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INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGY

HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Bibliography of publications

2009

Budapest

2010

Address: Institute of Psychology of the

Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Pf. 398. Budapest

H-1394 HUNGARY

ISSN 0230-5372

Felelős kiadó: Dr. Czigler István intézeti igazgató

Contents

Department of General Psychology 4

Department of Psychophysiology 15

Research Group of Comparative Psychophysiology 15

Research Group of Developmental Psychophysiology 23

Nonlinear Psychophysiology Research Group 31

Department of Developmental Psychology 35

Social Development Group 35

Comparative Behavioural Research Group 38

Department of Cognitive Social Psychology 46

Department of Social Psychology 60

Cultural Comparative Psychology Group 74

Index 83

1. Department of General Psychology

Head of the Department: István Winkler

Members of the Department:

István WINKLER, PhD, DSc, senior research fellow

head of the department

member of the institute since 1981

László BALÁZS, PhD,senior research fellow

member of the institute since1994

Irén BARKASZI juniorresearch fellow

Tamás Mihály BŐHM juniorresearch fellow

István CZIGLER PhD, DSc, scientific adviser

director of the institute since 2000

member of the institute since 1969

András FARKAS

Gábor HÁDEN juniorresearch fellow

János HORVÁTH,PhD, research fellow

member of the institute since 1998

Lívia PATÓ junior research fellow

Gábor STEFANICS research fellow

Júlia WEISZ MD, PhD senior research fellow

István WINKLER

Scientific publications

1. Winkler I. - Háden G.P. – Ladinig, O. - Sziller I. – Honing, H.: Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2009, 106, 7 2468-2471.

Keywords: rhythm perception; beat induction; development; event related brain potentials (ERP); neonates; mismatch negativity (MMN)

In order to shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what perceptual capabilities infants are born with. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

2. Winkler I. – Horváth J. - Weisz J. – Trejo, L.J.: Deviance detection in congruent audiovisual speech: Evidence for implicit integrated audiovisual memory representations

In: Biological Psychology, 2009, 82, 3 : 281-292

Keywords: audiovisual integration; speech perception; implicit memory; deviance detection; event related brain potentials (ERP); mismatch negativity (MMN)

Detection of deviant speech syllables embedded in continuous noise was investigated in an oddball paradigm. Behavioral results showed improvement of detecting and identifying the syllables when congruent visual speech accompanied the utterances. A centrally maximal negative ERP difference wave peaking at approximately 290 ms post stimulus was elicited by audiovisual but not by auditory or visual only task irrelevant deviant syllables. Whereas the circumstances of the elicitation of this ERP response are similar to those of the mismatch negativity component (MMN and its visual counterpart, vMMN), its scalp distribution differs from that of both unimodal MMNs. Elicitation of an MMN like ERP response (termed here as the audiovisual MMN: avMMN) suggests that detection of the audiovisual deviants involved integrated audiovisual memory representations. The pattern of behavioral and ERP results suggest that the formation of such crossmodal memory representation does not require voluntary operations and may even proceed for stimuli outside the focus of attention.

3.Winkler I. - Denham, S.L. - Nelken, I.: Modeling the auditory scene: predictive regularity representations and perceptual objects.

In: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2009, 13, 12: 532-540.

Keywords: auditory perception; predictive models; object representation; stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA); event related brain potentials (ERP); mismatch negativity (MMN)

Predictive processing of information is essential for goal directed behavior. We offer an account of auditory perception suggesting that representations of predictable patterns, or ‘regularities’, extracted from the incoming sounds serve as auditory perceptual objects. The auditory system continuously searches for regularities within the acoustic signal. Primitive regularities may be encoded by neurons adapting their response to specific sounds. Such neurons have been observed in many parts of the auditory system. Representations of the detected regularities produce predictions of upcoming sounds as well as alternative solutions for parsing the composite input into coherent sequences potentially emitted by putative sound sources. Accuracy of the predictions can be utilized for selecting the most likely interpretation of the auditory input. Thus in our view, perception generates hypotheses about the causal structure of the world.

4. Bendixen, A. - Schröger, E. - Winkler I.: I heard that coming: event-related potential evidence for stimulus-driven prediction in the auditory system

In: Journal of Neuroscience, 2009, 29, 26 : 8447 8451.

