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THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor in Chirf

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor in Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes

LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN


THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor an Chief )

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF

CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN

[VOLUMES I VI]

AND

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(Associate Editors)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Departmsnt of Systematic Theology)

HENRY KING) CARROLL, LLA

(Department of Minor Denominations)

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgica and Religious Orders)

JAMES FREDERIC McCURDY, PH.D., LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament)

HENRY SYLVESTER RASH, D.D.

(Department of the Near Testament )

ALBERT HENRY NEWNAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History)

FRANK HORACE YIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME VIII

MORALITY   PETERSEN

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953


EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY CUSHING   MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1953,


EDITORS

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR IN CHIEF.

Professor of Church History, New York University.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(AaBOCIATE EDITOR.)

New York,

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion,

Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME VIII

OLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders.)

Rector of St. Ambrose's, New York City.

JAMES FREDERICK MCCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.

HENRY SYLVESTER MASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEW MAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist

Theological Seminary, Waco, Tex.

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the STANDARD DrcrioNARY, etc.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VIII

ERNST CHRISTIAN ACHELIS, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Marburg.

HAMS ACHELIS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Halle.

WILLIAM ADAMSON, D.D.,

Pastor of the Carver Memorial Church, Windermere,

England.

BENJAMIN WISNER BACON, D.D.,

LL.D., Litt.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, Yale Divinity

School.

FERENCZ BALOGH,

Professor of Church History Reformed Theological

Academy, Debreczjn, Hungary.

ANTON CHRISTIAN BANG, Ph.D.,

Bishop in Christiania.

HERMANN GEORG JULIUS BEGS,

Consistorial Councilor and First Preacher, Baireuth.

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

EARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Ktinigsberg.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF

BENZINGER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice Consul for Holland in

Jerusalem.

CARL ALBRECHT BERNOULLI, Th.Lic.,

Author at Arlesheim, near Basel.

CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

Pastor at St. Michael's, Hamburg.

HEINRICH BOEHMER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.

AMY GASTON CHARLES AUGUSTS

BONET MAURY, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of

Divinity, Paris.

GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL 80NWETSCH,

Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of GtSttinBen.

GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VIII

ALBERT BRACSXANN, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Marburg.

CRARLF6 AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

Litt.D.,

Professor of Theological Encyclopeedia and Symbolics.

Union Theological Seminary, New York.

THEODOR PAUL 081WAR ARTHUR

VON BROECHER, Th.D.,

Chief Pastor of Jacobikirche, Hamburg.

KARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consiatorial Councilor, Munich.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

WALTER AUGUST ANTON NATHAN

CASPA RI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Erlangen.

JACQQEB EUG$NE CHOIBY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

FRANCIS ALBERT CHRISTIE, D.D.,

Professor of Church History in Meadville Theological

School, Meadville, Pa.

FERDINAND COH8,8, Th.Lic.,

Consistorial Councilor, Weld, Germany.

BAXTEL CRAMER, Th.D.,

Professor of the History of Christianity, University of

Amsterdam, and Professor of Practicl Theology,

Mennonite Theological Seminary, Amsterdam.

FRIEDRICH WILHELM CQNO (t),

Th.Lic.,

Late Pastor at Eddigehausen, Hanover.

GUSTAV ADOLF DEI88IIANN, Th.D.,

D.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Berlin.

SAMUEL MARTIN DEUTSCH (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

ERNST VON DOBBCHUETZ, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Breslau.

ISAAC AUGUST DORMER (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Berlin.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DREWB, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halls.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

Rector of St. Ambrose's Church, New York City.

WILLL3M EDWARD BURGHARDT

DUBOIS, Ph.D.,

Professor of Economics and History, Atlanta University,

Atlanta, Georgia.

EVIL EGLI (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Churr:h History, University of Zurich.

JOHN OLQF EVJEN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Theology in Augsburg Seminary, Minneapolis.

FRANK HUGH FOSTER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of History, Olivet College, Michigan.

EVIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG,

Th.D., DrJur.,

Professor of EccUnilesiastical, oPub~psi

ac d German Law,

GUSTAV GIESELBUSCH,

Pastor of the Third Baptist Church, Berlin.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILNORE, N.A.,

Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor

Theological Seminary, Associate Editor of Tnz

NEw $CBAFhloa ENCYCLOPDDIA.

