue pigment content had a larger effect on reflectance than colony morphology. Ten coral genera could be discriminated with a statistical probability of 52% on the basis of their absolute reflectance. Six groups of two to three coral genera could be discriminated with a probability of 60% on the basis of their rates of change in reflectance at specific wavelengths. All coral genera could be discriminated with a minimum probability of 59% on the basis of their proportionate reflectance at one wavelength as compared with another. Ratio analysis holds significant potential for interpretation of remotely sensed imagery because measurement of reflectance at six wavelengths generates 15 different parameters that can be used to identify and discriminate the component classes. The method distinguishes spectra on the basis of their shape rather than their amplitude, which helps to factor out light-induced variation in pigment concentration, exposing taxon-specific differences in pigment composition and morphology.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Antifouling potential of some marine organisms from India against species of @iBacillus@@ and @iPseudomonas@@

Author(s) :Bhosale, S.H.; Nagle, V.L.; Jagtap, T.G.

Source :Mar. Biotechnol.: 4(2); 2002; 111-118.

Abstract :Crude methanolic extracts of 37 marine organisms (16 species of flora, 21 species of fauna) were screened for antibacterial properties against 5 strains of bacteria isolated from marine environments. Of these, 10 plant and 9 animal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one bacterial strain. The extracts of 6 species were active against all the strains: i.e., @iStoechospermum marginatum@@ (brown algae), @iCymodocea rotundata@@ (seagrass), @iPetrosia@@ sp. and @iPsammaplysilla purpurea@@ (sponges), @iSinularia compressa@@ (soft coral), and @iCassiopeia@@ sp. (jellyfish). Among the plants, @iPadina tetrastromatica@@ (brown algae) extract exhibited significant activity (9-11-mm inhibition zone at 500 mu g per 6-mm disc) against @iBacillus pumilus@@ and @iPseudomonas vesicularis@@, while the extracts of @iPetrosia, Psammaplysilla@@, and @iCassiopeia@@ were strongly active (11-13-mm inhibition zone at 500 mu g per 6-mm disc) against @iB. circulans@@ and @iP. putida@@. It was further confirmed that the attachment of bacterial strains on glass slide was inhibited remarkably with increasing concentrations of bioextracts of @iPetrosia@@ sp. and @iPsammaplysilla purpurea@@. The present findings could form the basis for exploring the antibacterial potential of bioactive molecules from some of the marine organisms that exhibited moderate to strong antibacterial properties

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sediment properties along gradients of siltation in south-east Asia

Author(s) :Kamp-Nielsen, L.; Vermaat, J.E.; Wesseling, I.; Borum, J.; Geertz-Hansen, O.

Source :Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 54(1); 2002; 127-138.

Abstract :Marine sediment properties were quantified along SE Asian siltation gradients and across different habitat types to assess the extent of terrestrial sediment influence and derive indicators of terrestrial sediment input. Three sites in the Andaman Sea (Ranong, Phuket and Trang; Thailand), one site in the Gulf of Thailand (Pak Phanang; Thailand) and three sites in the South China Sea (Bolinao at the Luzon Island, Puerto Galera at the Mindoro Island and El Nind at the Palawan Island, all in the Philippines) were studied. The main habitat types were covered are mangroves, seagrass beds, coral reefs, mud flats, river mouths and deep channels. In Bolinao and El Nido, distinct fronts in siltation were identified at about 7 km from the source. Mud (less than 63 mu m), water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and iron co-varied along the first axis of a principal components analysis, which correlated negatively with the pattern in medium to coarse sand (greater than 250 mu m), total and inorganic carbon as well as calcium. Two-way analysis of variance showed that water depth, distance from silt source, site and habitat type all contributed to the variance, but site explained most. Linear regressions showed positive correlations between silt and water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and iron, but negative correlations with calcium suggesting iron and calcium as markers for terrigenous and marine origin, respectively. The composition of the sediment particulate matter groups the habitat types in two clusters: (1) silty types as river mouths, shallow mud bottoms, deep channels and mangrove stands with high contents of organic matter and nutrients versus (2) non-silty types as seagrass bed and coral reefs with low contents of nutrients and organic matter

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs

Author(s) :Roberts, C.M.; McClean, C.J.; Veron, J.E.N.; Hawkins, J.P.; Allen, G.R.; McAllister, D.E.; Mittermeier, C.G.; Schueler, F.W.; Spalding, M.; Wells, F.; Vynne, C.; Werner, T.B.

Source :Science (Wash.): 295(5558); 2002; 1280-1284.

Abstract :Coral reefs are the most biologically diverse of shallow water marine ecosystems but are being degraded worldwide by human activities and climate warming. Analyses of the geographic ranges of 3235 species of reef fish, corals, snails, and lobsters revealed that between 7.2% and 53.6% of each taxon have highly restricted ranges, rendering them vulnerable to extinction. Restricted-range species are clustered into centers of endemism, like those described for terrestrial taxa. The 10 richest centers of endemism cover 15.8% of the world's coral reefs (0.012% of the oceans) but include between 44.8 and 54.2% of the restricted-range species. Many occur in regions where reefs are being severely affected by people, potentially leading to numerous extinctions. Threatened centers of endemism are major biodiversity hotspots, and conservation efforts targeted toward them could help avert the loss of tropical reef biodiversity

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The impact of the 1998 coral mortality on reef fish communities in the Seychelles

Author(s) :Spalding, M.D.; Jarvis, G.E.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 44(4); 2002; 309-321.

Abstract :Coral reef fish communities in the Seychelles are highly diverse and remain less affected by the direct impacts of human activities than those on many other coral reefs in the Indian Ocean. These factors make them highly suitable for a detailed survey of the impacts of the 1998 mass coral mortality, which devastated the coral faunas of the region. Using underwater visual census (UVC) techniques, fish communities were sampled in three localities in the southern Seychelles and one locality in the northern (granitic) Seychelles. Initial surveys were undertaken from the latter site in 1997. Surveys were undertaken at all sites during the coral bleaching episode in 1998 prior to any major changes in the reef fish communities. Repeat surveys were undertaken in 1999 one year after the coral mortality. Over 250 fish species were sampled from 35 families. Results suggest that changes in the overall fish community structures are not great, despite massive changes in the benthic cover. Significant changes have been observed in a number of individual species. These include those most heavily dependent on live coral cover for shelter or sustenance. Future potential changes are discussed, and potential management interventions are considered

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of macroalgal reduction on coral-reef fish in the Watamu Marine National Park, Kenya

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.; Uku, J.N.; Machano, H.

Source :(6. Indo-Pacific Fish Conf.; Durban; South Africa; 20-25 May 2001). Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 53(2); 2002; 223-231.

Abstract :The paper extends by five months the record of effects of reduction of leathery-macrophyte abundance in plots in a coral reef outcrop in the Watamu National Park, a site that had eliminated fishing for more than 20 years. After one year, leathery macrophytes had not recovered, but articulated green calcareous algae (@iHalimeda@@) had, and replaced leathery macrophytes as the dominant cover on the experimental plots. Of the 56 fish species studied, 20 were influenced by the algal reduction. There were increased numbers of individuals and species of herbivorous surgeonfish (4 species) and parrotfish (5 species), and increased population densities of invertebrate-eating fishes including angelfish (2 species), butterflyfish, emperors and snappers (not identified to species), wrasses (2 species), and a triggerfish. Negative effects were restricted to three damselfishes and one wrasse. Parrotfish, snappers and the total fish abundance showed a significant increase in size and biomass in the algal reduction plots over the year. No differences were found for macrophyte-feeding parrotfish (@iCalotomus carolinus@@). Increased herbivory was the likely cause of the slowness of the recovery of leathery macrophytes and the switch in dominance towards @iHalimeda@@

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Monitoring of fish and fish catches by local fishermen in Kenya and Tanzania

Author(s) :Obura, D.O.; Wells, S.; Church, J.; Horrill, C.

Source :(6. Indo-Pacific Fish Conf.; Durban; South Africa; 20-25 May 2001). Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 53(2); 2002; 215-222.

Abstract :Monitoring of fish populations underwater and of fish catches is being undertaken at several sites in Kenya and Tanzania using local names and languages. This paper describes the programmes underway at Kiunga Marine Reserve and Diani-Chale in Kenya, and at Tanga in Tanzania. At all three sites, standard protocols have been adapted for use by local fishermen, who have been trained to collect data. A key factor enabling this has been to use local knowledge as the foundation of monitoring. The paper discusses some of the difficulties encountered, such as variations in the use of names, and generally low literacy among fishermen. Overall, the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages in terms of developing a much greater sense of involvement in, and participation by, the fishing communities in the management of their resources. The programmes are also providing the fishermen with a deeper understanding of the impact of fishing on their resources and thus will help them to apply appropriate management approaches

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effect of a network of no-take reserves in increasing catch per unit effort and stocks of exploited reef fish at Nabq, South Sinai, Egypt

Author(s) :Galal, N.; Ormond, R.F.G.; Hassan, O.

Source :(6. Indo-Pacific Fish Conf.; Durban; South Africa; 20-25 May 2001). Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 53(2); 2002; 199-205.

Abstract :In 1995, in collaboration with local Bedouin fishermen, five no-take fisheries reserves were established within the Nabq Natural Resource Protected Area, South Sinai, Egyptian Red Sea. The abundance, size structure and catch of commercially targeted groupers (Serranidae), emperors (Lethrinidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) were investigated before the establishment of these reserves, then in 1997 and again in 2000. By 1997, these fish had shown a significant increase in mean abundance within two of the no-take reserves. By 2000 each family and three individual species (@iLethrinus obsoletus, Cephalopholis argus@@ and @iVariola louti@@) had increased in abundance in the reserves. There were significant increases in mean individual length of the serranids @iEpinephelus fasciatus@@ and @iC. argus@@ and of the lethrinids @iL. nebulosus@@ and @iMonotaxis grandoculis@@. Meanwhile, mean recorded catch per unit effort (CPUE) within the adjacent fished areas increased by about two-thirds (P is less than 0.05) during the 5 years. The establishment of the no-take reserves appears to have played a key role in maintaining the sustainability of the fishery. The involvement of local Bedouin and fishermen in the co-management of fisheries recourses was critical to the success of this initiative

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Summer fluxes of organic carbon and nitrogen through a damselfish resident, @iStegastes nigricans@@ (Lacepede, 1803), on a coral reef flat at La Reunion (Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Loma, T.L. de; Harmelin-Vivien, M.L.

Source :(6. Indo-Pacific Fish Conf.; Durban; South Africa; 20-25 May 2001). Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 53(2); 2002; 169-174.

Abstract :In order to estimate the amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen flowing through a herbivorous fish, ingestion, absorption, defecation and excretion were studied in a widely distributed fish in coral reefs, the black damselfish @iStegastes nigricans@@. Two study sites were chosen on a coral reef at La Reunion, in summer. One site is oligotrophic (site O), while the other is nutrient-enriched (site D for disturbed), subject to submarine groundwater discharges. Ingestion and defecation activities were monitored by recording bites rates and faeces production, and excretion quantified by in vitro experiments. Feeding activity (number of bites and faeces) and individual trophic fluxes were larger at site D than at site O. More algal food and thus more organic carbon and nitrogen were consumed, absorbed and redistributed into the reef system by an individual fish at site D than at site O, suggesting a positive feed-back of herbivores on nutrient-enrichment

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Resource partitioning among four butterflyfish species in the Red Sea

Author(s) :Zekeria, Z.A.; Dawit, Y.; Ghebremedhin, S.; Naser, M.; Videler, J.J.

Source :(6. Indo-Pacific Fish Conf.; Durban; South Africa; 20-25 May 2001). Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 53(2); 2002; 163-168.

Abstract :Feeding habits and territorial behaviour of four sympatric Red Sea butterflyfishes were investigated in Eritrean coastal waters. Individual bite rates and types of food consumed were recorded. Stomach contents of 125 specimens were analysed in the laboratory. The food items in the stomach were sorted and their volume estimated. The four species showed marked variation in their food preferences and feeding habits. The most abundant, @iChaetodon larvatus@@, an obligate corallivore, forms monogamous pairs. Each pair defends a relatively small territory against conspecifics and @iC. semilarvatus@@. The latter species also feeds on scleractinian corals but is solitary or lives in small aggregations. The third species, @iHeniochus intermedius@@, feeds on non-coralline benthic invertebrates (mainly polychaetes); it usually lives in pairs or in aggregations of up to 24 individuals. Both @iC. semilarvatus@@ and @iH. intermedius@@ occupy undefended and overlapping home ranges. The least abundant species, @iC. mesoleucos@@, forms monogamous pairs, defends a territory and feeds mainly on non-coralline benthic invertebrates (mainly nematodes and polychaetes). The four species co-exist in the same habitat where they partition the food resources. Both @iC. larvatus@@ and @iC. semilarvatus@@ feed on scleractinian corals, but at different times; @iC. larvatus@@ was observed to feed only during daytime, but @iC. semilarvatus@@ feeds by day and night

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Demographic characteristics of a selection of exploited reef fish from the Seychelles: Preliminary study

Author(s) :Grandcourt, E.M.

Source :(6. Indo-Pacific Fish Conf.; Durban; South Africa; 20-25 May 2001). Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 53(2); 2002; 123-130.

Abstract :The population biology of six commonly caught species in the Seychelles reef fisheries was investigated by the study of otolith microstructures. Alternating translucent and opaque bands were observed in transverse sections of sagittal otoliths from @iEpinephelus chlorostigma, Lethrinus lentjan, L. mahsena, Scarus ghobban, S. rubroviolaceus@@ and @iSiganus sutor@@. Evidence derived from two tagged fish injected with tetracycline and recaptured after 1 year in the wild tentatively suggests that opaque bands are formed on an annual basis in the otoliths of @iL. mahsena@@. Species with protogynous reproductive mode had significantly female-biased sex ratios overall, but the bias was removed in the older age classes apparently as a result of sex change. The results demonstrate that for @iS. ghobban@@ and @iS. rubroviolaceus@@ secondary males had accelerated growth rates, but the phenomenon was not implicitly associated with a protogynous mode of sexual development

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef fish communities of Mayotte (western Indian Ocean) two years after the impact of the 1998 bleaching event

Author(s) :Chabanet, P.

Source :(6. Indo-Pacific Fish Conf.; Durban; South Africa; 20-25 May 2001). Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 53(2); 2002; 107-113.

Abstract :This study, conducted during the Coral Reef Observatory programme in 2000, was carried out at 9 localities: 4 on fringing reefs (0 and 3 m depth), 2 on inner reefs (0 and -3 m) and 3 on outer barrier reefs (3 and 6 m). Quantitative data were collected by visual census techniques along 50 m x 5 m transects. The ichthyofauna is separated into fringing inner-reef communities and outer barrier-reef communities. Species richness and abundance were always higher at the deeper sites. These indices were also lower on fringing reef flats and higher on the outer barrier reefs. In terms of individual numbers, browsers of sessile invertebrates (mainly Chaetodontidae) are poorly represented in the fish community at all sites (3%). Planktivores are the dominant trophic category on the deeper sites (mean 63%) and herbivores on the shallower sites (mean 40%, mainly Acanthuridae). The high abundance of herbivores and the low abundance of browsers of sessile invertebrates could be due to altered benthic communities resulting from the 1998 bleaching event

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Colonization of a fringing reef of Reunion Island by coral fish larvae

Author(s) :Durville, P.; Bosc, P.; Galzin, R.; Conand, C.

Source :Oceanol. Acta: 25(1); 2002; 23-30.

Abstract :The colonization of a fringing reef of Reunion Island by fish larvae takes place essentially from August to February with two peaks, in August-September, when the water temperatures are coldest, and in February when they are at a maximum. The number of fishes, as well as the number of sampled species, present similar values over two consecutive years with, nevertheless, a strong variation in the species involved. In Reunion Island, the number of post-larvae, which colonise the reef, is one hundred to four hundred times lower than on larger and more structured reefs. This phenomenon could be explained by the geographical characteristics of the island. The stock control of the adult fish in Reunion could largely be the results of the arrival of post-larvae on reefs and would correspond to the model of "recruitment limitation"

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Effects of the 1996 and 1998 positive sea-surface temperature anomalies on corals, coral diseases and fish in the Arabian Gulf (Dubai, UAE)

Author(s) :Riegl, B.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 140(1); 2002; 29-40.

Abstract :Two positive sea-surface temperature anomalies occurred in the Arabian Gulf in short sequence. Between May and August 1996 and 1998, sea-surface temperatures in the southern Arabian Gulf were elevated by 2 degrees C above average. The consequences for coral fauna, coral diseases and coral regeneration were studied in Dubai (United Arab Emirates) between Jebel Ali and Ras Hasyan. In 1996, coral death was widespread, affecting primarily the genus @iAcropora@@. In @iAcropora@@ dominated areas, live coral cover was reduced from 90% to about 26% in 1996, while in 1998 only a reduction from 26% to 22% of the remaining coral cover occurred. In the study area, all six @iAcropora@@ species suffered total mortality in 1996, thus the coral fauna was reduced from 34 species to 27. The @iAcropora@@ overkill turned 7.9 km@u2@@ (19.7% of total coral-covered area) of previously lush coral gardens into a dead framework that was increasingly bioeroded. @iAcropora@@ recruitment only started in 1998, average recruit size in 1999 was 7 plus or minus 3 cm, and recruits were rare. Prior to the mass mortality event, coral diseases were common and seasonal (14 plus or minus 5% of corals, mainly @iAcropora@@, affected in summer, in winter 7 plus or minus 6%, mainly massives), after the mortality event seasonality was lost and infection remained below winter levels (6 plus or minus 5%, only massive infected). In fish, overall species richness decreased from 95 to 64 species in point counts, but frequency only decreased in one species (@iPseudochromis persicus@@). The most abundant family, both prior to and after the coral mass mortality, was Lutjanidae. It appears that even though much of the coral was dead, the maintenance of structural complexity allowed the fish assemblage to avoid a similar catastrophic change to that experienced by the coral assemblage

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

Author(s) :Wafar, M.V.; Wafar, S.

Source :National Institute of Oceanography; Dona Paula, Goa (India); 2001; 81 pp.

Abstract :Coral reefs are among the nature's marvelous gifts to mankind. Since time immemorial, they have fascinated and provided with nourishment, protection and pleasure. Yet, for most of us, they are as mysterious as ever. Sill need to understand fully what they can offer - useful drugs, for example - and how to help them in their survival in the face of our own activities increasingly impinging on them. This will be possible only if awareness is created of their importance and vulnerability to natural and man-made changes, in every stakeholder, from local population through tourists to managers. This book serves such a purpose by answering most of the questions that are asked everyday about corals and reefs. This book will motive all to develop an holistic approach towards a sustainable and durable use of our reefs and their resources.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Alloimmune memory is absent in the Red Sea hydrocoral Millepora dichotoma

Author(s) :Frank, U.; Rinkevich, B

Source :J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.): 291; 2001; 25-29.

Abstract :When two allogeneic colonies of the Red Sea hydrocoral Millepora dichotoma (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) come into tissue contact, one of the genotypes is usually overgrown by the other. The directionality and pace of this alloresponse are thought to be genetically deter-mined. Tissue contacts between allogeneic colonies in situ in order to elucidate a possible memory component in this response is established. First-set interactions were established from all possible pairwise combinations between three colonies in eight replicates per combination. Interactions were followed up for 8 weeks. Thereafter, interacting pairs were detached and either regrafted near the original contact area to form second-set assays or challenged by third party grafts. Additional delayed first-set assays was also established. Overgrowth of delayed first-set, second-set, and third party grafts was followed again for 8 weeks. The mean overgrowths recorded in the second set of the interactions were indistinguishable from the first sets in all three-colony combinations. A specific alloimmune memory has not been found in this cnidarian system as opposed to other cases within the phylum.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Development of Jeddah during the past 20 years and its impact on the marine environment

Author(s) :Rifaat, A.E.; Basaham, A.S.; Al-Washmi, H.A.; Bantan, R.A.; El-Nadie, S.M.

Source :Bull. Natl. Inst. Oceanogr. Fish: 27; 2001; 13-44.

Abstract :In 1983 most of the coastal area of Jeddah City was natural and sandy beaches were present along the entire shore except at limited locations where the coastal road was constructed at the northern and middle part of the city. In 1999 noticed a great variation. The reef flats were filled and the land was cut for the purpose of beautification and resort construction. The success in implementing the national development programs, although adds economic benefits to the rations, it exert a great load on the environment. The strategy of the study based on two approaches. The first was to collect information on the present status of the near-shore marine environment, shore occupation and activities and to define the marine environment quality off Jeddah as reflected on the sediment composition. The second approach is to analyze the collected information, integrate them into one map using what is known as Geographic Information System or GIS and measure the impact of human activities on the marine environment off Jeddah. The result is a one-frame, multiple map, geographically linked data presentation that reveals the locations that are affected by human activities and the size of the impact. The present study has shown that the marine ecosystem off Jeddah City is greatly disturbed by: (1) Construction processes of the coastal road, onshore facilities etc. (2) Reconfiguration processes of the shore including filling operations. (3) Sewage dumping. (4) Industrial wastes dumping to the sea at the southern part of the city. (5) Shipment operations of industrial imports and exports especially oil. The study revealed, also, that there is a shrink in the coral cover off Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2000. This decrease in coral cover is accompanied, undoubtedly by decrease in the number of habitats dwelling the coral environment. The causes of such decrease are the increase in water turbidity, depletion of dissolved oxygen resulting from dumping of municipal and industrial wastes and blooming of algal mats

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The relationship between grain size and carbonate minerals in reefal sediment off Jeddah City, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Author(s) :Rifaat, A.E.; Al-Washmi, H.A.

Source :Bull. Natl. Inst. Oceanogr. Fish: 27; 2001; 1-11.

Abstract :Carbonate sediments off Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia are of biogenic origin and are contributed by coral debris, molluscan shells, coralline algae and foraminifera. The relationship between sediment grain size and its carbonate minerals is studied and discussed. The sediments were analyzed for mean grain size, calcium, magnesium, strontium, and their content of carbonate minerals. The study showed that there is a strong relation between mean grain size of the sediment and its carbonate minerals. Aragonite is strongly correlated with fine sediments. High-magnesian calcite is inversely correlated with both aragonite and fine sediments. Low-magnesian calcite showed no distinct distribution pattern. The aragonite fine sediments may be derived by inorganic organic precipitation of lime mud. The high-magnesian calcite coarse sediments are contributed by algal debris and foraminifer shells. Low-magnesian calcite is detrital in origin; it is most probably derived from the Pleistocene sediments of the coastal plain

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :New records of holothurians (Echinodermata: Holothuria) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Author(s) :Kulkarni, S.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, B.C.

Source :J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.: 98(3); 2001; 480-481.

Abstract :The present communication deals with new records of holothurians from these islands. The coral reefs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands offer ideal habitats for littoral sea cucumbers and other echinoderms.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Geomorphology and geology of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea

Author(s) :Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.

Source :The Indian Ocean: A perspective. eds. by: SenGupta, R.; Desa, EhrlichOxford & IBH; New Delhi (India): 2; 2001; 817-868.

Abstract :Marine geological studies in the Bay of Bengal were initiated by the Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh, India in early 1950's and have subsequently become widespread during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE - 1962-65). Geomorphological studies indicate that the continental shelf is relatively wide in the northern Bay of Bengal and in the northern and eastern Andaman Sea and narrow in the western Bay of Bengal. The depth at which shelf break occurs also varies. Several submarine canyons/valleys cut across the shelf-slope region. The 'Bengal Fan' is a major physiographic feature. The Andaman Sea consists of several seamounts, valleys and fracture zones. Reefal structures occur around the Andaman Islands and on the outer shelf off Visakhapatnam. Lithogenic sediments (clayey silts/silty clays) are predominant on the continental margins and Bengal Fan. Relict carbonates of late Pleistocene age are exposed as small patches on the eastern Indian shelf, off Irrawady and on Mergui terrace. Pelagic carbonates are abundant on the Ninety-East Ridge. Authigenic green grain facies at places is associated with outershelf and upper slope sediments on the western Bay of Bengal. Pleistocene phosphorites on the shelf-slope of Chennai serve as analogs of ancient phosphorites. Prospects of oil and gas in the sedimentary basins of the major peninsular rivers and evidences of gas hydrates in the continental slope sediments off Krishna and Godavari are reported. Although the composition of the turbidites differs at certain times, the radiogenic (Sr, Nd) and stable isotopes (C, O, H) indicate that the source sediments are predominantly the Himalayas. Studies on palaeoceanography of the eastern Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea reveal intense northeast monsoon and higher productivity during the glacial times. The processes influencing sea level changes have to be identified.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Biology of corals and coral reefs

Author(s) :Rajkumar, R.; Parulekar, A.H.

Source :The Indian Ocean: A perspective. eds. by: SenGupta, R.; Desa, EhrlichOxford & IBH; New Delhi (India): 2; 2001; 467-494.

Abstract :This chapter deals with biology of corals, coral reefs (in general) and coral reefs of the Indian Ocean. Biology of corals is lucidly dealt with, beginning from the clarification on hermatypic and ahermatypic forms. A complete account on the systematic position is presented. The general structure is depicted with illustrations. Physiology part is updated to current knowledge on reproduction, nutrition and excretion of corals. The coral reefs section begins with status of world reefs in the introduction followed by community metabolism, trophic status, calcification rates of world's major reefs, reef fishery, zonation, reef types and evolution of coral reefs. Under coral reefs of the Indian Ocean, information about Indian Ocean reefs, location, faunal diversity, studies so far and present status were gathered and given in a neat account.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Lakshadweep Islands in Arabian Sea

Author(s) :Verma, M.C.

Source :J. Indian Ocean Stud.: 9(3); 2001; 435-444.

Abstract :While a lot is known to people about the group of A&N Islands located in the Bay of Bengal as it is a large archipelago, not much is known about the smaller group of islands in the Arabian Sea known till 1956 as Laccadives. Minicoy and Amindives islands. The importance of the islands does not lie only in their populations which got mixed up with Arab blood over the centuries, but because they are located in strategic part of the Arabian Sea, close to the Chagos group containing the American base in Diego Garcia. Considerable amount of sea trade passes through these islands whose coral stones sometimes derail some vessels. Therefore, there are shipwrecks scattered around the islands and the islanders themselves have become very adept in working in the ships. In fact, they are known to be the best seafarers in the Arabian Sea and are in demand even in the modern vessels, which do not employ too many persons but require relatively educated, experiences and daring persons. In addition, they are also good fishermen and can teach a few tricks to the fishermen and coconut growers even in the mainland. Finally, they constitute the only Scheduled Tribe territory in the Indian Republic with Muslims as the Scheduled Tribes.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Export of finfish-impact on domestic trade and production

Author(s) :Sathiadhas, R.; Narayanakumar, R.

Source :Perspectives in mariculture. eds. by: Menon, N.G.; Pillai, P.P.(Ecofriendly Mariculture Technology Packages - An Update; CMFRI, Mandapam Regional Centre (India); 25-26 Apr 2000). The Marine Biological Association of India; Cochin (India); 2001; 441-450.

Abstract :Finfish export from India is growing rapidly since 1991-92 and currently forms the single largest commodity in our sea food market. The major varieties exported are ribbon fish, pomfrets, seerfish, mackerel, reef cod and snappers. The total quantity of all finfishes exported during 1995-96 is to the tune of 1 lakh tonnes fetching a revenue of Rs.372 crores. This has far reaching impact on the domestic prices of almost all varieties of fish. The present analysis based on data from CMFRI and MPEDA intends to assess the trend in production and export trade of selected varieties of finfish, to compare the export and domestic market price structure and to evaluate the potentials of aquaculture to maintain the domestic supplies and price stability. The study reveals that inspite of exporting the top quality selective fishes, the unit value realised by them from abroad are not appreciable and even less than that of the prevalent domestic prices for some varieties. The high-grade seer fish exported during 1996-97 realised Rs.64 per kg as against the average domestic retail price of Rs.70 per kg. Expansion of export trade of finfish without enhancing the internal supply of quality fishes will be detrimental to the interest of domestic consumers and aquaculture alone is the viable alternative for the same. Diversified fresh and brackishwater aquaculture production of quality fishes and sea farming should be intensified to bridge the gap between demand and supply in the domestic market and to maintain the tempo of export trade of finfishes.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Integrated coastal mariculture, seafarming and stock proposal of a project concept for adoption in the Gulf of Mannar and the contiguous sea areas

Author(s) :Devaraj, M.