Keywords: anticipation; deviance; event-related potential (ERP); expectation; middle latency response (MLR); omission response

The auditory system has been shown to detect predictability in a tone sequence, but does it use the extracted regularities for actually predicting the continuation of the sequence? The present study sought to find evidence for the generation of such predictions. Predictability was manipulated in an isochronous series of tones in which every other tone was a repetition of its predecessor. The existence of predictions was probed by occasionally omitting either the first (unpredictable) or the second (predictable) tone of a same-frequency tone pair. Event-related electrical brain activity elicited by the omission of an unpredictable tone differed from the response to the actual tone right from the tone onset. In contrast, early electrical brain activity elicited by the omission of a predictable tone was quite similar to the response to the actual tone. This suggests that the auditory system pre-activates the neural circuits for expected input, using sequential predictions to specifically prepare for future acoustic events.

Conference abstracts

5. Winkler I. Maintaining the acoustic internet: How auditory processes support verbal communication.

In: Learning and Perception, 2009, 1, Supplement : 10-11.

6. Winkler I. - Czigler I. - Salisbury, D. F. - Pulvermüller, F:. The Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications : Conference report

In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2009, 3, pp. XXIV-XXV.

/The_Fifth_Conference

7. Müller, D. - Winkler I. - Schröger, E.: Object-based effects in visual change detection.

In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.147

Irén BARKASZI

Scientific publications

1. Kondé Z. – Barkaszi I. – Czigler I.: Gátlási mechanizmusok és válaszszelekciós interferencia a feladatváltásban

In: Pszichológia, 2009, 29, 2 : 119-143

Inhibition and response selection in task switching

Keywords: task switching, switch cost, tasks set reconfiguration, response selection, inhibition

Response selection account of task switching assumes that switching between competing task

sets is accompanied by time cost (termed switch cost) as a source of prolongation of response selection process. The aim of the present study was to test the prediction of response selection account for switching conditions in which the level of interference between task sets, i.e., response selection requirement of tasks was manipulated. Switch task (parity and magnitude task) in combination with a version of NoGo signal task was used in two experiments. The overlap of task rules was manipulated between experiments. In the Experiment 1A the Stimulus-Response mappings (task rules) were bivalent: the same response outcomes were used in both tasks, in the Experiment 1B the rules were univalent (different response outcomes for the two tasks). Larger switch cost and intense reduction of switch cost subsequent to a NoGo signal were predicted for the bivalent switching conditions. In contrast with our prediction effective switching performance following task set inhibition was present in univalent condition. Explaining our results we refer to differences between interference conditions in terms of the mutual inhibitory effects between the task (S-R) rules.

Tamás Mihály BŐHM

Scientific publications

1. Bőhm T. - Shattuck-Hufnagel, S.: Do listeners store in memory a speaker's habitual utterance-final phonation type?

In: Phonetica, 2009, 66, 3 : 150-168.

Keywords: Irregular phonation, voice quality, familiar voices, speaker characteristics

Earlier studies report systematic differences across speakers in the occurrence of utterance-final irregular phonation; the work reported here investigated whether human listeners remember this speaker-specific information and can access it when necessary (a prerequisite for using this cue in speaker recognition). Listeners personally familiar with the voices of the speakers were presented with pairs of speech samples: one with the original and the other with transformed final phonation type. Asked to select the member of the pair that was closer to the talker's voice, most listeners tended to choose the unmanipulated token (even though they judged them to sound essentially equally natural). This suggests that utterance-final pitch period irregularity is part of the mental representation of individual speaker voices, although this may depend on the individual speaker and listener to some extent.

2. Bőhm T. - Both Z. - Németh G.:Automatic classification of regular vs. irregular phonation types.

In: NOLISP'09 : An ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop on Nonlinear Speech Processing, 2009, Vic, Spain. - pp. 53-61, paper 3.

Keywords: Irregular phonation, creaky voice, glottalization, laryngealization, phonation type, voice quality, support vector machine

Irregular phonation (also called creaky voice, glottalization and laryngealization) may have various communicative functions in speech. Thus the automatic classification of phonation type into regular and irregular can have a number of applications in speech technology. In this paper, we propose such a classifier that extracts six acoustic cues from vowels and then labels them as regular or irregular by means of a support vector machine. We integrated cues from earlier phonation type classifiers and improved their performance in five out of the six cases. The classifier with the improved cue set produced a 98.85% hit rate and a 3.47% false alarm rate on a subset of the TIMIT corpus.