FRANZ GO S, Ph.D.,

Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn.

WILH431 M GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High School,

and Professor, Military Academy, Munich.

JOHANNEB BB,IEDB,ICH GOTTBCHICK (t),

Th.D.,

Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, Ethics, and

Practical Theology Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Tilbingen.

CASPAR RENA GREGORY, Ph.D.,

Th.D., D.D., LL.D., Dr. Jur.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.

GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th. Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University

of Heidelberg.

HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.

KARL HACKENBCHMIDT, Th.D.,

Pastor in Strasburg.

WILHELM HADORN, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Bern and Lecturer on New Testament Exegesis,

University of Bern.

ARTHUR CRAWSHAY ALLIBTON

HALL, D.D., LL.D.,

Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont.

ADOLF HARNACK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.

Jur., N.D.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

THOMAS SAMUEL HASTINGS,

D.D., LL.D., L.H.D.,

Emeritus Professor of Pastoral Theology, Union Theolog­

ical Seminary.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr. Jur.,

Professor of Church History University of Leipsic,

Editor in Chief of the Hauek trerzog RealencykloWie.

HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor and Director of the University Library, Giessen.

CARL FRIEDRICH GEORGE HEINRICI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipelc.

WAX HEINZE (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Tae Professor of Philosophy, University of Iaipsic.

LUDWIG THEODOR EDGAR HENNECKE,

Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Betheln, Hanover.

WILHELM HERRB

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Marburg.

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of

Erlangen.

JOHANNEB HERZOG,

City Pastor in Esslingen.

OSWALD HOLDER EGGER, Ph.D.,

Professor at Berlin and Director for the Publication of

the Monuments Germanies Hietarioa.

GEORG HOLZ, Ph.D.,

Professor of German lsnguaseand Literature, University

of Lelp


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VIII

ERNST HUEHPEL, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Brametedt, Holstein, Germany.

DAVID HUPFELD, Th.Lic.,

Pastor Emeritus at Halle.

ALFRED JEBEIIIAS, Ph.D., Th.Lio.,

Privat docent for Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.

ADOLF HERMANN HEINRICH SAHP­

HAQSEN (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Bonn.

FERDINAND FRIEDRICH NVXL13MX

gATTENBUSCH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halle.

EVIL FRIEDRICH 8AUTZSCH,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Halle.

PETER GUSTAV BAWERAU, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Provost of St. Peter's,

Berlin and Honorary Professor,

University of Berlin.

KONRAD KESSLER (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Semitic Languages, University of

Greifewald.

GOTTLO33 sIRCHHOFER,

Minister at Schaffhausen. Switzerland.

RUDOLF sITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsio.

HEINRICH AUGUST sLOSTERXANN,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Kiel.

SABL AUGUST BLDEP7KL (t), Th.D.,

Late Librarian in Tffbingen University Library.

JOSEPH KNAPP (t),

Late Dean in Stuttgart.

WALT HER HOEHLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

HEINRICH ADOLF BORSTLIN (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Privy Councilor in Cannatadt, formerly Professor of

Theology, University of Giessen.

JULIUS 80ESTLIN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Halls.

THEODOR FRIEDRICH HZR3EANN

HOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.

HERXANN GUSTAV EDUARD BB,UEC+ER,

Ph.D., Th:D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.

JACOB BQENDIG,

President of the Reformed Preachers' Seminary in Basel­

land.

JOHANNES WILHELB; 8UNZE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Greifswaid.

EUGEN LACHENacANN,

City Pastor, Leonberg, Wilrttemberg.

WILLLAX HENRY r.ARRAEgE, LL.D.,

Plainfield. New Jersey.

GEORG BITTER VON LAUBXANN (t),

Ph.D.,

Late Director of the Royal Library, Munich.

ICARL LUDWIG LEIMBACH (t), Ph.D.,

Late Provincial Councilor. for Schools, Hanover, Germany.

LUDWIG LEMME, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidel­

berg.

RUDOLF LIECHTENHAN, Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Buch, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland.

FRIEDRICH LIST (t), Ph.D.,

Late Studienrektor, Munich.

FRIEDRICH ARXIN LOOPS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halle.

DUNCAN JAMES XcMILLAN, D.D.,

Presbyterian Pastor, New York City.

WILHELM JULIUS DIANN (t), D.D.,

Late Professor of Hebrew, E°Wsis, Homiletics and




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