Source :Perspectives in mariculture. eds. by: Menon, N.G.; Pillai, P.P.(Ecofriendly Mariculture Technology Packages - An Update; CMFRI, Mandapam Regional Centre (India); 25-26 Apr 2000). The Marine Biological Association of India; Cochin (India); 2001; 273-292.

Abstract :An integrated system of marine polyculture of shrimp with @iGracilaria@@, pearl oyster and sea cucumber is proposed here through this project concept for adaptation to help review the shrimp forms suffering from the problems of white spot disease and intense slush formation in the pond bottoms on account of intensive monoculture practices. The project proposes introduction floating, mobile, motorized sea farm platforms made of four artisanal boats each, which will function as a seafarming-cum-fish aggregating-cum-fishing device. Also including in the project is the construction of artificial reef complexes made of triangular concrete modules in order to create habitats for the colonisation of commercial fish stocks. The seafarming-cum-sea fishing platforms can function dependent on or independently of the artificial reef complexes. Conversion of the existing surplus boats in the Indian fishing fleets into such platforms seems to be the only means of rehabilitating the idling, unproductive boats and the fishermen. A multipurpose marine hatchery complex is included in the project to produce seeds of all the target candidate species for sea ranching in the artificial reef sites, for meeting the seed requirements of the project's onshore polyculture farm and of the seafarm, and supply for on-farm trials in the adopted farms. The project facilities and infrastructure should focus mainly on the popularisation of ecofriendly marine polyculture practices, which alone could make coastal aquaculture and seafaring viable in the long run.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Gastropod shells attached to the surface of @iXenophora pallidula@@ (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)

Author(s) :Anand, T.P.; Samuel, V.D.; Edward, J.K.P.

Source :Proceedings of the 11th International Congress and Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP), 28 September to 8 October 2000. Vol. 2. ed. by: Hylleberg, J.(11. Int. Congress and Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP); Kodaikanal, Rameswaram and Tuticorin; India; 28 Sep-8 Oct 2000). (Phuket Mar. Biol. Spec. Publ.; 25(2)). Suganthi Devadason Mar. Res. Inst. (SDMRI); Tuticorin; India; 2001; 363-365.

Abstract :The gastropod family Xenophoridae affix foreign objects to the shell surface. The objects include bivalve shells, smaller gastropod shells, shell fragments, and encrusting corals. Gastropods attached on 100 shells of @iXenophora pallidula@@ (Reeve, 1842) is identified. It is found that the buccinid @iNassaria nivea@@ (Gmelin, 1791), @iBursa@@ sp., the turrid @iTurricula javana@@ (Linne, 1758) and the nassarid @iBullia vittata@@ (Linne, 1758) were the most common objects. Fragments and bivalve shells could not be identified

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A new haplosclerid sponge species from the Red Sea

Author(s) :Vacelet, J.; Sofyani, A. Al.; Lihaibi, S. Al; Kornprobst, J.-M.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK: 81(6); 2001; 943-948.

Abstract :A new species of @iChalinula@@ (Haplosclerida: Chalinidae), @iC. saudiensis@@, is described from the coral reefs of the Red Sea off Jeddah. The new species is remarkable in its vivid blue colour and its bioactivity. Its description includes cytological features in transmission electron microscopy

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :An ocean-facing Aptian-Albian carbonate margin, Oman

Author(s) :Immenhauser, A.; Kooij, B. van der; Vliet, A. van; Schlager, W.; Scott, R.W.

Source :Sedimentology: 48(6); 2001; 1187-1207.

Abstract :A high-energy Aptian-Albian platform margin in northern Oman fronted onto an open oceanic basin, making the area a valuable analogue for coeval guyot margins. Most similar aged carbonate margins described in the literature faced either intracratonic or minor oceanic basins. The studied margin is characterized by a stabilized outer rim, which, although it did not rise discernibly above the adjacent lagoonal deposits, flanked a steep upper slope (32-40 degrees) basinwards with a relief of at least 30 m. Two main facies provided the rigidity of the outer margin: @iLithocodium@@ boundstones that constituted up to 50% of the rock volume; and marine fibrous cements that occluded up to 35% of primary pore space. In contrast, coral-rudist patches and other shelly sessile benthos were distributed irregularly, and the rudist bioherms of the outer margin were often disrupted, with shells being transported and redeposited. The inner margin is characterized by wedge-shaped storm layers that radiate from the platform top lagoonwards, where they interdigitate with carbonate sands and small rudist bioherms. Polygenetic discontinuity surfaces that bear evidence of both marine hardground and subaerial exposure stages are prominent features of the margin. Throughout the latest Aptian to Middle Albian the platform succession recorded some 30 relative sea-level falls, of which seven reached amplitudes of many tens of metres. These seven high-amplitude falls in sea level are recorded across the entire south-eastern portion of the Arabian craton and are probably of eustatic origin

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Grouper and Napoleon Wrasse ecology in Laamu Atoll, Republic of Maldives: Part 2. Timing, location, and characteristics of spawning aggregations

Author(s) :Sluka, R.D.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.(492); 2001; 1-15.

Abstract :The reproductive ecology of five species of grouper and the Napoleon wrasse was studied March-June, 1998 in Laamu Atoll, Republic of Maldives. Research focused on identifying the timing, location, and characteristics of spawning aggregations in this atoll, Timed surveys were used to assess fish abundance and size distribution in Mundoo Channel, which is one of seven channels connecting Laamu Atoll's inner atoll lagoon to the open ocean. Through a pilot study, and later confirmed in the main study, it was concluded that observations could be conducted and compared over different times of the day, tidal cycles, current speeds, and among observers. A spawning aggregation of @iPlectropomus areolatus@@ defined as a three-fold abundance increase over ambient levels, was recorded in Mundoo Channel during the new moon in April, 1998. Data collected during the pilot study suggested that an aggregation occurred in this channel during March, 1998. Courtship behaviour for this species was recorded during these two months. Data suggested that @iP. laevis@@ spawned during this time period as well. Spawning was never observed, but abundance increases and courtship behaviour indicate that spawning occurred during this time

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Grouper and Napoleon wrasse ecology in Laamu Atoll, Republic of Maldives: Part 1. Habitat, behaviour, and movement patterns

Author(s) :Sluka, R.D.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.(491); 2001; 1-26.

Abstract :Grouper and Napoleon wrasse ecology was studied in Laamu Atoll, Republic of Maldives. Studies were divided into three basic categories: (1) habitat utilization; (2) behaviour; (3) movement patterns. Habitat use was studied on several spatial scales: (1) among coral reef zones; (2) among sites within a zone; (3) within one site. Behavioural studies focused on how much time grouper spend in cleaning, active, and nonactive behaviour, A tagging study was initiated to examine interisland movement patterns. A major result of this study was also included

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :First protozoan coral-killer identified in the Indo-Pacific

Author(s) :Antonius, A.; Lipscomb, D.

Source :Atoll Res. Bull.(481); 2001; 1-21.

Abstract :A unique coral disease has appeared on several Indo-Pacific reefs. Unlike most known coral diseases, this one is caused by an eukaryote, specifically @iHalofolliculina corallasia@@, a heterotrich, folliculinid ciliate. This protist is sessile inside of a secreted black test or lorica. It kills the coral and damages the skeleton when it settles on the living coral tissue and secretes the lorica. Thus, the disease was termed Skeleton Eroding Band (SEB). The ciliate population forms an advancing black line on the coral leaving behind it the denuded white coral skeleton often sprinkled with a multitude of empty black loricae. This disease was first noted in 1988 and since has been observed infecting both branching and massive corals at several locations in the Indo-Pacific

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The main issues affecting coasts of the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans: A meta-analysis from seas at the millennium

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 42(12); 2001; 1199-1207.

Abstract :A review of the world oceans in three volumes by 365 scientists, provides scope for several 'meta-analyses' of the main problems affecting over 100 areas in the year 2000. This article summarises the main issues affecting a sub-set of the reviewed areas, covering Asian, African and Arabian countries dealt with in Volume 2, which included over 50 articles. From all issues raised, assessment is made of the nature of the major ones, including evaluation of reasons why so many of them remain important issues after so much attention to them. These include long-standing problems, several problems more newly flagged as becoming particularly important, the issue of global warming and no less than three related issues connected with fishing and over exploitation. One or two issues such as industrial pollution and sewage, previously considered of almost universal concern, almost traditional pollution issues even, continue to feature strongly for some countries, but while these were almost always referred to in Seas chapters, by and large these categories appear not to be the most pressing of issues today, except in localized areas (albeit areas where huge numbers of people live). Perhaps other issues have simply taken over. They are excluded from this article

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The pectinid bivalve @iPedum spondyloideum@@ (Gmelin 1791): Amount of surface and volume occupied in host corals from the Red Sea

Author(s) :Kleemann, K.

Source :Mar. Ecol. (PSNZ): 22(1-2); 2001; 111-133.

Abstract :In the northern Red Sea, the nesting and facultatively boring pectinid bivalve @iPedum spondyloideum@@ lives embedded in various scleractinian host corals of seven families, including the previously unrecorded hosts @iAstreopora, Leptastrea@@ and @iHydnophora@@. @iPedum@@ density varied according to host species, locality and depth. The bivalve-occupied coral surface (OCS) was measured on samples and from close-up photos taken in the field. Based on the 9 x 6 cm photo frames, @iPedum@@ density ranged from 1.9-18.6 (100 cm@u2@@)@u-1@@. In 14 @iMontipora@@, apparently the favourite host genus, mean density ws 6.5 (100 cm@u2@@) @u-1@@ and mean OCS 3.4%, but maximum OCS amounted to 12.5%. In 19 x 13 cm frames, @iPedum@@ density ranged from 0.4-10.7 (100 cm@u2@@)@u-1@@. The maximum density occurred again in @iMontipora@@, followed by @iPorites@@ [6.7.(100cm@u2@@)@-1@@] and @iCyphastrea@@ [6.0 . (100 cm@u2@@)@u-1@@]. The mean density of @iPedum@@ in 13 @iMontipora@@ was 3.6 (100 cm@u2@@)@u-1@@ and mean OCS 2.2%

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Fungi in @iPorites lutea@@: Association with healthy and diseased corals

Author(s) :Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

Source :Dis. Aquat. Org.: 47; 2001; 219-228.

Abstract :Healthy and diseased scleractinian corals have been reported to harbour fungi. However, the species of fungi occurring in them and their prevalence in terms of biomass have not been determined and their role in coral diseases is not clear It is found that fungi to occur regularly in healthy, partially dead, bleached and pink-line syndrome (PLS)-affected scleractinian coral, @iPorites lutea@@, in the reefs of Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. Mostly terrestrial species of fungi were isolated in culture from these corals. Hyaline and dark, non-sporulating fungi were the most dominant forms. Fungal hyphae extended up to 3 cm within the corals. Immunofluorescence detection using polyclonal immunological probes for a dark, initially non-sporulating isolate (isolate 98-N28) and for a hyaline, non-sporulating fungus (isolate 98-N18) revealed high frequencies of these in PLS-affected, dead and healthy colonies of @iP. lutea@@. Total fungal biomass accounted for 0.04 to 0.05% of the weight of corals in bleached corals and was higher than in PLS-affected and healthy colonies. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of fungi within the carbonate skeleton and around polyps. Fungi appear to be a regular component of healthy, partially dead and diseased coral skeleton

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Evidence of El Nino and the Indian Ocean dipole from Sr/Ca derived SSTs for modern corals at Christmas Island, eastern Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Marshall, J.F.; McCulloch, M.T.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 28(18); 2001; 3453-3456.

Abstract :While the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been regarded as an almost exclusively Pacific Ocean phenomenon, there is a growing amount of evidence that there are interannual events in other ocean basins, which are possibly related to ENSO. The results from Sr/Ca analysis of a 24 year coral record from Christmas Island in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean is described. The Sr/Ca data was matched with blended ship and satellite data from the region to produce the Sr/Ca-SST calibration. There is evidence of both warm and cool SST anomalies in the Sr/Ca derived SSTs, with an extreme cooling event of 1994 relating to the unusual oceanographic conditions set up by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and warmer than normal SSTs corresponding with ENSO events in the Pacific

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Environmental changes on the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez since oxygen isotope stage 9

Author(s) :Conchon, O.; Plaziat, J.C.; Baltzer, F.; Choukri, A.; Freytet, P.; Orszag-Sperber, F.; Reyss, J.L.

Source :Proceedings of the International Seminar on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment. eds. by: Rajamanickam, G.V.; Tooley, M.J.(Int. Semin. on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment; Tamil Nadu (India); [nd]). New Academic Publ.; Delhi (India); 2001; 236-248.

Abstract :On the piedmont of the Egyptian coastal range, along the Red Sea, Quaternary detrital deposits and their incision formed alluvial fans and river deposits, registered climatic conditions different from present ones. Coral reefs fringe the Quaternary shorelines and more than 110 U/Th age determination were carried out on coral, echinoid spines and marine shell samples, and selected after critical studies. Most of the emergent reef terraces were built during the last Interglacial (oxygen isotope stage 5e), in which was found a shore-lived low stand of sea-level between two high stands. In six places, reefs older than 5e are recognized, and they are dated at 3 sites, as stage 7, and possibly 9, 11 or (and) 13. Emergent Holocene reefs are dated at six sites. Some of the coral reefs older than stage 5 are now situated 1-2 km inland, having been uplifted to 30-42 m above the present mean sea-level, in relation to faulted blocks, while other old reefs are lower and buried by reefs of stage 5e. Except on the southern coast of the Gulf of Suez, reefs of the Last Interglacial are no more than 10 m above the present sea-level. Thus, coastal stability since the Last Interglacial is characteristic of the Egyptian Red Sea coast, while the South Gulf of Suez coast was uplifted. Since at least the Pliocene, faunas are indicative of a partition between Indian and Mediterranean biogeographic provinces. However, during stage 5e, Mediterranean Cerastoderma glaucum lived locally on the Egyptian Red Sea coast, mixed with Indo-Pacific molluscs. This Cerastoderma settlement is interpreted as probably isolated, shells being transported from Mediterranean lagoons by migratory birds. During the Last Interglacial and the Holocene, malacofauna in the mangrove swamps along the Red Sea was similar to that of the northern Indian Ocean (Gulf of Aden, with Terebralia palustris), while it was different from the modern one (with Potamides conicus). The changes in climatic conditions probably had favoured this situation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seabed sediments and Late Quaternary sea level changes around the invisible bank, Andaman Sea

Author(s) :Bhattacharjee, D.; Ghosh, S.K.

Source :Proceedings of the International Seminar on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment. eds. by: Rajamanickam, G.V.; Tooley, M.J.(Int. Semin. on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment; Tamil Nadu (India); [nd]). New Academic Publ.; Delhi (India); 2001; 212-217.

Abstract :Late Quaternary sea level fluctuation is evident from the record of benthonic foraminifera associated with coral and algal debris distributed over the North-South trending submerged Invisible Bank in the Andaman Sea. Two distinct sediments types are identified. These are (1) coralline gravels, large algal concretions with foraminifera and other biogenic coarse sand between 28 to 90 m isobath, (2) coralline pebbles and brownish grey coral sand with small calcareous concretions and benthonic foraminifera in finer sand between 90 and 220 m isobaths. From the biogenic record it is evident that during the last glaciation period due to the low sea stand, the shallower part of the Bank was subareally exposed with already built reefal structures on it. This caused death of mainly reefal organisms and produced their skeletal debris there. Simultaneous growth of reefal organisms took place at a reasonable depth which was earlier at deeper level and beyond the reach of such organisms. During the Holocene Marine Transgression the upper part of the Bank was again submerged and a new set of reefal organisms grew on the debris of earlier growth. The site of already grown reefs during the low sea stand was deeper leading to their local extinction

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Signatures of Late Quaternary sea-level changes and Neo-tectonic activity over Visakhapatnam - Gopalpur shelf, east coast of India

Author(s) :Rao, M.K.; Reddy, N.P.C.; PremKumar, M.K.,; Raju, Y.S.N.; Venkateswarulu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.

Source :Proceedings of the International Seminar on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment. eds. by: Rajamanickam, G.V.; Tooley, M.J.(Int. Semin. on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment; Tamil Nadu (India); [nd]). New Academic Publ.; Delhi (India); 2001; 116-124.

Abstract :High-resolution shallow seismic and echo sounding profiles of the continental shelf between Visakhapatnam and Gopalpur reveal prominent morphological features like terraces, reefs and pinnacles at different water depths of 80-100 m, 50-30 m representing still stands during the late Pleistocene to Holocene. Seismic records obtained off Visakhapatnam-Pudimadaka show two distinct sedimentary units bounded by erosional unconformities. Occurrence of palaeo-channel beneath the seabed in the inner shelf and progradational deltaic sequence over the erosional paleo-shelf (lower unconformity) at the shelfedge off Pudimadaka indicate active sedimentation at the form of outer shelf during Pre-Holocene. High-resolution echograms indicate diversity of reef configuration in the form of single, double/multi peaked and domal shaped reef system reflecting variable energy conditions during low stands. Occurrence of about 10 m vertical fall of the seabed off Gopalpur and significant faulting in the underlying sequences off Bhimunipatnam and Pudimadaka suggest a possible neo-tectonic activity

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Evidence of Quaternary sea level changes and shoreline displacement on the southeastern Coromandel Coast of India

Author(s) :Loveson, V.J.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

Source :Proceedings of the International Seminar on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment. eds. by: Rajamanickam, G.V.; Tooley, M.J.(Int. Semin. on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment; Tamil Nadu (India); [nd]). New Academic Publ.; Delhi (India); 2001; 85-93.

Abstract :During glacial and interglacial periods, sea-level changes are faithfully recorded by various landforms and bio-indicators. The southeastern part of Coromandel Coast of India (Tamil Nadu Coast) has numerous evidence of sea-level variations which make this area a typical site for such studies. Geomorphic indicators like various types of marine terraces (heights ranging from 3.0 to 25.0 m) and beach ridges (five prominent ridges of Late Pleistocene age and three of Holocene) have been mapped. Displacement of marine terraces tilted in relation to structural lineaments has been attributed to tectonic disturbances. Records on stratigraphic successions at selected places such as marine terraces and well cuttings, supplement evidence from carbon dating. Terrigenous deposits indicate 25,000 years B.P. Identification and mapping of covered ancient ports show the regression of the coastline in the recent past. Dating of coral and shell specimens collected in vertical sequences indicae the changes in sea-level during the late Pleistocene and Holocene period. During Holocene period, a high sea-level stand (above +0.8 m) is noticed between 5440+60 to 2630+65 yrs. B.P. Around 6500 yrs. B.P.,the sea-level might have been at the same level as today

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Proceedings of the International Seminar on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment

Author(s) :Rajamanickam, G.V.; Tooley, M.; ed.ed. ed.ed.

Source :(Int. Semin. on Quaternary Sea-Level Variation, Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment; Tamil Nadu (India); [nd]). New Academic Publ.; Delhi (India); 2001; 291 pp.

Abstract :This monograph contains papers on: (1) inter-glacial sea-level and coastal environmental changes, (2) the record of sea-level changes on the continental shelf, (3) coral reefs and sea-level change, (4) sediment sources and sinks in coastal zones, particularly sand dunes and estuaries during the Quaternary, (5) coastal changes associated with seismic events, (6) storm signatures and El Nino events and their impacts on coasts and (7) exploration, development, refinement application of new techniques to elucidate the understanding of coastal dynamics.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Submerged beach ridge lineation and associated sedentary fauna in the innershelf of Gopalpur Coast, Orissa, Bay of Bengal

Author(s) :Rao, K.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Premkumar, M.K.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 81(7); 2001; 828-833.

Abstract :Detailed echosounding and side-scan sonar surveys coupled with SCUBA-diving operations in the innershelf region of Gopalpur, Orissa Coast, India revealed the existence of a submerged NE-SW trending ridge lineation between the isobaths of 25 and 35 m. Morphology of this ridge indicates parallel to sub-parallel pinnacles with variable relief and widths. Very steep scarps in the leeward side of the seabed at many places are attributed to large-scale seabed scouring. Diving operations recovered extensive live sedentary fauna such as sponges, gorgonians, soft and hard corals along with rock encrustations from the ridge features. X-ray diffraction analysis of the rock samples revealed the mineral composition of quartz, feldspars, and low and high magnesium calcite, suggesting the morphological features to be of beach sandstone formation. High-resolution shallow seismic records indicate that the features are from the hard subsurface reflector, probably of Late Pleistocene. The composition of sedentary fauna is discussed and its association over the features is attributed to the availability of porous beach sandstone, which favours growth in euphotic zone.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Potentially threatened marine resources of India and strategies for their conservation

Author(s) :Nandan, S.B.

Source :CIFNET Bull.: 10(1); 2001; 1-13.

Abstract :According to the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) the faunal biodiversity of India comprises of 81250 species (12189 marine species of the EEZ) of which marine algae constitutes 624 species, arthropods 60383 (2448 marine), molluscs 5370 marine species, echinoderms by 765 marine species, fishes 2456 (1800 marine) reptiles 446 (26 marine) and mammals 372 species (29 marine). Many of the fin fishes are easily vulnerable to exploitation by batteries of artisanal and mechanised gears. Wanton exploitation has not only destroyed the species diversity of many of the fishes but also endangered or made them vulnerable to over harvest and destruction of the brood stocks. Above all the anthropogenic influences on the ecosystems, particularly the coral reefs and mangroves have further deteriorated the situation leading to the creation of "vulnerable" and "endangered" species. It is in these circumstances an introspection of the damages and degradation is made on the valuable marine ecosystem of the country and their fauna on which millions depend on for their sustenance.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :New sequiterpenoid from the soft coral Sinularia dissecta

Author(s) :Ramesh, P.; Ravikanth, V.; Venkateswarlu, Y.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Med.): 40B(9); 2001; 867-868.

Abstract :New sequiterpenoid 15-hydroxy-~D9-africanene 1 has been isolated from the soft coral Sinularia dissecta. Its structure has been elucidated based on spectral analysis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A new glycolipid and a new monohydroxy sterol from Cladiella species of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, V.; Rao, P.V.S.; Radhika, P.; Laatsch, H.; Asolkar, R.N.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Med.): 40B(5); 2001; 405-409.

Abstract :The less polar fractions of hexane-ethyl acetate solubles of Cladiella species yield a new monohydroxy sterol 1 and a new lipid glycoside 4 from more polar fractions of ethyl acetate solubles. The structure of the new glycolipid has been deduced as 2-hydroxy-3-(octadecyloxy)-propyl-beta-D-arabinopyranoside 4 from its spectral data

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Environmental distribution of scleractinian corals in the Jurassic of Kachchh, western India

Author(s) :Pandey, D.K.; Fursich, F.T.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 57(6); 2001; 479-495.

Abstract :Scleractinian corals commonly occur at specific horizons and localities, in carbonate and in siliciclastic sediments, throughout the Jurassic (Bajocian to Oxfordian) of Kachchh, Gujarat, India as measows, biostromes, boulder beds and as scattered specimens. In many cases they are part of the autochthonous benthic fauna and in others they suffered short intra-basinal transport. Cerioid forms of low diversity (Amphiastraea, Isastraea, etc.) abound in high-energy siliciclastic sediments. High diversity coral faunas, which include thamnasterioid (Microsolena, Dimorpharaea and Kobya) and solitary (Trocharaea and Trochoplegma) taxa with fenestrate septa and plocoid forms (Stylina), dominate in carbonate sediments deposited in low energy, deeper-water environments. The solitary Montlivaltia exhibits a great physiological tolerance of environmental stress. In all, eight coral assemblages have been recognized within the Early Bajocian to Late Callovian sediments of the Kachchh basin. The distribution of scleractinian coral assemblages has been governed mainly by the rate of sedimentation and particularly by the influx of coarse siliciclastic material. As a consequence the distribution pattern reflects onshore-offshore gradients and the general deepening of the Kachchh basin towards the Oxfordian.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Molluscan assemblages on coral reefs and associated hard substrata in the northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Zuschin, M.; Hohenegger, J.; Steininger, F.F.

Source :Coral Reefs: 20(2); 2001; 107-116.

Abstract :Information on spatial variability and distribution patterns of organisms in coral reef environments is necessary to evaluate the increasing anthropogenic disturbance of marine environments (Richmond 1993; Wilkinson 1993; Dayton 1994). Therefore different types of subtidal, reef-associated hard substrata (reef flats, reef slopes, coral carpets, coral patches, rock grounds), each with different coral associations, were investigated to determine the distribution pattern of molluscs and their life habits (feeding strategies and substrate relations). The molluscs were strongly dominated by taxa with distinct relations to corals, and five assemblages were differentiated. The Dendropoma maxima assemblage on reef flats is a discrete entity, strongly dominated by this encrusting and suspension-feeding gastropod. All other assemblages are arranged along a substrate gradient of changing coral associations and potential molluscan habitats. The Coralliophila neritoidea-Barbatia foliata assemblage depends on the presence of Porites and shows a dominance of gastropods feeding on corals and of bivalves associated with living corals. The Chamoidea-Cerithium spp. assemblage on rock grounds is strongly dominated by encrusting bivalves. The Drupella cornus-Pteriidae assemblage occurs on Millepora-Acropora reef slopes and is strongly dominated by bivalves associated with living corals. The Barbatia setigera-Ctenoides annulata assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa, molluscan life habits and bottom types, but occurs mainly on faviid carpets and is transitional among the other three assemblages. A predicted degradation of coral coverage to rock bottoms due to increasing eutrophication and physical damage in the study area (Riegl and Piller 2000) will result a loss of coral-associated molluscs in favour of bivalve crevice dwellers in dead coral heads and of encrusters on dead hard substrata

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Soft corals and sea fans: A comprehensive guide to the tropical shallow water genera of the central-west Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea

Author(s) :Fabricius, K.; Alderslade, P.

Source :Australian Inst. of Marine Science; Townsville; Australia; 2001; 264 pp.

Abstract :The families and genera of soft corals and sea fans from the shallow, tropical and subtropical regions of the Indian and central-west Pacific and the Red Sea are described. Around 90 genera of Alcyonacea, belonging to 23 families, have been described from the tropical Indo-Pacific at diving depth. The underwater photograph, colony shapes, polyps and sclerites, as well as colouration and other notable characteristics of each genus has also described

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Arctic oscillation signature in a Red Sea coral

Author(s) :Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Felis, T.; Patzold, J.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 28(15); 2001; 2959-2962.

Abstract :The winter time series of the Ras Umm Sidd coral oxygen isotope record from the northern Red Sea (approximately 28 degrees N) is linked to the Arctic Oscillation phenomenon, the Northern Hemisphere's dominant mode of atmospheric variability is shown. Until now, the detection of this mode, which is most prominent in winter, in proxy climate records was difficult due to the lack of a clear seasonality in most paleoclimatic archives. The results suggest that northern Red Sea corals can provide information about the low-frequency variability of the Northern Hemisphere winter circulation during the pre-instrumental period

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral microatolls and 20th century sea level in the eastern Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Smithers, S.G.; Woodroffe, C.D.

Source :Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.: 191(1-2); 2001; 173-184.

Abstract :Coral microatolls are discoid intertidal corals that are limited in their upward growth by subaerial exposure during low tides, Microatoll upper surface morphology preserves a filtered record of changes in the height of living coral (HLC), the upper limit to which corals can grow, and by proxy a historical record of former constraining water levels. Chronologies for these variations in HLC were established in this study using annual skeletal density bands revealed when skeletal slices were X-radiographed, supplemented by annual fluorescent bands visible when samples were illuminated with ultra-violet light. The upper surface morphologies of two large microatolls from separate reef-flat sites on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands are well correlated and indicate that the upper limit to coral growth has fluctuated by more than 5 cm since the early 1900s. The upper surfaces of these microatolls also indicate that there has been little net rise in sea level in the eastern Indian Ocean during the 20th century. Microatoll surface morphology suggests that average rates of sea-level rise in the eastern Indian Ocean over this period were less than 0.35 mm yr-1, a rate considerably lower than the rate of average global sea-level change determined from aggregated tide-gauge data. The broad surface undulations do not appear to correlate directly with either El Nino-Southern Oscillation events or occurrence of the Indian Ocean dipole mode of ocean-atmosphere circulation. Microatolls provide a simple and effective method for extrapolating broad variations in sea level beyond the tide-gauge record in remote mid-oceanic settings

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A central tropical Pacific coral demonstrates Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic decadal climate connections

Author(s) :Cobb, K.M.; Charles, C.D.; Hunter, D.E.

Source :Geophys. Res. Lett.: 28(11); 2001; 2209-2212.

