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Bibliography for Peace and Stability Operations, and Counterinsurgency

Current as of 30 November 2010 comments to bouchatc@

Purpose

This document is intended to be a comprehensive listing of multiple viewpoints--some contrarian. These are diverse sources whose content was deemed of operational or academic importance. These documents are categorized by the type of information they portray, the topics covered, and specialty topics addressed. Its main purpose is to support research in a wide variety of topics covered by Peace Operations, Stability Operations, and Irregular Warfare.

* Recommended Document ** Evolution Document # research for future source references

Topics Covered (core category):

General – applies to multiple topics or general information related to these categories but not specifically covering them.

Peace Operations includes peacekeeping, peacemaking, peace enforcement, peace building, and conflict prevention. Peace Operations is a generic category that covers three or more of these, or this concept in general.

Irregular Warfare includes counterinsurgency, foreign internal defense, insurgency, terrorism, and unconventional warfare. Irregular Warfare is a generic category that covers three or more of these, or this concept in general.

Stability Operations in peacetime engagement, in major combat operations, in post-conflict and includes Transition in Stability Operations, Conflict Transition, and Conflict Termination.

Specialty Topics:

Specialty Topics:

Specialty by (main category in bold, sub-categories in parenthesis): airpower, advisors, asymmetrical, civil and military affairs, clandestine operations (spying, espionage, covert), command and control, communications (signals), contractors, contrarian (against conventional or common wisdom), crime and police, culture (ethnic, racial, minorities, society), complex operations, development (infrastructure, economic, social), diplomacy (foreign policy, international discussions, foreign aid, international relations), economics (investment, financial, activities, monetary), education and training (innovation, lessons learned), ethics, exit (removal of engaged forces), failure, force structure (recruiting, manpower, roles, mission, organization), framework (objectives, strategy, understanding, policy, doctrine, concepts, philosophy, withdrawal), future, gender, geography (climate, terrain, boundaries, natural resources, agriculture, environmental issues, land ownership, GIS, remote sensing), governance (corruption, transparency, legitimacy), International Government Organization (IGO, UN, regional organization, ICRC), information operations (disinformation, news coverage, PR, information warfare, propaganda, pysops, public opinion), intelligence (counter-intelligence, human intelligence, etc.), individual accounts, interagency (whole of government, interministerial), intervention, leadership, legal, legislature (US Congress, UN General Assembly), logistics (procurement, transportation, supply), medical, modeling (formulas, simulations, analysis), multidimensional (full spectrum operations, multidiscipline), multinational (comprehensive approach, intergovernmental, coalition, allies), naval, network-centric (cyber warfare, effects based operations), NGO, non-kinetic, peace operations support, politics (ideology), population (control, migration, refugees, demographics, diasporas), protection (force protection, noncombatant protection), religion, security, SSR, technology (equipment), tactical, threats, tribal, urban, unified action (NGO, IGO, private sector, government together), US Domestic considerations, WMD

Names, Reports, Operations or other Specialty Topics not specified above are included in italics as free-form specialty topic key words: ie al-Qaeda, UNOC, Brahimi Report, Westmoreland, military culture, etc.

Geographically by region (Latin America, Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, North America, Australasia, Pacific Region, Multiregion) and/or by country and UN

Historical Era: Era before 1500, Colonial Period (1500-1914), World War I and Inter-War Period (1914-1940), World War 2 and Aftermath (1940-1948), Cold War Period (1948-1960), Era of Revolution (1960-1989), Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001), Post 2001 (2001–Present), or Multiperiod

Type: Movie, web site, game or simulation, otherwise assume reference is a book, or article

Categories of Information:

KEY – documents that have driven discussion and doctrine (used as a prefix to category below)

Background – (advocating) provides insight into a specific topic area

History – (describing, reflecting) histories that analyze and describe what happened, lesson learned, after action reports

Doctrine/Policy – doctrine and conceptual manual (doctrine, field manuals, and guidance)

Insights (Applications) – useful first person insight

Reference – Dictionary, atlas, encyclopedia, data base, etc.

Note: Any citation ending with an asterisk (*) has been checked to the most recent standard. Others need to be checked and upgraded

Suggested Use: Recommend that this list be converted into a database with sortable fields: author, article/chapter title (optional entry), book/publication title, editor (optional entry), publisher (optional entry), volume and issue (optional entry), date published, reference number or URL (optional entry), abstract/summary/descriptor (optional entry), Category of Information, Topics Covered, Specialty Topic (optional entry), Geographic Region (optional entry), Historical Era (optional field), Type (optional field of movie etc.) final asterisk indicates citation meets most recent standard (optional field)

Appeal to Users: While using this data base, you may encounter corrections needed in how an item has been filed in the categories above. You may also review a reference that does not have a description, for which you would like to provide a 1-5 sentence review. Your comments in these regards are very welcome, and will help make this data base better for future researchers. If this database helped save you some time or effort, please consider investing a little of that back by contacting bouchatc@ or clarence.bouchat@us.army.mil with your inputs.

Aall, Pamela. ";NGOs [Nongovernmental Organizations], Conflict Management and Peacekeeping."; International Peacekeeping, Vol 7 (Spring 2000), pp. 121-41. * Background * Peacekeeping, * NGO, Unified Action, Civil and Military Affairs * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Aall, Pamela, Daniel T. Miltenberger, and Thomas G. Weiss. Guide to IGOs [Intergovernmental Organizations], NGOs [Nongovernmental Organizations], and the Military in Peace and Relief Operations. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2000. (LibCongress: JZ4850 .A17 2000) * Reference * Peace Operations, Miscellaneous (Humanitarian Response) * NGO, IGO, Unified Action, Multinational * Multinational * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Aapengnuo, Clement Mweyang. ";Misinterpreting Ethnic Conflicts in Africa."; Joint Force Quarterly, Number 58 (3rd Quarter 2010), pp. 13-17. http://www.ndu.edu/press/misinterpreting-ethnic-conflics.html * “There is a general perception that Africa is trapped in a never-ending cycle of ethnic conflict. The Rwandan genocide, Darfur, northern Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, and the violent aftermath of the controversial Kenyan elections, among other cases, seemingly substantiate this perception. As grievances accumulate and are defined at the group rather than individual level, the motivation for reprisals is never ending. The centuries-old inertia behind these animosities, moreover, defies resolution. The seeming implication is that Africa's complicated ethnic diversity leaves the continent perpetually vulnerable to devastating internecine conflict. This, in turn, cripples prospects for sustained economic progress and democratization.” [Intro] * Background * Miscellaneous (Conflict Causes) * Tribal, Culture, Economics, Governance. * Sub-Saharan Africa * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

