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THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor in Chief

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor in Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes

LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN


THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

0R

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor in Chief )

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF

CHARLES COI.EBROOK SHERMAN

AND

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(Associate Editors)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology)

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations)

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgies and Religions Orders)

JAMES FREDERIC McCURDY, PH.D., LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament)

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament)

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History)

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME IV

DRAESEKE   GOA

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1952


EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

LITHOPRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY

CUSHING  MALLOY, ING'., ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, 1952


EDITORS

SAMUEL MAOAULEy JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR IN CHIEF.)

Professor of Church History, New York University

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

CBARLEg COLEBROOK SHERMAN ~ GEORGE WILLIAM GILMOB.E, M.A.

Editor 1n Biblical Criticism and Theology on ";The New Inter  New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer

national Encyclopedia,"; New York. on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME IV

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theolopu.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Formerly Corresponding Secretary of the Board of Foreign

Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Ldtvkrpics and Religious Orders.)

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.

JAMES FREDERICK McCUB.Dy, Ph.D.,

LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the, New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Tes•

lament, Episcopal Theological School. Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University). Warn, Tex.

FRANK H03ELAOR vIZETELLy, h.g.a.

(Department of Pronunciation and 7wpographV.)

Managing Editor of the SxexaexD DICxIOxeay. eW.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IV

ERNST CHRISTIAN ACBELIg, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Marburg.

HANS ACHELIg, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Halls.

WILLIAM ADAMSON, D.D.,

Pastor of the Carver Memorial Church, Windermere, England.

WILHELM ALTMANN, Ph.D.,

Director of the Deutsche Musikeammlung, Berlin.

SAXU31L TAXES ANDREWS (t), D.D.,

Late Pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church. Hartford. Conn.

FERENCZ BALOGH,

Professor of Church History, Reformed Theological Academy.

Debreealn, Hungary.

39DOUARD BA 31 (t),

Late Professor of New. Testament Exegesis, School of Theology.

Geneva.

GEORGE JAMES BAYLES, Ph.D.,

Writer on Civil Church Law.

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

JOHANNES BELSHRIX,

Pastor Emeritus, Chrlsttania, Norway.

KARL BENEATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of BBafgaberg.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BEN­

ZINGEB, Ph.D., Th.LiC.,

German Orientalist and Vice•Consul for Holland in Jerusalem.

CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

Pastor of St. Michael's, Hamburg.

BERNHARD BESS, Th.LiC.,

Librarian of the University of Halls.

EMIL BLOESCH (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology. Bern.

HEINRICH BOEHMER, Ph.D., Th.Lie.,

Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.

AMY GASTON C'AwR.T.~'.g AUGUSTE

BONET MAUBY, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of

Divinity, Parts.

GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BOB WETgCH,

Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

GUSTAV B086E8T, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.


FRANTB PEDER WILLIAM BUHL,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.

EARL BURGER (f), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Munich.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

Formerly Corresponding Secretary of the Methodist Missionary

Society.

WALTER CABPARI, Ph.D., Th. Lie.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Erlangen.

JOHAN ANTERB CEDERBERG, Th.D.,

Provost in St. Michel, Finland.

JACQUES EUGL`NE CHOIBY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

PERCIVALE CHUBB,

Director and Teacher in the Ethical Culture School,

New York.

JOSEPH BOURNE CLARKE, D.D.,

Editorial Secretary of the Congregational Home Missionary So­

ciety, New York.

JOHN CLIFFORD, D.D., LL.D.,

Minister of Praed Street and Westbourne Park Church, London.

FERDINAND COHRS, Th.Lic.,

Consistorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Germany.

HENRY COWAN, D.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Aberdeen,

Scotland.

AUGUST HERMANN CREMER (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Systematic Theology, University of

Greitawald.

FRIEDRICH WILHELM CUNO ( j'), Th.Lic.,

Late Pastor at Eddigehausen, Hanover.