Abstract :While instrumental and proxy-based climate records describe significant decadal-scale climate variability throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, the processes responsible for these variations and their interactions are not readily apparent from the observations. A new 112-yr coral-based sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction from Palmyra Island in the central tropical Pacific (CTP) exhibits strong decadal variability with an amplitude of roughly 0.3 degrees C. A 12-13 yr-period signal in this coral record is highly coherent with long equatorial Atlantic and Indian Ocean climate records, implying a unified phenomenon. The Atlantic pattern suggests that it may fall under direct influence of anomalous SST in the CTP, as it does over interannual timescales, while the Indian Ocean pattern exhibits maximum response during the switch between warm/cold states in the tropical Pacific. The results demonstrate that the CTP has played a significant role in determining the expression of global decadal climate variability over the twentieth century

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

Author(s) :Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

Source :Int. J. Naut. Archaeol.: 30(1); 2001; 37-47.

Abstract :Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations of shipwrecks prior to 1865, but the trend changed with the opening of the Suez Canal. Various organisations including the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India, have focused on Minicoy, Byramgore, Suheli Par, and Bangaram Island for detailed exploration of shipwrecks, and the findings suggest that due to submerged coral reefs, atolls, and other shallow hazards a large number of ships were wrecked in Lakshadweep waters

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Internal bioerosion of Acropora formosa in Reunion (Indian Ocean): Microborer and macroborer activities

Author(s) :Zubia, M.; Peyrot-Clausade, M.

Source :Oceanol. Acta: 24(3); 2001; 251-262.

Abstract :Bioerosion by grazing and boring organisms is one of the major destructive forces operating on reef. The aim of this study was to estimate the intensity of internal bioerosion by both microflora and fauna of Acropora, a branching scleractinian, on the reef flat at La Saline (Reunion, Indian Ocean). Acropora formosa is subjected to high bioerosion due to its high porosity and its branching form, which facilitates colonisation by boring organisms. Three endolithic microflora species, Plectonema terebrans, Mastigocoleus testarum and Ostreobium queckettii colonised the branches. The mean density of polychaetes was high (72 individuals cm-3), and all were regarded as meiofauna (diameter 0.5 mm). The main agents of bioerosion of A. formosa were boring microflora whose boring activities were four times greater (0.29 g cm-3 of CaCO3) than that recorded by the boring fauna (0.07 g cm-3 of CaCO3. In contrast, the composition of the fauna changed under these conditions but not the rate of bioerosion (4.4% maximum of the volume of dead Acropora). At the undisturbed site, the substrate covered by algae (within damselfish territory and therefore not subjected to grazing) had low levels of bioerosion caused by microflora (18.9% of the surface) and high bioerosion by fauna (9.5% maximum of the volume of dead Acropora) and in addition the composition of boring fauna was different to that found at the disturbed site with sipunculans being the dominant agent of bioerosion (6 individuals cm-3 maximum)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Exploration for shipwrecks off Sunchi Reef, Goa, west coast of India

Author(s) :Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

Source :World Archaeol.: 32(3); 2001; 355-367.

Abstract :Archival records show that a number of ships have sunk in the waters off Goa, on the west coast of India, as a result of foul weather, warfare and human error. Explorations were carried out in 1997-99 to locate shipwrecks using a boat-towed metal detector and visual surveys in 3 to 9m water depth off Sunchi Reef. A wreck was discovered and its investigation revealed guns, a shot, potsherds, glass bottle pieces, a broken rudder and dressed granite stone blocks. These finds suggest that the wreck dates from the Portuguese period (seventeenth to eighteenth century AD) and was therefore a wooden-hulled ship. The most probable cause of the wrecking was the shallow laterite shoals in the region. Although modest in scope, this project is important as one of the few underwater investigations yet to be undertaken by Indian archaeologists

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral and algal changes after the 1998 coral bleaching: Interaction with reef management and herbivores on Kenyan reefs

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.; Muthiga, N.A.; Mangi, S.

Source :Coral Reefs: 19(4); 2001; 380-391.

Abstract :Interaction between the El Nino and Indian Ocean dipole ocean-atmosphere quasi-periodic oscillation produced one of the warmest seawater temperatures on record in 1998. During the warm northeast monsoon in March and April, Kenya's shallow coral reefs experienced water temperatures between 30 and 31 degrees C and low winds. This caused large-scale bleaching of hard and soft corals at the end of March, which extended into the cooler months of May and June. Direct observations of coloration in the Mombasa Marine National Park found that the coral genera Acropora, Millepora, Pocillopora, branching Porites and Stylophora showed rapid bleaching and high mortality by the end of May 1998. Other hard coral genera that bleached significantly included Echinopora, Favia, Favites, Galaxea, Hydnophora, Goniopora, Leptoria, Montipora, Platygyra and massive Porites, but mortality was variable among these genera. Astreopora, Coscinarea, Cyphastrea and Pavona were the least responsive genera, with some paling, but little evidence of full bleaching or significant mortality. Benthic studies using line transects in 16 sites spread across approx. 150 km of coastline were completed before and 6 to 13 months after the bleaching event and found that the cover of nine hard coral genera including Acropora, Alveopora, Favites, Goniopora, Platygyra, Pocillopora, branching Porites, Stylophora and Tubipora decreased significantly (p 0.04) after the event, usually by 85%, and soft coral cover decreased by approx. 75%. One year after the bleaching, sites in the national parks experienced 88 and 115% increases in turf and fleshy algal cover, respectively, while reefs outside the parks had a 220% increase in fleshy algal cover with no appreciable changes in turf-forming algal cover. There was, however, high spatial variation and no statistically significant difference in the change in fleshy algal cover between sites in and out of the national parks. The number of coral genera per transect at each site decreased significantly by 31 and 44% in and out of the national parks respectively. Larger-scale search sampling to determine the presence/absence of genera in study sites found consistent losses of coral genera from sites, but produced smaller differences than the line-transect method, suggesting that some genera persisted, but at very low population densities and small colony sizes

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Photoadaptation of zooxanthellae in the sponge Cliona vastifica from the Red Sea, as measured in situ

Author(s) :Steindler, L.; Beer, S.; Peretzman-Shemer, A.; Nyberg, C.; Ilan, M.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 138(3); 2001; 511-515.

Abstract :In the Red Sea, the zooxanthellate sponge Cliona vastifica (Hancock) is mainly present at 15 m depth or in shaded areas. To test whether its scarcity in unshaded areas of shallower waters is linked to the functional inefficiency of its photosymbionts at high irradiances, sponges were transferred from 30 m to a six times higher light regime at 12 m depth, and then returned to their original location. During this time, photosynthetic responses to irradiance were measured as rapid light curves (RLCs) in situ by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry using a portable underwater device, and samples were taken for microscopic determinations of zooxanthellar abundance. The zooxanthellae harboured by this sponge adapted to the higher irradiance at 12 m by increasing both their light saturation points and relative photosynthetic electron transport rates (ETRs). The ETRs at light saturation increased almost fourfold within 15-20 days of transfer to the shallower water, and decreased back to almost their original values after the sponges were returned to 30 m depth. This, as well as the fact that the photosynthetic light responses within an individual sponge were in accordance with the irradiances incident to specific surfaces, shows that these photosymbionts are highly adaptable to various irradiances. There was no significant change in the number of zooxanthellae per sponge area throughout these experiments, and the different photosynthetic responses were likely due to adaptations of the photosynthetic apparatus within each zooxanthella. In conclusion, it seems that parameters other than the hypothesised inability of the photosymbionts to adapt adequately to high light conditions are the cause of C. Vastifica's rareness in unshaded shallow areas of the Red Sea

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A Rare Prostaglandin from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule of the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Murthy, M.V.R.K.; Gowri, P.M.; Venugopal, M.J.R.V.; Laatsch, H.

Source :J. Nat. Prod.: 63; 2000; 1425-1426.

Abstract :The rare prostaglandin methyl (5Z)-9, 15-dioxoprosta-5, 8(12)-dien-1-oate (1), hitherto unreported as a natural product, has been isolated from the Indian Ocean soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule. Its structure was elucidated using detailed spectral (sup(1)H and sup(13)C NMR, DEPT, H-H COSY, C-H COSY, HRMS, and HMBC) analysis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Novel Epoxy Steroids from the Indian Ocean Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Murthy, M.V.R.K.; Gowri, P.M.

Source :J. Nat. Prod.: 63; 2000; 112-118.

Abstract :A detailed further examination of the Indian Ocean soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule resulted in the isolation of altogether 17 compounds of which two (1 and 2) are novel 17 beta, 20 beta-epoxy steroids and one is a new dihydroxygorgost-5-en (3). The other compounds include the four hippurin steroids (4-7) reported earlier, and some known derivatives such as methyl arachidonate, batyl alcohol, a mixture of monohydroxy sterols, 3 beta-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one, two prostaglandin derivatives (PGB sub(2) acid and its methyl ester), and 9-oxo-9,11-secogorgost-5-ene-3 beta, 11 alpha-diol (8). The structure of new dihydroxygorgostene derivative was established as gorgost-5-ene-3 beta, 11 alpha-diol (3), while the structures of the novel epoxy steroids were established as 17 beta, 20 beta-epoxy-23,24-dimethylcholest-5-ene-3 beta, 22-diol (2) and its 3 beta, 22-diacetate (1), respectively.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Two new diterpenoids, sarcophytins B and C, from the Indian Ocean soft coral Sarcophyton species

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, V.; Makarieva, T.N.; Ilyin, S.G.; Dmitrenok, A.S.; Radhika, P.; Subbarao, P.V.; Nesterov, V.V.; Antipin, M.Y.; Stonik, V.A.

Source :J. Nat. Prod.: 63; 2000; 109-111.

Abstract :Two new diterpenoids, sarcophytins B and C (1, 2), and the previously known sarcophytin (4) have been isolated from the Indian Ocean soft coral Sarcophyton sp. Structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectral data and supported by X-ray analysis of 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Small scale traditional spiny lobster fishery at Tikkoti, Calicut

Author(s) :Radhakrishnan, E.V.; Menon, K.K.; Lakshmi, S.

Source :Mar. Fish. Inf. Serv. Tech. Ext. Ser.(164); 2000; 5-8.

Abstract :This note reports on the catch, species composition and biological characteristics of major spiny lobster species landed at Tikkoti, Calicut, Kerala, India during 1994-97. The major traditional lobster fishing grounds are located on the southwest cost and the southeast coasts extending from Trivandrum to Cape Comorin and from there to Madras, India. Tikkoti situated 40 km north of Calicut is a major lobster fishing village. The main species consist of @iPanulirus homarus@@, @iP. polyphagus@@ and @iP. ornatus@@. Establishment of artificial reefs may help in enhancement of lobster population and therefore increase in catches and more revenue to the fishermen.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Modern approaches to conserve the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystem of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Author(s) :Ahlawat, S.P.S.; Madhu, K.; Madhu, R.

Source :Fish. Chimes: 20(3); 2000; 62-66.

Abstract : A coral reef is a complex and highly stratified ecosystem which harbours diverse organisms which provide vital animal protein. It also provides protection to the coastline against wave action.The coral reef ecosystem of Andaman and Nicobar islands is under threat from various environmental and human impacts. Hence the upgradation, stabilization and establishment of gene banks in respect of reef system with the aid of modern techniques are necessary to conserve and safeguard the native population. Presentation of genetic diversity should be by establishing gene banks or store houses (ex situ) that maintains genes for future, by preventing the over-exploitation of reef species and by creating more protected areas for habitat. modern approaches such as mitochondrial DNA, monoclonal antibodies and cryopreservation of egg and sperms are to be adopted for the genetic conservation. Pollution detection in reef ecosystem can be made to find out the effect of pollutants on genome of the organisms viz., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation. These quicker and authentic tests help in predicting the toxicity of materials and in judging their hazards and materials and judging their hazards and impact on the population and environment.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Scope of minced fish meat (Surimi) technology in India

Author(s) :Sinha, S.K.

Corp. Body :Natl. Inst. of Oceanography; Dona Paula, Goa (India).

Source :The Fifth Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC), 5-8 December 2000. Proceedings. (5. Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conf. (PORSEC); Dona Paula, Goa (India); 5-8 Dec 2000). NIO; Dona Paula, Goa (India): 2; 2000; 890-894.

Abstract :Industrialisation of minced meat technology could be useful for India because natural marine resource along a coastline of 8129 km length with 2.02 million sq. km of EEZ is capable of high yielding of trace fishes. The major seafood industry in India is exporting frozen items, i.e., Shrimp, Cuttle fish, Squid, Lobsters, Ribbon fish, Reef cod, Crab, Pomfrets, Mackerels, Seer fish etc. but neglecting export of fish Minced Meat Paste (Surimi). This refer to ground fish flesh, which involves a series of processes. Frozen minced fish meat (surimi) was developed in 1960 in Japan. Versatility of this technology has significant role in Marine Fisheries Industry of India. Surimi is used as raw material for producing Kamaboko, fish cake, noodles, fishfinger, fish cutlet, Tempura, chikuwa etc.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Application of remote sensing and GIS in coral reef management - Case study of Kadamat Island, India

Author(s) :Suganya, K.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Ramachandran, S.

Corp. Body :Natl. Inst. of Oceanography; Dona Paula, Goa (India).

Source :The Fifth Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC), 5-8 December 2000. Proceedings. (5. Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conf. (PORSEC); Dona Paula, Goa (India); 5-8 Dec 2000). NIO; Dona Paula, Goa (India): 2; 2000; 699-702.

Abstract :The coastal environments are very dynamic with many cyclic and random processing owing to a variety of resources and habitats. Further, the coastal ecosystems on the earth, although together occupying only 8% of the surface area of the earth, they contribute around 25% of the global production and 90% of world's commercial marine catches. The coastal zone plays a vital role in Nation's economy. Proper planning and effective management of ecosystems can be achieved by collecting data on these ecosystems by the application of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Remote sensing technology contemplates collection of spatial, spectral and temporal data of the earth surface using air and spacecrafts. The combined use of remote sensing and GIS provides a powerful multidisciplinary tool for evaluation of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable, with speed, accuracy and economy. This technology, integrated with traditional ground survey techniques offers an efficient, cost-effective and time saving method for assessment of natural resources on repetitive and time saving method for assessment of natural resources on repetitive basis for planning. Remote sensing techniques can also be used to monitor seaweed, seagrass and coral reefs. Satellite remote sensing data provide repetitive synoptic coverage for detection of changes due to seasons and natural disasters and human activities

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Southern Tanzania

Author(s) :Darwall, W.R.T.; Guard, M.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; New York; USA; 2000; 131-165.

Abstract :The southern coast of Tanzania stretches for 690 km from Dar es Sallam to the Ruvuma River at the Mozambique border and supports one of the finest shallow-water coral reef and estuarine mangrove complexes in East Africa. Climatic conditions along the Tanzania coast are dictated by the northeast and southeast monsoon. Coral reefs, seagrass and algal beds, and mangrove forests are found throughout the coastline. General distribution studies have identified 51 scleractinian coral genera in southern Tanzania. Coral genera were fairly uniformly distributed throughout the Sango Archipelago where an average of 33 genera were recorded on each reef, the maximum number of 37 genera being recorded on @iPioasi@@. Almost 400 species of reef fishes have been recorded from Mafia Island. A total of 145 species of algae and 12 species of seagrasses have also been recorded. 135 species of Gastropod molluscs, 5 species of marine turtles also form part of the ecosystem. The unsustainable use of marine resources is currently considered to pore the greatest threat to coral reef ecosystems. Marine and coastal management program and its conservation started at national level

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reefs of Mozambique

Author(s) :Rodrigues, M.-J.; Motta, H.; Whittington, M.W.; Schleyer, M.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; New York; USA; 2000; 107-129.

Abstract :The coast of Mozambique is bordered by fringing coral reefs. It is one of the country's most valuable natural assets but is also subject to considerable pressures from resource exploitation and coastal development. Exploitation of coastal resources in the form of fisheries, agriculture, tourism and forestry contribute significantly to the national income as well as providing social and economic benefits to the population that lives in this area. The four larger areas of activity that are vital for the sustainable management of coral reef resource in Mozambique are capacity building within the relevant fields required for effective sustainable management, collection and synthesis of relevant information and scientific data in support of management; development of an appropriate and effective network for the coordination of coral reef management related activities; and identification, characterization and resolution of current and eventual problems with coral reefs and their management. Government institutions and private sectors are now becoming more aware of the need to establish management plans for coral reefs and are helping to develop the capacity to do so

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef use and conservation

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; New York; USA; 2000; 39-80.

Abstract :Conservation of coral reefs of Indian Ocean is primarily concerned with controlling or reducing the levels of fishing or resource extraction and marine pollution. In the western Indian Ocean region the most wide-spread and manageable threat to reef conservation is fishing, although there are localized pollution problems. Fishery management to date suffers a number of problems that are jeopardizing the long-term sustainability of existing fishery yields. These are, policies that assume that there are additional fish resources; the lack of fully protected areas in most countries; the use of fishing gear destructive to marine habitats; the lack of protection of keystone species, the lack of coherent policies and co-management between local and national governments; and the lack of greater effects to reduce soil erosion and human waste. Research and management in future will develop the means to rectify these problems

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Management status and case studies

Author(s) :Muthiga, N.; Riedmiller, S.; Carter, E.; Elst, R. van der; Mann-Lang, J.; Horrill, C.; McClanahan, T.R.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 473-505.

Abstract :The four case studies of management of coral reefs and associated fisheries were studied. The first two case studies cover management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): the national government of Kenya, and a private MPA in Zanzibar. The other two case studies cover different approaches to fisheries resources management: at the national level in South Africa and at the community level, in northern Tanzania. It revealed that much of the conservation initiatives have arisen from a perceived crisis in the protection of marine species or ecosystems. All of these cases show that conservation is difficult, particularly financially, but possible if there is a broad-based societal support for conservation efforts and viable mechanism for sharing the responsibilities of conservation

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Chagos Archipelago

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.R.C.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 445-470.

Abstract :The coral reefs of Chagos Archipelago are described. Most of the islands are typical atolls, located on the atoll rim with elevations of no more than two or three meters. On both seaward and lagoon reef slopes, coral cover on hard substrate is between 50 and 80% to at least 40 m deep with stony corals providing most of this cover. Coral diversity increases rapidly with increasing depth until 20 m deep, after which it declines. Information on the ecology of reef fishes is limited. The coral reef is damaged by sedimentation, eutrophication, fishing, etc. Most management concerns are absent, simply because in most of the islands people, industrial development and agricultural practices do not exist

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The coral reefs of Madagascar

Author(s) :Gabrie, C.; Vasseur, P.; Randriamiarana, H.; Maharavo, J.; Mara, E.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 411-444.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs of Madagascar is described. The knowledge of the coral reefs are very fragmentary and most coral reefs are still poorly known. In south-west coast the reefs are classified into fringing reefs, barrier reefs and reefs with sand cays. The coral formations of mid-west coast are poorly known coral reefs of east coast are not well known, except for recent work on the Masoala reefs. The Malagasy coastal ecosystems are rich diverse and include coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and other habitats. The coastal zone supports three main sources of foreign exchange: fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. Coastal erosion, pollution, overfishing, tourism are considered as the main threats to coral reefs. No management plan is strictly followed

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Seychelles

Author(s) :Jennings, S.; Marshall, S.S.; Cuet, P.; Naim, O.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 383-410.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs in Seychelles is described. The reefs are divided into three major groups: fringing reefs, platform reefs, and atolls. The range from heavily exploited and intermittently polluted fringing reefs on the coasts of the large granitic islands of Mahe, Praslin, and La Digue to isolated atolls such as Aldabra where fishing pressure and pollution levels are low are noticed. Reefs sustain important artisanal fisheries, provide coastal protection and are an important source for the dive tourism industry. Reefs have been studied in most detail on the granitic islands and Aldabra. Reclamation, sedimentation and eutrophication threaten reefs around the large granitic islands. Approximately 15% of the islands' reefs now have a protected status but it has been proved difficult to advance from protection by law to protection in practice

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Mascarene Islands

Author(s) :Naim, O.; Cuet, P.; Mangar, V.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 353-381.

Abstract :The Mascarene Islands consist from west to east, of Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues. The marine environment in this area is comparatively of high biological diversity and coral reefs have developed significant structures. Coastal fishing activities and tourism on reefs have a considerable economic importance in Mauritius and Reunion. Surface waters transport residues of fertilizers and various pesticides to the marine environment. Sources of disturbances include wastewaters discharged from urban developments, effluents from sewage works and from industries. The erosion of soils is also noticed due to deforestation and urbanization. There have been drastic modifications in the structure of the reef fauna. In Reunion, coastal erosion has resulted from coral reef degradation. Determination of the ecological status of reefs in the Mascarenes is underlined especially since some of the reef flats, at present, appear to be undergoing natural recovery from previous impacts. Experiments in Reunion of algae removal and coral and fish transplantation suggest the possibility of restoring reef flats, and these methods could help accelerate the recovery of Mascarene coral reefs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Maldives: A nation of atolls

Author(s) :Risk, M.J.; Sluka, R.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 325-351.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs in Maldives is studied. The Maldives Islands are a series of coral atolls on the Laccadives-Chagos Ridge. The relative abundance of coral reefs fish has been shown to vary based on specific features of a particular reef such as geomorphology, current regime and location on the continental shelf. The islands are relatively free from the anthropogenic effects but suffered from three major threats, viz., sediment stress, sewage stress, and overfishing. The geological reasons for reef formation is unclear. The trade in live fish, especially groupers is presently unsustainable

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reefs and coral communities of the Arabian Gulf and Arabian Sea

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.R.C.; Wilson, S.C.; Salm, R.V.; Dixon, D.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 257-293.

Abstract :The reefs and coral communities of Arabian Gulf and Arabian Sea are described. Many islands and banks of hard substrate forced upwards by underlying salt domes are now colonized by corals. Reefs are common in Gulf of Oman and grow on different substrate types. @iPorites@@ is the dominant builder of frame work reefs throughout Oman. An extensive and spectacular reef solely composed of @iMontipora foliosa@@ is located in Arabian Sea. Reef formation is severely affected by the combined effects of unsuitable substrate and upwelling in Gulf of Aden. Many areas of exposed, hard substrate are not dominated or even colonized by corals. Instead, soft corals and macroalgae generally dominate. In addition to physical factors, biological factors such as presence of @iAcanthaster planci@@ and coral diseases determine the distribution and diversity of Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman coral communities. Besides this, human influences have also damaged the coral communities. The most notable conservation effort in Arabian Gulf is the Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary which covers about 2500 km@u2@@ of sea shore

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The Red Sea

Author(s) :Medio, D.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Gascoigne, J.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 231-255.

Abstract :The reefs and biological communities of Red Sea are described. Typically fringing reefs are by far the most abundant reef type found close to the shore and varying greatly in size. The dominant corals are branching forms of the genera @iAcropora@@ and @iStylophora@@. @iAcropora@@ often account for more than 60% of total coral cover. Gulf of Aqaba has only narrow fringing reefs, or contour reefs. Coral communities are limited to either the northern, central, or southern areas of the Red Sea. Reef fish assemblages of the Red Sea are equally varied from north to south. The marine environment of Red Sea is mostly destroyed by human activities. Sewage and oil pollution, coastal development and tourism, and fishing are of main concern

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Kenya

Author(s) :Obura, D.O.; Muthiga, N.A.; Watson, M.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 199-229.

Abstract :The principal conservation and environmental issues, research on the effective use of resource and the effectiveness of levels of protective management of reef's of Kenya are described. Coral reefs have fringed the Kenya Coast throughout the Holocene and Pleistocene. The cover, size and diversity of coral reefs ecosystems decreases northwards along the coast, due to increasingly poor conditions for reefs development. The hard coral fauna of the Kenya Coast has been concentrated in the Malindi-Watamu reef complex. Coral assemblages on Kenyan reefs are characterized by pocilloporid, poritid, acroporid and faviid species. The coral reef resources of Kenya are managed by the fisheries development under the fisheries Act. Research on reef fish has been focused on the effects of different management strategies on fish abundance and diversity, and concomitant effects on coral reef community structure and function. Artisanal and small-scale commercial reef fisheries have had a dramatic effect on the ecology of Kenyan reefs. River discharge is one of the dominant physical factors influencing coral reefs along the northern coast. The fundamental changes in resource use practices, economic valuation, legislative protection and regional cooperation is underlined to halt the current persistent erosion of coral reef health and vitality

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Northern Tanzania and Zanzibar

Author(s) :Horrill, J.C.; Kamukuru, A.T.; Mgaya, Y.D.; Risk, M.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 167-198.

Abstract :The physical and biological aspects of the coral reefs of northern Tanzania, Zanzibar, the social and economic characteristics, management issues, are studied. Reef development along the Tanga Coast is broken with 41 distinct sections of coastal fringing reef covering 97 km of the 208 km of coastline. Coral reefs in northern Tanzania are used by local communities for fishing, collection of octopus, sea cucumbers, crayfish, shells, corals and more recently mariculture. The most widespread threat to the reefs in northern Tanzania is the use of destructive fishing techniques. Conservation initiatives in the form of Salaam Reserves are initiated at Tanga as well as at Zanzibar. The conservation programme includes the sustainable use of coastal resources, retention of the original condition of the coral reefs, mangroves and coastal forest habitats. Reduction of destructive fishing techniques is the major management issue

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reefs of the Western Indian Ocean: An overview

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.R.C.

Source :Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation. eds. by: McClanahan, T.R.; Sheppard, C.R.C.; Obura, D.O.Oxford University Press; Oxford, NY; USA; 2000; 3-38.

Abstract :The biodiversity of Western Indian Ocean were studied. Coral reefs fringe less than one half the continental shorelines of the tropical Indian Ocean. Of the total of about 400 different species have been recorded from the western Indian Ocean, 80% of them occur in all the oceans. Areas with high coral diversity may contain well-developed reefs, marginal and weakly developed reefs, or even no true reefs supporting rich coral communities on non-reefal substrates. Seagrasses are widespread in the Indian Ocean where they are commonly associated with coral reefs. In the Red Sea, seagrasses show a marked and significant increase in abundance southwards. Over 40 species of mangroves exist on the northern continental rim of the Indian Ocean, reducing to ten, or less in the eastern and north-eastern sides, to one or two in the peripheral Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. Salt marshes growing in extensive stands of over seven meters formed a much significant component. The most important microalgal group is the Fucales. In the Red Sea an increase in @iSargassum@@ dominance on the seaward edges of reef flats lead to the formation of nearly impenetrable barriers up to 40-50 m. The reefs of Indian Ocean are being exploited in the last few decades for reasons of both commerce and subsistent living

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Impacts of bleaching on coral communities on artificial reef structures in Maldives

Author(s) :Clark, S.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 187-193.

Abstract :A research programme to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial reef structures (ARS) to rehabilitate degraded reefs was conducted in Maldives between 1990-1994. Detailed monitoring and analysis of coral recruitment patterns on the ARS over a period of 3.5 years demonstrated that a diverse community of branching corals developed within three years with a similar composition to adjacent reef flats. A warm water anomaly of +3 degrees C occurred in Maldives between late April and May 1998 resulting in extensive bleaching of corals and other zooxanthellate reef invertebrates. On the ARS bleaching was followed by full to partial mortality of certain corals within 4-6 weeks of the onset of bleaching. Branching species of the genera @iAcropora@@ and @iPocillopora@@ were the most susceptible corals to bleaching. At the same time massive corals, such as @iPorites, Favites, Pavona@@ and @iFavia@@ spp. showed partial to full recovery on the ARS and on natural reefs. Quantitative surveys in March 1999 recorded 205 recently settled coral recruits on the three concrete SHED areas. On the natural reefs rates of recruitment were 23.2 colonies per m@u2@@. Settlement and subsequent growth of coral recruits with both branching and massive growth forms since the bleaching event indicates that a supply of viable coral larvae are available from reefs located upstream or from deeper areas of the same reef. Bioerosion and breakage of dead standing corals on the ARS was evident ten months after the bleaching event. As the reef framework breaks down the ultimate fate of the calcium carbonate fragments will have important consequences for the integrity of the reef framework

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Evaluation of succession and coral recruitment in Maldives

Author(s) :Clark, S.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 169-175.