* Abaya, Hernando J., Betrayal in the Philippines. New York: A. A. Wyn, Inc. 1946. * ";Written by an anti-Roxas Filipino native, the book presents a full description of the effect of U.S. influence on Philippine internal affairs during and following WWII. Also a good report on the rise of the Hukbalahap."; [1962 JCS Biblio] Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography. * Insight * Insurgency, Counterinsurgency * Diplomacy, Politics, Threats, Individual Accounts * Southeast Asia (Philippines) * World War 2 and Aftermath (1940-1948)

Abiew, Francis K. ";NGO-Military Relations in Peace Operations."; International Peacekeeping, Vol 10 (Spring 2003), pp. 24-39. * Background * Peace Operations * NGO, Peace Operations Support, Unified Action * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Abizaid, John P. ";Lessons for Peacekeepers."; Military Review, Vol. 73 (March 1993), pp. 11-19. * Insight * Peacekeeping * Tactical, Education and Training * Middle East (Kurdish Iraq) * Post-Cold War (1989-2001)

Abizaid, John P. and John R. Wood. ";Preparing for Peacekeeping: Military Training and the Peacekeeping Environment."; Special Warfare, Vol. 7 (April 1994), pp. 14-20. * Insight * Peacekeeping * Education and Training * Post-Cold War (1989-2001)

** Abd el Krim. Memoires d'Abd el Krim (Memoirs of Abd el Krim). Collected by J. Roger-Mathieu. Paris: Librairie de Champs Elysees, 1927. * covers: one of the main Berber guerrilla strategists fighting French and Spanish imperialism in the Rif Mountains of North Africa during the early 20th century. Abd el Krim's tactics are known to have inspired Ho Chi Minh, Mao Zedong, and Che Guevara. During the interwar period, the US Army particularly studied French actions against guerrillas in North Africa to develop their own lessons for counterinsurgency. Recommended find by the compiler of this bibliography * KEY Insight * Insurgency * Politics * Middle East (North Africa) * Colonial Period (1500-1914), World War I and Inter-War Period (1914-1940)

* Abraham, A. J. The Lebanon War. Westport, CT:Praeger Publishers, 1996. * “Abraham provides a fairly comprehensive overview of the political and military factors within Lebanon, and the regional power machinations without, that contribute to the Lebanese Civil War in 1975 and eventually culminates with the Israeli invasion in 1982. Comprehensive without being weighty, Abraham is an excellent introduction to this complex topic.” [USMA Review] Recommended by the US Military Academy Professional Reading List, Regions and Wars (2006) * History * Irregular Warfare * Politics, Diplomacy, Religion * Middle East (Lebanon, Israel) * Era of Revolution (1960-1989)

* Abrashoff, D. Michael. It’s Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy. Business Plus, 2002. * “Other than the sobering fact that real lives are regularly at stake, running a navy ship is a lot like running a business: leaders of both must get the most out of their crews to operate at peak efficiency and complete the tasks at hand. As commander of the highly acclaimed USS Benfold, Captain D. Michael Abrashoff irrefutably demonstrated how progressive management can succeed at sea; in It's Your Ship, he translates his methods into an approach that can also be applied by land-bound captains of commerce and industry. Describing ";the ideas and techniques that I used to win my sailors' trust and, eventually, their enthusiastic commitment to our joint goal of making our ship the best in the fleet,"; Abrashoff cites embarrassing failures along with subsequent triumphs to illuminate the keys to his accomplished 20-month tenure aboard the guided missile destroyer. His suggestions: lead by example; listen aggressively; communicate purpose and meaning; create a climate of trust; look for results, not salutes; take calculated risks; go beyond standard procedure; build up your people; generate unity; and improve your people's quality of life. While hardly original on the surface, Abrashoff's course should provide practical direction and inspiration for any leader hoping for similarly positive results in similarly rigid organizations.” [Howard Rothman] * Recommended by the US Coast Guard Reading Program on Leadership (2008) * Background * General * Leadership * North America (USA) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

* Abuza, Zachary. Balik Terrorism: The Return of Abu Sayyaf. U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute, September 2005. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB625.pdf ";The author warns that despite the regeneration of the ASG as a bonafide terrorist organization, the primary security threat confronting the GRP [government of the Republic of the Philippines] comes from the Communist Party of the Philippines and their armed wing, the New People's Army. To that end, the GRP will focus on the ASG and MILF in as much as they expect it to garner U.S. materiel support and assistance. He advises U.S. Defense Department and policymakers regarding institutional frailties of the GRP and institutional corruption within the Philippine armed forces. While the author suggests that training continue, he cautions about being drawn into a quagmire. Despite the MILF's ties to the ASG and JIO, he also suggests that the U.S. should continue to support the peace process and to try to wean the MILF off their relationship with terrorist organizations."; [Abstract] Recommended by the Small Wars Journal Insurgency List (2009) * Background * Terrorism * Education and Training, Crime and Police * Southeast Asia (Philippines), North America (USA) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Abuza, Zachary. “The Philippines Chips Away at the Abu Sayyaf Group’s Strength.” CTC Sentinel. Vol. 3, Issue 4 (April 2010), pp. 11-13. ma.edu/sentinel/CTCSentinel-Vol3Iss4.pdf * “This article traces the evolution of the ASG, shows how the group remains a weakened organization, identifies its current leadership and finally examines some of its losses on the international front.” [Intro] * History * Terrorism * Force Structure, Religion, Politics, Leadership, Diplomacy * Southeast Asia (Philippines) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Adebajo, Adekeye. ";In Search of Warlords: Hegemonic Peacekeeping in Liberia and Somalia."; International Peacekeeping, Vol 10 (Winter 2003), pp. 62-81. * History * Peacekeeping * Sub-Saharan Africa (Liberia and Somalia) * Post 2001(2001-Present)