3. Csapó T. G. - Bárkányi Zs. - Gráczi T. E. - Bőhm T., Lulich, S. M:. Relation of formants and subglottal resonances in Hungarian vowels.

In: Interspeech 2009 : International Speech Communication Association, 10th Annual Conference, Brighton : Proceedings / Moore R.K. (ed.). – Brighton : ISCA, 2009. – pp. 484-487, paper 0058. DVD

Keywords: subglottal resonances, Hungarian, quantal theory, vowels

The relation between vowel formants and subglottal resonances (SGRs) has previously been explored in English, German, and Korean. Results from these studies indicate that vowel classes are categorically separated by SGRs. We extended this work to Hungarian vowels, which have not been related to SGRs before. The Hungarian vowel system contains paired long and short vowels as well as a series of front rounded vowels, similar to German but more complex than English and Korean. Results indicate that SGRs separate vowel classes in Hungarian as in English, German, and Korean, and uncover additional patterns of vowel formants relative to the third subglottal resonance (Sg3). These results have implications for understanding phonological distinctive features, and applications in automatic speech technologies.

Conference abstracts

4. Csapó T. G. - Bárkányi Zs. - Gráczi T. E. - Beke A. - Bőhm T.: A magánhangzó-formánsok és a szubglottális rezonanciák összefüggése a spontán beszédben.

In: Beszédkutatás 2009: A spontán beszéd, Budapest, MTA Nyelvtudományi Intézet

http://www.nytud.hu/conf/beszkutkonfabsz09.pdf

Keywords: subglottal resonances, quantal theory, vowels, spontaneous speech

István CZIGLER

Scientific publications

1. Czigler I. - Pató L.: Unnoticed regularity violation elicits change-related brain activity. In: Biological Psychology, 2009, 80, 3 : 339-347.

Keywords: event-related potential; visual mismatch negativity; change blindness

Event-related brain electric activity (ERP) was investigated to unnoticed visual changes. The orientation of grid elements (vertical or horizontal) changed after the presentation of 10-15 identical stimuli. The grid patterns were task irrelevant, and were presented in the background of a shape discrimination task. During the first half of the session, participants were unaware of the stimulus change. However, in comparison to the ERPs to the fifth identical stimuli, stimulus change elicited posterior negativities in the 270-375 ins range (visual mismatch negativity, vMMN). With participants instructed on the stimulus change, negativities emerged with earlier onset and with wider distribution. When stimulus change was preceded by only two identical stimuli, there were no such ERP effects. As the results show, a longer sequence of identical unattended Stimuli may establish the memory representation of stimulus regularity, and violation of regularity is indicated by posterior negative ERP components (vMMN).

2. Czigler I.: Szabályosságok nem tudatos észlelése a látásban : az eseményhez kötött potenciál módszer automatikus működésekre utal

In: Pszichológia, 2009, 29, 2 : 79-100

Non-conscious detection of regularities in vision : event-related potentials disclose automatic processes

Keywords: non-conscious processes, event-related potentials, regularities in vision

Conference abstracts

3. Czigler I. - Sulykos I.:. Interaction between the task and the74.

Keywords: itch processing, Timbre, Perceived resonator size, Development, Neonates, Event-related brain potentials (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN)

The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch changes was tested by recording event-related brain potentials in healthy newborn infants to frequent standard and infrequent pitch-deviant sounds while the perceived resonator size of all sounds was randomly varied. The elicitation of an early negative and a later positive discriminative response by deviant sounds demonstrated that the neonate auditory system represents pitch separately from timbre, thus showing advanced pitch processing capabilities.

2. Honing, H. - Ladinig, O. - Háden G.P. - WinklerI.: Is beat induction innate or learned? Probing emergent meter perception in adults and newborns using event-related brain potentials

In S. D. Bella et al. (eds.): The Neurosciences and Music III—Disorders and Plasticity

= Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2009, 1169, 1 : 93–96.

Keywords: rhythm meter beat induction event-related brain potentials (ERPs)

Meter is considered an important structuring mechanism in the perception and experience of rhythm in music. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological measures, in the present study we investigate whether meter is more likely a learned phenomenon, possibly a result of musical expertise, or whether sensitivity to meter is also active in adult nonmusicians and newborn infants. The results provide evidence that meter induction is active in adult nonmusicians and that beat induction is already functional right after birth.