Abstract :A SST anomaly occurred in April-May 1998 resulting in widespread bleaching in widespread bleaching of zooxanthellate reef invertebrates in Maldives. Subsequently, bleaching induced mortality was unprecedented. This study reports on the initial stages of reef recovery and describes initial results from integrated studies on coral settlement and recruitment. Preliminary results from the @iin situ@@ recruitment surveys indicate that recovery of the reef at Feydhoo Finolhu is not recruitment limited. At the study site, mean coral recruitment ranged between 19 individuals per m@u2@@ at a depth of 10 m and 26 individuals per m@u2@@ at 5 m. Overall, the ratio of branching corals to massive corals was approximately 10:90.The most abundant recruit was @iPavona@@ (> 57%). Despite the severity of the coral mortality in Maldives these data suggest that the capacity of this reef system to recolonise degraded reefs, through a supply of coral planulae from surviving colonies is high

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The reefs of Mauritius

Author(s) :Turner, J.; Hardman, E.; Klaus, R.; Fagoonee, I.; Daby, D.; Baghooli, R.; Persands, S.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 94-107.

Abstract :A rapid assessment of the degree of coral bleaching on reefs around the whole coast of Mauritius was made during April 1999. Surveys were conducted while snorkelling and SCUBA diving and assessments made by direct observation, underwater video transects and underwater photography. Video was analysed to confirm the results from the field surveys. Results were displayed within a Geographical Information System (GIS). Meteorological data for the period between January 1997 and April 1999 were also analysed. The results indicate that the coral reefs in Mauritius were still healthy, but that all sites showed some signs of degradation particularly from boat and anchor damage and cyclone damage. The coral reefs of Mauritius do appear to have escaped the mass bleaching event of 1998. There were no large areas of dead standing coral other than on Barrier Reef off Mahebourg. Mean bleaching was less than 10% at all sites and in all cases represented only partial bleaching of colonies. It is suggested that Mauritius escaped the mass bleaching event due to the effect of cyclone Anacelle, which produced wet and cloudy unsettled weather during February 1998. The minor bleaching episode observed during this survey is thought to be a frequent and normal event relating to large environmental fluctuations experienced within the lagoons. With the potential threat of increasing mass coral bleaching events, it is suggested that Mauritius needs to act quickly to protect its coral reefs from further degradation

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Post-bleaching status of the coral reefs of Sri Lanka

Author(s) :Rajasuriya, A.; Karunarathna, C.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 54-63.

Abstract :Surveys conducted between June 1998 and January 2000 revealed that many of the dominant forms of reef building corals such as @iAcropora@@ spp., @iPocillopora@@ spp. and @iEchinopora lamellosa@@ in shallow habitats have been destroyed. @iMontipora aequituberculata@@ and @iPorites rus@@ were only marginally affected. Overall, recovery of bleached corals among shallow reef habitats has been poor. Invasive organisms such as tunicates, corallimorpharians and algae now dominate these dead coral reefs. Despite some mortality attributable to bleaching, corals growing in deeper water (> 10 m) have recovered successfully. Uncontrolled and destructive human activities are widespread and continue to cause damage to reef habitats. Even the marine protected areas in Sri Lanka are unmanaged and increasing human activities within these protected areas continue to degrade their condition. This may directly impact fish populations and the fishery potential of these reefs thus, having an adverse impact on the income of coastal communities. Furthermore, infestations of Crown-of-thorns starfish are still a major problem for recovering coral reefs on the north-west and east coasts of Sri Lanka. Considering the present condition of the reefs and the inevitability of future anthropogenic impacts, the prospects for reef recovery are poor

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Private sector management of marine protected areas: The Chumbe Island case

Author(s) :Riedmiller, S.

Source :Collected essays on the economics of coral reefs. ed. by: Cesar, H.S.J.CORDIO, Dept. for Biology and Environmental Sciences; Kalmar; Sweden; 2000; 228-240.

Abstract :The number of privately managed Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is small but increasing. Chumbe Island Coral Park (CHICOP), established in 1991 and possibly the first fully functioning MPA in Tanzania, provides an interesting illustration of issues that arise with the instalment of a privately created and managed protected area. Challenges caused by the legal and institutional environment for private investment in conservation resulted in much higher costs than originally anticipated. The history of CHICOP, management experiences, problems and achievements in the legal and institutional environment of Zanzibar, Tanzania are described and lessons learned are summarised. Management costs of the privately established and managed park are only a fraction of what is normally needed for donor-funded projects through government agencies. Out of necessity, income-generating activities are more developed and successful, thus creating much better prospects of sustainability. Risks for private investors remain high though due to the generally unfavourable investment climate, the volatile tourism market and the lack of long-term security of tenure. Because of these risks, and the more noticeable conservation impact on the ground, a case is made for more donor support to direct resource users from both the informal and formal private sectors, including to privately managed marine protected areas

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine market transformation of the live reef fish food trade in Southeast Asia

Author(s) :Cesar, H.S.J.; Warren, K.A.; Sadovy, Y.; Lau, P.; Meijer, S.; Ierland, E. van

Source :Collected essays on the economics of coral reefs. ed. by: Cesar, H.S.J.CORDIO, Dept. for Biology and Environmental Sciences; Kalmar; Sweden; 2000; 137-157.

Abstract :Current practices in the live reef fish trade pose a critical threat to global marine biodiversity. The trade also imperils the food security and income provided by traditional reef fisheries in Southeast Asia. This paper describes today's trade and its underlying destructive and unsustainable fishing practices, which include both the use of cyanide to stun fish as well as harvesting of spawning aggregations and overharvesting of juveniles. (In this paper, 'sustainable' refers of fishing practices or other actions, which in principle ensure healthy reef ecosystems and fish yields indefinitely.) Though cyanide use is widely banned for fisheries in most, if not all countries, high profits and enforcement problems require policy makers to look for innovative ways to manage the supply of live reef fish. To this end, the concept of a marine market transformation is introduced and applied to reef fisheries. In particular, current wild-catch supply mechanisms are described and the potential for mariculture and sustainable wild-catch are evaluated. Sustainable management of the live reef fish trade requires active participation from both importing and exporting economies. However, action to date has been one-sided, with demand countries shifting responsibility for environmental damage to supply nations. The paper provides suggestions as to how this situation can be remedied and discusses creative market and policy solutions for achieving transformation of the current trade to one which is non-destructive and sustainable

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Economic implications of fully-protected marine reserves for coral reef fisheries

Author(s) :Rodwell, L.D.; Roberts, C.M.

Source :Collected essays on the economics of coral reefs. ed. by: Cesar, H.S.J.CORDIO, Dept. for Biology and Environmental Sciences; Kalmar; Sweden; 2000; 107-124.

Abstract :Overexploitation of coral reefs causes species loss, stock collapses and habitat degradation and remains a major challenge for fisheries scientists and managers alike. To counter these, fully protected marine reserves, areas closed to fishing and other harmful human activities represent an essential component of coral reef fisheries management. They overcome many of the management complexities of coral reefs, such as lack of data and enforcement, and provide vital opportunities for unhindered growth of fish stocks and protection of coral communities. Their role in conserving biodiversity and protecting habitat is undisputed. The degree to which fully protected marine reserves can benefit fisheries, however, remains uncertain. A number of bioeconomic studies have attempted to assess the contribution of these marine reserves to fish biomass, catch levels and the present value of the fishery. They suggest that fishery enhancement by reserves will be significant. Habitat protection by reserves makes a vital, but as yet poorly appreciated contribution to fishery enhancement. This protection has many positive effects on habitat that will lead to increased standing stocks and productivity of reef fishes. Such effects are rarely considered in economic models but could have overriding importance for long-term fishery production. Fully protected reserves have many benefits beyond fisheries that can also help compensate for the costs of establishment. It is concluded that the fishery sustainability for coral reef fisheries cannot be attained without the contribution of fully protected marine reserves

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral bleaching in the Indian Ocean: Socio-economic assessment of effects

Author(s) :Westmacott, S.; Cesar, H.S.J.; Pet-Soede, L.; Linden, O.

Source :Collected essays on the economics of coral reefs. ed. by: Cesar, H.S.J.CORDIO, Dept. for Biology and Environmental Sciences; Kalmar; Sweden; 2000; 94-106.

Abstract :The mean temperature on the planet is increasing. The rate of this increase appears to be accelerating and is at present approximately 2 degrees per century. 1998 was the warmest year since temperature recording started some 150 years ago. Similarly the 1990s was the warmest decade. In addition, 1997 and 1998 saw the strongest El Nino ever recorded. As a consequence of this, very high water temperatures were observed in many parts of the oceans, particularly in the tropical areas. Due to the high water temperatures, the corals over much of the world bleached and subsequently died. In 1997-98, massive mortality occurred particularly among corals of the Indian Ocean. The reefs of Sri Lanka, Maldives, India, Kenya, Tanzania, and Seychelles were particularly hard hit, with mortalities of up to 95%. Reefs in other parts of the Indian Ocean showed mortality rates up to 50%. Hence the coral mortality during 1998 was the unprecedented in severity. The secondary effects on the socio-economic condition in the coastal communities of the Indian Ocean are presently studied as a part of the CORDIO Program (Coral Reef Degradation of the Indian Ocean). The event has so far not affected socio-economic indicators dramatically. Reef fisheries in many areas in the region have been showing a general decline over the last decade and data collected can not yet tell what the added negative impact of coral bleaching is. On the hand, diving tourism has been affected, particularly in the Maldives. The financial costs in the Maldives were estimated at US$ 3.0 million, while economic costs over the last two years were roughly US$ 19 million. Also in East Africa, the first investigations have shown some impacts on tourism. Additional studies are presently carried out to evaluate the full impacts of the coral mortality on fisheries and tourism in the Indian Ocean. In addition to changes in fish stocks and negative effects on tourism, erosion may become an even more acute problem, particularly in countries such as Maldives and Seychelles

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Costs and benefits of coral mining

Author(s) :Oehman, M.C.; Cesar, H.S.J.

Source :Collected essays on the economics of coral reefs. ed. by: Cesar, H.S.J.CORDIO, Dept. for Biology and Environmental Sciences; Kalmar; Sweden; 2000; 85-93.

Abstract :Coral mining for lime production is a source of income and subsistence in many developing countries. The associated damage to the reef is however significant, both in physical and monetary terms. Cost-benefit analyses for two case studies, one from Sri Lanka and one from Lombok, Indonesia was discussed. In Lombok the net profit to coral miners per year was US$ 27,000 km@u-2@@ reef, which can be compared with US$ 192,000-430,000 in Sri Lanka. Considering the societal costs of coral mining in the economic analysis, the net present value of 1 km@u-2@@ was US$ -33,000 in a low cost scenario and US$ -762,000 in a high cost scenario for Lombok. For Sri Lanka, the range was between no costs to a net present value of US$ -6,610,000. The large differences in results from the two studies can be explained by site-specific differences in terms of reef structure, biology and resource utilisation as well as the level of sophistication of the industry. Additionally, the different techniques used in the two case studies are also partly responsible for the large difference in outcomes. As coral mining is an illegal activity, it is difficult to acquire information about the business. Hence, for the Sri Lanka study, the approach was to investigate the resource potential of the reef, while for Lombok, where information was more accessible, the focus was on the actual business. With some modifications of the financial analysis, the revenue from coral mining became more similar between the two studies

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Management of bleached and severely damaged coral reefs

Author(s) :Wells, S.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 194-195.

Abstract :The action plan for management of bleached and severely damaged coral reefs of countries bordering Indian Ocean is described. A publication on management of coral reefs in the western Indian Ocean is proposed as a rapid response measure. The booklet will contain sections on the value of maintaining parks, the role of MPAs in reef recovery, the role of fishing, tourism and information on restoration techniques and monitoring. The booklet will be translated into major languages of the region and distributed free to the governments, MPAs and NGOs as well as published on the Internet

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A low-tech method for reef rehabilitation by stabilisation of transplanted corals

Author(s) :Lindahl, U.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 185-186.

Abstract :Further development and evaluation of a method to stabilise transplanted staghorn corals on unconsolidated substrate in a moderately exposed environment are described. The staghorn corals @iAcropora formosa@@ and @iA. vaughani@@ were transplanted in November 1998 to an area moderately exposed to waves at Tutia Reef, Tanzania. After one year of transplantation the measurements were repeated and the degree of tissue mortality was estimated. Twelve of the 104 loose corals were not recovered, and were presumed dead. The tied corals increased their live weight more and suffered less mortality than the loose corals. The results show that the attachment method significantly increased the growth and survival of the corals. The most important limitation of this method, apart from wave protection and shallow depth, is the availability of suitable source populations

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Transplantation of coral fragments

Author(s) :Obura, D.; Visram, S.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 180-184.

Abstract :The transplantation experiment of coral fragments to repair and rehabilitate degraded reefs was conducted in the Mombasa Marine National Park, Kenya. Coral species were broken off parent colonies and immediately fixed using an epoxy "Quickset putty" as natural reef substrate. Coral fragments were left for more than 2 days to acclimatize to the manipulation. Size was measured at approximately 30 days intervals. Losses, mortality, and sample size made up by addition of new fragments were recorded. Positive growth was noticed only for @iEchinopora, Hydnopora@@ and @iPorites@@ on the rocks, and for @iAcropora@@ and @iMontipora@@ on natural substrate transplants of branching corals appear to do better on natural substrates and transplants of sub-massive corals grow better on the rocks, with the exception of @iGoniopora@@ and @iPavona@@. Growth of corals, particularly in natural substrate, was better during rough water conditions

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Studies of bioerosion on coral reefs of Tanzania

Author(s) :Stroemberg, H.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 176-179.

Abstract :The bioerosion on coral reefs of Tanzania is studied. A study of the distribution and abundance of bioeroders was conducted during February and April 1999. The percentage of erosion from different eroding groups was measured and the abundance of each taxon in the dead coral was determined. Preliminary results showed that the variation of bioeroding organisms within and among sites was very high. The rate of erosion and colonisation of the skeleton by various bioeroders is poorly documented. The temporal patterns of bioerosion with habitats characterised by different fish communities are described

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Ciguatera risk assessment in the Indian Ocean following the 1998 coral bleaching event

Author(s) :Quod, J.-P.; Turquet, J.; Conejero, S.; Ralijaona, C.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 166-168.

Abstract :Impact of 1998 coral bleaching on Ciguatera reef fish of Indian Ocean was assessed. Ciguatera Risk Assessment (CRA) showed that degraded reefs, where dead corals are covered by algal turfs, are contaminated by a multispecific assemblage of microalgae. Cyanobacteria, diatom and dinoflagellate densities varied from place to place due to different environmental conditions. A strong correlation between contamination levels and ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) endemicity was not found

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral and algal response to the 1998 El Nino coral bleaching and mortality on Kenya's southern reef lagoons

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.; Mangi, S.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 160-165.

Abstract :The influence of 1998 El Nino coral bleaching and mortality on coral and algal community was studied. The selected sites were in back reef lagoons with shallow water at low tides dominated by hard substrate colonised by corals and other benthic invertebrates and algae. Benthic cover sea urchins and major fish groups have been monitored in these sites since 1987. A water temperature logger was deployed in a shaded lagoonal area of the Mombasa Marine National Park. Sea urchins, surgeonfish and parrotfish were censused in each of the study sites both before and after the bleaching event to estimate their wet weights and rates of consumption. It revealed that the midday water temperatures were above 30 degrees C, 2 degrees-3 degrees C above the areal average temperatures. Bleaching and coral mortality is likely due to this warm water. One year after the bleaching nearly half the study sites experienced an increase in fleshy algae of 10% or more. A number of reefs with low to moderate levels of herbivory experienced only small increase on fleshy algae. Coral bleaching could be a catalyst in the expansion of erect algae in reefs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Socio-economic assessment of the impacts of the 1998 coral reef bleaching in the Indian Ocean: A summary

Author(s) :Westmacott, S.; Cesar, H.; Pet-Soede, L.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 143-159.

Abstract :The socio-economic impacts of the coral bleaching in the Indian Ocean and the main approaches adopted to determine the importance of reef fisheries and reef based tourism to countries and local communities in this region are discussed. The qualitative and quantitative impact on the perspective of total fishery performance, the social/economic impact based on cases, future developments in social/economic condition of fishers were studied for fishery assessment. A continuously increasing pressure on fish resources was noticed. Total fish production is declined in some countries. The impacts of the coral bleaching on reef based tourism was based on a questionnaire survey of tourist drivers in Zanzibar, Mombasa, Maldives and Sri Lanka. It revealed the gradual decrease in the number of tourists

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Measuring change and recovery in reef ecosystems

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.; Teleki, K.; Turner, J.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 138-140.

Abstract :Methods for measurement of spatial and temporal changes, and recoveries in reef ecosystem of Indian Ocean are described. Direct changes in structure can be measured relatively simply, but more advanced study will be required to assess changes in functional relationships. The time series data, remotely sensed images, meteorological data, fisheries, etc., to be studied to assess the change in reef ecosystem. For specific reef its coverage and damage, erosion of reefs and reef-protected shores, coral recruitment and monitoring are to be considered

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Temperature and water exchange in a semi-enclosed lagoon, Bamburi, Kenya

Author(s) :Kirugara, D.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 129-133.

Abstract :The heat balance of a semi-enclosed coral reef lagoon system situated north of Mombasa Island, Kenya and any additional contribution of UV radiation for bleaching was studied. Three lagoon sites and two 'oceanic' sites at 10 m and 20 m. Outside the reef were studied. Temperature, conductivity measurements were recorded at 10 minutes intervals for 90 consecutive days using four bottom-mounted conductivity-temperature meters. One bottom mounted pressure gauge was deployed at 10 m at the oceanic site to record pressure and temperature, logging data every 10 minutes. The entire raw data set were processed into half-hourly means and later smoothed with a moving average filter to obtain average measurements over a 24 hourly window. A short-term temperature series in two shallow lagoon-sampling sites, showed strong diurnal and semi-diurnal changes in temperature variability. The oceanic station showed a relatively stable cooler temperature profile, and no influence of tides. The extinction co-efficient for UV radiation are known for clear waters, but not for lagoon waters

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sea surface temperature in the western and central Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Obura, D. comp.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 127-128.

Abstract :The sea surface temperature in the western and central Indian Ocean and local factors responsible for its fluctuation were studied. Sea surface temperature measurements are new being taken by a number of different methods, including spot measurements using thermometers during field visits, automated measurement by @iin situ@@ temperature loggers, ship-based temperature measurements and satellite remote sensing of sea-surface temperature. Long term records in the Central Indian Ocean indicate a distinct warming trend of almost 1 degree C over the last 30-50 years, leading up to the highest recorded maximum during the El Nino southern oscillation in early 1998. Maximum heat transfer to lagoon waters occurs due to the coincidence of spring low tides with maximum sun height at midday. Exposed reef surface heated during spring lows transfer their heat to flooding water resulting in a distinct temperature peak during the flooding tide that persists for several days. Upwelling of cool water, at continental shelf and/or reef bank topography; cyclones causing reductions in water heating through cloud cover, and mixing with deeper waters due to wind; and temperature loss through exchange and mixing of water along fore-reefs and in lagoon channels may decrease the surface temperature

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The status of the Aldabra Atoll coral reefs and fishes following the 1998 coral bleaching event

Author(s) :Teleki, K.; Downing, N.; Stobart, B.; Buckley, R.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 114-123.

Abstract :The status of the Aldabra atoll coral reefs and fishes following the 1998 coral bleaching event are described. A series of seven permanent transects were established on the northern and western coasts of Aldabra Atoll. Quantitative baseline surveys of the corals and reef fishes were conducted along each transect. There was a range of variation in percent cover of live coral and of dead coral. Live coral cover was strongly correlated with depth. Dead coral cover was higher in shallow waters, decreasing with depth. There was a general increasing trend for cover of live and dead coral from east to west on the whole atoll. Across the range of sites examined. @iHalimeda@@ spp was the dominant macro-algae. The dominant live coral growth forms were massive, branching, encrusting and foliose at both shallow and deep sites. Fish surveys gave quantitative information on 169 species representing 27 families. An additional 48 species and six families were recorded. The density of fishes ranged from 352 per 100 m@u2@@ from 33 species and 16 families to 7162 per 100 m@u2@@ from 90 species and 23 families

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral bleaching in the Indian Ocean islands: Ecological consequences and recovery in Madagascar, Comoros, Mayotte and Reunion

Author(s) :Quod, J.-P.; Bigot, L.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 108-113.

Abstract :The ecological consequences and recovery of coral reefs from Indian Ocean is lands affected due to the bleaching event from January to August 1998 was studied. The four islands viz. Madagascar, Comoros, Mayotte and Reunion are covered in this report. A total of 10 monitoring sites with various morphological categories of reef habitats: flats, inner slopes, outer slopes and lagoons were studied. The subsequent extent and severity of the mortality due to ocean warming varies from place to place and with depth. The southeast coast of Madagascar was hit by the warm water mass in early 1998. In the Comoros archipelago, all the islands suffered from bleaching. After the 1997-98 coral bleaching event, affected reefs from the Indian Ocean islands are at present undergoing regeneration either by recruitment or recovery from line tips with an average 10% rate for slopes. Evidence of 10 cm growth from tips was observed for branching corals of Reunion and Mayotte. Reef flats display high algal substrates dominance. Relationships between coral reef substrata and fish have been confirmed in Reunion island reef flats and outer slopes

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reef systems of the islands of the southern Seychelles

Author(s) :Teleki, K.; Spencer, T.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 87-93.

Abstract :Quantitative observations of reef morphology, coral community composition and reef health in the southern Seychelles are made between March and May 1998. The observations were supplemented by quantitative descriptions of coral communities at 48 sites. Twenty-five meter long transects were set out at water depths of 5 m, 10 m 15 m and 20 m. Transects were surveyed using both a line point intercept method and digital videographic imagery which was subsequently analysed using point sampling to generate estimates of benthic cover. Mortality was particularly high in the branching corals. Bleaching was not exclusive to hermatypic corals. Signs of decay within the reef architecture were apparent in all sites with breakage of branching corals and high incidences of corals no longer in life form position. The vertical relief and three dimensional complexity of the reef habitat provided by both live coral and erect dead coral structures is not only crucial for fish survival, but is also an aggregation attractant for reef fishes

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The reefs of the granitic islands of the Seychelles

Author(s) :Turner, J.; Klaus, R.; Engelhardt, U.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 77-86.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs in the granitic islands of the Seychelles archipelago has been assessed following the mass mortality caused by the 1997/98 bleaching event. Engelhardt had surveyed 11 sites at a fine scale along the north west coast of Mahe. Two 50 m x 5 m belt transects were employed at each site, at an oblique angle from a depth of 1-2 m to 15 m. Coral community structure was sampled in two 10 m x 1.2 m sub-transects by recording coral taxa in size classes 2-15 cm, 16-30 cm, 31-50 cm, 51-75 cm and > 75 cm diameter. Turner, Klaus, Hardman and west used a rapid site assessment technique to assess reef composition and health over approximately one-hectare areas at 46 sites across the granitic islands. Both surveys reported low percent cover of live hard corals. Engelhardt recorded 0%-5% live coral cover at 80% of sites and a maximum of 0%-10% at 20% of sites. Turner recorded 1-10% living coral cover at 81% of the sites with a maximum of 31%-50% at just two sites. Many of the living corals displayed partial mortality. Species diversity of hard corals was low at all reef sites Engelhardt recorded a maximum of 10 families and 15 genera of hard corals, while Turner recorded a maximum of 13 families, 30 genera, and 49 species

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Reproductive cycles of Diadema setosum and Echinometra mathaei (Echinoidea: Echinodermata) from Kuwait (Northern Arabian Gulf)

Author(s) :Alsaffar, A.H.; Lone, K.P.

Source :Bull. Mar. Sci.: 67(2); 2000; 845-856.

Abstract :A study was undertaken on the seasonal variations in the reproductive biology of Diadema setosum and Echinometra mathaei from the coral reefs of Kuwait. Sixteen monthly samples were taken for both species and gonads were processed for histological studies. Both species had peak spawning in summer months when maximum seawater temperature was between 24.2 and 28.8 degrees C. Peak spawning was seen for Diadema in April-May (24-28 degrees C), while this point for Echinometra was achieved in June (28.8 degrees C). The spawning peak was much broader for Diadema. The breeding season in both species coincided well with increasing seawater temperature and day-length. The gonad color was not related to sex and there was no difference in drained weight of male and female of both the species. Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis were histologically similar to other echinoid species described by other authorities

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diagenesis in live corals from the Gulf of Aqaba. 1. The effect on paleo-oceanography tracers

Author(s) :Enmar, R.; Stein, M.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Sass, E.; Katz, A.; Lazar, B.

Source :Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta: 64(18); 2000; 3123-3132.

Abstract :The effect of early diagenesis on trace element abundance in coral skeleton was studied in live coral heads (Porites) from the Nature Reserve Reef (NRR), Elat, Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea. Petrography of the corals shows diagenetic features of dissolution, recrystallization, and secondary aragonite precipitation (pore filling), which are most extensive in the oldest part of the coral. Coral porewaters were extracted with a special setup and were analyzed for chemical composition. The total alkalinity and Sr deficit in pore water as compared to reef water is consistent with both precipitation of secondary aragonite and recrystallization of primary skeleton. The present rate constant of pore filling by secondary aragonite was estimated by a water replacement experiment to be 0.0015 y-1, which equals to pore filling rate of 1.5 plus or minus 0.3 kg aragonite per year. The corals show clear seasonal fluctuations in Sr/Ca ratios that are interpreted as reflecting changes in sea surface temperature (SST). Yet, the secondary aragonite is characterized by a significantly higher Sr/Ca ratio than the average ratio in primary aragonite. Thus, measuring a mixed sample of pristine and secondary aragonite may produce erroneous (about 2 degrees C lower) SST estimates by the Sr/Ca thermometers. It appears that the Sr/Ca ratio, a major proxy for paleo-environmental marine studies, is sensitive to subtle pore-filling and replacement of the original coral matrix by secondary aragonite in the marine environment

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tidal mixing near the Kimberley coast of NW Australia

Author(s) :Cresswell, G.R.; Badcock, K.A.

Source :Mar. Freshwat. Res.: 51(7); 2000; 641-646.

Abstract :A complex of reefs and islands atop raised topography that is 140 km long and up to 35 km wide extends roughly westward from the Kimberley coast of NW Australia. The surrounding seafloor has depths of 60-80 m. Satellite images of sea surface temperature in spring, summer and autumn suggest that tides commonly mix subthermocline waters to the surface along this ridge, particularly along its western half, which includes Adele Island and Churchill. Albert, Beagle and Mavis reefs. The cool surface waters (approx 3 degrees C cooler than surroundings) are seen where the depths are less than approx 50 m, such that they closely reflect the bottom topography. The semi-diurnal tides have a maximum daily range of approx 10 m and it is when the range exceeds approx 3 m that mixing to the surface occurs. Thus, the mixing can cease during some neap periods. Historical data from the shelf show the sub-thermocline water to be nutrient-rich (nitrate concentrations of 6.0 mu M), so the mixing is likely to be important for the marine ecosystem. As winter approaches, the distinctive cool mixed region around the Adele-Mavis banks is overwhelmed by surface cooling, and historical ship data reveal that the stratification on the surrounding shelf disappears

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Nitrogen-15 signals of anthropogenic nutrient loading in reef corals

Author(s) :Heikoop, J.M.; Risk, M.J.; Lazier, A.V.; Edinger, E.N.; Jompa, J.; Limmon, G.V.; Dunn, J.J.; Browne, D.R.; Schwarcz, H.P.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 40(7); 2000; 628-636.

Abstract :The 15N content of tissue from the coral Porites lobata was enriched, relative to corals from reference sites, at 5 of 7 Indo-Pacific sewage-affected reefs. Enrichment was as high as 3.7. The delta 13C of sewage-affected corals suggests they maintained a high degree of autotrophic nutrition. 15N-enriched wastewater dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), derived from untreated sewage, is the most likely cause for enrichment in coral tissue 15N, though changes in coral nutrition, metabolism and zooxanthellae population dynamics are possible additional factors. Isotopic measurements of coral tissue can provide a simple means of detecting wastewater uptake by corals

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :One rational strategy for restoration of coral reefs: Application of molecular biological tools to select sites for rehabilitation by asexual recruits

Author(s) :Shokry, M.; Ammar, A.; Amin, E.M.; Gundacker, D.; Mueller, W.E.G.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 40(7); 2000; 618-627.