Adebajo, Adekeye, and Chris Landsberg. ";Back to the Future: UN Peacekeeping in Africa."; International Peacekeeping, Vol 7 (Winter 2000), pp. 161-188. * Background * Peacekeeping * Multinational, IGO * Sub-Saharan Africa * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

ABT Associates. Counter-Insurgency Game Design Feasibility and Evaluation Study. Cambridge: ABT Associates, 1965. (LibCongress: U310 .C68 1965) * Background * Counterinsurgency * Technology, Education and Training * Era of Revolution (1960-1989)

Accord International Review of Peace Processes. ";Powers of Persuasion: Incentives, Sanctions and Conditionality in Peacemaking."; Accord International Review of Peace Processes, 2010. /t2.asp?/336611/14100053/3703290//showRecord.php?RecordId=32550 * ";Do sanctions, incentives and conditionality support or undermine the peace process? This edition of Accord assesses whether these instruments can persuade conflict parties to engage in peacemaking. Used effectively, these tools can tip the balance towards a settlement by increasing the costs of fighting and rewarding peace. But unless developed as part of a coherent and strategic approach to peacemaking they can be ineffective and have sometimes exacerbated tensions and fuelled conflict. Sanctions, incentives and conditionality must be responsive to parties’ own motivations and support pre-existing conditions for conflict resolution. Four overriding conclusions can be drawn from this study for how to enhance the effectiveness of external influence in support of peacemaking. (1) External actors need to prioritize support for sustainable peace as their primary goal in a conflict situation and craft their strategy to help achieve it – recognizing that this may, in turn, create the enabling conditions for achieving other foreign policy goals. (2) Sanctions, incentives and conditionality are most likely to be effective when they are responsive to the parties’ own motivational structures and support a pre-existing societal dynamic for conflict resolution. (3) They need to be designed and implemented in ways that help to create momentum in the resolution process, which (4) typically requires a degree of strategic coherence amongst external actors, necessitating mechanisms for coordination."; [Abstract] * Background * Peacemaking * Diplomacy, Interagency, Multinational, Economics, Politics * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Acharya, Amitav. ";Cambodia, the United Nations and the Problems of Peace."; Pacific Review, Vol. 7, Number 3 (1994), pp. 297-308. * Background * Peacekeeping * Multinational, IGO, Failure, Politics * Southeast Asia (Cambodia) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adam, Hussein M. “Somalia: International Versus Local Attempts at Peacebuilding.” In Durable Peace: Challenges for Peacebuilding in Africa, ed. Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthews, pp. 253-281. Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 2004. (LibCongress: DT30.5 .D87 2004) * Background * Peace Building * Politics, Multinational, Diplomacy, Tribal, Peace Operations Support * Sub-Saharan Africa (Somalia) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001), Post 2001 (2001–Present)

Adams (2Lt), Amorim (2Lt), Brady (2Lt), Croft (2Lt), Greer (2Lt), Green (2Lt), Jones (2Lt). “Columbia vs FARC and ELN.” West Point NY: US Military Academy, TOC. 15 May 2008. * Part of project by West Point to have new graduates record worldwide insurgency and small force actions around the world. Account of the events of the insurgents and terrorists in Columbia, their goals, affiliations, support, and activities. * History * Insurgency, Counterinsurgency, Terrorism * Geography, Politics, Leadership, Tactical, Force Structure * East Asia (China) * Colonial Period (1500-1914)

Adams, David A., et al. ";Follow the Bear."; Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol 136 (February 2010), pp. 16-23. * History * Counterinsurgency * Framework, Politics * Europe (Russia), South Asia (Afghanistan) * Era of Revolution (1960-1989)

Adams, Gordon. Smart Power: Rebalancing the Foreign Policy/National Security Toolkit. Testimony before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, SubCommittee on Oversight,” 31 July 2008. http://hsgac.senate.gov/public/_files/AdamsTestimony073108.pdf * “My testimony today will focus on the first feature: How do we ensure that our foreign policy toolkit is properly balanced, strategically integrated, and adequately funded to be effective in dealing with these challenges. The bottom line of my testimony is as follows: 1. Our foreign policy toolkit is out of balance; we have relied excessively on the military instrument of power, and neglected the critical capabilities of diplomacy and development/foreign assistance. The next Congress and the next administration need to address this imbalance as a high priority. 2. Despite a growing State Department budget over the past eight years, the diplomatic instrument (both core diplomacy and public diplomacy) is inadequately staffed and funded to play a full part in our foreign and national security policy. 3. Despite roughly doubling our foreign assistance over the past eight years, our development and foreign assistance institutions suffer from a “diaspora.” There are a large number of agencies and departments now involved in foreign assistance, including many that are primarily domestic agencies. Their efforts need to be better integrated and coordinated. They need a more strategic direction. They need more funding and staff. And they need a coordinated budget process to be effective. 4. There are some specific ways to act, and to act early, on these imbalances…” [intro] Additional keywords: DIME, Restructuring Foreign Assistance * Background * Peace Building, Stability Operations * Diplomacy, Development, Legisltative, Force Structure, Economics, Interagency * North America (USA) * Post 2001 (2001-Present) *

Adams, Henry. ";Operation of an American Military Government Detachment in the Saar, 1944-45."; Military Affairs, Fall 1955, pp. 121-35. * History * Stability Operations (PC) * Governance, Economics, Legal, Civil and Military Affairs * Europe (Germany) * World War 2 and Aftermath

Adams, James. ";The Role of the Media in Peacekeeping Operations."; Special Warfare, Vol. 7 (April 1994), pp. 12-13. * Background * Peace Operations * Information Operations * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adams, Martin P. ";Peace Enforcement versus American Strategic Culture."; Strategic Review, Vol. 23 (Winter 1995), pp. 14-22. * Background * Peace Enforcement * Culture, US Domestic Considerations * North America (USA) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adams, Paul D. ";Rules of Engagement: The Peacekeeper's Friend or Foe?"; Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 77 (October 1993), pp. 21-23. * Background * Peacekeeping * Legal, Leadership, Tactical, Protection * * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adams, Richard N., et al. Social Change in Latin America Today: Its Implications for United States Policy. New York: Harper, for the Council on Foreign Relations, 1960. * [JCS 1962] Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography. * Background * Miscellaneous (Conflict Causes) * Framework, Economics, Culture * Latin America * Cold War Period (1948-1960)

Adams, Thomas K. “The New Mercenaries and the Privatization of Conflict.” Parameters, Summer 1999, pp. 103-16. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/99summer/adams.htm * ";The inexact term ";mercenary"; is often used as a term of opprobrium, applied to any police, military, or paramilitary which the user dislikes. At the extremes, it is applied to ordinary private guards and security personnel and to any person who is paid for military-related services, including the paid professional armies of modern nation-states. For purposes of this discussion, we will use the ordinary language definition of a mercenary: individuals or organizations who sell their military skills outside their country of origin and as an entrepreneur rather than as a member of a recognized national military force. The particular emphasis here is on those groups organized as corporations that provide such services."; [Intro] * Background * General * Contractors, Force Structure, Unified Action * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adams, Thomas K. ";SOF [Special Operations Forces] in Peace-Support Operations."; Special Warfare, Vol. 6 (October 1993), pp. 2-7. * Background * Peace Operations * Peace Operations Support * North America (USA)

Adamson (2Lt), Cork (2Lt), Herbort (2Lt), Loubiere (2Lt), Picha (2Lt), White (2Lt). ";Soviet-Afghan War 1979-1989)";. West Point NY: US Military Academy, TOC. 14 January 2009. * Part of project by West Point to have new graduates record worldwide insurgency and small force actions around the world. Covers the Afghan insurgency against the Soviets during the 1980s. * History * Counterinsurgency, Insurgency * Geography, Tactical, Leadership, Politics, Tribal, Threats * South Asia (Afghanistan) * Era of Revolution (1960-1989)

* Adamson, Martin. ";War in the 21st Century: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly—Knowing and Finding the Adversary in the Three Block War."; Canadian Forces College Research Paper, 25 October 2003. /documents/adamson.pdf * ";This paper will assert that modern land-based conflict is evolving to encompass the model of the “three block war,” one in which the full spectrum of conflict will arise within a few hours and within a few city blocks. Enhanced surveillance as well as a deep understanding of the adversary’s motivation and culture will be key factors in determining a coalition’s success in defeating an asymmetric opponent. To chart this course, an initial review of the changing nature of war will be conducted. Evolving technologies and techniques necessary for both knowing and identifying asymmetric adversaries will then be assessed. Finally, conclusions relevant to Canada’s ability to operate within the “three block war” will be rendered."; [Intro] * Background * Counterinsurgency * Tactical, Culture, Technology, Asymmetrical, Urban, Modelling * North America (Canada) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Adebajo, Adekeye. Liberia's Civil War: Nigeria, ECOMOG [Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group], and Regional Security in West Africa. Boulder, CO: Rienner, 2002. (LibCongress: DT636.5 .A34 2002) * Background * Peace Enforcement * Multinational, Security, Politics, Diplomacy * Sub-Saharan Africa (Liberia, Nigeria) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adebajo, Adekeye. ";The UN's Unknown Effort."; Africa Report, Vol. 40 (March-April 1995), pp. 60-63. * Background * Peacekeeping * Multinational, IGO, Tribal * Sub-Saharan Africa (Western Sahara) * Post Cold-War Period (1989-2001)

Adebajo, Adekeye, and Chandra L. Sriram, eds. Managing Armed Conflicts in the 21st Century. Portland: Cass, 2001. (LibCongress: JK6374 .M36 2001) * Background * General * Diplomacy, Politics, Civil and Military Affairs * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adekson, J. 'Bayo. ";The Algerian and Mau Mau Revolts: A Comparative Study in Revolutionary Warfare."; Comparative Strategy, Vol 2, Issue 1 (1981), pp. 69-82. * “While neither the FLN in Algeria nor the Mau Mau in Kenya were successful militarily (despite the impression to the contrary regarding the FLN), they were not political failures (which is sometimes forgotten with respect to the Mau Mau, largely because of its conspicuous military defeat). They contributed to the decisions by France and Britain to concede paramountcy to the African majority in their colonies. By comparing the FLN and Mau Mau at four levels—origins, resources and logistics, leadership, and civilian support—we find that although differences exist between them, they are differences of degree rather than kind.” [abstract] * History * Insurgency * Politics, Tactical, Logistics, Leadership, Culture, Population, Tribal * Europe (United Kingdom, France), Sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya), Middle East (Algeria) * Cold War Period (1948-1960), Era of Revolution (1960-1989)

Adelman, Howard, and Govind C. Rao, eds. War and Peace in Zaire/Congo: Analyzing and Evaluating Intervention, 1996-1997. Trenton: Africa World Press, 2004. (LibCongress: DT658.25 .W37 2004) * History * Peace Operations * Multinational, Diplomacy, Politics, Tribal, Governance, * Sub-Saharan Africa (Congo) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adler, Amy B.; Paul T. Bartone, and Mark A. Vaitkus. Family Stress and Adjustment during a Peacekeeping Deployment. Heidelberg, GE: US Army Medical Research Unit-Europe, August 1994. 19pp. (LibCongress: U22.3 .A24 1994) * Background * Peacekeeping * Medical * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

";Administration Policy Decisions on Peacekeeping Operations."; Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 5 (July-August 1994), pp. 72-77, 80. * Background * Peacekeeping * Framework * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adiseshiah, W. T. V. ";Human Relations in Military Societies."; Military Review, November 1960. * Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography. * Background * General * Culture * Cold War Period (1948-1960), Era of Revolution (1960-1989)

Adolph, Robert B., Jr. ";Peacekeeping: Our Least Understood Mission."; Military Intelligence, July-September 1992, pp. 17-19. * Background * Peacekeeping * Intelligence * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Adolph, Robert B., Jr. ";U.N. Military Civic Action in Cambodia."; Special Warfare, Vol. 7 (July 1994), pp. 12-18. * History * Peacekeeping * Civil-Military Affairs, Multinational, IGO * Southeast Asia (Cambodia) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

";Afghanistan.” Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/rr/international/amed/afghanistan/afghanistan.html, September 2009. * Select resources and references compiled by the US Library of Congress as general background on Afghanistan. Includes: Economics, Culture, Education, Geography, Government, History, Health, Language, National Security, Religion, Science, and more. * Reference * General * Economics, Culture, Education Geography, Governance, Medical, Religion * South Asia (Afghanistan) * Multiperiod

Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit. The A to Z Guide to Afghanistan Assistance. Kabul, Afghanistan: AREU. 2010, but recurring in annual editions. .af/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13&Itemid=17 * ";A unique resource for a unique context, The A to Z Guide to Afghanistan Assistance aims to enhance understanding of the dizzying array of actors, structures and government processes related to aid and reconstruction efforts in the country. ...The A to Z Guide provides an extensive glossary of assistance terms, an overview of Afghanistan’s system of government, a series of country and city maps, key primary documents, and an extensive contact directory that includes government agencies, NGOs, donors and international actors."; [Overview] * Reference * Peace Building * Governance, Geography, NGOs, IGOs, Diplomacy, Interagency * South Asia (Afghanistan) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

* ";Agents and Propaganda in Partisan Warfare."; Military Review, Vol 39 (Nov 1959), pp 102-05. * Translated from Revue Militarie Generale (Feb 1959). ";An appraisal of the effectiveness and efficiency of the Russian Partisan movement as principles to follow in preparing for future wars fought along these lines."; [JCS 1962] Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography. * History * Insurgency * Force Structure, Intelligence, Leadership, Tactical * Europe (Russia) * World War 2 and Aftermath (1940-1948)

Aggestam, Karin. ";Conflict Prevention: Old Wine in New Bottles?"; International Peacekeeping, Vol 10 (Spring 2003), pp. 12-23 * Background * Conflict Prevention * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Ahmad, Abdel Ghaffar Mohamed. Sudan Peace Agreements: Current Challenges and Future Prospects. Christian Michelsen Institute, 2010. /showRecord.php?RecordId=32518 * ";Since achieving independence, Sudan has been burdened with many conflicts which have hindered its economic, social and cultural development. While some of these problems can be attributed to colonial polices within the country, many have been created by the post-independence governing elite. Several attempts have been made to resolve conflicts by way of agreements which have either been partially implemented or abrogated by one of the signatory parties. At present, the country is at a crossroads and faces the danger of disintegration if the latest peace agreement, namely the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) of 2005 is not implemented. Many scenarios for addressing the challenges and future prospects that the country faces can be entertained depending on the political will of its major political actors, including: a) halting implementation of the CPA with all the expected consequences which that entails; b) holding the referendum scheduled for 2011 on time, thereby leading to agreed unity or secession, and c) secession, which will either be agreed to or contested. A proposal for extending CPA implementation is currently being debated to allow time for all parties to rethink their position and consider other possibilities such as agreeing on a confederal arrangement."; [Abstract] * Background * Peace Making * Future, Economics, Culture, Politics * Middle East (Sudan) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Ahmad, Khabir. “Aiding the Aiders.” Lancet, Vol 364 (9-15 October 2004), pp. 1303-1305. * Background * Peace Building * South Asia (Afghanistan) * Medical * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Ahmad, Khabir. “Health and Money in Afghanistan.” Lancet, Vol 364 (9-15 October 2004), pp. 1301-1303. * Background * Peace Building * South Asia (Afghanistan) * Medical, Economics * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Ahmed, Nafeez M. The War on Freedom: How and Why America was Attacked, September 11, 2001. Progressive Press, 2002. * ";A disturbing exposé of the American government’s hidden agenda, before and after the Sept.11, 2001 terrorist attacks. A wide range of documents show U.S. officials knew in advance of the ";Boeing bombing"; plot, yet did nothing. Did the attacks fit in with plans for a more aggressive U.S. foreign policy? Nafeez Ahmed examines the evidence, direct and circumstantial, and lays it before the public in chilling detail: how FBI agents who uncovered the hijacking plot were muzzled, how CIA agents trained Al Qaeda members in terror tactics, how the Bush family profited from its business connections to the Bin Ladens, and from the Afghan war. A ";must read"; for anyone seeking to understand America’s New War on Terror."; [Product Description] * History * Terrorism * Intelligence * North America (USA) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001), Post 2001 (2001–Present)

Ahmed, Nafeez M. The War on Truth: 9/11, Disinformation and the Anatomy of Terrorism. Northampton, MA: Olive Branch Press, 2005. * ";In The War on Truth - the long-awaited sequel to The War on Freedom - Nafeez Ahmed provides the most comprehensive and controversial critique of the government's official version of what happened on 9/11. In this extensive new analysis, Ahmed doubles the data and investigates the worldwide web of terrorist networks across space and time. Deconstructing the findings of the 9/11 Commission Report and the Joint Congressional Inquiry, he exposes disturbing liaisons between American, British and European intelligence services and al-Qaeda operatives in the Balkans, Caucasus, North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia and Asia-Pacific - liaisons linked not only to 9/11, but also to prior terrorist attacks including the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the 1998 US embassy bombings. Against this background, Ahmed accomplishes the most detailed and wide-ranging study to date of the powerful vested interests and intrigues responsible for the collapse of US national security in the years and months leading to 9/11. Government documents, whistleblower testimony, and the findings of official inquiries are scrutinized to trace the innermost workings of the intelligence community, revealing precisely which government policies and operations facilitated the 9/11 intelligence failure, and pinpointing the specific agencies, individuals and decisions that emasculated the US air defense system. Finally, Ahmed unlocks the underlying geostrategy of the War on Terror - the culmination of a decades-long plan to secure and expand an increasingly unstable system. For anyone who remains uneasy about government policies on, and after, 9/11, The War on Truth is an invaluable resource that will radically alter perceptions of international terrorism, national security, and the clandestine machinery of Western power."; [Product Description] * History * Terrorism * Information Operations, Network-Centric, Politics, Diplomacy, Intelligence * Multiregion * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001), Post 2001 (2001–Present)

Amend, Kurt. ";Counterinsurgency Principles for the Diplomat."; Orbis, Vol 54, Number. 2 (Spring 2010), pp. 215-231. * ";The recent resurgence of interest in insurgency and counterinsurgency has revealed a deficit in material written by and for the diplomat, the actor ostensibly responsible for the political component of a counterinsurgency campaign. Classical theorists stress that progress along the political track is essential for ultimate success. Recent commentary in shedding new light on the characteristics of modern insurgencies reaffirms this principle. To make political headway the diplomat-counterinsurgent needs to develop a strategic narrative, build a political strategy around the narrative, acquire expertise, become a catalyst for political change and maximize contact with the local population. In doing so, he will make important contribution to and help accelerate success in a counterinsurgency campaign."; [Abstract] * Background * Counterinsurgency * Diplomacy, Politics, Framework * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

";Aid and Violence: Development Policies and Conflict in Nepal."; December 2009. /doc/23883054/Aid-and-Violence-Development-Policies-and-Conflict-in-Nepal?from_email_04_friend_send=1&emid=5040692 * ";The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) launched its ";People's War"; in 1996. The Maoists' rise to power was impressive by any standard. After a successful showing at the polls for the Constituent Assembly in April 2008, they became the strongest organized political force in the country. At the same time, foreign aid has been a fixture of Nepal's development efforts since the 1950s: the donor community has been the key partner in Nepal's development successes and failures. How did these two realities—the insurgency and foreign aid—interact? The report explores this question through a retrospective analysis of the development/conflict nexus in Nepal. It looks at the underlying causes of the Maoist success story, in relation to the conditions of structural underdevelopment and violence, and at donors' policies and activities in Nepal and at their interplay with the conflict environment. The report focuses on the last decade (1996-2008), the period of the Maoist insurgency and of the subsequent largely successful peace process. It looks at the way in which aid actors in Nepal framed their understanding of the Maoist insurgency and at how they adapted their responses. It shows that, because the aid community was Kathmandu-centric, it did not fully grasp the nature of caste, class and ethnic discrimination in rural Nepal nor that ";development"; was not benefiting the most disadvantaged groups. Development failure can thus be construed as a contributing factor to the insurgency. This report is based on analysis of published and grey literature and on extensive interviews with aid workers, development agency representatives, and civil society actors in Kathmandu. Some one hundred interviews were conducted by the authors. This project arose from earlier Tufts/FIC field-based research on local perceptions of the work of aid agencies in Nepal during which the conflict/development failure angle emerged as a recurring theme. It is part of a wider ongoing research program in Nepal that tackles social transformation, gender and migration issues in a post-conflict environment."; [Description] * History * Peace Building, Insurgency, Miscellaneous (Humanitarian Assistance) * Politics, Development, Diplomacy, Failure, Tribal, Culture, Gender, Population, Geography * South Asia (Nepal) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001), Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Aikins, Matthieu. ";The Master of Spin Boldak: Undercover with Afghanistan's drug-trafficking border police."; Haper's Magazine, December 2009, pp. 52- 62. /archive/2009/12/0082754 * Story of drugs, crime, corruption, and Afghanistan's border-police. * Background * Stability Operations * Crime and Police, Governance * South Asia (Afghanistan) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

* Ailey, Henry. In Order to Die. London: Burke, 1955. * ";A scathing portrait of the brutality and general ineffectiveness of the French Foreign Legion in the war against, the Viet Minh, written by an Englishman who served with the Legion in Indochina."; [JCS 1962] Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography. * History * Counterinsurgency * Culture, Failure, Force Structure, Tactical * Southeast Asia (Vietnam), Europe (France) * Cold War Period (1948-1960)

* ";Air Operations in the Malay Campaign."; Aeroplane, Vol 80 (20 April 1951), pg. 470. * ";Report of a lecture by Air Vice-Marshal Mellersh. Brief account of the guerrilla war and the role of the RAF in operations against the guerrillas."; [JCS 1962] Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography.* History * Counterinsurgency * Airpower, Logistics * Southeast Asia (Malaysia), Europe (United Kingdom) * Cold War Period (1948-1960)

";Airport Security Concerns: France Warns of New Terror Threat from ‘Body Bombs."; Spiegel Online International, 6 October 2009. * ";The French intelligence service has warned of a new terrorism threat from suicide bombers carrying in-body explosives that can’t be detected by standard airport screening. The method was used in a failed attempt to kill the Saudi anti-terrorism chief in August. The 23-year-old terrorist got through security checks with explosives in his rectum and a mobile phone was used to trigger the bomb. Experts are divided over how to respond. While some are sounding the alarm, others say Al-Qaeda hasn’t perfected the technique and wants to cause public disruption by publicizing it."; [Abstract] * Background * Terrorism * Tactical, Medical, Information Operations, Religion, Intelligence, Future * Europe (France), Middle East (Saudi Arabia) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

* ";Air Supply in Malaya District."; Canadian Army Journal, Vol 4 (Oct 1950), pp. 49-50. * ";A brief description of British methods of dropping supplies to anti-guerrilla troops in the Malay jungles."; [JCS 1962] Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography. * History * Counterinsurgency * Airpower, Logistics * Southeast Asia (Malaysia), Europe (United Kingdom) * Cold War Period (1948-1960)

Akashi, Yasushi. ";The Challenge of Peacekeeping in Cambodia."; International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1 (Summer 1994), pp. 204-215. * Background * Peacekeeping * Protection, Politics, Peace Operations Support * Southeast Asia (Cambodia) * Multinational, IGO * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Akashi, Yasushi. ";To Build a New Country: The Task of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia."; Harvard International Review, Vol. 15 (Winter 1992-1993), pp. 34-35, 68-69. * Background * Peace Building * Multinational, IGO, Economics, Governance, Legal Crime and Police * Southeast Asia (Cambodia) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

* Akbar, M. J. The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity. Routledge, 2002. * ";In this history of jihad over the last 14 centuries, Indian journalist Akbar (India: The Siege Within) uses his eye for anecdote and skillful sense of narrative flow to keep the recitation of names and dates from becoming monotonous. The book is gentle in suggesting this history's implications. Although it makes clear that the concept of jihad has been used and abused for a variety of means and ends, the author believes it is integral to Islam. Hence, he does not explore why the Indian Muslims' work with Gandhi on a nonviolent jihad had to fail or, say, how the Sufi stress on harmony might suggest different ways that faithful Muslims might understand and live out jihad. Nonetheless, this recital of the incarnations of the jihad by a Muslim offers readers a fair account of Islamic conflict over the ages and, implicitly, a number of warnings for the West: ";Despair has many manifestations. Eventually, one of them would become violent."; [Steven Young, Library Journal] * History * Insurgency, Terrorism * Religion, Politics * Middle East, South Asia * Era before 1500, Colonial Period (1500-1914), World War I and Inter-War Period (1914-1940), World War 2 and Aftermath (1940-1948), Cold War Period (1948-1960), Era of Revolution (1960-1989), Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001), Post 2001 (2001–Present

Akbar, M.K. Kargil: Cross Border Terrorism. New Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1999. (LibCongress: DS485 .K27A41 1999) * Background * Terrorism * Geography, Politics * South Asia (India, Pakistan) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Akehurst, John. We Won a War: The Campaign in Oman, 1965-1975. Wilton, Salisbury: M. Russell, 1982. * “A scarce, detailed account of the ten-year campaign in Dhofar, Oman, against Communist guerrillas, which led to victory for Sultan Qaboos and his forces. These included British, Jordanian and Iranian troops.” [Military History ] * Insight * Counterinsurgency * Multinational, Tactical, Politics * Middle East (Oman, Jordan, Iran) * Europe (United Kingdom) * Era of Revolution (1960-1989)

* Alastos, Doros. Cyprus Guerrilla: Grivas, Mararious and the British. London: Heinemann, 1960. * ";An account, by a Cypriote, of the military and political aspects of the conflict between Britain and the EOKA. Good treatment of EOKA's purposes, ";terrorist"; activities, and relations with the Greek community."; [JCS 1962] Recommended reading by the 1962 JCS Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency bibliography. Additional keywords: Mararious, Georgios Grivas * History * Insurgency, Terrorism * Culture, Tribal * Europe (Cyprus, United Kingdom) * Cold War Period (1948-1960) *

* Al-Ashmawy, Said. Against Islamic Extremism: The Writings of Muhammad. Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, editor. University of Florida Press, 2002. * ";This volume makes available to western readers the writings of one of Egypt's important intellectual secularist voices and leading opponent of the Islamist political trend. The book discusses the development of religion; the relationship between religion and politics; Islamic jurisprudence - the veil in Egyptian law and Islam; militant doctrine in Islam; Jihad or holy war in Islam; and Islamic law and human rights."; [Product Description] Recommended by the Small Wars Journal 2009 Reading List. Additional keywords: Muhammad, Islam, Islamic Law, Human Rights * History * General * Religion, Legal, Politics * Middle East (Egypt) * Era before 1500, Colonial Period (1500-1914), World War I and Inter-War Period (1914-1940), World War 2 and Aftermath (1940-1948), Cold War Period (1948-1960), Era of Revolution (1960-1989), Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001) *

* Alberts, David S., and Richard E. Hayes. Command Arrangements for Peace Operations. Washington DC: National Defense University Press, 1995. (LibCongress: U411 .I6A41 1995). /files/Alberts_Arrangements.pdf * “By almost any measure, the U.S. experience shows that traditional C2 concepts, approaches, and doctrine are not particularly well-suited for peace operations. This paper (1) explores the reasons for the mismatch between traditional U.S. C2 and peace operations, (2) examines alternative command arrangements approaches, and (3) describes the attributes of the command arrangements needed to manage peace operations effectively. The approach is to first briefly examine the key concepts—C2, command arrangements, and peace operations—needed to compare peace and war missions; second, review the command arrangements employed in a variety of recent coalition warfighting and peace operations and the lessons learned from those experiences; third, review state-of-the-art knowledge for designing ideal command arrangements; and finally, posit a system for assessing the adequacy of command arrangements in peace operations. This allows the U.S. experience in peace operations to serve as an empirical basis for the development of improved approaches, concepts, and designs for command arrangements.” [intro] Recommended by the compiler of this bibliography. Additional keywords: Attributes, Recommendations * Background * Peace Operations * Command and Control, Force Structure * North America (USA) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001) *

Albright, Madeleine K. ";Advancing American Interests through the United Nations."; U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol 6 (20 February 1995), pp. 125-130. * Insight * Peace Operations * Diplomacy, Multinational, IGO * North America (USA) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Albright, Madeleine K. ";Myths of Peace-Keeping."; U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol 4 (28 June 1993), pp. 464-467. * Background * Peacekeeping * Multinational * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Albright, Madeleine K.; Anthony Lake, and Wesley Clark. ";The Clinton Administration's Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations."; U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol 5 (16 May 1994), pp. 315-321. * Insight * Peace Operations * Multinational, IGO * North America (USA) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Albright, Madeleine K. ";Reinforcing Haitian Democracy."; U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol 5 (17 October 1994), pp. 699-700. * Background * Peace Building * Diplomacy, Governance, Politics * Latin America (Haiti) * Post—Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Albright, Madeleine K. ";Shared Resolve in Restoring Democracy in Haiti."; U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol 5 (15 August 1994), pp. 554-556. * Background * Peacekeeping * Diplomacy, Governance, Politics * Latin America (Haiti) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Albright, Madeleine K. ";The Tragedy in Rwanda: International Cooperation to Find a Solution."; U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol 5 (27 June 1994), pp. 438-439. * Background * Peace Operations * Multinational, Diplomacy * Sub-Saharan Africa (Rwanda) * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Albright, Madeleine K. ";U.N. Reform for Peacekeeping, Collective Security."; Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4 (September-October 1993), pp. 30-38. * Insight * Peacekeeping * Multinational, IGO, Multinational * Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001)

Albright, Madeleine K. ";U.S. Support for UN Security Council Resolutions Concerning Bosnia."; U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5 (21 November 1994), pp. 778-779 * Background * Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement * Multinational, IGO * Europe (Bosnia), North America (USA) * Post-Cold War Period

Alderson, Alexander. “Counter-Insurgency: Learn and Adapt? Can We Do Better?” British Army Review, Summer 2007, pp. 16-21. * Background * Counterinsurgency * Framework, Education and Training * Europe (United Kingdom) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

#Alderson, Alexander. ";Doctrine for Counter Insurgency: The British Army's Experience."; London: Ministry of Defense, Afghan COIN Centre, 17 November 2009. http://usacac.leavenworth.army.mil/cac2/coin/repository/British_COIN_Manual_Briefing_NOV09.ppt * PowerPoint brief to the Ecole Militaire outlining British Army's counterinsurgency doctrine since 1900, and current doctrine * History * Counterinsurgency * Framework * Europe (United Kingdom) * Colonial Period (1500 to 1914), World War I and Inter-War Period (1914-1940), World War 2 and Aftermath (1940-1948), Cold War Period (1948-1960), Era of Revolution (1960-1989), Post-Cold War Period (1989-2001), Post 2001 (2001–Present)

Alderson, Alexander “Learning, Adapting, Applying: US Counter-Insurgency Doctrine and Practice.” The RUSI Journal, Vol 152, Number 6 (December 2007), pp. 12-19. /publications/journal/journal/ref:A476681B433B57/ “Writing doctrine for countering insurgency faces two major problems. The first is that governments, their institutions and their people have changed since the last time they considered the problem. What is feasible today is different from that which was feasible for El Salvador, Vietnam, Algeria, Northern Ireland or Malaya. The interdepartmental and international gearing, a key feature of some past campaigns, is rusty and the organizational understanding across and between governments is a work in progress. Nevertheless, we are at a historic turning point in the evolution of counterinsurgency doctrine, something which is reasonably well known and increasingly better understood. John Mackinlay, David Kilcullen and Steven Metz are but three who have pointed out that the warning signs, which have been there for some time, say ‘Things have changed.’ Whilst insurgency remains a highly political form of warfare, it is its character, not its nature, which has changed.” [abstract] * Background * Counterinsurgency * Framework, Interagency, Multinational, Politics * North America (USA) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Alderson, Alexander. “Revising the British Army’s Counter-Insurgency Doctrine.” The RUSI Journal, Vol 152, Number 4 (August 2007), pp. 6–11. /go.php?structureID=articles_journal&ref=A46B87098DA056 * “The Army’s counter-insurgency doctrine is published in Part Ten of its Field Manual. It was last updated fully in July 2001. The pamphlet is the latest in a line of Army publications that have wrestled with the challenges of applying military force to meet the threat of revolutionary war and insurgency thrown up by the Cold War, the withdrawal from empire and, latterly, Northern Ireland. The field manual lays out very clearly the British Army’s approach to counter-insurgency; one that emphasizes minimum force, the rule of law, the importance of intelligence-led operations, civil-military co-operation and tactical adaptability and agility. British doctrine recognizes that countering insurgency is not simply the application of one military force against another. This is because in counter-insurgency, as General Sir Frank Kitson made clear, there is ‘no such thing as [a] purely military solution because insurgency is not primarily a military activity.” [abstract] * Background * Counterinsurgency * Framework, Legal, Intelligence, Civil-Military Affairs, Tactical, Politics * Europe (United Kingdom) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)

Alderson, Alexander. ";The Army Brain: A Historical Perspective on Doctrine, Development and the Challenges of Future Conflict."; RUSI Journal, Vol 155, Number 3 (June-July 2010), pp. 10-15. /publications/journal/journal/ref:A4C21D2CCCCBA7/ * “As the battlespace has evolved, so has the need for effective and comprehensive military doctrine. Of the three services, the British Army has faced the broadest range of challenges to considered wisdom as the campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan have unfolded. This has placed a premium on learning and adapting, in which the new Force Development and Training Command is an essential step. Nevertheless, more can be done to ensure the army is a learning organization for the future.” [abstract] * Background * General * Framework, Education and Training * Europe (United Kingdom) * Post 2001 (2001-Present)



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