3. Ladinig, O. - Honing, H. - Háden G.P. - Winkler I.: Probing attentive and preattentive emergent meter in adult listeners without extensive music training.

In: Music Perception, 2009, 26,4 : 377-386.

Keywords: rhythm, emergent meter, syncopation, event-related potentials, attention

Beat and meter induction are considered important structuring mechanisms underlying the perception of rhythm. Meter comprises two or more levels of hierarchically ordered regular beats with different periodicities. When listening to music, adult listeners weight events within a measure in a hierarchical manner. We tested if listeners without advanced music training form such hierarchical representations for a rhythmical sound sequence under different attention conditions (Attend, Unattend, and Passive). Participants detected occasional weakly and strongly syncopated rhythmic patterns within the context of a strictly metrical rhythmical sound sequence. Detection performance was better and faster when syncopation occurred in a metrically strong as compared to a metrically weaker position. Compatible electrophysiological differences (earlier and higher-amplitude MMN responses) were obtained when participants did not attend the rhythmical sound sequences. These data indicate that hierarchical representations for rhythmical sound sequences are formed preattentively in the human auditory system.

4. Vestergaard, M D. - Háden, G P.- Shtyrov, Y. – Patterson, R D. - Pulvermüller , F – Denham, S L. - Sziller I.Winkler, I:

Auditory size-deviant detection in adults and newborn infants

In: Biological Psychology, 2009, 82, 2 : 169-175

Keywords: Adults, Auditory system, Automatic source-size pre-processing, Electroencephalography (EEG), Glottal pulse rate (GPR), Mismatch negativity (MMN), Size perception, Neonates, Vocal tract length (VTL)

Auditory size perception refers to the ability to make accurate judgments of the size of a sound source based solely upon the sound emitted from the source. Electro-physiological and behavioral data were collected to test whether sound-source size parameters are detected from task-irrelevant sequences in adults and newborn infants. The mismatch negativity (MMN) obtained from adults indexed automatic detection of changes in size for voices, musical instruments and animal calls, regardless of whether the acoustic change indicated larger or smaller sources. Neonates detected changes in the size of a musical instrument. The data are consistent with the notion that auditory size-deviant detection in humans is an innate automatic process. This conclusion is compatible with the theory that the ability to assess the size of sound sources evolved because it provided selective advantage of being able to detect larger (more competent) suitors and larger (more dangerous) predators.

Conference abstracts

5. Háden G.P. - Ladinig, O. - Sziller I. - Honing, H. - Winkler I.:Processing of rhythmic structures in adults and newborn babies.

In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.083

6. Háden G.P. - Sussman, E.S. - Czigler I. - Winkler I.: The MMN attention effect revisited: Forming the standard or detecting the deviant?. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.051

7. Vestergaard, M. - Patterson, R.D. - Pulvermüller, F. - Háden G.P. - Shtyrov, Y. – Winkler I.: EEG evidence of auditory size perception in adults and infants.

In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Application. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.106

János HORVÁTH

Scientific publications

1. Horváth J. - Czigler I. - Birkás E. – Winkler I. - Gervai J.: Age-related differences in distraction and reorientation in an auditory task.

In: Neurobiology of Aging, 2009, 30, 7 : 1157-1172

Keywords: Attention, distraction, orienting response, children, aging, event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN), P3, reorienting negativity (RON)

Behavioral and event-related potential measures of distraction and reorientation were obtained from children (6 years), young (19–24 years) and elderly adults (62–82 years) in an auditory distraction-paradigm. Participants performed a go/nogo duration discrimination task on a sequence of short and long (50–50%) tones. In children, reaction times were longer and discrimination (d’) scores were lower than in adults. Occasionally (15%), the pitch of the presented tones was changed. The task-irrelevant feature variation resulted in longer reaction times and lower d’ scores with no significant differences between the three groups. Task-irrelevant changes affected the N1 amplitude and elicited the mismatch negativity, N2b, P3 and reorienting negativity (RON) sequence of event-related brain potentials. In children, the P3 latency was the same as in young adults. However the RON component was delayed by about 100 ms. In the elderly, P3 and RON were uniformly delayed by about 80 ms compared to young adults. This pattern of results provides evidence that distraction influences different processing stages in the three groups. Restoration of the task-optimal attention set was delayed in children, whereas in the elderly, the triggering of involuntary attention-switching required longer time.