Abstract :Experiments for reef rehabilitation were performed at two selected sites near Hurghada (Red Sea, Egypt) the reef close to the Marine Biological Station (with a high sedimentation rate from landfilling) and El-Fanadir Reef (a clear water site). Since only little is known about the influence of the physical environmental conditions, novel molecular biological approaches have been introduced to assess the metabolic status of corals. In order to avoid possible interference with symbionts the molecular studies have been performed with the octocoral Dendronephthya klunzingeri; this species does not contain zooxanthellae. The metabolic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and the succinct-dehydrogenase served as markers for the assessment of the health status of the corals. The cDNAs for both enzymes were isolated and their levels of expression were found to be correlated with the degree of environmental stress. High expression was found at the El-Fanadir Reef, while only low levels were measured at the Marine Biological Station, which is characterized by high sedimentation rates. From this it is concluded that the health state of D. klunzingeri from El-Fanadir is superior to the one from the Marine Biological Station. Six reef-building corals have therefore been selected from El-Fanadir for the transplantation studies.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bleaching damage and recovery potential of Maldivian coral reefs

Author(s) :McClanahan, T.R.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 40(7); 2000; 587-597.

Abstract :Same-site comparisons of Maldive-Chagos reefs in the 1990s with studies before 1980 have found large losses in coral cover that were probably associated with warm El Nino events. To determine the spatial extent of this damage and potential for recovery benthic cover, hard coral communities, and coral recruitment in previously unsurveyed sites in three reef atolls of the central Maldives were surveyed in 1999, one year after the warmest recorded El Nino event of 1997-1998. Coral cover was the lowest recorded for this region, at 8%, and evidence for the local extirpation of species was found. Most reefs are presently dominated by coralline and turf algae (68%) with erect fleshy algae and sponge being higher than previously reported on Maldivian reefs. Branching coral species appeared most affected and the dominant coral genera in 1998 were massive Porites and Astreopora, whereas the original community was dominated by Acropora. Coral recruits were sufficiently abundant, at 29 ind/m2, to insure recovery of coral cover, but the most common recruits were in genera previously reported as subordinate genera, such as Pavona (11.7 ind/m2) and Coscinarea (4.4 ind/m2), whereas the previously dominant branching and encrusting species (Acropora, Montipora and Pocillopora) had recruit densities less than 0.65 ind/m2. Unless there is significant compensation in growth and mortality there may be future changes in coral species composition and benthic cover of these reefs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral bleaching in the southern Seychelles during the 1997-1998 Indian Ocean warm event

Author(s) :Spencer, T.; Teleki, K.A.; Bradshaw, C.; Spalding, M.D.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 40(7); 2000; 569-586.

Abstract :Coral bleaching shows complex spatial-temporal dynamics at several scales. Recent developments in ocean surface remote sensing technologies allow for both a better appreciation of these dynamics and an opportunity to place more local studies of coral bleaching and bleching-related coral mortality into wider oceanographic and biogeographic contexts. Coral bleaching is described at four coral reefs in the southern Seychelles (sea area 6-10 degrees S 45-54 degrees E) during March-May 1998. Bleaching intensity varied between locations, between environments at the within-reef scale, and between coral growth forms. These data are compared with bleaching reports and sea surface temperature statistics for eight further stations in the western Indian Ocean to establish a link between bleaching and the unprecedented warming of the Indain Ocean during 1997/98. Implications for long-term reef history, and coral reef futures, in the western Indian Ocean are discussed

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Holocene and Late Pleistocene relative sea level fluctuations along the east coast of India

Author(s) :Banerjee, P.K.

Source :Mar. Geol.: 167(3-4); 2000; 243-260.

Abstract :Hermatypic coral colonies and intertidal fossil bearing grainstone, packstone and sandstone beds of Holocene and of a Late Pleistocene highstand are exposed above the present High Tide Level (HTL) at a number of locations along the east coast of India from Cape Comorin to Rameswaram. Being a passive margin boundary, free from indications of Late Quaternary seismogenic movements, this sector provides a benchmark for defining minor relative sea level perturbations during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene highstands along a tropical coast lying between latitudes 5 degrees N and 10 degrees N. A series of marine terraces, carved on and locally blanketed by Late Pleistocene biotic and terrigenous accumulations, occur at different elevations (up to 4.4 m) above LTL at Manappad Point, possibly signifying discrete stillstand episodes followed by abrupt intervals of rising/falling sea level. Sea level indicators of the Holocene highstand occur in this sector, as well as along the fringes of the Godavari delta further north. The Holocene highstand reached nearly 3 m above LTL at 7.3 ka, remained stable for approximately 1.7 kyr and was followed by a relative sea level fall. Between 5.2 and 4.2 ka, there was a second pulse of relative sea level rise of a few metres leading to a fresh spurt in coral growth along the northern coast of Mandapam and Rameswaram. This was nearly contemporaneous with fresh melting of ice sheets of Antarctica. The Little Ice Age (LIA) witnessed a minor ( 1 m) relative sea level fall along this coast, resulting in rapid diagenetic hardening and infiltration of goethite into the emerged foreshore sand at Karikovil and its neighbourhood. This was followed by a rise of the sea level during the last few centuries

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Distribution and composition of verdine and glaucony facies from the sediments of the western continental margin of India

Author(s) :Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.

Source :Marine authigenesis: From global to microbial. eds. by: Glenn, C.R.; Prevot-Lucas, L.; Lucas, J.(SEPM Spec. Publ; No. 66). Society for Sedimentary Geology; Tulsa; USA; 2000; 234-244.

Abstract :Investigations on green grains from sediments of the western continental margin of India, between Ratnagiri and Cape Comorin, (water depth 37-330 m) indicate the presence of verdine and glaucony facies. Verdine facies occurs over an area of about 100,000 km2, representing the largest sedimentary basin in the world associated with low fluvial input. Green grains occur as irregular grains, fecal pellets, and infillings/internal molds of microfossils. They are abundant on the shelf off river mouths and their distribution varies with sediment type. Grains vary from dark green to pale green or brownish green. Green grains studied here are a mixture of predominant authigenic green clay and detrital clay minerals and are altered. Both phyllite C and suspected phyllite V- (verdine mineral minerals) associated green grains occur on the continental shelf (between 37 m and 100 m), the former being associated with the transition zone between inner and outer shelf and the latter with relict sands and reefs on the outer shelf. The distribution of verdine and glaucony facies on the southwestern margin of India is different from those of the distribution along the east coast of India, Senegal, and French Guiana margins, suggesting different paleogeography and subsidence history of the western Indian margin during the late Quaternary

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Toxicity of third generation dispersants and dispersed Egyptian crude oil on Red Sea coral larvae

Author(s) :Epstein, N.; Bak, R.P.M.; Rinkevich, B.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 40(6); 2000; 497-503.

Abstract :Harmful effects of five third-generation oil dispersants (Inipol IP-90, Petrotech PTI-25, Bioreico R-93, Biosolve and Emulgal C-100) on planula larvae of the Red Sea stony coral Stylophora pistillata and the soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescense were evaluated in short-term (2-96 h) bioassays. Larvae were exposed to Egyptian oil water soluble fractions (WSFs), dispersed oil water accommodated fractions (WAFs) and dispersants dissolved in seawater, in different concentrations. Mortality, settlement rates and the appearance of morphological and behavioural deformations were measured. While oil WSF treatments resulted in reductions in planulae settlement only, treatments by all dispersants tested revealed a further decrease in settlement rates and additional high toxicity. Dispersed oil exposures resulted in a dramatic increase in toxicity to both coral larvae species. Furthermore, dispersants and WAFs treatments caused larval morphology deformations, loss of normal swimming behaviour and rapid tissue degeneration. Out of the five tested dispersion agents, the chemical Petrotech PTI-25 displayed the least toxicity to coral larvae. Avoidance of the use of chemical dispersion in cases of oil spills near or within coral reef habitats is suggested

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Normal coral growth rates on dying reefs: Are coral growth rates good indicators of reef health?

Author(s) :Edinger, E.N.; Limmon, G.V.; Jompa, J.; Widjatmoko, W.; Heikoop, J.M.; Risk, M.J.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 40(5); 2000; 404-425.

Abstract :Massive coral growth rates may be poor indicators of coral reef health where coral reefs are subject to combined eutrophication and sedimentation. Massive coral growth (vertical extension) rates on polluted reefs were not different from extension rates on unpolluted reefs, while live coral cover was low and bioerosion intensity high, leading to net reef erosion and death of the polluted reefs. These combined patterns of coral growth rates, coral cover and bioerosion were documented on reefs affected by landbased pollution in the Java Sea. South Sulawesi and Ambon, Indonesia. Acid-insoluble content in coral skeletons reflected land-based pollution stress on reefs more reliably than did coral extension rates. Coral skeletal density was lower on polluted Java Sea reefs than on unpolluted reefs used as reference sites, but coral calcification rates were not significantly different. The most eutrophied Java Sea reefs had net carbonate loss, indicating net reef erosion, while a fringing reef adjacent to mangroves and two unpolluted coral cays both had positive net carbonate production. Coral growth and reef growth were decoupled, in that coral growth rates did not reliably predict rates of reef accretion. The apparently paradoxical combination of normal to rapid coral growth and net reef erosion on polluted reefs illustrates the need for a whole-reef perspective on coral reef health

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Growth and population dynamic model of the reef coral Fungia granulosa Klunzinger, 1879 at Eilat, northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Chadwick-Furman, N.E.; Goffredo, S.; Loya, Y.

Source :J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.: 249(2); 2000; 199-218.

Abstract :The lack of population dynamic information for most species of stony corals is due in part to their complicated life histories that may include fission, fusion and partial mortality of colonies, leading to an uncoupling of coral age and size. However, some reef-building corals may produce compact upright or free-living individuals in which the above processes rarely occur, or are clearly detectable. In some of these corals, individual age may be determined from size, and standard growth and population dynamic models may be applied to gain an accurate picture of their life history. The long-term growth rates (up to 2.5 years) of individuals of the free-living mushroom coral Fungia granulosa Klunzinger, 1879 at Eilat, northern Red Sea were measured and the size structure of a population on the shallow reef slope was determined. Growth and population models were applied to the data to obtain estimates of coral age, mortality rate, and life expectancy in members of this species. In the field, few F. granulosa polyps suffered partial mortality of 10% of their tissues. Thus, the majority of polyps grew isometrically and determinately, virtually ceasing growth by about 30-40 years of age. Coral ages as revealed by skeletal growth rings were similar to those estimated from a growth curve based on field data. The results reveal a young, dynamic population of this species on Eilat reefs, with high turnover rates and short lifespans. Such information is important for understanding recovery of coral reefs from disturbances, and for application to the management of commercially exploited coral populations

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A comparison of living and dead molluscs on coral reef associated hard substrata in the northern Red Sea - implications for the fossil record

Author(s) :Zuschin, M.; Hohenegger, J.; Steininger, F.F.

Source :Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.: 159(1-2); 2000; 167-190.

Abstract :Fidelity of death assemblages to live shelly faunas is one of the major palaeontological questions, but quantitative data are scarce and most case studies on this topic have been performed in non-reef sediments. Therefore different types of subtidal reef-associated hard substrata (reef flats, reef slopes, coral carpets, coral patches, rock grounds) is studied, each with different coral associations, in order to determine the agreement of assemblages of living and dead shell-bearing molluscs. A total area of 340.5 m2 was investigated and 2846 individuals were counted at 68 sample localities ranging from shallow subtidal to 40 m water depth. Most taxa found dead in the study area were also found live and vice versa; differences in this respect can be related to quantitatively unimportant taxa. However, strong differences exist in the proportion of living and dead fauna, dominant taxa, and molluscan distribution patterns. The ratio of live to dead molluscs is high. Living molluscs are strongly dominated by taxa with distinct relations to corals, mainly Pedum, Coralliophila and Tridacna, and the encrusting gastropod Dendropoma

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Distribution and abundance of seaweeds on a coral reef at Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Mohammed, G.; Nasser, A.K.V.; Koya, C.N.H.

Source :(Natl. Symp. on Recent Trends in Marine Algal Research in India; CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai (India); 27-29 Dec 1999). Seaweed Res. Util.: 22(1-2); 2000; 7-13.

Abstract :Macroalgal distribution and abudance in different regions of a coral reef was studied for a period of one year in 1998 at Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India. The biomass distribution of algae on the seaward side of the reef varied from 620.2 g wet wt./ m2 in September to a maximum of 2800.6 g wet wt/ m2 in August. Reef flat had a minimum in July (251 g wet wt/ m2) and a maximum in December (2074.9 g wet wt/m2). Significant seasonal differences were noticed in the three regions with maximum biomass during monsoon on the seaward side and in the postmonsoon at reef flat and lagoon side of the reef. Laurencia ceylanica formed a continuous mat on the seaward side and Halimeda gracilis (56.0%) and Turbinaria ornata (32.0%) were major algae of the reef flat and lagoon side of the reef. Minor algae observed on the reef were Gelidiella acerosa, Boergesenia forbesii, Sargassum duplicatum and Cladophoropsis zollingeri. Hydrographical parameters such as water temperature, salinity, nutrients, rainfall and hours of exposure of algae were monitored

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Algal microboring on ooids: An evidence of Holocene sea transgression in eastern India

Author(s) :Bandyopadhyay, A.; De, C.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 29(2); 2000; 181-184.

Abstract :Ooid concentrated sediments occur at about 75 and 120 m depths on the outer continental shelf off Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. They are associated with sediments containing predominantly of terrigenous and authigenic green clay facies. Quartz, foraminifera and green grains are present in the nucleus of the ooids. SEM studies on the surfaces of ooids revealed pits formed mechanically in high energy conditions and pits and channels tailored by endolithic algae. Ooids associated with microborings probably indicate their formation in shallow marine environment and their concentration at two specific depths indicate sea level still stands close to ooid depths. Presence of terraces and reefal barriers at depths around 60 and 110 m on this margins also support palaeo-strand lines at these depths and ooid formation in two successive phases of Holocene transgression.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Population structure and shell morphometrics of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella cornus (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

Author(s) :Ismail, N.S.; Elkarmi, A.Z.; Al-Moghrabi, S.M.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 29(2); 2000; 165-170.

Abstract :A total of 1279 of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella cornus (Roding 1798) from the coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, were studied for age, growth and shell morphometric determinations. The results show the life span to be seven years. The mean observed lengths of the seven age cohorts range from 6.4 to 36.3 mm. Theoretically, using Von Bertalanffy's and Richard's growth formula, the maximum length of this snail may reach 48.0 mm respectively. The annual increase in length is more for young snails ( 20.0 mm) than older ones. Shell and dry body weights averaged 1335 and 33 mg, respectively. The relationships of the shell length to shell and dry body weights are curvilinear. However, the relationships of the shell length to shell width, aperture length, aperture width are linear. The relative coefficient of condition (Kn) was higher for young snails (1.45) than older ones (1.01). The analysis of Drupella cornus population and shell morphometrics presented in this study supports the view that morphological differences among species of Drupella are enough to classify these species.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :On the novel cembranoids of the soft coral Sinularia granosa of the Indian Ocean and their biogenesis

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Venugopal, M.J.R.V.; Sarada, P.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Chem. Med. Chem.): 39(7); 2000; 530-535.

Abstract :Chemical examination of the soft coral Sinularia granosa collected from the Havelock island of the Indian Ocean furnishes four highly oxygenated novel diterpenoids 1 to 4 along with a polyhydroxysterol, 24-methylenecholestane - 1 alpha, 5 alpha, 6 beta, 11 alpha -pentol 5. One of the diterpenoids, 4, designated as havellockate, possesses a seco and rearranged cembranoid skeleton whose structure has been established by complete spectral anslysis including X-ray data. A possible biogenetic sequence has been suggested for the polyoxygenated cembranoids 1-4 and 6.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Primary productivity of marine macrophytes in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Dhargalkar, V.K.; Shaikh, N.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 79(8); 2000; 1101-1104.

Abstract :In situ primary productivity measurements were carried out with different macrophyte species (belonging to four groups) dominating the benthic communities in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island of the Lakshadweep Archipelago. The photosynthetic productivity and respiratory requirements in nine macrophytes were determined by measuring changes in dissolved oxygen concentration in light and dark bottles. The highest net productivity was recorded in Laurencia papillosa (Forsk.) Greville while the lowest was in Dictyota bartayresiana Lamour. More than 75% of the macrophytes studied had net photosynthetic productivity higher than 15 mg C (g dry wt)-1 d-1 and only one macrophyte, Boergesenia forbesii had net production and respiration ratio higher than 10. The results indicated that macrophyte species under investigation are most productive and both macroalgae and sea-grasses contribute equally to the carbon production of the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Troposphere-planetary boundary layer interactions and the evolution of ocean surface density: Lessons from Red Sea corals

Author(s) :Eshel, G.; Schrag, D.P.; Farrell, B.F.

Source :J. Clim.: 13(2); 2000; 339-351.

Abstract :A time series of oxygen isotope (delta 18 O) measurements of a coral from the northern Red Sea (RS) is presented and used as a direct proxy for water surface density rho s. With a relatively constant subsurface density, the generated surface density time series closely tracks water mass formation variability. Two positive and two negative high-amplitude rho s, anomalies are studied, and associated atmospheric and oceanic data are analyzed to understand large-scale ocean-atmosphere processes. The dominant process is lower-tropospheric subsidence. It dries the boundary layer (BL), increases surface evaporation and rho s, and ultimately drives water mass formation. The main cause of the subsidence is a temperature increase along the principal axis of the RS from the eastern Mediterranean to the convergence zone (CZ, 18 degrees -22 degrees N). The increase entails isentropes sloping down to the southeast, crossing pressure surfaces due to their tilt. With nearly adiabatic flow along the principal axis, air parcels move roughly along the sloped isentropes toward ever increasing pressure; that is, they subside. The subsidence supplies the northern RS BL with upstream air from higher altitudes (where humidity is low), thus drying the BL. The resultant high evaporation north of approx 25 degrees N (with low evaporation minus precipitation south of approx 22 degrees N) depresses sea levels in the northern RS, and thus drives the RS thermohaline circulation and controls water mass formation. Excluded from the presented picture, but probably very important, is mixing with the hot, dry air of the surrounding deserts

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Tropical Pacific forcing of decadal SST variability in the western Indian Ocean over the past two centuries

Author(s) :Cole, J.E.; Dunbar, R.B.; McClanahan, T.R.; Muthiga, N.A.

Source :Science: 287(5453); 2000; 617-619.

Abstract :A 194-year annual record of skeletal delta 18O from a coral growing at Malindi, Kenya, preserves a history of sea surface temperature (SST) change that is coherent with instrumental and proxy records of tropical Pacific climate variability over interannual to decadal periods. This variability is superimposed on a warming of as much as 1.3 degrees C since the early 1800s. These results suggest that the tropical Pacific imparts substantial decadal climate variability to the western Indian Ocean and, by implication, may force decadal variability in other regions with strong El Nino-Southern Oscillation teleconnections

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Age of relict coral reef from the continental shelf off Karaikal, Bay of Bengal: Evidence of last glacial maximum

Author(s) :Vaz, G.G.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 79(2); 2000; 228-230.

Abstract :Coral Acropora sp. collected from the relict coral reef at -125 m depth off Karaikal, Bay of Bengal yielded a radiocarbon age of 18390 plus or minus 220 yr BP. The depth of occurrence of relict coral reef and its age attest to the lowest sea-level position of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). It is inferred that in the eastern continental shelf of India, the sea-level rose at the rate of 4.61 m/kyr, since the LGM about 11,000 yr BP

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :On the coral reefs of the Gulf of Kachchh

Author(s) :Deshmukhe, G.; Ramamoorthy, K.; SenGupta, R.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 79(2); 2000; 160-162.

Abstract :In the Gulf of Kachchh, only reported site for coral formations is between 22 degrees 20'N and 22 degrees 40'N latitudes and 69 degrees and 70 degrees E longitudes along the coast of Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India. Based on the existing classifications these reefs are grouped into fringing reefs (north of Okha, north of Beyt Shankhodar, fringing the mainland from Dhani beyt to Sikka, Jindra and Chand, Pirotan, near Valsura), platform reefs (Paga reefs, Bural Chank, Karumbhar, Munde reef, etc.), patch reefs (Goos and Ajad) and several coral pinnacles (e.g. Chandri, etc.). Observations on the coral reefs of the gulf using satellite imageries have so far been restricted only to the intertidal reefs because of the limitations in depth from those reefs and reef flats which are shallow, inter-tidal and get exposed during low tide. Considering the limitations of satellite imagery and the absence of information from the deeper zones of the coral reefs of the Gulf of Kachchh, the sub-tidal regions of the coral reefs which never get exposed during low tides were studied. This article reports the existence of live corals at the sub-tidal regions. It redefines the eastern and northern limits of coral distribution in the gulf.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seasonal variation in the growth of marine red alga Asparagopsis delilei (Rhodophyta/ Bonnemaisoniales) from the Mandapam region, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Vasuki, S.; Ganesan, M.; Rao, P.V.S.; Mairh, O.P.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 29(1); 2000; 61-64.

Abstract :The growth of Asparagopsis delilei and other seaweeds have been described from Putty and Valai Islands of Mandapam region, Tamil Nadu, India from August 1993 to March 1995. At both the islands, plants started appearing on the reef from August, attained maximum growth during November-March and subsequently disappeared gradually from the reef. Antheridial and cystocarpic plants and tetrasporic phase (Falkenbergia) of Asparagopsis delilei were recognised. A positive correlation was observed between length and fresh weight, whereas, negative correlation was observed between algal biomass and the environmental parameters such as salinity and temperature of seawater. Thirty-two taxa were found in association with A. delilei at both the islands. Of these, Sargassum wightii and Chondrococcus hornemannii were occurring throughout the study period. The results indicated good biomass of A. delilei can be harvested from these islands during its peak growth period December and January to meet iodine requirements partially.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Two new terpenoid derivatives from a new soft coral species of the Nephthea genus of the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Murthy, M.V.R.K.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B Org. Med.): 39(1); 2000; 42-56.

Abstract :Chemical examination of a new soft coral species of the Nephthea genus of the Indian Ocean furnishes a new sesquiterpenoid and a new diterpenoid along with some sesquiterpenes and steroids. The structure of the new sesquiterpenoid has been established as 1S, 3R, 4S, 5S, 7S-3, 4-epoxy guaia- Delta 10(12)-ene 3 and that of a new monohydroxy diterpenoid as 4 by a study of their physical and spectral (1H, 13C, 2D NMR, IR, UV and mass) data. Other known compounds isolated are delta 9(15) - africanene 1, 9-aristolene 2, the ubiquitous batyl alcohol 7, two 4 alpha -methylsteroids, 4 alpha -methylcholest-24(28)-en-3 beta -yl acetate 5 and 4 alpha, 23-24-trimethylcholest-22-ene-3 beta -yl acetate 6 two tolyhydroxy steroids, 3 beta, 7 beta, 19-trihydroxyergosta-5, 24 (28)-diene 11 and 24-methylenecholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta -triol 12 in addition to three monohydroxysteroids, 24-methylcholesta-7, 25-diene-3 beta -ol 8, 24-ethylidenecholest-5-en- beta -ol (Delta 5-avenasterol, 9) and 24-ethylcholest-5-en - 3 beta -ol 10. Besides the report of two new terpenoids, this is the first report on the presence of 4 alpha -methylesteroids in a Nephthea species.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Hypoglycaemic activity of extracts from soft corals of Andaman and Nicobar coasts in rats

Author(s) :Satyanarayana, S.; Satyavati, D.; Rao, D.V.

Source :Indian J. Exp. Biol.: 38(2); 2000; 180-181.

Abstract :The ethylacetate extract of soft corals collected from Andaman and Nicobar Coasts were screened for hypoglycaemic activity in fasting rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 received 0.5 ml of 5% gum acacia suspension (control). Group 2 received the extract of Cladiella australis (CAS), at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Group 3 received the extract of Sinularia new species (SNS), at a dose of 75 mg/kg. Group 4 received the extract of Lamnalia new species (LNS), at a dose of 400 mg/kg and Group 5 received the extract of 250 MF-CBR-13 at a dose of 250 mg/kg. All extracts were administered orally. Blood samples, collected before the administration of test extracts and also at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr after treatment, were analysed for glucose content. The percentage blood glucose reduction from that of control was also calculated. A very promising hypoglycaemic activity was observed in rats with CAS at 8 hr (42.3%), with SNS at 4 hr (28.34%) and 6 hr (40.6%), with LNS at 6 hr (32.38%) and with MF-CBR-13 at 6 hr (20.25%)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Lithostratigraphy of the Neogene-Quaternary deposits of Dwarka-Okha area, Gujarat

Author(s) :Bhat, N.

Source :J. Geol. Soc. India: 55(2); 2000; 139-148.

Abstract :A formal lithostratigraphic classification is suggested for the Neogene-Quaternary sediments of the Dwarka-Okha (Okhamandal) area, Gujarat, India. They are classified into three formations viz., Guj, Dwarka, and Chaya. The Guj Formation is divided into Ashapura Clay Member and Ranjitpur Limestone Member, and it ranges from Lower to Middle Miocene in age. The disconformably overlying Dwarka Formation is of Middle Miocene to Lower Pliocene age and divisible into three members viz., Positra Limestone, Shankhodhar Sand-Clay and kalyanpur Limestone. The Quaternary deposits unconformably overlie this unit and are classified into Chaya Formation that consists of Okha Shell Limestone and Aramda Reef Members. These are Middle to Upper Pleistocene in age

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Conservation of coastal biodiversity of the island city of Mumbai

Author(s) :Deshmukh, S.; Inamdar, M.; Dighe, N.; Inamdar, A.B.; Chaphekar, S.B.

Source :Environmental problems of coastal areas in India. ed. by: Sharma, V.K.(Semin. on Coastal Cities in India: Responding to Environmental and Socio-Economic Issues of Concern; Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Res. (IGIDR), Mumbai (India); [nd]). Bookwell; New Delhi (India); 2000; 71-79.

Abstract :It is now widely recognised that coastal biodiversity is under severe threat due to urban expansion, industrialisation, pollution, tourism and other associated human activities. Tropical tidal forests, i.e., mangroves and other associated coastal ecosystems, such as seagrass and coral reef ecosystems are particularly becoming vulnerable due to expansion of aquaculture, chemical and petroleum industries, tourism and human habitation. The non-legally binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests adopted at Rio De Janeiro in June 1992, has laid great stress on the sustainable management of forests and on providing for their multiple and complementary functions and use. The Rio Forestry principles also call for a holistic and balanced consideration of forestry issues. It is in this context that development of strategies for need based research dealing with the conservation, eco-redevelopment, and sustainable of coastal ecosystems, particularly mangrove ecosystems in India, assumes urgency and importance. Mumbai, Maharashtra, India can be considered as a region where mangrove ecosystems have been under serious threat due to both, biotic and abiotic factors. However, in many places in and around Mumbai, habitat conditions are still capable of supporting mangroves.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Problems of the coastal ecosystems in India: A focus on Mumbai

Author(s) :Sharma, V.K.; Tiwari, P.; Jaiswal, R.

Source :Environmental problems of coastal areas in India. ed. by: Sharma, V.K.(Semin. on Coastal Cities in India: Responding to Environmental and Socio-Economic Issues of Concern; Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Res. (IGIDR), Mumbai (India); [nd]). Bookwell; New Delhi (India); 2000; 25-51.

Abstract :Indian coastal ecosystems of major importance have been reviewed briefly. The focus has been on the mangroves, coral reefs, seagrasses and fishery resources of India. Rising population pressure has resulted in serious environmental and socio-economic crises in Indian coastal cities. The impact of major anthropogenic activities on coastal resources is illustrated. Local environmental problems coupled with mismanagement of the coastal resources are threatening these life support systems, particularly in developing countries. Global warming and sea level rise would further aggravate problems of coastal cities. Some of the policy measures are outlined with require further research to a make them adaptable for sustainable use of the coastal resources and solving problems of coastal cities in India.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa waters

Corp. Body :Natl. Inst. of Oceanography; Dona Paula, Goa (India).

Source :NIO/TR-7/2000; 2000; 27 pp.

Abstract :As a part of the Institutional Project, Marine Archaeological Studies in Indian Waters, exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from March 29-April 7, 2000 in Sunchi Reef off Goa, India. The objectives of this survey were two fold: (1) Further exploration and excavation at the wreck located earlier, (2) To explore new wrecks, if any, in the adjoining areas of Sunchi Reef. In this session the exploration brought to light a two flucked iron anchor, seven elephant tusks (ivory), ceramic, a few hippopotamus teeth, a decorative metal artefact and an old brandy glass bottle. Marine growth is noticed on these artefacts. Out of the seven tusks, two are inscribed, one has Roman letters and some geometrical design is found on another. These tusks are in fragile and degraded condition. Elephants tusks have been found from very few shipwrecks namely at Ulu Burun. The decorative metal artefact has riveted holes at the lower and upper ends. The upper portion of the glass bottle is broken. Further, the survey brought to light iron cannon located earlier and scattered dressed granite blocks. Broken rudder of the wrecked ship was again found in the adjoining area of the cannon and the same was documented. The rudder is trapped between the laterite. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used for position fixing. This survey marks systematic approach for exploration of shipwrecks in shallow as well as deep waters off Goa

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Jania Lamouroux from Late Paleocene limestone of Middle Andaman Island, Andaman, India

Author(s) :Kundal, P.; Wanjarwadkar, K.M.

