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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ К 1-МУ ИЗДАНИЮ

Настоящий учебник предназначен для студентов технических университе­тов и институтов, изучавших английский язык в средней школе, и составлен в соответствии с требованиями программы по иностранным языкам для не­языковых вузов. Учебник рассчитан на 270-280 часов аудиторных занятий. Он может быть использован для самостоятельного совершенствования зна­ний теми, кто хочет научиться читать научно-техническую литературу.

Цель учебника — подготовить студентов к чтению специальной науч­но-технической литературы для извлечения информации, а также привить им навыки устной речи по специальной и неспециальной тематике.

При организации учебного материала авторы ставили целью повторе­ние и обобщение основных грамматических тем и лексики, пройденных в средней школе, а также углубленное изучение тех грамматических и лекси­ческих явлений, которые необходимы студентам для профессионального об­щения на английском языке. Тематика текстов определяется тем минимумом общетехнических знаний, которым обладают студенты первых двух курсов технических университетов и институтов. Тексты учебника отобраны из ори­гинальных английских и американских источников с учетом их инфор­мативности и соответствия научно-техническим достижениям и изло­жены по принципу возрастания трудности и постепенного усложнения языка и тематики.

Учебник состоит из 12 уроков-тем, дополнительных текстов, поурочно­го грамматического справочника, англо-русского словаря и приложения. Каждый урок-тема содержит четыре текста, три из которых объединены об­щей тематикой, а четвертый, как правило, имеет страноведческую направ­ленность. Все эти тексты предназначены для обучения различным видам чтения. Первый текст урока является основным и подлежит тщательной про­работке и анализу для изучения тех грамматических и лексических явлений, которым посвящен данный урок. Второй и третий тексты служат развитию навыков чтения и извлечения необходимой информации, а также навыков беседы по соответствующей тематике, что способствует закреплению лекси-ко-грамматического материала, проработанного в основном тексте. Четвер­тый текст урока посвящен вопросам страноведения и дает возможность про­вести беседу, дискуссию за круглым столом, ролевую игру с привлечением иллюстративного и дополнительного материала, подобранного преподавате­лем и студентами самостоятельно.

Каждый урок-тема начинается с предтекстовых упражнений для прора­ботки грамматического и лексического материала. Stoi тематические уп­ражнения предназначены для преодоления лексических и грамматических трудностей основного текста и требуют детальной проработки в аудитории. Упражнения составлены на основе лексики предшествующих уроков. Упраж­нения после основного текста даны для закрепления грамматического и лек­сического материала.

Упражнения на словообразование содержат в основном активную лекси­ку. Эти упражнения, а также работу с интернациональной лексикой реко­мендуется выполнять в аудитории. При этом преподаватель постоянно об­ращает особое внимание студентов на сопоставление схождений и расхождений грамматической структуры и лексического фонда родного и изучаемого языков. Широкий выбор лексико-граммагических упражнений позволяет это сделать.

Для практического использования студентом приобретенных знаний нужно обладать умением самостоятельно работать над языком. Поэтому авторы сочли необходимым ввести специальную серию упражнений для самостоятельной работы. Эти упражнения даны для закрепления прой­денной лексики и грамматики и подготовки к работе со словарем. За­ключительное упражнение каждого урока (перевод текста без словаря) служит для контроля усвоения студентом грамматических и лексических аспектов данного урока.

Неотъемлемой частью общения является умение вести беседу на про­фессиональные темы, для чего приведены упражнения рубрики Conversation, задания к которым даны по-английски. При этом авторы следуют принципу постепенного усложнения как текстов, так и заданий. Обширная тематика и большое количество текстов, заданий к ним и упражнений дают возмож­ность преподавателю варьировать работу в зависимости от уровня подготов­ки группы и давать индивидуальные задания студентам.

Дополнительные тексты по тематике и лексике связаны с основными текстами уроков. Они предназначены для самостоятельной и индивидуаль­ной работы и могут быть использованы в качестве до*полнительного материа­ла при проведении дискуссий, бесед и конференций.

В конце учебника даны англо-русский словарь и приложения. В сло­варь включены все слова, встречающиеся в текстах и упражнениях.

Авторы выражают благодарность за ценные указания, советы, помощь и замечания сотрудникам кафедры иностранных языков Н.Н. Пыховой и Л.М. Степановой.

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ К 4-МУ ИЗДАНИЮ

В четвертом издании «Учебника английского языка для технических университетов и вузов» изменено внешнее оформление. Это связано с тем, что учебник вошел в серию «Иностранный язык в техническом университете».

В третьем издании полностью заменены тексты 1А и 12А, дополне­ны и расширены некоторые предтекстовые упражнения. После каждого урока основного курса даются дополнительные задания: упражнения к тексту, небольшой текст-упражнение, упражнения к этому тексту, на­правленные в основном на работу с лексикой и соответствующей тер­минологией, ее закрепление, развитие языковой догадки. Упражнения такого типа развивают у студентов навыки работы с незнакомым тек­стом. Кроме того, после каждых трех уроков дан раздел Revision, вклю­чающий грамматические и лексические упражнения по проработанным урокам и небольшой текст. Этот материал должен способствовать по­вторению, закреплению пройденного материала и может быть исполь­зован в качестве рубежного контроля.

В раздел Supplementary Texts добавлены тексты, связанные с тема­тикой уроков основного курса. В поурочный грамматический справоч­ник введены темы «Местоимения», «Дополнения», а также новые таб­лицы ряда грамматических тем.

В настоящее время появились новые факультеты и специальности в технических университетах, поэтому в дополнение к основному курсу дается материал по инженерному бизнесу и менеджменту и юриспру­денции для завершающего этапа обучения.

Произношение дается по словарю «Everyman's English Pronouncing Dictionary» Даниила Джонса (Daniel Jones).

LESSON 1

Глаголы to be, to have

Времена группы Indefinite (Simple) Active, Passive

Оборот there + be

Порядок слов в предложении

Суффиксы -tion, -ic, -al, -ly

Text 1A. Higher Education in Russia

Text 1B. Cambridge

Text 1C. Higher Education in the USA

Text ID. A Letter

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 1. Поставьте следующие предложения в Past Indefinite или Future Indefinite, добавляя, где необходимо, слова last/next week, last/next year, tomorrow, yesterday и т.д.

1.1 am very busy today. 2. They are in the reading-room now. 3. It is a cold day today. 4. We are students of one of the Moscow Institutes. 5. You are late for the lecture. 6. Mary is a good stu­dent. 7. Students have four exams in January. 8. Today they have time to go to the cinema. 9. We have some English magazines. 10. The book has many diagrams. 11. I have good news. 12. She has a map of England.

Упражнение 2. Поставьте следующие предложения в Past и Future Inde­finite, добавляя слова yesterday, tomorrow и т.д.

1. There is a large reading-room in our university. 2. There are thirty students in our group. 3. There is a new film in our club to­day. 4. There is one telephone in our office. 5. There are many stu­dents at the lecture.

Упражнение 3. Поставьте следующие предложения в Past или Future Indefinite, добавляя слова last/next year, yesterday, tomorrow, last/next week, last/next summer и т. д.

1. We study six days a week. 2. I go to the institute every day. 3. My friend lives in a hostel. 4. Usually I get up at 7 o'clock. 5. My studies begin at half past eight. 6. We have four lectures every day. 7. After lectures we go to the dinning room. 8. We do our home­work for the next day. 9. At night I read and watch TV. 10. On Sunday I visit my friends.

Упражнение 4. Поставьте сказуемое в отрицательной форме.

1. Today our lectures begin at 10 o'clock in the morning. 2. We were school-children last year. 3. We had four entrance exams in summer. 4. Yesterday the first-year students saw the institute labo­ratories. 5. We took all the necessary books from the library. 6.1 got excellent marks for my entrance exams. 7. He knows the meaning of the word «engineering» (техника, машиностроение, инже­нерное дело). 8. The students of our group will meet in the labora­tory. 9. The librarian gave us all the necessary books.

Упражнение 5.

А. Раскройте скобки, поставив общие вопросы.

1. (You do)... anything interesting last weekend? 2. (He works) ... at the institute every day? 3. (They will come) ... to see you soon? 4. (We studied) ... at school last year? 5. (She will go) ... to the theatre next week? 6. (The students worked) ... in the labora­tory yesterday? 7. (Ann gets up) ... at 7 o'clock? 8. (There are) ... many laboratories at our institute? 9. (There were) ... many stu­dents at the lecture? 10. (There will be) ... a library in the new building? 11. (We have)... two lectures today? 12. (The book has) ... many diagrams? 13. (You had) ... four exams last semester?

В. Вставьте соответствующие вопросительные слова.

1. ... is your name? 2. ... doesn't understand this grammar rule? 3. ... of you studies French? 4. ... is the answer to my ques­tion? 5. ... do you live in Moscow? 6. ... were you born? 7. ... lec­tures you on mathematics? 8. ... do you study? 9. Here are the books. ... is yours? 10. ... knows the answer to this question?

Упражнение 6. Поставьте вопросы к каждому члену предложения и дайте отрицательную форму.

1. Не entered the Aviation Institute last year. 2. My sister stud­ies at the university. 3. The third-year students will have industrial training next summer.

Упражнение 7. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

My University

There are many universities in Moscow. The head of a univer­sity is Rector. Usually there are several faculties in a university. Each faculty has a number of specialized departments and is headed by dean. The course of studies lasts (продолжается) 5—6 years.

The academic year in this country's higher schools begins on the 1-st of September and is divided into two terms (semesters). Students take exams at the end of each semester. If the results of the examinations are good, students get grants. Twice a year stu­dents have vacations — two weeks in winter and two months in summer.

My University has several buildings, old and new ones. There are many various laboratories. There is a very good library and a computer center in the main building.

Every faculty has its own specialized library, laboratories, workshops and computer centers.

The first- and second-year students study general engineering subjects (общетехнические предметы). In the third year students begin to study specialized subjects.

A very good tradition of our University is that theory is accom­panied by practical training. Students begin to work at the Univer­sity's well-equipped (хорошо оборудованный) laboratories and in senior years at various plants, design offices and research institutes of this country.

It is interesting but difficult to study at our University, espe­cially for the first-year students as they do not know yet how to or­ganize their work and time.

Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения, поставьте их в вопросительной и, где возможно, в отрицательной форме.

1. The books are taken from the library. 2. He was asked to help one of our students. 3. Many newspapers and magazines are pub­lished in this country. 4. That problem was discussed at our meet­ing. 5. The diagrams were brought by our monitor. 6. The exams will be taken in January. 7. They were told to do their work quickly. 8. The study of theory is accompanied by practical training. 9. A new laboratory was opened last year. 10. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 11. Every institute is headed by Rector. 12. In sum­mer you will be sent to a big plant for your industrial training.

1. This work must be done quickly. 2. Many complex problems can be solved with the help of computers. 3. Lomonosov may be called the founder of higher education in Russia. 4. Books on this subject can be found in every library. 5. Many basic subjects must be studied by the first and second-year students.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 9. Переведите следующие производные слова.

глагол + tion = существительное to examine — проверять, экзаменовать -» examination —

экзамен to apply — применять, использовать -» application —

применение, использование

to educate — education; to adopt — adoption; to graduate — graduation; to specialize — specialization; to organize — organi­zation;

существительное + al = прилагательное education — образование -» educational — образовательный л industry — industrial; profession — professional; person — personal;

существительное + ic — прилагательное

science — наука -» scientific — научный;

basis — основа -» basic — основной

прилагательное + ly — наречие high — высокий -> highly — высоко quick — quickly; usual — usually.

Упражнение 10. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.

qualification, qualified, speciality, specialist, special, specialize, engineer, serious, adoption, style, method, distance, sys­tem, foundation, satellite, course, instruction, mathematics, physics, chemistry, history, economics, to concentrate, bachelor, sport center, basic, exchange.

Упражнение 11. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.

high, higher education, highly-qualified, important, provide, development, process, progress, steadily, enough, through, thorough, quality, natural, science, scientist, require, curricula, foreign, major, future, further, re­search, enterprise ['entapraiz], know [nau], knowledge ['nolictj], graduate f'graedjueit].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ

as сои/ — как; по мере того как, когда; так как, поскольку as well — так же affect v — влиять, воздейст­вовать на

become v — становиться consider v — считать, рас­сматривать, учитывать develop v — развивать, раз­рабатывать; преображать development n — развитие, разработка

enable v — давать возмож­ность

ensure v — обеспечивать, гарантировать especially adv — особенно

further a — дальнейший improve v — улучшать, совер­шенствовать

mean (meant) v — значить, оз­начать

means n — средство, способ number я — число, количество a number of — ряд, несколько prepare v — готовить, подго­тавливать

provide v — снабжать, обеспе­чивать

receive v — получать remain v — оставаться quality n — качество thorough a — основательный, доскональный, тщательный usually adv — обычно

to play a part — играть роль

to take into consideration — принимать

во внимание, в расчет

at present — в настоящее время

Text 1A Прочитай^* И переведите текст.

Higher Education in Russia

Higher education plays an important part in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly- qualified specialists

for future development and progress. It trains people to become teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers.

In all the industrial countries standards of living are steadily changing; this means that the kind of education, which was good enough thirty years ago, is not necessarily good for them today. The serious need to find ways and means of ensuring continuous and thorough adoption of the universities to contemporary needs in our rapidly changing world is widely recognized. And this means that styles of teaching, quality of learning materials1 and organization of the university itself have to be continuously brought up to date2 and improved.

Besides, knowledge and information which comes through the mass media must also be taken into consideration. This informa­tion explosion3 has affected every field of study, especially, of course, in the natural and applied sciences and in all other sciences as well. The increase of information requires new methods and new approaches to students' training and instruction4.

At present a new system of education is introduced in this country — a distance education system. This computer system of learning helps working professionals to continue their education while remaining at their jobs. This system enables people to get knowledge and a good foundation in the sciences basic to his or her field of study. Distance learning has developed over years5 from satellite video courses to modern videoconferencing through per­sonal computers.

The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters). The first- and second-year students obtain thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering and a number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened6 by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics.

At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «ma­jor» subject and take many courses in this subject. Specialized study and courses will help students to become specialists and prepare them for their future work.

After four years students will get a bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further study and research get a master's degree. After graduating from the university they may go on with their study and research and may get a still higher degree.

10

About 75 percent of students receive state grants and 15 percent are sponsored by enterprises. Universities have their own students' hostels and some of them have large and excellent sport centers.

Education is a process through which culture is preserved, knowledge and skills are developed, values are formed, and infor­mation is exchanged.

Education is the way to success.

Notes to the Text

1. learning materials — учебный материал

2. to bring up to date — довести до современных требований

3. information explosion — информационный взрыв

4. training and instruction — подготовка и обучение

5. over years — за многие годы

6. curricula are enriched and broadened — программы (курсы обучения) обогащаются и расширяются

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 12. Просмотрите упражнение 7 и текст 1А, ответьте на во­просы.

1. When does the academic year begin in this country? 2. How many exams did you pass to enter the University? 3. Do you pay for your education? 4. Do students get grants? 5. What subjects do stu­dents study in the first year? 6. Which subject is the most interest­ing for you? 7. Is there a sport center in your University? 8. What degree do students get after four years of study? 9. What degree can a student get after two years of further study and research? 10. What new education system is introduced in this country? 11. What spe­cialities do people get after graduating from a university? 12. Why is higher education important in the life of every country?

Упражнение 13. Сравните предложения в действительном и страдатель­ном залоге, переведите их.

1. Students asked the lecturer many questions. The lecturer was asked many questions. 2. The monitor told the first-year students to come to the laboratory. The first-year students were told to come to the laboratory. 3. Usually a lab assistant shows the equipment to the students. Usually the equipment is shown to the students by a lab assistant. Usually students are shown the equipment by a lab as­sistant. 4. Students watched the process with great attention. The process was watched with great attention. 5. Tomorrow our teacher

11

will give us a new task. A new task will be given tomorrow. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 6. Practice accompanies theory. Theory is accompanied by practice. 7. He asked me to bring a dic­tionary. He was asked to bring a dictionary. 8. The teacher told the students to sign their drawings. The students were told to sign their drawings. 9. The dean will send the students to a big plant in sum­mer. The students will be sent to a big plant in summer. 10. He taught us to use the lab equipment. We were taught to use the lab equipment.