2. Horváth J. - Roeber, U. - Schröger, E.: The utility of brief, spectrally rich, dynamic sounds in the passive oddball paradigm.

In: Neuroscience Letters, 2009, 461 ,3: 262–265

Keywords: Oddball paradigm, event-related potentials (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN), late difference negativity (LDN) , stimulus complexity

Experiments investigating auditory processing often utilize spectrally rich, dynamic stimuli to simulate an ecologically valid auditory environment in the laboratory. Often, however, these stimuli do not allow for a strict control of the timing of auditory sensory information which may be distributed over the whole duration of a given sound. In the present study, brief (20ms long), dynamic, spectrally rich sounds were presented in the context of a passive oddball paradigm to young adults. The short duration made certain that the sensory information was delivered entirely within a 20ms interval. Two sounds were presented as standards (45–45% probability), other two as deviants (5–5% probability) in random sequences, with a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 1500 ms. Deviants elicited the mismatch negativity and late difference negativity (LDN) event-related potential components. No N1-effect was produced by deviants, which suggests that the acoustic energy is spread over many different features due to the dynamic spectral properties, which, combined with the brief duration, causes insignificant refractoriness-effects at the present SOA. These results support the usefulness of brief natural sounds in auditory research. The elicitation of LDN in an adult group was an unexpected finding, because LDN is mostly found in children, but not in adults. This result might indicate that LDN elicitation depends on stimulation complexity: stimulus settings in which an LDN is registered in children but not in adults may be perceived as more complex by children than by adults.

Conference abstracts

3. Horváth J. - Roeber, U. – Schröger, E.: Brief natural sounds in the passive oddball paradigm: good temporal control plus ecological validity.

In:Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.126

4. Horváth J. - Müller, D. - Weise, A. - Schröger, E.: Omission MMN builds up late.

In:Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.118

Gábor STEFANICS

Scientific publications

1. Stefanics G. - Háden G.P. - Sziller I. - Balázs L. - Beke A. - Winkler I.:. Newborn infants process pitch intervals.

In: Clinical Neurophysiology, 2009, 120, 2 : 304 308.

Keywords: Pitch perception; Relative pitch; Development; Event-related brain potentials (ERP); Neonates; Mismatch negativity (MMN)

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the auditory system of newborn babies extracts the constancy of a pitch interval from exemplars varying in absolute pitch. METHODS: Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded from healthy newborn infants in an oddball paradigm consisting of frequent standard and infrequent deviant tone pairs. Tone pairs varied in absolute frequency. Standard and deviant pairs differed in the amount of pitch difference within the pairs, but not in the direction of pitch change. RESULTS: Deviant tone pairs elicited a discriminative ERP response. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that the neonate auditory system represents pitch intervals similarly to adults. SIGNIFICANCE: Adult-like processing of pitch intervals allows newborn infants to learn music, speech prosody, and to process various important auditory cues based on spectral acoustic features.

Conference abstracts

2. Stefanics G. - Hangya B. - Ulbert I. - Lakatos P. - Winkler I. - Hernadi I.: Attentive anticipation modulates phase-entrainment of human delta EEG oscillations – a single trial analyis.

In: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: 12th Meeting of the Hungarian Neuroscience Society. doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.01.2009.04.128

3. Stefanics G. - Czigler I. – Kimura, M.: Limits of the ";primitive intelligence"; : A visual mismatch negativity study

In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.067

4. Stefanics G. - Háden GP. - Sziller I. - Beke A. – Westergaard, MD. – Denham, S. - Balázs L. - Winkler I.: Adult-like pitch processing skills in newborn infants

In:Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.070

5. Astikainen, P. - Stefanics G. – Nokia, M. – Lipponen, A. – Penttonen, M. – Ruusuvirta, T.: Is there an analogue of human mismatch negativity in urethane-anesthetized rats?

In:Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: MMN 09 Fifth Conference on Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and its Clinical and Scientific Applications. - doi: 10.3389/conf.neuro.09.2009.05.068

6. Stefanics G. - Hangya B. - Ulbert I. - Lakatos P. - Winkler I. - Hernádi I.: Attentive anticipation modulates phase-entrainment of human delta EEG oscillations – a single trial analysis.

In: A Magyar Idegtudományi Társaság (MITT) XII. Konferenciája, 2009, Budapest.

2. Department of Psychophysiology

Head of the Department: Márk Molnár

2.1 Research Group of Comparative Psychophysiology

Head of the Group: István Ulbert

Members of the Group:

István ULBERT, MD, PhD, senior research fellow

member of the institute since 1993

head of the group

Richárd CSERCSA, juniorresearch fellow

Balázs DOMBOVÁRI, juniorresearch fellow

Dániel FABÓ, junior research fellow

László ENTZ, junior research fellow

László GRAND, juniorresearch fellow

György KARMOS, MD, PhD, scientific adviser

director of the institute from 1994 to 1999

member of the institute since 1976

Péter LAKATOS, junior research fellow

Lucia WITTNER, research fellow

István ULBERT

Scientific publications

1. Schachter, SC. – Guttag, J. – Schiff, SJ – Schomer, DL. - Summit Contributors (Ulbert I). Advances in the application of technology to epilepsy : the CIMIT/NIO Epilepsy Innovation Summit.

In:Epilepsy & Behavior, 2009, 16,1:3-46.

Keywords: Epilepsy, electrophysiology, implantable devices

In 2008, a group of clinicians, scientists, engineers, and industry representatives met to discuss advances in the application of engineering technologies to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. The presentations also provided a guide for further technological development, specifically in the evaluation of patients for epilepsy surgery, seizure onset detection and seizure prediction, intracranial treatment systems, and extracranial treatment systems. This article summarizes the discussions and demonstrates that cross-disciplinary interactions can catalyze collaborations between physicians and engineers to address and solve many of the pressing unmet needs in epilepsy.

2. Blomquist, P. – Devor, A. – Indahl, UG - Ulbert I. – Einevoll, GT. – Dale, AM:. Estimation of thalamocortical and intracortical network models from joint thalamic single-electrode and cortical laminar-electrode recordings in the rat barrel system

In: PLoS Computational Biology, 2009 ,5, 3 : 1-24.

Keywords: Laminar recording, MUA, cortex, thalamus

A new method is presented for extraction of population firing-rate models for both thalamocortical and intracortical signal transfer based on stimulus-evoked data from simultaneous thalamic single-electrode and cortical recordings using linear (laminar) multielectrodes in the rat barrel system. Time-dependent population firing rates for granular (layer 4), supragranular (layer 2/3), and infragranular (layer 5) populations in a barrel column and the thalamic population in the homologous barreloid are extracted from the high-frequency portion (multi-unit activity; MUA) of the recorded extracellular signals. These extracted firing rates are in turn used to identify population firing-rate models formulated as integral equations with exponentially decaying coupling kernels, allowing for straightforward transformation to the more common firing-rate formulation in terms of differential equations. Optimal model structures and model parameters are identified by minimizing the deviation between model firing rates and the experimentally extracted population firing rates. For the thalamocortical transfer, the experimental data favor a model with fast feedforward excitation from thalamus to the layer-4 laminar population combined with a slower inhibitory process due to feedforward and/or recurrent connections and mixed linear-parabolic activation functions. The extracted firing rates of the various cortical laminar populations are found to exhibit strong temporal correlations for the present experimental paradigm, and simple feedforward population firing-rate models combined with linear or mixed linear-parabolic activation function are found to provide excellent fits to the data. The identified thalamocortical and intracortical network models are thus found to be qualitatively very different. While the thalamocortical circuit is optimally stimulated by rapid changes in the thalamic firing rate, the intracortical circuits are low-pass and respond most strongly to slowly varying inputs from the cortical layer-4 population.

3. Keller, C J, -. Cash, S. S - Narayanan, S. - Wang, C. - Kuzniecky, R. - Carlson, C. - Devinsky, O. - Thesen, T. - Doyle, W. - Sassaroli, A. - Boas, D.A. - Ulbert I. – Halgren, E. Intracranial microprobe for evaluating neuro-hemodynamic coupling in unanesthetized human neocortex.

In: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2009, ;179, 2 : 208-218.

Keywords: Epilepsy, optical recording, CSD

Measurement of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response with fMRI has revolutionized cognitive neuroscience and is increasingly important in clinical care. The BOLD response reflects changes in deoxy-hemoglobin concentration, blood volume, and blood flow. These hemodynamic changes ultimately result from neuronal firing and synaptic activity, but the linkage between these domains is complex, poorly understood, and may differ across species, cortical areas, diseases, and cognitive states. We describe here a technique that can measure neural and hemodynamic changes simultaneously from cortical microdomains in waking humans. We utilize a ";laminar optode,"; a linear array of microelectrodes for electrophysiological measures paired with a micro-optical device for hemodynamic measurements. Optical measurements include laser Doppler to estimate cerebral blood flow as well as point spectroscopy to estimate oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations. The microelectrode array records local field potential gradients (PG) and multi-unit activity (MUA) at 24 locations spanning the cortical depth, permitting estimation of population trans-membrane current flows (Current Source Density, CSD) and population cell firing in each cortical lamina. Comparison of the laminar CSD/MUA profile with the origins and terminations of cortical circuits allows activity in specific neuronal circuits to be inferred and then directly compared to hemodynamics. Access is obtained in epileptic patients during diagnostic evaluation for surgical therapy. Validation tests with relatively well-understood manipulations (EKG, breath-holding, cortical electrical stimulation) demonstrate the expected responses. This device can provide a new and robust means for obtaining detailed, quantitative data for defining neurovascular coupling in awake humans.

Conference abstracts

4. Slézia, A. - Hangya B. - Bokor H. - Ulbert I. - Barthó P. - Acsády L.: Differences in firing pattern of first order and higher order thalamocortical relays in anesthetized rats - burst properties and phase relationship to cortical EEG.

In: A Magyar Idegtudományi Társaság (MITT) XII. Konferenciája, 2009, Budapest.

5. Barthó P. - Ulbert I. - Acsády L.: Correlated single unit activity in thalamic and cortical networks.

In: Neuroscience 2009, SfN's 39th annual meeting, Chicago, USA. - Program#173.12/Y28 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Chicago, IL: Society for Neuroscience, 2009. Online.

6. Slézia, A. - Hangya B. - Barthó P. - Ulbert I. - Acsády L.: Heterogenous firing pattern in first order and higher order thalamic nuclei - Burst properties and phase relationship to cortical activity.

In: Neuroscience 2009, SfN's 39th annual meeting, Chicago, USA. - Program#173.23/Z4 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Chicago, IL: Society for Neuroscience, 2009. Online.

Richárd CSERCSA

Conference abstracts

1. Seidl, K. - Herwik, S. - Csercsa R. - Dombovári B. - Grand L. - Torfs T. - Neves H. - Ulbert I. - Paul, O. - Ruther, P.:Acute recording in rat using CMOS-based high-density silicon microprobe array for electronic depth control.

In: Neuroscience 2009, SfN's 39th annual meeting, Chicago, USA - Program#664.10/DD41 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Chicago, IL: Society for Neuroscience, 2009. Online.

Balázs DOMBOVÁRI

Conference abstracts

1. Dombovári B. - Csercsa R. - Seidl, K. - Ruther, P. - Neves, H. – Ulbert I.: Electronic depth control with Neuroprobes microarrays.

In: A Magyar Idegtudományi Társaság (MITT) XII. Konferenciája, 2009, Budapest.

László ENTZ

Scientific publications

1. Erőss L. - Bagó AG - Entz L. - Fabó D. - Halász P. - Balogh A. - Fedorcsák I.:

Neuronavigation and fluoroscopy-assisted subdural strip electrode positioning: a simple method to increase intraoperative accuracy of strip localization in epilepsy surgery.

In: Journal of Neurosurgery, 2009, 110, 2 : 327-331

Keywords: neuronavigation, MR, CT, epilepsy

For localization of the epileptogenic zone in cases of focal epilepsy, detailed clinical investigations, imaging studies, and electrophysiological methods are used. If the noninvasive presurgical evaluation provides insufficient data, intracranial electrodes are necessary. Computed tomography and MR imaging techniques are the gold standard for localization of the postoperative position of the implanted intracranial electrode contacts. If the electrode strips are inserted through a bur hole, however, the exact localization of the electrode contacts on the patient's brain remains uncertain for the surgeon during insertion. Therefore, the authors developed a simple method to visualize the electrodes during the procedure. In this method they combine neuronavigation and intraoperative fluoroscopy for parallel visualization of the cortex, electrodes, and the navigation probe. The target region is searched with neuronavigation, a bur hole is made over the optimal entry point, and using real-time fluoroscopy the strip electrode is slid to the tip of the navigation probe, which was kept over the area of interest. At the authors' institution 26 strips in 8 patients have been inserted with this technique, and none of the strips had to be repositioned. There were no complications with this procedure and the prolongation of surgery time is acceptable. Compared to previously published electrode placement methods, this one enhances the accuracy of electrode placement at occipital, parietal, frontal, or interhemispheric regions as well. Intraoperative visualization of the electrodes with fluoroscopy combined with neuronavigation during positioning through a bur hole gives the neurosurgeon the ability to control the real position of the electrode over the gyri during the procedure.