Source :(16. Indian Colloq. on Micropaleontology and Stratigraphy; National Inst. of Oceanography, Goa (India); 22-24 Jan 1998). ONGC Bull.: 37(1); 2000; 227-237.

Abstract :Eight species of Jania Lamouroux, a corallinoidean alga have been discovered from greyish white limestone exposed at Burma Dera and Tugapur localities of Middle Andaman Island. The limestone is of Late Paleocene age and belongs to Burma Dera Member of Baratang Formation. The species are: Jania andamanica sp. nov., J. guamensis Johnson, J. indica sp. nov.; J. mayei Johnson, J. mengaudi Lemoine, J. miocenica Johnson, J. occidentalis Johnson and Kaska and J. vetus Johnson. Presence of Distichoplax Pia, an index alga for Paleocene to Lower Eocene age broadly supports Late Paleocene age of limestone. Jania and other associated coralline, dasycladacean and codiacean algae point that limestone was deposited in shallow (10-12 m) tropical warm water and Tethyan affinities

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Some aspects of integrated coastal zone management in India

Author(s) :Untawale, A.G.

Source :Subtle Issues in Coastal Management. eds. by: Sudarshana, R.; Mitra, D.; Mishra, A.K.; Roy, P.S.; Rao, D.P.(Int. Workshop on Subtle Issues in Coastal Management; IIRS, Dehradun (India); 3-4 Feb 2000). Indian Institute of Remote Sensing; Dehradun (India); 2000; 21-24.

Abstract :The coastal zone which lies roughly between the seaward margin of the continental shelves (to a depth of about 200 m) and the inland limits of the coastal plains (to a similar height of 100 m in altitude) encompasses the areas of highest biological productivity and diversity on earth. Coastal areas normally support the wide diversity of highly productive habitats like sand dune vegetation, mudflats, mangroves, corals, marine algae and seagrasses. In addition to this the planktonic population of phyto- and zooplankton also contribute to the total productivity of the coastal zone. All these biological systems contribute directly or indirectly to the world's production of fish, crustaceans as well as molluscs. Moreover most of the agriculture production is concentrated in the coastal plains and estuarine deltas. Recently, the coastal zone has also experienced a rapid growth of industries and also the related problems. All these activities are not properly planned and regulated inspite of various laws available. This trend has created tremendous pressures and the ecological balance is disturbing. There are various factors which are degrading the coastal waters. The Integrated Coastal Management is relatively a recent concept, which involves multidisciplinary approach. It is a dynamic process in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented for the allocation of environmental, socio-economic and manpower resources to achieve the sustainable development and use of coastal zone.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Two new guaiane sesquiterpenoids from the soft coral Sarcophyton buitendijki of the Andaman and Nicobar islands of the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Gowri, P.M.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Med.): 39(10); 2000; 773-778.

Abstract :Chemical examination of the ethyl acetate extract of the Indian Ocean soft coral Sarcophyton buitendijki furnishes two new sesquiterpenoids of guaiane skeleton besides the known compounds, batyl alcohol, (24S)-24-methylcholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta, 25-tetrol and its 25-monoacetate along with a mixture of monohydroxysterols. The structures of the new compounds have been established as 10 alpha-hydroxy-4 alpha-methoxyguai-6-ene and 4 alpha-ethoxy-10 alpha-hydroxyguai-6-ene by a study of their physical and special [UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, 2DNMR (1H-1H COSY, NOESY) and mass] data

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral bleaching and mortality in three Indian reef regions during an El Nino southern oscillation event

Author(s) :Arthur, R.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 79(12); 2000; 1723-1729.

Abstract :The 1997-1998 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, which elevated Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) of tropical oceans by more than 3~'C, was one of the most extreme ENSO events in recent history. Such increases in SSTs above the seasonal average can trigger widespread bleaching in coral reefs. This study examined bleaching in three Indian coral reef regions in relation to SSTs using quantitative rapid assessment methods between April and July, 1998. The Gulf of Kutch reefs showed an average of 11% bleached coral with no apparent bleaching-related mortality. In contrast, bleached coral comprised 82% of the coral cover in lagoon reefs of Lakshadweep and 89% of the coral cover in the Gulf of Mannar reefs. Bleaching-related mortality was high - 26% in Lakshadweep and 23% in Mannar. The coral mass mortality may have profound ecological and socio-economic implications and highlights the need for sustained monitoring for coral reef conservation in India.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The status of the coral reefs of India following the bleaching event of 1998

Author(s) :Pet-Soede, L.; Wafar, M.; Venkataraman, K.; Rajan, P.T.; Wilhelmsson, D.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 69-74.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs of India following the bleaching events of 1998 was described. The bleaching event in 1998 affected the coral reefs of India to various extents, with Andaman and Nicobar Islands suffering the greatest mortality of coral followed by the Lakshadweep and the reefs of the Gulf of Mannar. The corals of the Gulf of Kutch were less affected which could be due to a greater tolerance of higher sea temperatures resulting from their occurrence in the extreme arid conditions in the north-west of India. The Gulf of Mannar faces specific problems resulting from anthropogenic influences such as high fishing pressure, high sedimentation from poor upland and coastal agriculture practices, and high levels of pollution. The reefs of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands are considered the most polluted in the Indian Ocean because the seas around them serve as major routes for oil tankers

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status of the coral reefs of Maldives after the bleaching event in 1998

Author(s) :Zahir, H.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 64-68.

Abstract :The status of the coral reefs of Maldives after the bleaching event in 1998 was studied. The sampling sites such as Haa Dhaal, Male, Ari, Vaavu, Addu-Gaaf Alif were chosen. In each of these regions three reefs were selected ensuring that the reefs surveyed in the recent past are included. On each surveyed reef, data from three line intercept transects of 50 m were recorded in areas near the location of past survey sites and where physical conditions such as wave action permitted. It revealed that the mean cover of live coral was 2.1% and ranged between 1.0% and 3.1% among the different atolls surveyed. Members of the family Acroporidae, excluding Astreopora, were rarely seen on the reef top, whereas poritids and agariciids despite suffering high mortality, have survived best

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef monitoring and management in Mozambique

Author(s) :Motta, H.; Rodrigues, M.-J.; Schleyer, M.H.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 43-48.

Abstract :The coral reef monitoring and management in Mozambique is described. Reef survey were carried out using the GCRMN-recommended strategy of recording benthos, invertebrates and fish from the transects. A major modification was to use video transects to sample benthic cover. Estimates of percent cover were determined by the proportion of the total number of sampling points for each category. Mean and standard deviations were calculated based on the number of transects at each site. The condition of reefs surveyed varied between healthy to heavily impacted by natural and anthropogenic factors. Many reefs are degraded from bleaching and the ravages of crown-of-thorns starfish. Coral cover was highest on the reefs of northern Mozambique and in marine protected areas. The reefs in protected areas are in better condition than unprotected reefs

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Assessment of coral reef degradation in Tanzania: Results of coral reef monitoring 1999

Author(s) :Mohammed, M.S.; Muhando, C.; Machano, H.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 35-42.

Abstract :The degradation of coral reefs of Tanzania after 1998 bleaching was assessed. Sites having variable exposure to waves and tidal current strength were selected. At each site, a mixture of random and permanent transects were used to sample benthic cover. Permanent transects were recorded using the Line-Intercept Transect (LIT) method and random transects were recorded using a Line-Point Transect method. All sites were referenced using GPS, and key physical parameters such as turbidity, sedimentation, exposure to currents and waves and type of substrate of adjacent habitats were recorded. The benthic cover such as fleshly algae, coralline algae, sponges and soft corals were not noticed to be changed appreciably. A total of 119 species of reef fish were recorded at all monitoring sites with the overall average density of 88 individuals per 250 m2. The most common trophic group was herbivores comprising more than 50% of the fish population at most sites. Sedimentation estimates showed that reefs close to Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar town had higher sedimentation rates compared with those away from highly populated areas

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Kenya, reef status and ecology

Author(s) :Obura, D.; Uku, J.N.; Wawiye, O.P.; Mwachireya, S.; Mdodo, R.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report 2000. eds. by: Souter, D.; Obura, D.; Linden, O.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 2000; 25-34.

Abstract :The status and ecology of reefs of Kenya is discussed. Different aspects of the bleaching events are reported. In shallow waters, on a pre-area basis, most of Kenya's southern fringing reefs had lost to the extent of 66% to 80% of their live corals. Coral reefs in deeper water suffered less mortality due to lesser exposure to higher temperatures. Reefs on the northern part of the coast influenced by cold water currents from Somalia, also suffered but with less mortality. Coral recruitment appears to be low on Kenyan reefs except for some minor shallow patch reefs. Alterations in reef ecology due to overfishing and consequent rapid growth of fleshy algae may have delaying effects on coral and reef recovery. Effects of the coral mortality on other components of the reef community, such as on algae, invertebrates and fish are being noticed after 1.5 years of the bleaching event

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Corals of the world. Vol. 1-3

Author(s) :Veron, J.

Source :Australian Inst. of Marine Science; Townsville; Australia; 2000; 463, 429, 490 pp.

Abstract :The taxonomy, morphology and geographical distribution of corals worldwide including Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific and Red Sea are described. The characters habitat and abundance of different species are reported. The species span to 110 genera and 18 families

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Distribution and composition of verdine and glaucony facies from the sediments of the western continental margin of India

Author(s) :Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.

Source :Marine authigenesis: From global to microbial. eds. by: Glenn, C.R.; Prevot-Lucas, L.; Lucas, J.(SEPM Spec. Publ.; 66). Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM); Tulsa; USA; 2000; 233-244.

Abstract :Investigations on green grains from sediments of the western continental margin of India, between Ratnagiri and Cape Comorin, (water depth 37-330 m) indicate the presence of verdine and glaucony facies. Verdine facies occurs over an area of about 100,000 km2, representing the largest sedimentary basin in the world associated with low fluvial input. Green grains occur as irregular grains, fecal pellets, and infillings/internal molds of microfossils. They are abundant on the shelf off river mouths and their distribution varies with sediment type. Grains vary from dark green to pale green or brownish green. Green grains studied here are a mixture of predominant authigenic green clay and detrital clay minerals and are altered. Both phyllite C and suspected phyllite V-(verdine minerals) associated green grains occur on the continental shelf (between 37 m and 100 m), the former being associated with the transition zone between inner and outer shelf and the latter with relict sands and reefs on the outer shelf. On the continental slope, suspected phyllite V occurs at depths between 100 m and 235 m, followed by phyllite C at 280 m depth and glauconitic smectite of the glaucony facies at 330 m. As these grains are composed of a mixture of predominant authigenic clay, detrital clay, and some altered products, their major element composition differs from those of the green grains (reported elsewhere) that contain pure authigenic clay. The low REE contents and flat shale-normalized REE patterns suggest that the REEs were inherited from the substrate. It is suggested that the size of the verdine deposit is related to the influx of iron rather than the amount of fluvial discharge. The color and morphology of the grains do not reflect the authigenic mineral or its evolution. Green grains on this margin formed at different times when the sea level was at different depths during the Late Quaternary. The distribution of verdine and glaucony facies on the southwestern margin of India is different from those of the distribution along the east coast of India, Senegal, and French Guiana margins, suggesting different paleogeography and subsidence history of the western Indian margin during the Late Quaternary

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Factors threatening biodiversity of marine molluscs in Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar

Author(s) :Murugan, A.; Edward, J.K.P.

Source :Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress and Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP), 20-30 October 1999. Vol. 1. eds. by: Hylleberg, J.; Nateewathana, A.(10. Int. Congress and Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP); Ministry of Fisheries, Vietnam, Hanoi & Halong Bay; 20-30 Oct 1999). (Phuket Mar. Biol. Cent. Spec. Publ.; 21(1)). Phuket Marine Biological Cent.; Thailand; 2000; 159-162.

Abstract :The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, which is having 21 coral islands extending to about 628 hectares, is unique for its biodiversity. A variety of coral reef habitats allow the islands to support complex biological communities. The Tuticorin sector of Gulf of Mannar is rich in molluscan groups including commercially important cephalopods, bivalves and gastropods. Tuticorin was once famous for the sacred chank, Xancus pyrum and natural pearl fishery. However, increasing industrialisation of the area has started showing its impact on the ecosystem in this sector of Gulf of Mannar. It is therefore need of the hour to take appropriate measures to conserve this precious resource not only for sustainable fishing but also to safeguard the needs of the future generations

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Algal food processing by Stegastes nigricans, an herbivorous damselfish: Differences between an undisturbed and a disturbed coral reef site (La Reunion, Indian Ocean)

Author(s) :Loma, T.L.De; Harmelin-Vivien, M.; Naim, O.; Fontaine, M.-F.

Source :Oceanol. Acta: 23(7); 2000; 793-804.

Abstract :There has, as yet, been little study of nutrient disturbance and its consequences on the functional biology of primary consumers in coral reefs. The processing of epilithic algal communities by the damselfish Stegastes nigricans was investigated at La Reunion, at two sites of a fringing reef, oligotrophic for one and eutrophic for the other. Differences between sites were analyzed in quantifying organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, and organic 'nutrients' (carbohydrate, lipid and protein) in the algal food, the digestive contents and the faces of S. nigricans. In the disturbed site, algal turfs and digestive contents presented significantly higher organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen and organic nutrient values. Absorption efficiency of total matter was higher in fish from this site (26.8%) than from the undisturbed site (16.3%), as well for organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen and organic nutrients. A larger mean total length was also measured for fish sampled in the disturbed site (11.4 cm versus 10.9 cm). The reinjection of organic nutrients by this herbivorous fish appeared to be enhanced in this site. It is suggested that eutrophication is the main disturbance factor accounting for the recorded differences

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Occurrence of submerged Pleistocene stony corals and marine molluscs at Vazhakala near Cochin and their significance on sea level changes

Author(s) :Pillai, C.S.G.; Appukuttan, K.K.; Kaladharan, P.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 28(1); 1999; 96-98.

Abstract :A well preserved, submerged assemblage of Scleractinian corals and marine molluscs was observed from a well cutting at a depth of 8 m from the present MSL and about 8 km inland, at Vazhakala near Cochin (Kerala). Based on the determination of age of a sample of Goniastrea retiformis - a reef coral, it is suggested that the deposit is of Pleistocene Era. The sea level circa 40000 y B.P. at this region was about 7-8 m than the present and the coastline extended up to 8 km eastward than the current. The Pleistocene coral and molluscan fauna reported herein do not display much variation from the present faunal elements known from the seas around India. It is suggested that a regression of sea during the Late Pleistocene resulted in the emergence of Cochin and suburbs and the physiography was subsequently modified by alluvial deposits from the rivers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :New sesquiterpenoids from the soft coral Sinularia intacta of the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Gowri, P.M.; Murthy, M.V.R.K.

Source :J. Nat. Prod.: 62; 1999; 1600-1604.

Abstract :Chemical examination of the soft coral species Sinularia intacta collected from the Moyli Island of the Gulf of Mannar of the Indian Ocean resulted in the isolation of three new sesquiterpenoids, 1, 2, and 3, along with the known compounds 8,9-secoafricanane-8,9-dione (5), delta sup(9)(15))-africanene (6), 1-O-hexadecyl-2, 3-dihexadecanoylglycerol, batyl alcohol, (24R)-24-methylcholesterol, gorgosterol, a mixture of two monohydroxy-4 alpha-methyl sterols, 4 alpha, 24-dimethylcholestan-3 beta-ol, 4 alpha, 24 xi-dimethyl-23 xi-ethylcholestan-3 alpha-ol, a mixture of ceramides, and ergost-24(28)-ene-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. The structures of the new sesquiterpenoids were established as (9R)-africanane-9, 15-diol (1), (9R)-9-methoxyafricanan-15-ol (2), and (9S)-africanane-9, 15-diol-15-monoacetate (3) by a study of their spectral data and partial synthesis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :High diversity of tropical intertidal zone sponges in temperature, salinity and current extremes

Author(s) :Barnes, D.K.A.

Source :Afr. J. Ecol.: 37; 1999; 424-434.

Abstract :The wide intertidal zone of the Quirimba Archipelago (Mozambique, East Africa) encompasses many different habitats, which all experience wide environmental variation. Large daily fluctuations in temperature occur when standing water is heated up at low tide to greater than 10 degrees C above ambient. Salinity may be high in the dry season and periodically almost fresh in the wet season. Very high current velocities (approx. ms super(-1)) may occur and the direction of water flow is often complex. Sponges were a major component of the fauna (and dominate the sessile forms) in most of the eight habitats studied: exposed reef, sheltered reef, sand-rock, cave, reef boulders, boulders on sand, mangrove swamp and seagrass meadows. The highest number of sponge species occurred in the two reef habitats: from mean values of between approx. 2.5 and approx. 0.5 species/m sup(2) (upper and lower shore, respectively). The diversity of species present yielded a high Shannon index value of H = 2.95 for the total of 33 species. A rank-abundance plot of the data showed a high level of equitability (J = 0.84). Community similarity measurement using Bray-Curtis index showed two clusters; the exposed habitats of the reefs and sand-rock and the refugia of cave, reef and sand boulders

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Feasibility of groundwater withdrawal in a coral island

Author(s) :Singh, V.S.; Gupta, C.P.

Source :Hydrol. Sci. J.: 44(2); 1999; 173-182.

Abstract :Groundwater on a small coral island occurs in the form of a lens floating on saline water. The freshwater lens is highly sensitive to various stresses such as pumping, sea tide, etc., Since groundwater is the only source of freshwater on the island, it is not only being utilized for various purposes but also there is growing demand for increased pumping. In order to assess the impact of additional groundwater pumping, various hydrogeological parameters were obtained through detailed investigations. These parameters were then used to construct a two-dimensional solute transport model and the effect of additional groundwater pumping on quality of groundwater was studied. The model helps in arriving at a safe groundwater-pumping scheme. Feasibility of groundwater augmentation by constructing a subsurface dam has also been demonstrated

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Indian Ocean reef guide: Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Africa, Mauritius, Madagascar, East Africa and Seychelles

Author(s) :Debelius, H.

Source :IKAN - Unterwasserarchiv; Waldschulstrasse; Germany; 1999; 321 pp.

Abstract :The coral reef fauna of Indian Ocean is identified. The monograph contains over 1,000 photographs of coral reef fauna taken in their natural habitat

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral bleaching effects on reef fish communities and fisheries

Author(s) :Oehman, M.C.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 71-77.

Abstract :The further effect of coral bleaching on reef fish communities and fisheries has been studied. Coral bleaching that leads to coral death will alter the reef structure. Coral bleaching would be expected to influence the fish fauna. Due to the complexity in characterising these fish populations and variety of factors that regulate their numbers, it is difficult to determine the consequences. The effects may vary from one reef to another, all depending on the fish community composition, habitat interactions before the impact, recruitment dynamics, and habitat structure before and after the disturbance. Coral mortality due to a bleaching event could have a major impact on the fishing yield. The extent of the impact will depend on aspects such as the nature of the fish community, target species and their habitat requirements and the type of fishing techniques used

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Influence of coral bleaching on the fauna of Tutia Reef, Tanzania

Author(s) :Oehman, M.C.; Lindahe, U.; Schelten, C.K.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 48-52.

Abstract :The coral bleaching effects on the coral reef fauna at Tutna Reef in Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania has been investigated corals from adjacent reef patches of the species @iAcropora formosa@@ were transplanted into plots, and reef structure and associated fish assemblages were examined before and after the bleaching event. Following the coral bleaching, 88% of the corals died. As surviving and dead corals were from different clones, results suggested that genetic variation might influence bleaching tolerance. A change in fish community composition, with an increase in fish abundance, could be seen. Special diversity, however, was less affected. There was a correlation between structural complexity and fish densities after disturbance. This indicates that the reef may uphold an abundance fish population as long as the architectural structure is intact

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral mortality in the Chagos Archipelago

Author(s) :Sheppard, C.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 27-32.

Abstract :The coral mortality in the Chagos Archipelago of Indian Ocean has been studied in the year 1999. Only about 12% of the substrate on the seaward reefs was live coral. Upto 40% was identified as dead coral, and 40% as unidentifiable dead substrate, much of which was almost certainly severely eroded, dead coral. Most corals were becoming heavily eroded, leaving extensive rubble. Rubble on reefs was highly erosive and tends to prevent recolonisation. Reef fish were not counted systematically, but on many reefs there were less than 25% of the former abundance and diversity. The situation requires a substantial re-think of present approaches and research priorities in coral reef science and conservation

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral reef ecosystems in South Asia

Author(s) :Rajasuriya, A.; Maniku, M.H.; Subramanian, B.R.; Rubens, J.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 11-24.

Abstract :In April to June 1998, an El Nino-related increase in sea surface temperatures caused extensive damage to shallow-water coral reefs in South Asia, which resulted in unprecedented coral bleaching. In many reef areas in South Asia, the high coral mortality has greatly over-shadowed other observable impacts. There appears to be an increased awareness in national government sectors, and to some extent among resource-user groups, that better management is required for the future sustainability of coral reef resources in South Asia. Training conducted through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) and the South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP) have contributed to enhanced monitoring capabilities. At a national level, new programmes have been initiated in Sri Lanka, Maldives and India. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, new programmes that would broadly fall under the theme of integrated coastal zone management are planned for the near future. Nevertheless, active management of coral reefs and related resources remains at a relatively low level, mainly due to economic under-development of poor coastal communities, poor planning and co-ordination of development activities, and a lack of trained personnel and equipment. The inability to implement existing laws and regulations continues to be a major cause of reef degradation

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diversity

Author(s) :Karlson, R.H.

Source :Dynamics of coral communities. (Population Community Biol. Ser.; 23). Kluwer Academic; Dordrecht; The Netherlands; 1999; 29-50.

Abstract :The patterns of coral diversity in the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea, etc., have been described. The maximum number of species was found at intermediate depths (18-20m) of Chagos Archipelago. The number of species rose to the peak with increasing depth upto 20 m and then steadily declined. At Gan Island, Addu Atoll in the Maldive Islands, 103 species were found along a total of 792 m@u2@@ of sampled reef. In south western Indian Ocean a total of 4350 coral colonies representing 120 species were recorded from reef flat (0.5-1.3 m deep) and reef slope (5-40 m deep) stations. Maximum number of species are found at a depth of 30 m. In the Red Sea a total of 84, 10 m line transects were used to survey 93 coral species at 5 m intervals through back reef, reef crest and fore-reef environments to a depth of 30 m. The maximum number of species was recorded at the deepest stations. Two species @iLeptosens tubulifera@@ and @iL. fragilis@@ were limited to deeper water at depths of 25-50 m

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sustainable energy and wastewater treatment as alternative/sustainable livelihood for coastal communities

Author(s) :Leithe-Eriksen, R.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 86-90.

Abstract :The sustainable energy and wastewater treatment as an alternative/sustainable livelihood for coastal communities of Indian Ocean is studied. To avert the energy crisis renewable energy technologies, such as solar cells and windmills, can promote energy self-sufficiency in developing nations, preserve the environment and reduce the threat of global warming. Wind turbines generate roughly 21 billion kWh - enough for 3.5 million suburban homes. Biogas has been used in China, India and Pakistan for more than a thousand years

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Socio-economic aspects of the 1998 coral bleaching event in the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Cesar, H.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 82-85.

Abstract :The socio-economic aspects of 1998 coral bleaching event in the Indian Ocean is described. The bleaching and subsequent mortality resulted serious socio-economic impacts particularly for those nations (Sri Lanka, Maldives, Kenya, Tanzania, Seychelles, etc.) whose economies are heavily dependent on the revenues generated by reef-based tourism and reef-based fisheries. The preliminary valuation of these impacts range from US$ 760 million to US$ 8,190 million. More applied research and field work is needed to assess the damage to the people and the economies around the Indian Ocean

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Rehabilitation of degraded coral reefs

Author(s) :Lindahl, U.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 78-81.

Abstract :The recovery of degraded coral reefs of Indian Ocean is described. Rehabilitation of coral reefs has not been widely applied as a management option, but several studies have been undertaken to develop suitable methods. Coral reef rehabilitation have aimed at either to improve the conditions for natural colonization by placing artificial substrates on the seabed or transplanting corals on the degraded areas. Experimental data is needed on the suitability for transplantation of a wide range of coral species in different habitats and on the effects of interspecific competition among transplanted corals

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status report Socotra Archipelago

Author(s) :Turner, J.R.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 63-64.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs in Socotra Archipelago, north western Indian Ocean is studied. The south coasts of the islands are rock/boulder dominated by macroalgae. There are also small faviids, small massives and encrusting corals and soft corals subordinate to the algal meadows. North and eastern coasts support low profile spur and groove coral structures and coral on limestone platform. Bleaching was first observed in mid to late May 1998 by De Vantier. Coral, especially branching Acropora washed up on beaches as high berms after storms. Corals are barely affected by bleaching

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status report Mauritius

Author(s) :Rurner, J.R.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 60-62.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs in Mauritius was studied. Fringing reefs protect extensive shallow lagoons nearly all way around the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. The lagoons have large beds of branching and tabular corals and patches of @iPavona, Porites, Platygyra, Galaxea, Montipora@@ are common. The marine ecosystems of the main islands are heavily degraded by pollution, eutrophication and fishing. Due to coral bleaching a large variability in the zooxanthellae population, with regular episode of very low densities was found. The bleaching affected 39% and 31% of live corals in Baleclava and Blue Bay marine parks respectively, with total bleaching being 12% and 4% of live cover, and partial bleaching 27%. The bleaching has not caused major additional degradation, the weakened reefs are extremely vulnerable to future events, threatening fishing and tourism industries. Coral reef organisms in Mauritius are regularly exposed to widely fluctuating conditions

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Consequences of the 1998 coral bleaching event for the islands of the western Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Quod, J.P.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 53-59.

Abstract :The consequences of the 1998 coral bleaching event for the islands of the western Indian Ocean is described. The extent of bleaching in Reunion was moderate, affecting only pre-stressed colonies. Recovery was good, except in Planch'alize and Sainte Rose. In Mayotte the 1998 bleaching and mortality event was intense and severe. Up to 80% of the tabulate Acropora on the outer slope are now dead and covered by algal turfs and sediment. 55% of the corals were died in Comoros. In Madagascar 30% of the hard corals were bleached. The extent of coral death in Seychelles was ranging from 50% to more than 90%

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Assessment of the extent of damage, socio-economics effects, mitigation and recovery in Tanzania

Author(s) :Muhando, C.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 43-47.

Abstract :The extent of damage, socio-economic effects, mitigation and recovery of coral reefs after coral bleaching in Tanzania is described. The coral bleaching was not uniform corals in shallow water bleached more than those in deeper waters. Mafia coral reefs seem to have suffered more than Zanzibar reefs. Corals on the western side of Pemba Island were more affected than corals on the eastern side. In general, more than 60% of the scleractinian corals showed signs of bleaching. Pemba dive operators have reported that Misali Island coral reefs have lost their tourist potential after the bleaching event. The actual economic effects remain to be investigated. A number of national institutions as well as governmental institutions and NGOs are dealing with coastal zone environment and resource management in Tanzania. The main activities on the Zanzibar coral reefs include coral reef monitoring coral reef mapping, coral settlement and coral transplantation experiments

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A preliminary assessment of coral bleaching in Mozambique

Author(s) :Schleyer, M.; Obura, D.; Motta, H.; Rodrigues, M.-J.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 37-42.

Abstract :A preliminary assessment of coral bleaching in Mozambique was carried out. The El Nino bleaching were most extensive on exposed reefs in the north and decreased further south, except at Inhaca Island. Extensive crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) damage was also found at Bazaruto and Inhambane. The COTS outbreak commenced in 1995-96 and sufficient time has elapsed for reef erosion and collapse to occur, the damage on these reefs was more pronounced. Coral mortality on the northern reefs was as high as 90%. Both the fisheries and the tourism value of these sites was affected

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status report Kenya

Author(s) :Obura, D.O.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 33-36.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs of Kenya is studied. Kenya's coral reefs are divided between two main areas: the southern, almost-continuous fringing reef system from Malindi to Shimoni, and more broken up patch and fore reef slopes around the islands of the Bajuni Archipelago, from Lamu and northwards. Reefs complexity and diversity is higher in the south and decreases northwards past Lamu due to increasing influence of the cold-water Somali current system. Following the coral bleaching in 1998, living coral cover decreases significantly on all known reefs in Kenya

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status report India

Author(s) :Wafar, M.V.M.

Source :Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status reports and project presentations 1999. eds. by: Linden, O.; Sporrong, N.CORDIO, Stockholm University; Stockholm; Sweden; 1999; 25-26.

Abstract :The status of coral reefs in India was studied. Coral reefs occur along the coasts of Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch, Andaman, Nicobar and Lakshadweep. In the first four areas, corals occur as fringing reefs around a chain of offshore islands. In Lakshadweep, the corals form about a dozen atolls . The total area of various reef features is about 2,300 km@u2@@. In the Indian reefs, a total of 200 species of corals, belonging to 73 genera are recorded. The 1998 bleaching event affected all Indian reef areas to varying degrees. The Andaman and Nicobar reefs appear to have suffered the most (upto 80% mortality), followed by the Lakshadweep (43-87%) and the Gulf of Mannar (60%) reefs. The socio-economic effects of coral bleaching are difficult to evaluate, since neither reef fisheries nor tourism are organized industries

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in coral reef lagoon waters: Comparative study of atolls and barrier reefs in the Indo-Pacific Oceans

Author(s) :Atsushi Suzuki; Hodaka Kawahata

Source :J. Oceanogr.: 55(6); 1999; 731-745.

Abstract :Factors controlling the CO2 system parameters, including the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in coral reef waters, were investigated in three mid-oceanic reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. Surface water PCO2 in the lagoons of Majuro Atoll and Palau barrier reef in the Pacific were 25 mu atm and 48 mu atm higher than those of the offshore waters, respectively, while South Male Atoll lagoon of the Maldives in the Indian Ocean exhibited relatively small difference in PCO2 compared to the offshore water. Observations from Majuro Atoll and Palau barrier reef are consistent with the view that calcium carbonate production predominates in coral reefs. On the other hand, results from South Male Atoll can be attributed to the through flushing of the lagoon, which is connected to the open ocean by numerous deep channels. The offshore-lagoon PCO2 difference depends on system-level net organic-to-inorganic carbon production ratio while reef topography, especially residence time of the lagoon, has a secondary effect on the magnitude of the offshore-lagoon difference. A potential for releasing CO2 might be more evident in an enclosed atoll where the reef water has a longer residence time. Oceanic atoll and barrier reef lagoons, which are in the terminal stage of evolutionary history of oceanic volcanic islands, have the potential to release CO2 to the atmosphere

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Temporal variation in lipid, protein and carbohydrate content in the Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens

Author(s) :Ben-David-Zaslow, R.; Benayahu, Y.

Source :J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.: 79(6); 1999; 1001-1006.

Abstract :Heteroxenia fuscescens is a common zooxanthellate soft coral on the shallow reefs of the Gulf of Eilat, northern Red Sea. Its main nutritional sources are the uptake of dissolved organic material (DOM) and carbon fixation by its symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). Recent studies have indicated that although colonies of H. fuscescens release planulae all year round, their fecundity was subject to seasonal changes. In this study the monthly per cent of ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate in the coral tissue over a three year period was determined. It was found that the tissues of colonies of H. fuscescens contained a monthly per cent mean of 8.8 plus or minus 4 ash (without sclerites), 11 plus or minus 3.5 lipid, 19.2 plus or minus 6.4 protein, and 0.6 plus or minus 0.01 carbohydrate (N = 36). This study is the first to present such values based on long term investigation of the biochemical profile of a coral, thus enabling an examination of temporal variability in biochemical composition among seasons and successive years. The results indicated seasonal fluctuations in lipid and protein content, while variation in the biochemical composition among years was expressed only in the protein content. Furthermore, it is suggested that in the Gulf of Eilat seasonal fluctuations in the abiotic features of the water may have an impact on the biochemical composition and energetic content of the studied species

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Subtropical carbonates in a temperate realm: Modern sediments on the southwest Australian shelf

Author(s) :James, N.P.; Collins, L.B.; Bone, Y.; Hallock, P.

Source :J. Sedim. Res.: 69(6); 1999; 1297-1321.

Abstract :The southwestern continental margin of Australia (19 degrees S-22 degrees S) in the western Indian Ocean is transitional between cool-water and warm-water carbonaterealms. It comprises the incipiently rimmed, flat-topped, steep-fronted RottnestShelf in the south, the uniform subtropical starved Carnarvon Ramp off Shark Bay, and the Ningaloo fringing reef in the north. The structurally quiescent northern part of the Rottnest Shelf, with minimum accommodation, is characterized by luxuriant stands of seagrasses and macrophytes growing on coralline-encrusted hardgrounds and rooted in sediments rich in coralline algae and larger, symbiont-bearing foraminifera together with abundant cool-water elements such as bryozoans,molluscs, and small foraminifera. Halimeda is poorly calcified and does not contribute to the sediment. Azooxanthellate corals, although present, are not common. Such a sediment pattern has many analogs in the geologic record, especially the early Cenozoic. The inner part of the more structurally active Carnarvon Ramp ranges from steep eolianite cliffs to hypersaline environments of Shark Bay to the Ningaloo fringing reef. Mid-ramp sediment, especially off Shark Bay, is mostly relict or stranded and foraminifera-dominated sand with abundant Mg-calcite-cemented intraclasts. These sediments, accumulating on a relatively barren seafloor, likely represent attenuated carbonate production brought about by downwelling and episodic incursions of saline, Shark Bay-derived waters onto the ramp. The outer ramp is either planktonic foraminiferal sand, sorted by strong bottom currents, or spiculitic mud

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Long-term trends in catch and effort in the KwaZulu-Natal nearshore linefisheries

Author(s) :Penney, A.J.; Mann-Lang, J.B.; Van Der Elst, R.P.; Wilke, C.G

Source :S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci.: 21; 1999; 51-76.

Abstract :The boat-based linefishery is the most important marine fishery along the coast of KwaZulu-Natal, producing 40% of the total annual mass of fish landed there. Since 1900, the fishery has supported commercial and recreational sectors that compete for more than 120 species, using similar methods in the same fishing areas. Catch-and-effort data have been collected sporadically from the commercial linefishery since 1910 and the recreational linefishery since 1970. The number of commercial vessels increased from 10 in 1910 to 140 in 1995, and effective commercial effort continues to increase, despite a limit placed on the number of vessels in 1985. Recreational participation escalated from 20 skiboats in 1948 to 2000 in 1995 and entry to this sector remains unlimited. Introduction of the beach-launched, trailable skiboat in 1945 resulted in a rapid expansion of effort to coastal areas that previously functioned as harvest refugia for resident reef fish. Total catch has declined, despite increased effort, as has catch per unit effort (cpue)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Eggs and larvae of the santer Cheimerius nufar (Perciformes: Sparidae) from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Author(s) :Connell, A.D.; Heemstra, P.C.; Garratt, P.A.

Source :S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci.: 21; 1999; 41-50.

Abstract :The santer Cheimerius nufar is a common reef fish on the east coast of South Africa and popular target for offshore anglers. The eggs and larvae are described from specimens reared in the laboratory, from aquarium-spawned eggs and eggs collected at sea. Comparisons with eggs and larvae of other local sparids are made and data are presented on the seasonal occurrence of santer eggs in plankton samples

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Wave-breaking hydrodynamics within coral reef systems and the effect of changing relative sea level

Author(s) :Hearn, C.J.

Source :J. Geophys. Res. (C: Oceans): 104(C12); 1999; 30007-30019.

Abstract :This paper considers the hydrodynamics of wave-driven flow across a coral reef and the resultant flushing of its lagoon. Current depth coefficients are introduced that describe the fractional change of across-reef and lagoonal current with change in the relative local sea level, i.e., the depth of water over the reef flat. The coefficients are derived from an analytical hydrodynamic model and compared with data from two reefs. The first is Ningaloo Reef in northwest Australia, which is a typical barrier reef with a narrow coastal lagoon, and the second is Kaneohe Bay in Oahu, Hawaii, where the reef is both unusually deep and wide. The current depth coefficients are shown to be sensitive to the form of the frictional law on the reef flat and can be deduced from measurements of the astronomical tidal currents in the lagoon. Both quadratic and linear friction laws are considered for the reef flat and good agreement obtained with a linear law based on the high-frequency motion due to surface gravity waves

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Observations on the short-term movements and behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

Author(s) :Gunn, J.S.; Stevens, J.D.; Davis, T.L.O.; Norman, B.M.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 135(3); 1999; 553-559.

Abstract :The short-term movements and behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus during March 1994 and April 1997 are reported from data collected by acoustic tracking and archival tags at Ningaloo Reef on the north west coast of Western Australia. Sharks were tracked for up to 26 h and generally swam slowly at approx 0.7 m s-1 parallel to the reef edge; occasionally they swam in a wide arc adjacent to passes in the reef. All tracked sharks made regular dives through the water column, mostly from the surface to near the bottom. These dives did not appear to be related to hydrographic features, and the sharks were probably searching the water column for food. Most sharks were accompanied by other fishes, usually the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :The gorgonian coral Acabaria biserialis: Life history of a successful colonizer of artificial substrata

Author(s) :Ben-Yosef, D.Z.; Benayahu, Y.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 135(3); 1999; 473-481.

Abstract :The azooxanthellate coral Acabaria biserialis (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) is highly abundant on the vertical underwater structures of the oil jetties at Eilat (Red Sea), but it is rare on the adjacent natural reefs. To understand its success on such artificial substrata various aspects of its life history and population dynamics were examined. A. biserialis is a gonochoric brooder. The percentage of colonies on the artificial substrata bearing gonads ranged from none (September 1994 and 1995) to 100% (January 1994, 1995 and April 1994). Mature oocytes and sperm sacs reached rather small maximum diameters of 240 and 160 mu m, respectively, probably dictated by the small gastrovascular cavities. Planulation occurred during various lunar phases, and both by day and night. The findings of our study may provide a useful contribution to the design of artificial reefs aimed at attracting rapid colonization by A. biserialis colonies

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Experimental investigation into the effects of suspended sediment on fertilisation, larval survival and settlement in a scleractinian coral

Author(s) :Gilmour, J.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 135(3); 1999; 451-462.

Abstract :Laboratory and field experiments were used to determine whether high (approx 100 mg l-1), low (approx 50 mg l-1) and control (approx 0 mg l-1) levels of suspended sediment affected fertilisation, larval survival, and larval settlement in the scleractinian coral Acropora digitifera (Dana, 1846). Both high- and low-sediment treatments significantly decreased fertilisation, but post-fertilisation embryonic development was not inhibited by suspended sediments. Larval survival and larval settlement were significantly reduced in high- and low-sediment treatments. No difference was found between high- and low-sediment treatments in any of the three post-spawning processes investigated, suggesting that they are susceptible to sediment concentrations which are not exceptionally high even under natural conditions ( 50 mg l-1). The introduction of an additional stress in the form of high levels of suspended sediments coupled with naturally high variability in recruitment may have a considerable effect on the successful supply and settlement of coral larvae to a reef

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Interspecific aggression among stony corals in Eilat, Red Sea: A hierarchy of aggression ability and related parameters

Author(s) :Abelson, A.; Loya, Y.

Source :Bull. Mar. Sci.: 65(3); 1999; 851-860.

Abstract :Interspecific aggression among stony corals has been studied in Eilat [Northern Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat)], using random SCUBA traverses and line transects. The resultant hierarchy, constructed by ranking the abilities of species to damage neighbouring corals, reveals intransitive interactions which occur mostly within the intermediately-aggressive species. Possible relations of the aggression rank of the species studied to ecological or biological parameters (i.e., polyp (calyx) size, and species abundance and distribution) were examined. No apparent correlation was found between aggression and species abundance. Other parameters (i.e., polyp size and species distribution) show significant links with the species' aggression rank. Aggression hierarchies are among the ecological parameters used to compare coral reefs of different geographical regions. The present paper provides a first record or the aggression hierarchy for Red Sea corals, which may be compared to hierarchies from other regions. The constructed aggression hierarchy may serve as a step towards a better understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Review of exploration of stratigraphic traps in Bangal

Author(s) :Biswas, S.K.; Biswas, A.K.; Chawla, B.R.

Source :(Workshop on Integrated Exploration for Stratigraphic and Subtle Traps; KDM Institute of Petroleum Exploration, Dehradun; 10-12 Feb 1999). ONGC Bull.: 36(1); 1999; 147-151.

Abstract :Forty four wells were drilled in Bengal without any commercial discovery of hydrocarbon inspite of very favourable geological attributes. This may be due to wrong interpretation and lack of source in nearby areas. Already, stratigraphic prospects like reef, buildup, wedgeout, pinchout and seismic anomaly were tested but most of the prospects were not confirmed by the drilling data. Due to lack of structural traps in the basin, future exploration targets will be confined to stratigraphic/ subtle traps, e.g., Oligocene turbidite fan deposits, lowstand deposits near shelf slope area, reservoir sand within early transgressive systems tract, Miocene progradational features in shallow marine area, and Mio-Pliocene channels, etc. An extensive geoscientific analysis of all the explored stratigraphic prospects integrating with the updated geochemical appraisal is necessary. Acquisition of few regional seismic lines passing through the key wells is required for fine tuning of the stratigraphic model

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Occurrence of small carbonate buildups in Alibag Formation of B-172 structure, Mumbai Offshore

Author(s) :Das, K.C.

Source :(Workshop on Integrated Exploration for Stratigraphic and Subtle Traps; KDM Institute of Petroleum Exploration, Dehradun; 10-12 Feb 1999). ONGC Bull.: 36(1); 1999; 97-105.

Abstract :Sedimentological studies on conventional and side wall cores from thin limestone bands of B-172-2, 4 and 6 have revealed a very significant fact of the presence of small carbonate buildups in the area southeast of Bassein field. These organic buildups are found developed in an otherwise finer clastic dominant sequence towards to of Oligocene strata (Alibag Formation). Different lithofacies alongwith depositional environments identified in the limestones are coral boundstone (reef environment), algal wackestone/mudstone (micrite mound), mixed skeletal wackestone to packstone (reef flank/ reef floatstone facies), and large benthonic foraminiferal-algal packstone (near reef/ inter-reef facies). The limestone bodies show periodic breaks in reefal growth and the primary porosity of the coral boundstone facies has vastly improved owing to selective solution activity due to vadose diagenesis under subaerial condition. These organic buildups, by virtue of their genetics, are likely to occur in many more places and assume importance from the hydrocarbon point of view because oil has already been struck in B-172-2

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Productivity of the coral reef alga Halimeda gracilis Harv. ex J. Ag. at Minicoy Lsland, Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Haneefakoya, C.N.; Nasser, A.K.V.; Mohammed, G.

Source :Seaweed Res. Util.: 21(1-2); 1999; 79-84.

Abstract :The present investigation deals with the morphology and productivity of Halimeda gracilis from 3 locations of Minicoy Island. The estimated percentage cover of H. gracilis were 32.6% on the reef, 10.9% on the shore reef and 17.3% on the seagrass beds. The length of H. gracilis varied between 4.6 cm at the reef and 8.5 cm in seagrass beds but the weight showed only slight variation. Length weight relationship of H. gracilis indicated least variable morphology at reef and lagoon. Plants collected from seagrass beds in the lagoon showed highest productivity of 0.64 gC/m2/day while the lowest production of 0.08 gC/m2/day was recorded from the shore reef. Environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients were monitored at the three stations

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Bioactive compounds from a new species of Sinularia soft coral

Author(s) :Subrahmanyam, C.; Kulatheeswaran, R.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Chem. Med. Chem.): 38(12); 1999; 1388-1390.

Abstract :Compounds 1-3, 5 and 6, which showed antibacterial activities, have been isolated from a new species of Sinularia soft coral

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Organic matter, nutrients and major ions in the sediments of coral reefs and seagrass beds of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Vinithkumar, N.V.; Kumaresan, S.; Manjusha, M.; Balasubramanian, T.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 28(4); 1999; 383-393.

Abstract :Comparative investigations have been made to study the distribution pattern of organic matter, nutrients and major ions in the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve ecosystem. Sediment samples have been collected during January 1996 from six islands (Shingle, Kurusadai, Kori, Pumarichan, Manauli and Hare) of this region covering coral reef zone, seagrass bed and adjacent areas. Although textural composition of sediment samples showed predominantly sandy, coral bed areas were found to have greater percentage of coral stones and shell fragments and with very low silt and clay fractions. The coral reef sediments recorded low salinity and higher pH compared to seagrass bed and adjacent areas. Total organic carbon (TOC) content (1.38 to 9.11 mg/g) of the reef sediments were low when compared to the seagrass bed and adjacent areas. Higher concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were found in the coral reef zone and seagrass bed revealed that these areas may be viewed as a sink for nutrients, whereas the adjacent areas act as reservoir for nutrients. The seagrass bed sediments recorded higher Na and K concentrations than the coral reef zone and adjacent areas could be due to the utilization and trapping of these ions by seagrass and associated organisms

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Magneto bacteria from estuarine, mangrove and coral reef environs in Gulf of Mannar

Author(s) :Kannapiran, E.; Purushothaman, A.; Kannan, L.; Saravanan, S.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 28(3); 1999; 332-334.

Abstract :Totally 37 strains from the three biota were isolated with predominance of Bacillus spp. followed by Pseudomonas spp. Spirillium spp., and Vibrio spp. Based on the fatty acid profile, a few of the strains were identified as Pseudomonas mesophilico, Pseudomonas caryophylli and Bacillus cereus. Of the three biota studied, the coral reef harbours higher percentage of magnetotactic bacteria followed by the mangroves and estuaries. The strains were further studied for growth, salinity optimum, magnetotaxis and survival. The bacterial growth was observed as a ring formation between 7 and 14 days of inoculation. The distance to the ring from the top surface of culture medium ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 cm. The ring was prominent in a salinity of 20 ppt. Regarding magnetotaxis, a 3 h exposure to the external magnetic field was required for 100% aggregation of bacterial cells. The magnetobacteria isolated from coral reef were able to survive for 5 to 6 months whereas those from mangroves and estuaries survived for 4 and 2 months respectively

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Antifouling activities of marine sedentary invertebrates on some macrofoulers

Author(s) :Wilsanand, V.; Wagh, A.B.; Bapuji, M.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 28(3); 1999; 280-284.

Abstract :Antifouling activities of alcohol extracts from four gorgonian species (Melitodes sp., Gorgonella sanguinolenta, Echinogorgia complexa, Acanthogorgia turgida), five soft corals [Dendronephthya sp. 1, Dendronephthya sp. 2, Dendronephthya (Roxasia) sp., Dendronephthya (Morchellana) sp., Dendronephthya (Spongodes) sp], three unidentified antipatharian species (coded as antipatharian sp. 1, antipatharian sp. 2, antipatharian sp. 3) and five sponges [Plakortis simplex, Axinella sp., Fasciospongia cavernosa, Azorica pfeifferae, Dercitopsis sp.] against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and green mussel Perna viridis are reported here. All the extracts examined inhibited the settlement of cyprids of B. amphitrite. Toxicity revival studies indicate that the transient presence of active extracts did not cause irreversible damage to P. viridis. The results indicate the possible potentialities of these extracts as natural non toxic antifouling agents.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Artificial reefs created by electrolysis and coral transplantation: An approach ensuring the compatibility of environmental protection and diving tourism

Author(s) :Treeck, P. van; Schuhmacher, H.

Source :(Int. Conf. on the Biology of Coastal Environ; Holiday Inn; Bahrain; 6-9 Apr 1997). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 49(suppl. A); 1999; 75-81.

Abstract :Coral reefs are currently being subjected to increasing pressure caused by water sports, especially scuba diving. Highly complex reef coenoses are affected by mechanical breakage and the coverage of corals by resuspended sediments. As the ecological capacity of the biocoenosis is exceeded, sensitive species are suppressed and the community is impoverished. The conflict between the needs of nature conservation and the economic interests of diving tourism can be mitigated by the creation of artificial underwater attractions as reef substitutes. Specially designed underwater structures are ideal for many diving activities, which can be diverted from sensitive natural habitats in that way. It is also possible to develop model reef communities for training and environmental education purposes. The new concept is based on the elegant solution, proposed by Hilbertz et al, (1977), of depositing calcium minerals from the seawater in situ by electrolysis. Experiments conducted near Aqaba (Red Sea) showing that it is feasible to transplant living coral fragments on to the substrate being developed by electrochemical processes. In this way, the formation of a diverse community on any structure desired can be considerably enhanced

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Human impacts on coral reefs in the Sultanate of Oman

Author(s) :Al-Jufaili, S.; Al-Jabri, M.; Al-Baluchi, A.; Baldwin, R.M.; Wilson, S.C.; West, F.; Matthews, A.D.

Source :(Int. Conf. on the Biology of Coastal Environ; Holiday Inn; Bahrain; 6-9 Apr 1997). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.: 49(suppl. A); 1999; 65-74.

Abstract :A rapid assessment survey of the coral reefs of the Sultanate of Oman was conducted during the first half of 1996. The survey revealed new information on the distribution pattern of corals in Oman and identified impacts, threats and potential threats to coral communities for the purpose of preparation of a National Coral Reef Management Plan. Damage resulting from fisheries activities was the most commonly recorded human impact, with the most severe effects. Other human impacts resulted from coastal construction, recreational activities, oil pollution and eutrophication. Predation of corals by Acanthaster planci, damage caused by storms, coral diseases and temperature-related stress were the most commonly recorded natural impacts to coral reefs. Further minor natural impacts were attributable to siltation, rock falls and predation by a corallivorous gastropod (Drupella sp.). Significant differences between different areas of the country were found in terms of human impacts on coral reefs and these were related to coastal demography and human activity. Eighty per cent of sites studied were recorded to have been affected by human impacts to some degree. Impacts attributable to fisheries activities were found at 69% of the sites. Lost or abandoned gill nets were found to affect coral reefs at 49% of sites throughout Oman and accounted for 70% of all severe human impacts. Fishing nets were found to act selectively, causing greater damage to certain coral communities than to others. Results of the study are discussed in relation to management of coral reef areas in Oman

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Halofolliculina corallasia, a new coral-killing ciliate on Indo-Pacific reefs

Author(s) :Antonius, A.

Source :Coral Reefs: 18(3); 1999; p. 300.

Abstract :A novel type of coral disease has been identified on Indo-Pacific reefs. It is caused by Halofolliculina corallasia Antonius & Lipscomb 2000, a new species of colonial, heterotrich ciliate. Since the disease damages the skeleton, it has been termed Skeleton Eroding Band (SEB). The syndrome is found on a wide variety of massive and branching corals, its progress similar to Black Band Disease (BBD). The black band of SEB consists of masses of black loricae (flask-shaped housings) of the ciliate, with bifurcated, beige wings sticking out, resembling a bed of microscopic (200 mu m) garden eels. The dotted appearance of the white zone behind the front distinguishes SEB from BBD was found on reefs of the Sinai (Red Sea). Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and Lizard Island (Pacific, GBR)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Coral frameworks revisited-reefs and coral carpets in the northern Red Sea

Author(s) :Riegl, B.; Piller, W.E.

Source :Coral Reefs: 18(3); 1999; 241-253.

Abstract :Coral communities were investigated in the northern Red Sea, in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, for their framework building potential. Five types of coral frameworks were differentiated: Acropora reef framework, Porites reef framework, Porites carpet, faviid carpet, and Stylophora carpet. Two non-framework community types were found: the Stylophora-Acropora community, and soft coral communities. Reef frameworks show a clear ecological zonation along depth and hydrodynamic exposure gradients, with clear indicator communities for each zone. By definition, coral carpets build a framework but lack distinct zonation patterns since they grow only in areas without pronounced gradients. In the northern Red Sea they show a gradual change with depth from Porites to faviid dominance. A Stylophora carpet is restricted to shallow water in the northern Gulf of Suez. Although growth rates of carpets may be somewhat less than those of reefs, the carbonate accumulation is considered to be higher in carpet areas due to their significantly higher areal extension. In addition, reefs and carpets have different sediment retention characteristics - the carpet retains, the reef exports. The in situ fossilization potential of coral carpets is expected to be higher than that of reef frameworks

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Pit structure and trophic relationship of the coral pit crab Cryptochirus coralliodytes

Author(s) :Simon-Blecher, N.; Chemedanov, A.; Eden, N.; Achituv, Y.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 134(4); 1999; 711-717.

Abstract :Individuals of the pit crabs Cryptochirus coralliodytes Heller inhabit massive corals of the family Faviidae. Their pit walls were observed to be covered by blue-green algae and fungi. It is suggested that the crabs enhance the growth of these algae and fungi with their metabolic excretions, which contain ammonium. The endolithic algae and the fungi may facilitate the abrasion of the coral skeleton by the crabs, by perforating it and thus weakening the skeletal structure. Computerized tomography analysis revealed dense skeletal meterial around the pits. Transverse sections showed that the calcification around the pit was similar to other parts of the colony, whereas the macro-architecture was different. Such a difference is the result of the crabs' influence on the corals' living tissue, possibly on the calicoblast which deposits the coenosteum. Crabs, which were exposed to carbon-labeled corals for 1, 7 and 18 d, accumulated labeled carbon, indicating transfer of carbon from the coral tissue to the crabs. Histochemical examination of the stomach and gut of crabs revealed the presence of mucopolysaccharides in the gut, supporting the hypothesis that the crabs eat coral products. The findings of this study provide additional evidence that C. coralliodytes are parasites and support the general hypothesis that a nutritional relationship may have served as a basis for selection

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Atoll mangroves and associated flora from Republic of Maldives, Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G

Corp. Body :Int. Society for Mangrove Ecosystems; Okinawa; Japan.

Source :ISME mangrove ecosystems technical reports volume 5. ed. by: Vannucci, M.; 1999; 17-25.

Abstract :Coral islands from the Republic of Maldives were surveyed for their mangroves and feasibility of large scale mangrove afforestation to restore the coastal habitats and stabilize the shore. Extensive mangrove formations were observed from the islands of the north atolls. Male' atoll was totally devoid of mangroves due to their large scale reclamation mainly for urbanisation and tourism. Mangrove flora comprised of 12 species and was dominated by Bruguiera cylindrica followed by Lumnitzera racemosa, Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata. Many of these islands exhibited luxuriant and tall (7-20 m) forests of B. cylindrica with an average density of 7 trees 100 sq m-1. Production and establishment of mangroves seedlings was observed to be very high in all the members of Rhizophoraceae, as well as in Avicennia marina. Associate mangrove flora was commonly represented by Thespesia populnea, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pandanus spp., Pemphis acidula, Scaevola taccada and Tournefortia argentea. Pemphis acidula, was observed to act as a pioneer species on newly formed islands. Mangrove debris harboured 39 spp of manglicolous fungi. Reclamation of mangroves, has caused severe erosion at a few of the islands particularly in the Haa Dhaalu in the north. B. cylindrica is commercially exploited for fish sticks and wood for boat building and construction and cultivated on small scale. Islanders are well verged with plantation techniques and generally dense plantations particularly of B. cylindrica are practised in the intertidal swampy regions. There is good potential for developing mangrove nursery and afforestation, and aquaculture in the mangrove influenced environments

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Organisation of commercially supporting meroplankton in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve areas, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Krishnamoorthy, P.; Subramanian, P.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 28(2); 1999; 211-215.

Abstract :The samples were collected along the southeast coast of India at three different stations - st 1 is nearer to Mandapam in Palk Bay, st 2 nearer to Mandapam, the head of Gulf of Mannar and st 3 nearer to Kudankulam, the foot of Gulf of Mannar. The Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar (near Mandapam) are coral dominated, partially closed shallow seas, harbour rich flora and fauna. Kundankulam is directly exposed to open sea with rocky patches of sandy bottom. The highest species diversity was encountered in st 2 followed by st 3 and st 1 (2.18 2.1 1.9) indicates the high fertility and optimal environmental conditions of Gulf of Mannar. It was also underscored by high species evenness at st 2 followed st 3 and st 1 (1.5 1.4 1.3). The influence of west coast current, and conglomeration of open ocean species causes the maximum of species richness at st 3, which is followed by st 2 and st 1 (3.26 3.13 3.0). Dominance index (79.3 74.6 71.6) was found maximum at st 2 followed by st 1 and st 3 denote protective nature of coral beds for these young ones at Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Lignin-modifying enzymes of Flavodon flavus, a basidiomycete isolated from a coastal marine environment

Author(s) :Raghukumar, C.; DeSouza, T.M.; Thorn, R.G.; Reddy, C.A.

Source :Appl. Environ. Microbiol.: 65(5); 1999; 2103-2111.

Abstract :A basidiomycetous fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden (strain 312), isolated from decaying sea grass from a coral lagoon off the west coast of India, mineralized nearly 24% of 14C-labeled synthetic lignin to 14CO2 in 24 days. When grown in low-nitrogen medium (2.4 mM N) this fungus produced three major classes of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs): manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP), lignin peroxidase (LIP), and laccase. Low MNP and laccase activities were seen in high-nitrogen medium (24 mM N), but no LIP activity was seen. In media containing lignocellulosic substrates such as pine, poplar, or sugarcane bagasse as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, relatively hgih MNP and moderate levels of laccases were seen, but LIP production either was not seen or was minimal. LME production was also seen in media prepared with artificial seawater. Fast protein liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing resolved LMEs into four isozymes each of MNP and LIP, while laccase isozymes were resolved into two groups, one group containing seven isozymes (pIs 4 to 6) and the other group containing at least three isozymes (pIs 3). The molecular masses of the different isozymes were 43 to 99 kDa for MNP, 40 and 41.5 kDa for LIP, and 43 and 99 kDa for laccase. F. flavus showed effective degradation of various dye pollutants of various dye pollutants in media prepared with or without artificial seawater. This is the first report on the production of all three major classes of LMEs by F. flavus and points to the bioremediation potential of this organism in terrestrial as well as marine environments

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Diurnal changes in photochemical efficiency and xanthophyll concentrations in shallow water reef corals: Evidence for photoinhibition and photoprotection

Author(s) :Brown, B.E.; Ambarsari, I.; Warner, M.E.; Fitt, W.K.; Dunne, R.P.; Gibb, S.W.; Cummings, D.G.

Source :Coral Reefs: 18(2); 1999; 99-105.

Abstract :Diurnal patterns of photoinhibition have been identified in seven species of shallow water reef corals from the Andaman Sea, off the west coast of Thailand, using pulse amplitude fluorometry. Photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and quantum yield (Delta F/Fm) of symbiotic dinoflagellates within the corals declined after dawn to reach a minimum between midday and early afternoon, recovering to former dawn levels by early evening. Parallel studies on the xanthophylls diadinoxanthin (Dn) and diatoxanthin (Dt), and their inter-conversion, also revealed a strong diurnal pattern as well as inverse correlations between the xanthophyll ratio Dt/(Dn + Dt) and Fv/Fm and Delta F/Fm. These findings suggest a photoprotective function for these pigments.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marginal tentacles of the corallimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma. 2. Induced development and long-term effects on coral competitors

Author(s) :Langmead, O.; Chadwick-Furman, N.E.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 134(3); 1999; 491-500.

Abstract :Polyps of the corallimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma (Ehrenberg, 1934) form aggregations that monopolise patches of space on the shallow reef flats of some Red Sea coral reefs. Some of these polyps bear specialised bulbous marginal tentacles (BMTs) where they contact cnidarian competitors. BMTs differ from the normally filiform marginal tentacles (FMTs) of R. rhodostoma, and appear to develop from them. We experimentally induced contacts between R. rhodostoma and colonies of the branching stony coral Acropora eurystoma on a shallow coral reef at Eilat, northern Red Sea. During the first 24 d of contact, the A. eurystoma colonies extruded mesenterial filaments that damaged the tissues of the corallimorpharian polyps. After 18 d, 90% of R. rhodostoma individuals had developed BMTs, which resulted in a reversal in the direction of competitive damage. BMTs developed from FMTs in a series of four distinct stages, accompanied by significant changes in their morphology, cnidom, and density of nematocysts. It is concluded that the Long-term outcomes of competition between R. rhodostoma and reef-building corals depend largely on the relative aggressive reach of the competitive mechanisms developed by each species. As a consequence, this corallimorpharian is an intermediate competitor in the aggressive hierarchy among Indo-Pacific reef corals. This study confirms that R. rhodostoma polyps may actively damage and overgrow some stony corals, leading to the formation of an almost continuous blanket of polyps in large patches of some shallow reef flats

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marginal tentacles of the Corallimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma. 1. Role in competition for space

Author(s) :Langmead, O.; Chadwick-Furman, N.E.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 134(3); 1999; 479-489.

Abstract :The corollimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma (Ehrenberg, 1934) forms aggregations that dominate patches on some coral reef flats in the Red Sea. The outcomes and mechanisms of competition for space between this corrallimorpharian and other sessile organisms are poorly understood. Polyps of R. rhodostoma were observed zoanthids, hydrozoan corals, sponges and encrusting macroalgae on a fringing reef at Eilat, northern Red Sea. R. rhodostoma polyps also damaged, and in some cases overgrew, reef-building corals in the families Poritidae, Acroporidae and Pocilloporidae, most of which form branching colonies with small polyps that are subordinate in coral competitive hierarchies. The latter corals are ranked at the top of competitive hierarchies for Indo-Pacific corals, and they form massive colonies of large polyps which may develop aggressive organs termed sweeper tentacles. Some soft corals that exude allelopathic chemicals also avoided overgrowth by the corallimorpharians. Tentacles along the oral disk margin of R. rhodostoma polyps were swollen and bulbous during contacts with cnidarians. These bulbous marginal tentacles had significantly thicker ectoderm and a higher proportion of holotrichous nematocysts than did the normally filiform marginal tentacles of R. rhodostoma polyps. It is concluded that, on the reef flat at Eilat, this corallimorpharian damages and overgrows a variety of sessile competitors, including branching stony corals, via the application of specialised marginal tentacles filled with penetrating nematocysts. R. rhodostoma is an intermediate competitor in the aggressive hierarchy among Indo-Pacific Anthozoa, including the reef-building corals

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Status of crown-of-thorns starfish in Laamu Atoll, Republic of Maldives

Author(s) :Sluka, R.D.; Miller, M.W.

Source :Bull. Mar. Sci.: 65(1); 1999; 253-258.

Abstract :Qualitative and quantitative surveys of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci abundance were conducted in Laamu Atoll, Republic of Maldives. Abundance was low, with starfish most abundant in shallow-water Acropora formosa patch reefs. Juvenile starfish were observed on reef crests on the outside of the atoll rim while adults were found on patch reefs. Starfish were also observed on one faro reef flat. Based upon the available data (including unpublished government reports), it appears that there are no crown-of-thorns outbreaks occurring in the Maldives. Given the dispersed nature of this island country and thus the difficulty in monitoring all coral reefs, outbreaks could occur in more remote areas not generally visited by those able to recognize the importance of recording these occurrences

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Atoll reef-island formation and response to sea-level change: West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Author(s) :Woodroffe, C.D.; McLean, R.F.; Smithers, S.G.; Lawson, E.M.

Source :Mar. Geol.: 160(1-2); 1999; 85-104.

Abstract :Reef islands around the margin of coral atolls generally comprise unconsolidated Holocene sands and gravels, overlying a reef flat or cemented conglomerate platform. Such islands have accreted within the last 3000-4000 years, since sea level has reached a level close to present and the reef flat and conglomerate platform have formed. Island morphology consists of an oceanward ridge, a less distinct lagoonward ridge, and low-lying central depression. Several alternative models of how such reef islands might have developed are examined in relation to chronology and sediment provenance, particularly in the context of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands where this issue has been debated since Darwin visited the atoll. Which of these models appears most appropriate for an elongate reef island on the atoll margin is assessed using conventional radiocarbon dating of coral shingle and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of individual sand grains from pits across West Island. The dating results suggest that both coral clasts and individual grains of various components are generally reliable and replicable indicators of the chronology of island accumulation, implying rapid transport of skeletal material, after death of the contributing organisms, across the reef flat zone, and relatively little reworking. The central part of West Island appears to have formed first, with oceanward accretion up until about 2000 years BP. Gradual oceanward accretion with lesser lagoonward extension has continued beyond 2000 years BP at the northern and southern ends of the island, and a sequence of lagoonward recurving spits has formed adjacent to the inter-island passage at the southern end of the island. Radiocarbon dating of fossil microatolls indicates a gradual fall of sea level over this period which appears to have had little effect on the pattern of island accretion

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Sponge-inhabiting barnacles on Red Sea coral reefs

Author(s) :Ilan, M.; Loya, Y.; Kolbasov, G.A.; Brickner, I.

Source :Mar. Biol.: 133(4); 1999; 709-716.

Abstract :In this study eight different species of barnacles were found within nine species of sponges from the Red Sea. This brings to 11 the number of sponge-symbiotic barnacles reported from the Red Sea, two of these are new Acasta species (not described herein) and one (A. tzetlini Kolbasov) is a new record for this sea. This number is much higher than that of symbiotic barnacles found within sponges from either the N. Atlantic (2) or the Mediterranean (4). Two possible explanations for this are the presence of numerous predators in coral reefs and scarcity of available substrate for settlement. These factors can lead to high incidence of symbiotic relationships. Of the nine sponge species, only one (Suberites cf. clavatus) had previously been known to contain barnacles. Even at the family level, this is the first record of symbiotic barnacles in two out of the seven sponge families (Latrunculiidae, Theonellidae). Present findings strengthen the apparent rule that the wider the openings in a barnacle shell, the fewer the host taxa with which it will associate, usually from one or two closely related families, and the more frequent it will associate with elastic sponges. Most Neoacasta laevigata found on Carteriospongia foliascens were located on the same side as the sponge's ostia, i.e. facing the incoming water. This adaptation allows the barnacles to catch more suspended particles from the water, provides them with more oxygen and prevents their exposure to discharged sponge waste. The highest density of barnacles observed on one face of a "leaf" (with ostia) was 0.389 barnacles cm-2 (one barnacle per 2.57 cm2) and on average 0.181 plus or minus 0.68, while the average on the other side was only 0.068 plus or minus 0.52 barnacles cm-2. As indicated by the Morisita index, these barnacles most frequently (58%, n = 12) had a clumped spatial distribution (while the rest were randomly distributed), as is to be expected from such sessile organisms with internal fertilization via copulation. The presence of N. laevigata induced the growth of secondary perpendicular projections of its host C. foliascens. Of the N. laevigata examined, 17% brooded 324 plus or minus 41 embryos each, of 286 plus or minus 17 mu m total length; only 5.7% (n = 123) were found to be dead. Size distribution analysis of skeletal elements from dead barnacles showed them to be significantly larger than the skeletal elements of the population of live barnacles (p 0.05)

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Timing of the last-interglacial high sea level on the Seychelles Islands, Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Israelson, C.; Wohlfarth, B.

Source :Quat. Res.: 51; 1999; 306-316.

Abstract :Corals from the Seychelles Islands, Indian Ocean, occur mainly as small coralline algae-vermetid remnants found in cavities adhering to the rock surface, and they rarely attain more than 2 m2 in area. Samples of Goniastrea and Porites from elevations between 1.7 and 6 m above present mean sea level were dated by TIMS 238U-234U-230Th techniques. The ages from well-preserved corals lie between 131,000 and 122,000 yr B.P. in agreement with most other observations of the last-interglacial sea level. Field evidence and dating from high marine limestones from two sections at La Digue Island indicate a period of coral buildup until 131,000 yr B.P., followed by a drop in sea level between 131,000 and 122,000 yr B.P.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Calcareous sands from a coral atoll - Should it be mined or not?

Author(s) :Mallik, T.K.

Source :Mar. Georesour. Geotechnol.: 17(1); 1999; 27-32.

Abstract :Many lagoons of coral atolls contain huge reserves of very pure calcareous sands in an easily exploitable form that can be used in a number of industries. It is well known that the geomorphic situation in these coral islands is very delicate. With reference to the calcareous sand deposits in the coral atolls of Lakshadweep, a diversity of opinion exists on the aspect of exploitation, though the reserves were proved more than 20 years ago. Elsewhere calcareous sands have been used for several purposes. No raw materials other than coral sands and corals are available in these islands for developmental work such as construction of building and jetties. Several recommendations have been made to keep the system undisturbed to maintain the ecosystem. It is suggested that an attempt should be made to determine an optimum depth of exploitation of these sands without affecting the reef growth and balance of the ecosystem. This will improve the island economy and better quality of life for the islanders. The strategy will help development elsewhere also

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Corals in a non-reef setting in the southern Arabian Gulf (Dubai, UAE): Fauna and community structure in response to recurring mass mortality

Author(s) :Riegl, B.

Source :Coral Reefs: 18(1); 1999; 63-73.

Abstract :Reef coral communities in a non-reef setting on shallow, flat hardgrounds were quantitatively sampled in Dubai Emirate (UAE, Southern Arabian Gulf) before and after a coral mass mortality in 1996. The coral fauna consisted of 34 scleractinian species before and 27 after the event, which removed virtually all Acropora. No alcyonacea were recorded. Five community types were identified and characterized by the dominant species: (A) a sparse Porites lutea community in sandy areas, (B) a dense Acropora clathrata community in areas with little sand, (C) a faviid community in muddy areas, (D) a Siderastrea savignyana community in sandy areas, and (E) a Porites compressa community, which built a framework in sandy areas. These communities are comparable to those described from other areas of the Gulf, where a stable pattern of community differentiation appears to exist. The spatial distribution and dynamics of the coral communities appears to be strongly influenced by mass mortality events recurring every 15 to 20 y. A combination of extreme water temperatures and high sedimentation/turbidity appear to be the major cause of mortality

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A 200-year coral stable oxygen isotope record from a high-latitude reef off Western Australia

Author(s) :Kuhnert, H.; Patzold, J.; Hatcher, B.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Eisenhauer, A.; Collins, L.B.; Zhu, Z.R.; Wefer, G.

Source :Coral Reefs: 18(1); 1999; 1-12.

Abstract :A core from a coral colony of Porites lutea was analysed for stable oxygen isotopic composition. A 200-year proxy record of sea surface temperatures from the Houtman Abrolhos Islands off West Australia was obtained from coral delta 18O. At 29 degrees S, the Houtman Abrolhos are the southernmost major reef complex of the Indian Ocean. They are located on the path of the Leeuwin Current, a southward flow of warm, tropical water, which is coupled to Indonesian throughflow. Coral delta 18O primarily reflects local oceanographic and climatic variability, which is largely determined by spatial variability of the Leeuwin Current. However, coherence between coral delta 18O and the current strength itself is relatively weak. Evolutionary spectral and singular spectrum analyses of coral delta 18O demonstrate a high variability in spectral composition through time. Oscillations in the 5-7-y, 14-15-y, and quasi-biennial bands reflect teleconnections of local sea surface temperature (SST) to tropical Pacific climate variability. deviations between local (coral-based) and regional (instrument) SST contain a cyclic component with a period of 15 y. Coral delta 18O suggests a rise in SST by 0.6'C since AD 1944, consistent with available instrumental SST records. A long-term warming by 1.4 degrees C since AD 1795 is inferred from the coral record

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Settlement of abalone larvae (Haliotis laevigata Donovan) in response to non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)

Author(s) :Daume, S.; Brand-Gardner, S.; Woelkerling, W.J.

Source :J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.: 234(1); 1999; 125-143.

Abstract :Settlement trials with larvae of the abalone Haliotis laevigata and three species of non-geniculate coralline red algae (NCA) revealed a species-specific response. The number of settled larvae was significantly greater on Sporolithon durum than on two other species of NCA (Mesophyllum engelhartii and Hydrolithon rupestre) co-occurring in the habitat. Settlement on S. durum commenced immediately after competent larvae were added. When offered a choice between two growth-forms of S. durum, larvae initially preferred the more complex lumpy growth-form to the encrusting growth-form, but this result was not significant after 48 hy. This indicates that surface characteristics of the species influence settlement of Haliotis laevigata, but are not the main factors. When the algal thallus was damaged, the number of settled larvae was greater on damaged than on undamaged pieces of S. durum and Mesophyllum engelhartii, but less on damaged pieces than on undamaged pieces of H. rupestre. Settlement on S. durum was also significantly greater when the photosynthetic pigments in the outermost cells of the thallus were present. These results indicate that inducers of settlement are highly variable and dependent on both the NCA species and species-specific characteristics. No larvae settled on the bottom or sides of the jars, suggesting that the inducers of settlement may not be soluble in water after their release from the algal thalli. Alternatively, inducers are not released in a large enough concentration, even when the algal thallus has been damaged. It is concluded that the inducers are algal in origin. Larvae of the abalone H. laevigata do not settle gregariously in response to recently-settled conspecific larvae. Gregarious settlement behaviour was, however, observed with 7-day-old conspecifics

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Mass transport from pollution sources to remote coral reefs in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea)

Author(s) :Abelson, A.; Shteinman, B.; Fine, M.; Kaganovsky, S.

Source :Mar. Pollut. Bull.: 38(1); 1999; 25-29.

Abstract :Over the last decades, damage to coral reefs from pollution and over-exploitation has accelerated alarmingly. The coral reefs of Eilat are currently undergoing such severe deterioration, and it has been suggested that pollution may be responsible. The Eilat pollution sources are located 5-8 km north of the coral reefs, and it is hypothesised that the pollutants reach the reefs sites by current-derived mass transport. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by determining possible occurrence of mass transport from the pollution sites to the reefs, and to determine the pathways and modes of transported pollutants. The applicability of the 'fluorescently-labelled tracer' method, as a reliable tool for assessing mass transport in coastal marine environments is also tested. The results reveal that particulate matter from pollution sites reaches the remote coral reefs of Eilat, both as bedload and suspension-load particles. Estimates suggest that the minimum velocity of fine particles (5-10 mu m), as suspension load, is 0.4 k m per day; while the coarse particle velocity (100-200 mu m), as bedload, is an order of magnitude lower, i.e. 0.04 km per day. The results show that fluorescently-labelled tracers are a reliable and highly sensitive tool for assessing mass transport in marine environments

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Methane gas: An unconventional energy resource

Author(s) :Singh, A.; Singh, B.D.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 76(12); 1999; 1546-1553.

Abstract :Methane gas in the form of 'oal bed methane' and 'hydrate', probably the last remaining hydrocarbon, is waiting to be exploited as an alternative source of energy. Coal plays the role of source rock as well as reservoir for coal bed methane. Hydrate is a unique chemical compound of methane and water found in deeper sections of ocean floor sediments

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Two new sphingosine derivatives from Sinularia crassa Tixier-Durivault of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, V.; Radhika, P.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Chem. Med. Chem.): 38(4); 1999; 457-460.

Abstract :Two new sphingosine derivatives, N-hexadecanoyl- 1,3,-dihydroxy-2-amino-4, 8-octadecadiene 1 and N-heneicosanoyl- 1,3,4-trihydroxy-2-aminotetradecane 5 have been isolated from a soft coral Sinularia crassa Tixier-Durivault of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The structures have been established from their spectral data

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Alcyonacean metabolites: Part 6 - Steroid glycosides from a new species of Sinularia genus of the Andaman and Nicobar coasts

Author(s) :Vanisree, M.; Subbaraju, G.V.; Rao, Ch.B.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Chem. Med. Chem.): 38(3); 1999; 394-396.

Abstract :Three steroid glycosides, 24-methylenecholest-5-en-3 beta -16 beta -diol 3-O alpha -L-fucoside 1, 24-methylenecholest-5-en-3 beta, 7 beta, 16 beta -triol-3-O- alpha -L-fucoside 2, and 24-methylenecholest-5-en-3 beta, 7 beta, 16 beta -triol-4'-acetyl-3-O- alpha -L-fucopyranoside 4, in addition to 24-methylenecholesterol have been isolated from a new species of Sinularia genus of the Andaman and Nicobar coasts

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A new sphingosine derivative and a new polyhydroxy steroidal glycoside from Sinularia gravis Tixier-Durivault of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, V.; Rao, P.V.S.; Radhika, P.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Chem. Med. Chem.): 38(3); 1999; 357-360.

Abstract :N-(2'-Hydroxyeicosanoyl)-1,3,4-trihydroxy-2-aminoheptadec-5-ene 1, a new monounsaturated sphingosine derivative and a new sterol glycoside, (24 S)-24-methylcholest-5-ene- beta, 25-diol-3-O- alpha -L-fucopyranoside 2 have been isolated from a soft coral, Sinularia gravis Tixier-Durivault of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The structures of new compounds have been established from their physical, chemical and spectral data

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Seasonal growth and reproduction of marine red alga Asparagopsis delilei (Rhodophyta/ Bonnemaisoniales) from the Mandapam region, southeast coast of India

Author(s) :Vasuki, S.; Ganesan, M.; Rao, P.V.S.; Mairh, O.P.

Source :Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 28(1); 1999; 60-65.

Abstract :Asparagopsis delilei Montagne occurs beyond 2.5 m depth on the coral reef adjoining the islands - Krusadai, Putty and Valai in the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Seasonal growth and carpospore liberation in this alga were studied from three Islands. Maximum growth (length and fresh wt) was found during November-March. Maximum number of carpospores 22300, 11917 and 5037 per g. fresh weight was recorded for the plants of Krusadai. Putty and Valai Island respectively. A positive correlation was observed between length and fresh weight of the plants, whereas a negative correlation was found between Number of cystocarps and carpospores shed per cystocarp, fresh weight of the plant and carpospores shed per g fresh weight. Diurnal periodicity in carpospore shedding was also seen for four months during the peak growth period from August 1994 to January 1995

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Marine pollution - What are we heading for?

Author(s) :Zingde, M.D.

Source :Ocean science: Trends and future directions. ed. by: Somayajulu, B.L.K.(Semin. on Present Trends and Future Directions in Ocean Science; New Delhi (India); 6-7 Oct 1997). Indian National Science Academy; New Delhi (India); 1999; 229-245.

Abstract :Unlike the open ocean, the coastal zone is the most affected and vulnerable to human abuse with several nearshore areas including well-flushed regions and enclosed and semi-enclosed seas getting increasingly polluted. This paper examines the trends that have emerged concerning the health of marine areas with particular reference to the coastal zone of India. Mangrove and coral ecosystems have been degraded and continue to be under stress of the man induced changes. Tourism related ecological degeneration is prevalent in several coastal segments though measures taken by the Government may arrest these trends, if enforced vigorously. Many major ports planned along the Indian coast some of which in ecosensitive areas, would eventually result in localised degraded regions if the present state of environmental management of most ports continues. The trends support increasing levels of NO3-N and PO4 3--P along the central west coast of India and their utilization for primary productivity is suppressed perhaps by the high suspended particulate matter naturally occurring in these waters. The present impetus on coastal aquaculture and risk to which the culture stocks might be exposed, should a toxic bloom occur, requires implementation of a multilateral scientific research programme to systematically study the algal blooms. Proposed establishment of refineries along the southern shore of the Gulf of Kachchh and eventual increase in the movement of crude oil and petroleum products highlights the urgent need of an adequately evolved environment management plan to minimise adverse impacts on the rich and diverse bioproductive regime of the Gulf. Predicted sealevel rise implies far sighted planning to identify vulnerable area and devise a long-term approach to coastal zone management that periodically reviews ground realities and incorporates modifications in the plan accordingly

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A novel diketosequiterpenoid from the soft coral Sinularia intacta of the Indian Ocean

Author(s) :Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Gowri, P.M.

Source :Indian J. Chem. (B: Org. Chem. Med. Chem.): 38(1); 1999; 4-7.

Abstract :The structure of the novel diketosequiterpenoid 4, isolated from the soft coral Sinularia intacta, is elucidated as 8, 9dione by spectral data [1, 13C NMR, DEPT, 2D (1H-1H, 13H-1 COSY & NOESY) NMR and mass] and its conversion to dioxime 5 and monobenzylidene 6 derivatives

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Disease and stress-induced mortality of corals in Indian reefs and observations on bleaching of corals in the Andamans

Author(s) :Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

Source :Curr. Sci.: 76(2); 1999; 233-237.

Abstract :A study was carried out in the Lakshadweep and Andaman islands and the Gulf of Kutch to assess the health of corals in Indian reefs. Disease, predation and stress were the major factors of coral mortality. Death caused by diseases - the black band disease (BBD), the white band disease (WBD) - necrotic lesions, and bleaching was observed in Kavaratti and Kadamat islands of Lakshadweep. The predatory starfish, Acanthaster planci, grazing on coral polyps was also noticed in these reefs. Large-scale silt deposition in the intertidal zone of Paga, Boria, Vadinar and Mangunda reefs in the Gulf of Kutch buried the coral colonies and appeared to be the main cause of coral mortality. A severe incidence of coral bleaching was observed during July 1998 in some reefs in the Andamans. While more than 85% of corals near Ross island and Marine Park exhibited partial bleaching, up to 10% were totally bleached

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Mangrove ecosystems of Minicoy Island , Lakshadweep

Author(s) :Nasser, A.K.V.; Kunhikoya, V.A.; Aboobaker, P.M.

Source :Mar. Fish. Inf. Serv. Tech. Ext. Ser.(159); 1999; 8-10.

Abstract :The paper gives an account of the result of a study undertaken to monitor the mangrove ecosystem at Minicoy, Lakshadweep from 1994 to 1998. Destruction of mangroves will allow terrigenous sediments to flow into coral reefs resulting in permanent damage. The recommendations of the National Committee on wet lands, mangroves and coral reefs recommended certain guidelines for management of mangroves. Some of these recommendations are applicable to the mangroves of Minicoy and if implemented would help in preserving this unique ecosystem.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

Author(s) :Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

Source :Mycopathologia: 147; 1999; 133-138.

Abstract :Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone of inhibition 1-2 mm) to significant (+++ = zone of inhibition 3-5 mm) activity against one or the other strain under experiment. However, extracts of 12 species were active against all the three strains. Organisms like Salicornia brachiata (obligate halophyte), Sinularia leptocladus (soft coral), Elysia grandifolia (Mollusks), Gorgonian sp. 2 and Haliclona sp. exhibited significant (inhibition zone of 3-5 mm) antifungal activity against one or the other strains. However, extracts of A. ilicifolius, Amphiroa sp., Poriphera sp. unidentified sponge, Suberites vestigium, Sinularia compressa, Sinularia sp., Sinularia maxima, Subergorgia suberosa, Echinogorgia pseudorassopo and Sabellaria cementifera were mild (inhibition zone of 1-2 mm) to moderate (inhibition zone of 2-3 mm) active against the respective strains. The growth of A. japonicus was significantly inhibited by the extracts of S. leptocladus (r = 0.992, p 0.0001) and E. grandifolia (r

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :A coral damage index and its application to diving sites in the Egyptian Red Sea

Author(s) :Jameson, S.C.; Ammar, M.S.A.; Saadalla, E.; Mostafa, H.M.; Riegl, B.

Source :Coral Reefs: 18(4); 1999; 333-339.

Abstract :A coral damage index (CDI) is provided, to screen sites to obtain a perspective on the extent and severity of physical damage to coral. Sites are listed as "hot spots" if in any transect the percent of broken coral colonies (BCC) is greater than or equal to 4% or if the percent cover of coral rubble (CR) is greater than or equal to 3%. To demonstrate its utility, the CDI is applied to a real-life management situation off Hurghada and Safaga. Egypt in the Red Sea. The extent of coral damage covered all four diving sites. Forty percent of all the transects were "hot spots" that required management action. Thirty-one percent of the 16 "hot spot" transects were identified by both broken coral and rubble criteria, 25% by only broken coral criterion and 44% by only coral rubble criterion of the CDI, suggesting that past breakage was responsible for most of the observed damage. Sixty-three percent of the "hot spot" transects were at 4 m depth versus 37% at 8 m depth, suggesting that most of the damage was caused by anchors dragging across the reef in shallow water. The severity of coral damage, reflected by CR, was the greatest at Small Giftun in transect 5 at 4 m depth (333% above the CDI).

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Community participation in reef management: An example of benign "dredging" from India

Author(s) :Koya, C.N.H.; Naseer, A.K.V.

Source :Coral Reefs: 18(4); 1999; p. 320.

Abstract :Reef channel cleaning on the western side of Minicoy island is practiced every year by the people. The cleaning drive is practice for free navigation during fishing and also as a part of reef management. The channel gets blocked by debris and dead coral during monsoon. It is cleared manually without resorting to blasting or dredging

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Title :Prospects of oil-gas potential of Eocene-Middle-Miocene reefs and sea carbonate fans of shelf margin and Bombay High-DCS blocks

Author(s) :Fortunatova, N.K.; Lal, N.K.; Leviant, V.B.; Dogra, S.D.

Source :PETROTECH-9