Упражнение 14.

А. Переделайте предложения из действительного в стра­дательный залог.

1. You open the door. 2. We asked questions. 3. He will finish his project next week. 4. He can do this exercise. 5. They invited me to their conference. 6. I saw a new film. 7. My sister writes letters regularly. 8. Universities develop new methods of students' train­ing. 9. After graduating from the University the students may get a still higher degree. 10. The study of foreign languages, history and economics must improve the curricula of technological universities.

В. Переведите предложения в страдательном залоге, дайте варианты, где возможно.

1. Mathematics, strength of materials, mechanics, elements of machines as well as engineering physics are studied at technologi­cal institutes. 2. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education. 3. Students are provided with hostels, well-equipped laboratories and libraries. 4. Any coun­try must be provided with good specialists in all branches of sci­ence and technology for its further development. 5. Large sums of money are spent by the state to train highly-qualified engineers. 6. Much attention must be paid to improve the standards of higher education. 7. Students of technological institutes are trained to analyse various facts and theories. 8. The scientific and techno­logical progress of a country is determined by the qualification of specialists. 9.Some institutes of technology are reorganized into universities. 10.The country must be provided with specialists ca­pable of working with the technology of tomorrow effectively.

Упражнение 15. Найдите Participle I и Participle II, переведите предложе­ния.

1. The students studying at the institutes passed entrance exams in summer. 2. The subjects studied in the first two years are very important for future engineers. 3. The lecture delivered by our dean

12

was on new methods of technology. 4. The man delivering this lecture is our professor on mathematics. 5. An article discussing the new system of school education appeared in all newspapers. 6. The results of the experiments discussed yesterday will be pub­lished. 7. The attention paid to the study of fundamental subjects is great. 8. Students interested in computer engineering enter techno­logical institutes. 9. The number of specialists connected with new branches of science and engineering is increased every year.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

Упражнение 16. Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:

administration, gradual, electric, intensively, practical, dramatic, integral, specific, operation, illumination, naturally, identi* cal, organization, originally, arctic, technical, acceleration.

Упражнение 17. Найдите в тексте 1А слова с суффиксами -tion, -al, -ic, -ly и переведите их.

Упражнение 18. Найдите глагольные формы, которые могут быть сказуе­мыми в предложении:

student, many, will be passed, doing, technical, has, reports, studied, interesting, connected, are, were done, large, is, tasks, de­veloped, is read, coming, texts, badly, giving, had, was made possi­ble, are given, forms, necessary, teaches, basis, was, done.

Упражнение 19. Найдите:

а) антонимы (слова, противоположные по значению)

to begin, to enter, young, large, to open, to take, quick, much, to graduate from, many, long, slow, little, to finish, old, small, to close, to give, few, short;

б) синонимы (слова, совпадающие по значению)

new, large, many, to begin, to take, to speak, to enter, to build, to do, to get, modern, big, to start, much, to make, main, to talk, to construct, to come into, major.

Упражнение 20. Составьте предложения из следующих слов в соответст­вии с порядком слов в английском предложении.

1. has, buildings, our, several, institute. 2. subjects, students, many, the first-year, study. 3. the third-year, had, last, students, training, industrial, summer. 4. carry out, students, practical, work, in, laboratories, well-equipped. 5. problems, many, scien-

13

tists, important, solve, our. 6. texts, difficult, Petrov, technical, translated. 7. his, will, the teacher, translation, correct. 8. next, dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will. 9. students, more, insti­tutes, last, entered, a million, than, year.

Упражнение 21. Заполните пропуски глаголами to be, to have в соответст­вующем времени.

1. Moscow ... the capital of Russia. 2. There ... many institutes in Moscow. 3. The oldest of them ... Moscow University. 4. Our University ... one of the oldest technological institutes in this coun­try. 5. It... founded in 1830. 6. It... old and new buildings. 7. There ... laboratories, workshops and libraries in our institute. 8. Every faculty ... its own computer center. 9. Our library ... a great number of books and magazines in all branches of science and technology. 10. Last year we ... at school, next year we ... the second year stu­dents. 11. We ... industrial training in the third year.

Упражнение 22. Выберите правильную форму.

1. Entrance exams (held, are held) in summer. 2. More than 20 new technological institutes (were founded, founded) in the last decade. 3. Basic engineering subjects (studied, are studied) in the first and second years. 4. Highly-qualified specialists (trained, are trained) at higher schools. 5. More than a million students (enroled, were enroled) to the institutes and universities of this country last summer. 6. The training of specialists (will be im­proved, will improve) as a result of restructuring in the next few years.

Упражнение 23. Напишите ответы на вопросы по следующему образцу:

Are there two presidents in the United States? No, there are not. There are not two presidents in the United States. There is one president in the United States.

1. Are there thirteen months in a year? 2. Are there eight days in a week? 3. Are there fifty minutes in a hour? 4. Are there sev­enty seconds in a minute? 5. Are there forty days in a month? 6. Are there thirty days in February? 7. Are there thirty-two days in January? 8. Are there five seasons in a year?

Упражнение 24. Выберите соответствующие местоимения.

А. 1. (We, us) all went with (their, them) to the dean's office. 2. My friend came to see (I, me) last night. 3. Victor gave Peter and (I, me) a book and we went to the reading-room with (he, him) and his friend. 4. He told Mary and (me, I) to go with (he, him) and his

14

sister. 5. They know all about my friend and (I, me). 6. I came to the Institute with Michael and (her, she). 7. An old man asked (we, us) to come and see (him, his). 8. Go with David and (her, she) to visit (they, them).

B. They invited me to (them, their) party. 2. He could not an­swer (his, her) teacher. 3. They were (your, you) former students. 4. You are (us, our) colleagues. 5. This is (my, me) brother. 6. Ann went to (his, her) room and put on (his, her) new dress because she was going to a dance given by (his, her) company. 7. Where is the dictionary? (He, it) is in (his, its) place on the table.

C. 1. Your dictionary is new, but (my, mine) is not. 2. She says that this dictionary is (her, hers). 3. You can do it without my help, but not without (theirs, their). 4. Will you help me to sort out the things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (our, ours). 5. He is an old friend of (me, mine). 6. Do you know your lesson today? He does not know (him, his). 7. This is your note­book and this is his, but where is (her, hers)?

Упражнение 25. Выразите согласие или несогласие.

1. Do you study at school? 2. Are you a student of the third year? 3. Do you study many subjects? 4. Did you pass your en­trance exams well? 5. Do you live in Moscow? 6. Do you live far from the institute? 7. Is English your favourite subject? 8. Will you go to the concert tomorrow? 9. Were your books taken from the li­brary? 10. Do you live in the hostel?

Упражнение 26. Заполните пропуски предлогами in, at, on, to, into, under, near.

1. We live ... Moscow. 2.1 get up ... seven o'clock and leave ... eight. 3.1 usually walk ... the institute. 4. There are three rooms ... our flat. 5. There is a picture ... the wall and a small table ... the picture. 6. He comes ... the room and sits down ... the chair ... the table. 7. ... the evening we watch TV or read books. 8. We do not study... Sunday. 9. There are several newspapers ... the table. 10. The accident happened ... the bridge.

Упражнение 27. Дайте недостающие формы глагола, запомните их.

got, beginning, took, meant, say, becoming, found, brought, going, come

Упражнение 28. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря.

As you know higher education trains highly-qualified specialists for further development and progress of the country. The students making good progress get state grants. The course of study at the universities lasts about six years. The students take three or four years of general engineering and fundamental courses, then one or two years of specialized training in some fields of science and tech­nology. In the first and second years a good foundation for profes­sional knowledge is provided. At present there are many modern laboratories at institutes. Most higher schools have their own com­puter centers. This means that the state must spend a lot of money to improve higher education.



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