2. Erőss L. - Entz L. - Fabó D. - Jakus R. - Szűcs A. - Rásonyi Gy. - Kelemen A. - Barcs G. – Juhos V. - Balogh A. - Barsi P. - Clemens Zs. - Halász P.:

Interhemispheric propagation of seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

In: Ideggyógyászati Szemle, 2009, 62, 9-10 : 319-325

Keywords: hippocampus, epilepsy, temporal lobe, hippocampal commissure, epilepsy surgery

Conference abstracts

3. Entz L. – Fabó D. - Erőss L. – Halász P. - Wittner L. - Karmos G. - Ulbert I.: Single pulse cortical electrical stimulation induced slow oscillation in different vigilance states in epileptic patients.

In: 28th International Epilepsy Congress, 2009, Budapest = Epilepsia, 2009, 50, Suppl. 10 : 78-79.

Clinical and experimental data revealed the importance of Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) in seizure genesis since some seizures preferably starts during SWS. Animal and human studies show that slow oscillation (SO) can be triggered with transcranial electrical (TES) and magnetic stimulation (TMS) in non-REM sleep but not in wakefulness. In order to investigate the effect of different vigilance states on triggered SO, single pulse cortical electrical stimulation (CES) was combined with subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) and intracortical laminar recordings in humans. Patients with drug resistant epilepsy were implanted with subdural grid and strip electrodes and intracortical laminar multielectrodes. Brief single current pulses were injected into adjacent grid contacts and responses were averaged both from the grids and the laminar electrodes in awake, sleeping and anesthetized state. We have found that CES awake an initial biphasic activation, which is followed by a single wave of SO, characterized by a long lasting negative ECoG potential (down state) and a rebound positivity (up state) in the close (1-2cm) vicinity of the stimulation electrode, regardless of the vigilance state (sleep, awake and anesthesia) of the patient. Using high resolution mapping methods, our results suggest that contrary to TMS and TES, CES can initiate a single SO cycle in the close vicinity of the stimulation site even in the waking state. We hypothesize that cortical area which participate in the initiation and spread of evoked SO may also be interconnected via the same cortico-cortical or cortico-thalamo-cortical links that may sub serve epileptic networks.

4. Entz L. - Fabó D. - Erőss L. - Halász P. - Wittner L. - Karmos G. - Ulbert I.: Similarities of electrical stimulation induced slow oscillation in different vigilance states in epileptic patients.

In: A Magyar Idegtudományi Társaság (MITT) XII. Konferenciája, 2009, Budapest.

5. Hangya B. - Varga V. - Erőss L. - Entz L. - Fabó D. - Ulbert I.: Exploring the propagation of human cortical slow waves: an information theory method.

In: A Magyar Idegtudományi Társaság (MITT) XII. Konferenciája, 2009, Budapest.

6. Hangya B. - Entz L. - Fabó D. - Erőss L. - Tihanyi B. - Varga V. - Freund T.F. - Ulbert I.: Complex dynamics of human cortical slow wave propagation revealed by an information theory method.

In: Neuroscience 2009, SfN's 39th annual meeting, Chicago, USA - Program#277.30/EE42 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Chicago, IL: Society for Neuroscience, 2009. Online.

7. Entz L. - Fabó D. - Erőss L. - Halász P. - Wittner L. – Csercsa R. - Dombovári B. - Karmos G. - Ulbert I.: Detection of slow oscillation elicited by cortical electrical stimulation in different vigilance states in humans.

silicon microprobe array for electronic depth control.

In: Neuroscience 2009, SfN's 39th annual meeting, Chicago, USA - Program#723.12/F14 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Chicago, IL: Society for Neuroscience, 2009. Online



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