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Literature Review on Genocide Pedagogies and Curricula: 1980-Present

Prepared by Liz Airton for the Life Stories in Education Working Group

July – December, 2009

Contents

Contents 1

INTRODUCTION 2

Process Taken 3

Notes for the User 3

On the Colour Coding Scheme 4

SCHOLARLY SOURCES 5

Journal Articles 5

Journal Special Issues 64

Books 65

Book Chapters 82

Conference Papers 85

Research Reports 89

Encyclopaedia Entries 91

Theses 93

Other 102

CURRICULAR RESOURCES 103

Online Resources 103

Curriculum Guides in Print 115

INTRODUCTION

Although there are hundreds of sources on education and genocide, there is no one ‘body of literature’ on genocide pedagogies and curricula insofar as a ‘body’ of literature comes from a broad network of scholars who cite and build on each other’s work. There is copious literature on how to adapt particular pedagogical techniques (e.g. simulations, reader-response, etc.) to teaching about one genocide or another genocide, but usually from the vantage of political science, sociology or high school social studies (i.e., one particular curriculum) and not studies in genocide pedagogies/curricula (with a notable exception being the work of Samuel Totten – see below). As expected, this review is overwhelmingly (+/- 70%) constituted by literature on Holocaust pedagogies/curricula; the degree to which pedagogical/curricular suggestions can be extracted from this corpus for teaching on other genocides varies greatly depending on the degree of historical specificity characteristic of a particular source. Most of the scholarly work in print (i.e., books, journal articles, etc.) that applies to genocide is directly focussed on the Holocaust whereas curriculum guides (print and online) as well as online sources are more diverse with respect to their foci. Therefore, the Scholarly Sources section is far less diverse than is the Curricular Resources section.

As above, there cannot be said to be trends in a ‘body of literature’ on genocide pedagogies in cases other than the Holocaust, where there are clear patterns. To this end, much debate has occurred around the question of whether one should use a moral (Stern Strom, FHAO, Tritt) or historical (Illingworth, Salmons, Kinloch) approach. Many authors point to the importance of maintaining the uniqueness of the Holocaust, while many more do not given that many other genocides have before and since occurred. Indisputably, contextualizing the Holocaust firmly within the history of European anti-Semitism seems to be the norm; however, at least one author (Stotsky) insists that Holocaust education should take account of living Jewish history as well. In terms of direct pedagogical approaches, the us of fictional literature and non/fictional first-person narratives abounds as a strategy (e.g., Danks, Drew, Ducey, Totten 1998b, etc.) – including the use of graphic novels (Adams, Christensen) – as does the use of online resources (e.g., Brown, Davis et al., Wrenn, Street & Stang, etc.). A particularly thorny controversy has erupted regarding whether or not simulations (role plays) are an appropriate means through which to teach the Holocaust (Scheweber vs. Totten). In addition, many scholars offer insights on how to encounter Holocaust denial in the classroom (e.g., Friedrichs, Lindquist 2009, Petropoulos, Short 1994b, Millen et al. 1996, etc.). These discussions are often not framed as scholarly debates or interactions, but as the observations of individual educators or researchers.

Once again, on teaching genocides other than the Holocaust there is not a sufficiently developed field such that one could point to trends and debates. Any curriculum on the Armenian genocide or the Holodomor1 (most widely represented) seems to have been developed not by educational authorities (as with the Holocaust, although these have been found to contain problems: see Totten & Riley, 2005; Riley & Totten, 2002) but by nationalist groups; many such curricula have not been favourably reviewed (see Totten, 1991). As above, scholarly work forms very little of the available body of resources on teaching about genocides other than the Holocaust, but online sources to this end are fairly abundant. Aside from seemingly one-off publications wherein a scholar thinks about a genocide as a case study for showcasing a pedagogical method (e.g., Brown 2007, Christensen 2007, etc.), the only consistent scholarly work on genocide pedagogies and curricula apart from the Holocaust are associated with Samuel Totten. His work is an excellent place to begin exploring, particularly the following:

Social Education 55(2) – Special Issue on Teaching Genocide. (1991). Guest edited by Totten.

Totten, S. (Ed.). (2004). Chapter 7. In Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Totten, S. (1993). Educating about genocide: Curricular and inservice training. In I. Charny (Ed.), Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review (pp. 194-225). New York: Facts on File.

Process Taken

Overall, the review involved the following. I began with a complete and multi-term ERIC Search with reference tracing, and this yielded approximately thirty pages of references and abstracts on genocide pedagogies and curricula. The remainder of the sources herein were located as follows: individual journal keyword searches in SCOPUS, JSTOR, Web of Science, Social Sciences FullText, Ovid Current Contents; searches on Google Scholar, Amazon and WorldCat; and a detailed survey of several dozen books; all with complete reference tracing.

Notes for the User

This review largely excludes texts on teaching after the fact in countries or regions that have experienced genocide (including Israel), as well as the effects of genocide on the delivery of education in these countries. Also, the emphasis here is on secular public education. This means that pedagogies and curricula expressly created for Jewish schools were not spotlighted nor were the challenges particular to doing Holocaust education in Christian/traditional schools. The focus here is on genocide pedagogies and curricula in conventional educational contexts.

Where abstracts were not provided, I have endeavoured to obtain hard copies of all sources in order to write original descriptions; however, this was not possible in every instance. