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ARTS AND CULTURE

An Introduction to the Humanities

Volume 2

ARTS AND CULTURE

An Introduction to the Humanities

Fourth Edition

Janetta Rebold Benton Robert DiYanni

Pace University, New York New York University

Prentice Hall

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Benton, Janetta Rebold

Arts and culture : an introduction to the humanities / Janetta Rebold Benton Robert DiYanni. — 4th ed. p. cm.

"Combined volume/Volume I/Volume II." Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-81667-5 (combined vol., ch. 1-ch. 24 : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-205-81667-3

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-81660-6 (v. 1, ch. 1-ch. 12 : alk. paper)

ISBN-10: 0-205-81660-6

[etc.]

1. Arts—History. I. DiYanni, Robert. II. Title. III. Title: Introduction to the humanities. NX440.B46 2010 700.9—dc22

2010039648

10 987654321

Prentice Hall

is an imprint of

Student Edition

ISBN-10: 0-13-213496-9

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-213496-5

PEARSON

Examination Copy ISBN-10: 0-205-81659-2 ISBN-13: 978-0-205-81659-0

_VOLUME I_

1. Prehistoric, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian Civilizations

2. Aegean Culture and Early Greece

3. Classical and Hellenistic Greece

4. Roman Civilization

5. Judaism, Early Christianity, and Byzantine Civilization

6. Islamic Civilization

7. Indian Civilization

8. Early Chinese Civilization

9. Early Japanese Civilization

10. Early Civilizations of the Americas and Africa

11. Early Middle Ages and the Romanesque

12. Gothic and Late Middle Ages

_VOLUME II

13. Renaissance and Mannerism in Italy

14. Renaissance in Northern Europe

15. Baroque Age

16. Eighteenth Century

17. Romanticism and Realism

18. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism

19. Later Chinese Civilization

20. Later Japanese Civilization

21. Later Africa and Latin America

22. Early Twentieth Century

23. Mid-Twentieth Century and Later

24. Diversity in Contemporary Life

Contents

Preface xiv Introduction xviii

The Humanities and the Arts xviii Records of Culture xviii Role of the Artist xviii Contexts and Aesthetics xix Form and Content xix Critical Thinking xix

Starter Kit xxl

Humanities xxi

COMMONALITIES xxi STYLE xxi

FUNCTIONS AND GENRES xxi

Visual Arts xxi

FORMAL ANALYSIS xxii

COMPONENTS OF THE VISUAL ARTS xxiii

SCULPTURE xxiv

ARCHITECTURE xxiv

Literature xxv

SPEECH, WRITING, AND LITERATURE xxv LITERACY AND LITERATURE xxv FORMS OF LITERATURE xxv

Music xxvii

SOCIAL AND RITUAL ROLES xxviii INSTRUMENTS xxviii

MUSICAL QUALITIES AND STRUCTURE xx NON-WESTERN MUSIC xxix

History, Religion, and Philosophy xxix

HISTORY xxx

RELIGION xxx

PHILOSOPHY xxxi

Chapter 1 3

m

Renaissance and

rVlannensm in Italy 3

Early Renaissance 5

m%

THE MEDICIS' FLORENCE 5

I'

Cosimo deJMedici 5 Lorenzo the Magnificent 5

MMSBf

THE HUMANIST SPIRIT 6

Cross Currents I Montezuma's Tenochtitlan 7

THE PLATONIC ACADEMY OF PHILOSOPHY 7

Marsilio Ficino 8 Pico della Mirandola 8

ARCHITECTURE 8

Filippo Brunelleschi 8 Leon Battista Alberti 9 Michelozzo di Bartolommeo 10

SCULPTURE 11

Lorenzo Ghiberti 11 Donatella 11

PAINTING 12

Masaccio 12 Piero della Francesca 13 Fra Angelico 13 Sandro Botticelli 14

EARLY RENAISSANCE MUSIC 14

Guillaume Dufay 15 Motets 15 Word Painting 16

Connections I Mathematical Proportions: Brunelleschi and Dufay 17

LITERATURE 18

Petrarch 18 The Petrarchan Sonnet 18

High Renaissance 19

PAINTING 19

Leonardo da Vinci 19

THE REINVENTION OF ROME 20

PAINTING AND SCULPTURE 21

Raphael 21 Michelangelo 22 Prospermia de' Rossi 24

Critical Thinking / The Question of Art Restoration 26

ARCHITECTURE 27

Donato Bramante 27 VENICE 27

Venetian Oil Painting 28 Titian 28

MUSIC 29

Josquin des Pres 29 Palestrina 29

LITERATURE 29

Baldassare Castiglione 29 Niccolb Machiavelli 30

Mannerism 31

PAINTING 31

Parmigianino 31 Bronzino 32 Tintoretto 32 El Greco 32 Sofonisba Anguissola 33 Lavinia Fontana 34

SCULPTURE 34

Cultural Impact 35

Benvenuto Cellini 35 The Autobiography ofBenvenuto Cellini 36

ARCHITECTURE 36

781

Then & Now I The Venice Ghetto 38

Readings 40

Pico della Mirandola, Oration on

the Dignity of Man 40 Petrarch, Sonnet 159 41 Francois Villon, The Ballad of Dead Ladies 41 Francois Villon, Ballade of Forgiveness 42 Vittoria da Colonna, I Live on This Depraved

and Lonely Cliff 42 Baldassare Castiglione, from the Book

of the Courtier 42 Niccolb Machiavelli, from The Prince 45 Benvenuto Cellini, from The Autobiography 41

Chapter 14

Renaissance in Northern Europe 51

Early Renaissance in Northern Europe 53

THE COLUMBIAN

EXCHANGE 53

GHENT AND BRUGES 5 3

FLEMISH OIL PAINTING 53

Robert Campin 53 Jan van Eyck 54 Hieronymus Bosch 57

High Renaissance in Northern Europe 58

THE HABSBURG PATRONAGE 5 8 ERASMUS AND NORTHERN HUMANISM 5 8 THOMAS MORE 58

Then & Now I Iconoclasm and the Attack on the Arts 59

MARTIN LUTHER AND THE REFORMATION 59

JOHN CALVIN AND THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION 60

M Cross Currents I Diirer Describes Mexican Treasures 62

ICONOCLASM 62

AGE OF DISCOVERY 62

Renaissance Explorers 63 Nicolas Copernicus 63 New Scientists 64

PAINTING AND PRINTMAKING 64

Albrecht Diirer 64 Hans Holbein the Younger 65 Caterina van Hemessen 66 Pieter Bruegel the Elder 66

ARCHITECTURE 67

Chateau of Chambord 67 Hampton Coun Palace 69 SECULAR MUSIC 69

Thomas Weelkes 70 Thomas Morley 70 LITERATURE 71

Michel de Montaigne 71 William Shakespeare 71

Contents 781

Chapter 15

Baroque Age 91

Baroque in Italy 92

THE COUNTER-REFORMATION IN ROME 93

Oratorians 93 Jesuits 93

THIRTY YEARS'WAR 93

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE IN ROME 94

St. Peters Basilica 94 Gianlorenzo Bernini 95 Francesco Borromini 96

PAINTING IN ITALY 97

Caravaggio 97 Artemisia Gentileschi 99 Elisabetta Sirani 99 Giovanna Garzoni 100 Fra Andrea Pozzo 100

MUSIC IN ITALY 100

Claudio Monteverdi and Early Opera 100 Antonio Vivaldi and the Concerto Grosso 102

Baroque Outside Italy 102

PAINTING IN HOLLAND 102

FransHals 102 Judith Leyster 103

Rembrandt van Rijn 103

Jan Vermeer 104 Rachel Ruysch 105

PAINTING IN FLANDERS 105 Peter Paul Rubens 105

M Connections I Vermeer and the Origins of Photography 107

Anthony van Dyck 108 Clara Peeters 108

PAINTING IN ENGLAND 108 MaryBeale 108

PAINTING IN SPAIN 109 Diego Velazquez 109

Connections I Shakespeare and Music 72

Critical Thinking I Who Wrote "Shakespeare's Plays"? 73

M Cultural Impact 74

Readings 76

Desiderius Erasmus, from The Praise of Folly 76

Martin Luther, 95 Theses 79

Louise Lobe, Sonnet 18 Kiss Me Again, Rekiss Me,

Kiss Me More 81 Queen Elizabeth I, Speech to the English Troops

at Tilbury 81 Michel De Montaigne, Of Cannibals 82 William Shakespeare 86

781

Contents

PAINTING IN FRANCE 109

Nicolas Poussin 109 Louise Moillon The French Academy 110

ARCHITECTURE 111 Louvre 111

Critical Thinking I Art Forgeries 112

109

Palace of Versailles 113 Cathedral 113

St. Pauls

BAROQUE MUSIC OUTSIDE ITALY 114

Handel and the Oratorio 114 Henry Purcell and English Opera 116 Johann Sebastian Bach 116

Cross Currents I The Baroque in Mexico 117

THE SCIENCE OF OBSERVATION 118

Anton van Leeuwenhoek 118 Johannes Kepler 118 Galileo Galilei 118

PHILOSOPHY 118

Rene Descartes 118 Thomas Hobbes 119 John Locke 120

LITERATURE 120

Moliere and the Baroque Stage 120

M Then & Now I The Telescope 121

John Donne 121 Anne Bradstreet 122 John Milton 122 Miguel de Cervantes 123

Cultural Impact 124 Readings 126

Ignatius of Loyola, from The Spiritual Exercises 126 Rene Descartes, from The Meditations 126 Miguel Cervantes, from. Don Quixote 127 John Donne, The Flea 131 Anne Bradstreet, A Letter to Her Husband, Absent

upon Public Employment 132 Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan 132 John Locke, from Second Treatise of Civil

Government 134 John Milton, from Paradise Lost 137

Chapter 16

Eighteenth

Century 143

Enlightenment 145

THE ENLIGHTENMENT

145

The Philosophes 145 Rational Humanism 145

Revolutions 145

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

145

Paine, Washington, Jefferson, and Franklin 146 Enlightenment Thought and Women 146

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 147 THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 147 DEMISE OF THE MONARCHY 147 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 148 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 148

Birth of the Factory 148 Adam Smith 148

M Then &Now I Rights of Women 149

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 149

Isaac Newton 149 Denis Diderot and Carolus Linnaeus 149

Rococo 150

FRENCH MUSIC 150

Couperin and Rameau 150

FRENCH PAINTING 150

Jean-Antoine Watteau 150 Frangois Boucher 151 Jean-Honore Fragonard 151 Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun 152 Adelaide Labille-Guiard 153 The New Hotels 153

ENGLISH PAINTING 154

William Hogarth 154

Connections / Diderot as Art Critic 155

Sir Joshua Reynolds 155 Thomas Gainsborough 156

LITERATURE OF RATIONALISM 157

Samuel Johnsons "Club" 157 Alexander Pope 157 Jonathan Swift 157

Voltaire's Philosophy of Cynicism 158 Neoclassicism 158

PAINTING 159

Jacques-Louis David 159 Angelica Kaujfmann 160 John Singleton Copley 161

SCULPTURE 161

Jean-Antoine Houdon 161 ARCHITECTURE 162

Chiswick House 162 La Madeleine 162

Monticello 163

LITERATURE 163 Rise of the Novel 163

u Critical Thinking I The Popularity of the Novel 165

Jane Austen 165 CLASSICAL MUSIC 166

The Symphony 166 Franz Joseph Haydn 166 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 167

Toward Romanticism 168

BEETHOVEN: FROM CLASSICAL TO ROMANTIC 168

Three Periods of Beethoven s Music 168 Symphony no. 5 in C minor, op. 67 168

M Cross Currents I Turkish Military Music and Viennese Composers 169

Contents

B Cultural Impact 170

Readings 172

Alexander Pope, from An Essay on Man 172 Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal 173 Voltaire, from Candide 176

Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence 179 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 180 Jane Austen, from Pride and Prejudice 181 Mary Wollstonecraft, from A Vindication

of the Rights of Woman 182 Thomas Paine, from Age of Reason 185 Benjamin Franklin, from Autobiography 186

Chapter 17

Romanticism

and Realism 189

Romanticism 191

PAINTING 191

Francisco Goya 191 Theodore Gericault 192

THE JULY MONARCHY 193

Jean-Auguste-Dominque Ingres 194

John Constable 194 J. M. W. Turner 195

Then & Now I America's National Parks 197

SCULPTURE 197

ARCHITECTURE 198

Houses of Parliament 198 Opera 198 Qystal Palace 199

PHILOSOPHY 199

Hegel and Historical Change 199 Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Concept of Self 200 Ralph Waldo Emerson and Transcendentalism 200 Henry David Thoreau 200

THE ANTISLAVERY MOVEMENT 200

THE CIVIL WAR 201

THE CRIMEAN WAR 2 01

LITERATURE 201

William Blake 202 William Wordsworth

and Samuel Taylor Coleridge 202 John Keats 202

Lord Byron 203 Emily Bronte 203 Johann

Wolfgang von Goethe 203 Walt

Whitman 204 Emily Dickinson 204

MUSIC 204

Program Music 205 Hector Berlioz 205 Franz Schubert and Johannes Brahms 206 Clara Schumann and Fanny Mendelssohn 206 Chopin and the Piano 206 Giuseppe Verdi and Grand Opera 206 Richard Wagner 207

M Connections I Goethe and Schubert: Poetry and Song 208

MUSIC IN RUSSIA 208

Modest Mussorgsky 209 Peter Tchaikovsky 209

Realism 210

Honore Daumier 210

KARL MARX AND FRIEDRICH ENGELS 210

FRENCH PAINTING 210

Rosa Bonheur 210 Gustave Courbet 211 Edouard Manet 212

AMERICAN PAINTING 212 Winslow Homer 212

M Critical Thinking I Realism and Feminism 213

Thomas Eakins 214 Jennie Augusta Brownscombe 215

THE RISE OF PHOTOGRAPHY 215

Daguerreotypes 215

Eadweard Muybridge 215 Alfred Stieglitz 216 Gertrude Stanton Kasebier 216

SCULPTURE 217

Statue of Liberty 217 Edmonia Lewis 217 Anne Whitney 218

LITERATURE 218

Honore de Balzac 218 Gustave Flaubert 219 Emile Zola 219 Realist Writing 219

M Then & Now I Emerson, Thoreau, and the American Environment 220

RUSSIAN LITERATURE 220

Fyodor Dostoyevsky 220 Leo Tolstoy 220

M Critical Thinking I Memoir, Fact, and Truth 221

Anton Chekhov 221 NEW SCIENCES: PASTEUR AND DARWIN 221

Cultural Impact 222

Readings 224

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, On Social Contract or Principles

of Political Right 224

William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely

as a Cloud 227 William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper 227 John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale 228 Walt Whitman, from Song of Myself 229 Emily Dickinson, Five Poems 231 Charles Darwin, from The Descent of Man 232 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels,from The Communist

Manifesto 232 Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers

Karamazov 233 Leo Tolstoy, from Anna Karenina 235

Contents

Chapter 18

Chapter 19

Impressionism and Post-

H

Later Chinese

Impressionism 237

if

Civilization 273

Impressionism 238

Later Chinese Culture

PAINTING 239

MING AND QING

274

Claude Monet 239 Pierre-Auguste Renoir 240 Berthe Morisot 241 Edgar Degas 242 Mary Cassatt 242 James Abbott McNeill Whistler 243

Connections I Debussy and Mallarme: Impressionist and Symbolist 244

LITERATURE 244

Symbolists 244 Naturalism 244 MUSIC 245

Debussy s Musical Impressionism 245 OPERA AT THE TURN OF THE CENTRY 245 Post-Impressionism 246

AMERICAN EXPANSION 246 BOER WAR 246

NEW SCIENCE AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES 247 Theory of Relativity 247 The Atom 247

PHILOSOPHY AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 247

Friedrich Nietzsche 247 Sigmund Freud 247

POST-IMPRESSIONIST PAINTING 247 Paul Cezanne 247 Georges Seurat 248

H Then & Now I Pointillism and Television 249

Vincent van Gogh 249

H Cross Currents / Japanese Prints and Western Painters 250

Paul Gauguin 250

Critical Thinking I Artists' Lives 251

NEW DIRECTIONS IN SCULPTURE AND ARCHITECTURE 252

Auguste Rodin 252 Camille Claudel 252 Architecture 253 ArtNouveau 255

m Cultural Impact 256

Readings 258

Charles Baudelaire, Correspondences 258 Stephane Mallarme, from The Afternoon of a Faun 258 Kate Chopin, The Storm 259 Henrik Ibsen, from A Doll House 260 Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Birth of Tragedy 264 Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil 265 Sigmund Freud, from Civilization and Its Discontents 268

DYNASTIES 275

Cross Currents I The Jesuits in Asia 276

PAINTING 277

Formats 277 Subjects 277 Composition 277 Materials and Techniques 277 Literati Painting 278 Shen Zhou 278 Dong Qichang 278 ShiTao 278 ZhuDa 278

CALLIGRAPHY 279 Ceramics 281

Then & Now / Hong Kong 282

ARCHITECTURE: CITY PLANNING 283

Critical Thinking / Feng Shut 284

LITERATURE 284

Traditional Poetry 284 Yuan Hong-dao 284 Cao Xuequin s Dream of the Red Chamber 28 5 Modem Chinese Poetry 285

MUSIC 285

Chinese Theater Music 285 Beijing Opera 285

H Connections I Kangxi and Qianlong: Chinese Rulers, Writers, and Scholars 286

Cross Currents I The Pipa and the Guitar 287

HI Cultural Impact 288

Readings 290

Yuan Hong-dao, The Slowly, Slowly Poem 290 Yuan Zhong-dao, Keeping a Pet Rooster 290 Cao Xueqin, from The Dream of the Red

Chamber 290 Zhang Ting-Yu, from Histoiy of the Ming 291 Lu Xun, A Small Incident 292 Bei Dao, Declaration 293 Li-Young Lee, I Ask My Mother to Sing 293

Chapter 20

Later Japanese

Civilization 295

Later Japanese Civilization 297

THE SHINTO REVIVAL 297

PAINTING 297

Kano Eitoku 297 Hakuin Ekaku and Zen 297

WOODBLOCK PRINTS 298

Utamaro Kitagawa 299 Katsushika Hokusai 299 Ando Hiroshige 300

Contents 781

LACQUERWARE AND CERAMICS 3 00 Lacquerware 300 Ceramics 301

ARCHITECTURE 301 Himeji Castle 302

Great Budda Hall, Todai-ji Temple 302

JAPANESE GARDENS 302

LITERATURE 302

Saikakulhara 302 Haiku 303 Basho Matsuo 303

m Cross Currents I East Meets West: Takemitsu Toru 304

Then & Now I The Samurai Code 305

Yosa Buson and Kobayashi Issa 306 Modern Fiction 306

I Connections I Bunraktu Japanese Puppet Theater 307

THEATER 307

Nob 307 Kabuki 307 Cinema/ Anime 307

I Cross Currents I East Meets West: Films ofAkira Kurosawa 308

World of the Geisha 308

M Critical Thinking I The Economic Future ofJapan 309

CONTEMPORARY MUSIC 3 09 OeHikari 309 Koto Music 309

Cultural Impact 310

Readings 312

Saikaku Ihara,from Five Women Who Loved Love 312 Hakuin Ekaku, Song of Meditation 313 Yosano Akiko, Selected Poems 313 Ryunosuke Akutagawa, Rashomon 314 Yukio Mishima, Swaddling Clothes 316

Chapter 21

Later Africa and Latin

America 319

Modern Africa 321

THE SCRAMBLE FOR

AFRICA AND COLONIAL RULE 321

VARIETIES OF COLONIAL RULE 3 2 3

COLONIALISM AND CULTURE 3 2 3

Religion 323 Nationalism 323

INDEPENDENT AFRICA 324

SCULPTURE 324

MUSIC 325

H Connections I The Mask as Dance 326

The Lion King: The Saga of a Song 326

if Then & Now I Timbuktu 327

LITERATURE 327

ChinuaAchebe 327 Wole Soyinka 327

Then & Now I Twins 328

John Maxwell Coetzee 328 Modern Latin America 328

PAINTING 329

Mexican Mural Movement 329 Frida Kahlo 330 Wilfredo Lam 330 Fernando Botero 332

MUSIC 332

Cross Currents I Bach in Brazil 333

LITERATURE 333

Jorge Luis Borges 333 Gabriel Garcia Mdrquez 333 Isabel Allende 333

Critical Thinking I Magic Realism 334

Cultural Impact 335

Readings 336

Chinua Achebe, from Things Fall Apart 336 Jorge Luis Borges, The Garden of Forking

Paths 337 Pablo Neruda, Ode to the Americas 340 Julio Cortdzar, Continuity of Parks 341 Gabriel Garcia Mdrquez, A Very Old Man with

Enormous Wings 342 Rosario Castellanos, Chess 344 Wole Soyinka, Hamlet 344 J. M. Coetzee, from Disgrace 345

Chapter 22

Early Twentieth Century 349

New Directions in the Arts 351

PICASSO AND CUBISM IMPACT THE ARTS 351

FAUVTSM 351

Henri Matisse 351

CUBISM 351

Pablo Picasso 352 Georges Braque 353 Sonia Delaunay-Terk 354

FUTURISM 354

Gino Severini 354 GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM 354

EmilNolde 354 Vassily Kandinsky 355

781

Contents

MUSIC 356

Igor Stravinsky 356 The Rite of Spring 356

The Great War and After 3 56

WORLD WAR I 356

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND AFTER 357

DADA 358

Marcel Duchamp 358

SURREALISM 358

JoanMiro 359 Salvador Dali 360 Meret Oppenheim 360

DE STIJL 360

PietMondrian 360

ABSTRACTION IN SCULPTURE 361

Constantin Brancusi 361 Barbara Hepworth 361 Henry Moore 361

ARCHITECTURE 362 Walter Gropius 362

M Cross Currents I Russia and The West: The Ballets Russes 363

Le Corbusier 363 Frank Lloyd Wright 363

AMERICAN MODERNISM 3 64

Georgia O'Keejfe 364 CharlesDemuth 364 MODERNIST LITERATURE 364

Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot 364

Connections I Graham and Noguchi: The Sculpture of Dance 366

James Joyce 361 Virginia Woolf 361 Ernest Hemingway 361

Then & Now I Robin Hood at the Movies 368

Franz Kafka 368 RUSSIAN FILM 369 MODERN MUSIC 370

Arnold Schoenberg 310

Repression and Depression: The Thirties 370

FASCISM IN EUROPE 3 70

Benito Mussolini 310 Adolf Hitler 310 Francisco Franco 312

FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEAL 3 7 3

PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE FSA 373

Dorothea Lange 313 Walker Evans 314 Margaret Bourke-White 314 Louise Dahl-^olfe 314 Lola Alvarez Bravo 315

Critical Thinking I Photography and Truth 376

Jacob Lawrence 317

SOUTHERN REGIONALIST WRITING 378

William Faulkner 378 Flannery O'Connor 318

THE AMERICAN SOUND 379

Charles Ives 319 Aaron Copland 319 George Gershwin 319

H Connections I Art as Politics 380

THE JAZZ AGE 380

Cross Currents I Diego Rivera and the Detroit Murals 381

Scott Joplin 381 Louis Armstrong 381

M Cultural Impact 382

Duke Ellington 382

Readings 384

Franz Kafka, Before the Law 384

Anna Akhmatova 384

Osip Mandelstam, The Stalin Epigram 385

T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock 385

Langston Hughes, I, Too, Sing America 381

Virginia Woolf, from To the Lighthouse 381

Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants 388

James Joyce, Araby 390

William Butler Yeats 392

Rainer Maria Rilke, Selected Poems 393

Chapter 23

Mid-Twentieth Century and Later 395

Mid-Twentieth Century and Later 397

Critical Thinking I The Weekend 398

398

REGIONALISM IN AMERICAN PAINTING 3 7 5 Edward Hopper 375 Thomas Hart Benton 375

COLD WAR AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY

THE VIETNAM WARS 3 98

THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXISTENTIALISM 399

Jean-Paul Sartre 400 Simone de Beauvoir 400

ABSTRACTION IN AMERICAN ART 400

Jackson Pollock 400 Lee Kramer 401 Willem de Kooning 401 Mark Rothko 401 Helen Frankenthaler 402 Lois Mailou Jones 402

ARCHITECTURE 404

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 404 Le Corbusier 404

Cross Currents I Abstract Expressionism in Japan 405

Then & Now I Coffee: The Bean That Wakes Up the World 406

Contents xiii

Frank Lloyd Wright 406 MODERN DRAMA 406 SCULPTURE 407

Alexander Calder 407 Isamu Noguchi 407

Pop Culture 407

ARTISTS OF THE EVERYDAY 408

Robert Rauschenberg 408 Louise Nevelson 408 Andy Warhol 409 Roy Lichtenstein 409 Claes Oldenburg 410 Marisol Escobar 411 Happenings 411

MINIMAL AND CONCEPTUAL ART 411 SolLeWitt 411 Bridget Riley 411

h Connections I Rauschenberg, Cage, and Cunningham 412

ARCHITECTURE 412

Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano 412 LITERATURE: THE BEATS 413

Jack Kerouac 413 Allen Ginsberg 413

Then & Now I The Movies Past and Present 414

Critical Thinking I The Popularity of the Beatles 415

THE POPULARIZATION OF CLASSICAL MUSIC 415

The Boston Pops 415 Musical Theater 415 Leonard Bernstein 415 Andrew Lloyd Weber 415

Cultural Impact 416

LATE MODERN MUSIC 416 ROCK AND ROLL 416

Readings 418

Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism

and Humanism 418 Allen Ginsberg, Howl 420 Eugene lonesco, The Gap 421 Wislawa Szymborska, Selected Poems 424

Chapter 24

Diversity in Contemporary

Diversity in the United States 428

POSTMODERNISM 428

PHOTOGRAPHY, PAINTING, AND SCULPTURE 429

Jean-Michel Basquiat 431 Judith F.

Baca 432 Lisa Fifreld 433 Maya Lin and the

Vietnam Veterans' Memorial 433

NEW MEDIA 433

Mariko Mori 433 Christo and Jeanne-Claude 434

NEW USES OF OLD MEDIA 434

Dale Chihuly 434 Jane Dickson 436 Banksy 436 Swoon 437

STRUCTURALISM AND DECONSTRUCTION 43 7

THE DIVERSITY OF AMERICAN VOICES 43 8

Adrienne Rich 438 Maxine Hong Kingston 438

Toni Morrison 439 Judith Ortiz Cofer 439

Oscar Hijuelos 439 N Scott Momaday 439

Leslie Marmon Silko 439

M Connections I Vaclav Havel, Playwright and Politician 440

The Global Village 440

GLOBALIZATION 440

Then & Now I Navigating the Web 441

RECENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE 441

Philippe Starck 441

h Critical Thinking I Reality TV

442 443

M Cultural Impact 445

Readings 446

Frank Gehry Paul Andreu

442

Herzog & de Meuron Tom Shannon 444

442

Judy Chicago 430 Guerrilla Girls 430 Eleanor Antin 431 Betye Saar 431

Maxine Hong Kingston, from The Woman

Warrior 446 N. Scott Momaday, from The Way to Rainy

Mountain 450 Leslie Silko, Yellow Woman 452 Sandra Cisneros, Barbie-Q 455 Michael Hogan, Selected Poems 456 Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It 456 Sherman Alexie, Indian Boy Love Songs 457

Glossary 458

Picture Credits and Further Information 465

Literature Credits 467

Index 468

Preface

As in our first three editions of Arts and Culture, we pro­vide in this Fourth Edition an introduction to the world's major civilizations—to their artistic achievements, their history, and their cultures. Through an integrated ap­proach to the humanities, Arts and Culture offers an op­portunity to view works of art, read literature, and listen to music in historical and cultural contexts.

Works of art from different cultures reveal common human experiences of birth and death, love and loss, plea­sure and pain, hope and frustration, elation and despair. Study of the humanities—literature, philosophy, history, religion, and the arts—reveals what others value and be­lieve, inviting each of us to consider our personal, social, and cultural values in relation to those of others.

In studying the humanities, we focus our attention on works of art that reflect and embody the central values and beliefs of particular cultures and specific historical moments. In our approach we consider the following questions:

1. What kind of artwork is it? To what artistic category does it be­long? These questions lead us to consider a work's type.

2. Why was the artwork made? What was its function, purpose, or use? Who was responsible for producing it? Who paid for or commissioned it? These questions lead us to consid­er the context of a work.

3. What does the work express or convey? What does it reveal about its creator? What does it reveal about its historical and social context? These questions lead us to considera­tions of a work's meaning.

4. How was the artwork made or constructed? This question leads us to consider materials and techniques.

5. What are the parts or elements of a work of art? How are these parts related to create a unified artwork? These questions lead us to considerations of formal analysis, under­standing the ways the artwork satisfies aesthetically.

6. What social, cultural, and moral values does the work express, reflect, or embody? This question leads us to consider the social, cultural, and moral values of an artwork.

In Arts and Culture, we highlight the individual artistic qualities of numerous works, always in view of the cultural worlds in which they were created. We discuss each work's significance in conjunction with the social attitudes and cultural values it embodies, without losing sight of its in­dividual expression and artistic achievement.

Two important questions underlie our choice of works in Arts and Culture: (1) What makes a work a masterpiece of its type? (2) What qualities of a work of art enable it to be appreciated over time? These questions imply that certain qualities appeal to something fundamental and xiv universal in all of us, no matter where or when we may live. These are the aesthetic principles and predilections that link all of us together.

MAKING CONNECTIONS

We believe that a study of the humanities involves more than an examination of the artistic monuments of civilizations past and present. In our view, it also involves a consideration of how forms of human achievement in many times and places echo and reinforce, as well as alter and modify each other. An important aspect of humani­ties study involves seeing connections among the arts and ideas of a given culture and discovering relationships between the arts and ideas of different cultures. We have highlighted four forms of connections that are especially important:

1. Interdisciplinary connections among artworks of an ir -dividual culture

2. Cross currents among artworks of different cultures

3. Transhistorical links between past and present, the i and now

4. The cultural impact or influence of one culture on late -cultures

These forms of connection invite our readers to locate re -lationships among various humanities disciplines and t i identify links between the achievements of diverse cul tures. Discovering such connections can be intellectuall r stimulating and emotionally stirring since the forms c : human experience reflected in the works of art of many cultures resonate with common human concerns. These artworks address social questions about who we are, philo­sophical questions about why we exist at all, and religious questions concerning what awaits us after death. These and other perennial questions and the varying perspec­tives taken on them have been central to many cultures, and find expression in their arts. To highlight these ques­tions, we have included the following features throughout the text.

Interdisciplinary CONNECTIONS

For example, one type of interdisciplinary connection ap­pears in the ways the music and architecture of Renaissance Florence were influenced by mathematical proportion and ancient notions of "harmony." Mathematics played a crucial role in all the arts of the Renaissance. Architects were guid­ed in the design of their buildings by mathematical ratios

Preface 781

and proportions; composers likewise wrote music that reflected mathematical ratios in both its melody and harmony.

Cultural CROSS CURRENTS

These reflect the ways artistic ideals, literary move­ments, and historical events influence the arts of other cultures. For example, Turkish military music found its way into the symphonies and piano compositions of Viennese composers, such as Mozart and Beethoven. Japanese woodblock prints influenced the art of the Impressionist painter Claude Monet and the Post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh. And the dynamic cybernetic sculpture of contemporary artist Wen-Ying Tsai weds Western technology with ancient Chinese aesthetic principles.

THEN & NOW

Also considered are connections between the past and present. Then & Now offers discussions of a wide range of subjects that form various types of historical bridges.

CULTURAL IMPACT

This feature appears at the end of each chapter. It ex­plains the influence of one culture or civilization on later ones, showing how the essential, broad themes explored in the chapter continue to impact today's world.

CRITICAL THINKING

This Critical Thinking boxed feature invites students to do just that—think critically about an aspect of culture rele­vant to each chapter.

GLOBAL COVERAGE

Arts and Culture includes a wide-ranging overview of the world's civilizations. In addition to Western culture, we examine the civilizations of Africa, China, India, Japan, Latin America, and Mesoamerica. We emphasize the contributions of women, from the eleventh-century writings of the Japanese Murasaki Shikibu, the twelfth-century music of the German Hildegard of Bingen, and the fourteenth-century writings of the Italian Christine de Pizan, to the Renaissance painting of the Italian Properzia de'Rossi, or the Baroque still lifes by the Flemish Clara Peeters, to the Rococo art of the French painter Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Le Brun and the numerous women writers, painters, sculptors, architects, and photographers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from many parts of our world. In the final chapter oiArts

and Culture we bring together a broad spectrum of styles, voices, and perspectives, which, although focusing on contemporary multicultural America, reflects trends and influences from around the globe. We highlight a num­ber of current issues in the arts including how technology has globalized the arts. The numerous and varied contri­butions of artists and writers include works by Native American artists, Latina/Latino writers, and Australian Aborigine artists.

Throughout the book, we have tried to present the arts and cultures of the world to suggest their richness, variety, and humanity. As a reader oiArts and Culture, you can find in uiese pages the background necessary to understand the artistic achievements of many civilizations and the repre­sentation of human experience in all its complexity. In a time of rapid social change when the world's cultures are becoming increasingly globalized, it has become neces­sary to understand the values of human beings around the world, as they have been recorded, inscribed, and cele­brated in the arts and achievements of all cultures.



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