GUSTAF HERMAN DALMAN, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic,

and President of the German Evangelical Archeological

Institute, Jerusalem.

SAMUEL MARTIN DEUTSCH, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

FRANZ WILHELM DIBELIUB, Ph.D., Th.D., '

Supreme Consiatortal Councilor, City Superintendent, and

Pastor of the Ereuzkirche, Dresden.

ERNST VON DOBBCHUETZ, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Strasburg.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DREWB, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halls.

JAMES FRANCIS `DRISCOLL, D.D.'

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.

EMIL EGLI, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

JACQUES EHNI (f),

Late Pastor in Geneva.

EPHRAIM EMERTON, Ph.D.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Harvard University.

EARL ENDERS, Th.D.,

Pastor at Frankfort on the Main.

CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH DAVID ERD­

MANN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Honorary Professor of ('batch History, University of

Breslau.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IV

THEODOR FOERSTER (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Halle.

FRANK HUGH FOSTER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of History, Olivet College, Mich.

EMIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG, Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law, University

of Leipsic.

OTTO FRIDOLIN FRITZBCHE ( j'), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Zurich.

WILHELM GASS ( j'), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Heidelberg.

KARL GELZER,

Pastor in Basel.

WILHELM GERMANN (t), Th.D.,

Late Superintendent In Schleusingen. Prussian Saxony.

CHARLES RIPLEY GILLETT, D.D., L.H.D.,

Registrar, Union Theological Seminary, New York.

JOHN LEWIS GILLIN, Ph.D.,

President of Ashland College, Ashland, Ohio.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.,

Former Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Com­

parative Rellgion, Bangor Theological Seminary.

WALTER GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Tubingen.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High School, and

Professor, Military Academy, Munich.

HERMANN FREIHERR VON DER

GOLTZ (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogmatics, University of Berlin.

GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University of

Heidelberg.

HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipaic.

HEINRICH HAHN, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History and German in the Lufaenatadt

Realgymnasium, Berlin.

ADOLF HARNACg, M.D., Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic, Editor in­

Chief of the Hauck Herzog Reaienci/klopiidte.

HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor and Director of the University Libf'ary, Giessen.

AUGUST WILHELM HEGLER (t), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Tiibingen.

CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG HEINRICI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.

MAX HEINZE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Philosophy, University of Leipsic.

ERNST HENKE (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Marburg.

LUDWIG THEODOR EDGAR HENNECBE,

Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Betbelu, Hanover.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IV

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t), Ph.D.,Th.D.,

late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.

PAUL HINBCHILTB (t), Th.D., Dr.Jrir.,

Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin.

EARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

WILHELM HOLLENBERG (t), Ph.D.,

Late Gymnasial Rector, Bonn.

PAUL IRION,

Pastor Bethel Evangelical Church, Freedom Township, Mich.

FERDINAND FRIEDRICH WILHELM

gATTENBUBCH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halls.

PETER GUSTAV BAWERAU, Th.D.,

Conaistorial Councilor, Provost at St. Peter's, and Honorary

Professor, University of Berlin.

DIETRICH H.ERLER (t), Ph.,D.,

Late Head Librarian, wirrcburg.

OTTO BIRN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatic% University of Leipaic.

RUDOLF BITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipslc.

HUGO WILHELM PAUL KLEINERT,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Practical Theology,

University of Berlin.

HEINRICH AUGUST KLOSTERXANN,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Kiel.

KARL AUGUST BLVEPFEL (t), Ph.D.,

Late Head Librarian, University of Tubingen.

RUDOLF gOEGEL (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Court Preacher, Berlin.

FRIEDRICH EDUARD KOENIG, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.

CHRIBTOPH FRIEDRICH ADOLF BOLE,

Th.D.,

Prelate and Court Preacher, Ludwigsburlr.

THEODOR FRIEDRICH HERMANN

gOLDE, Ph. D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.




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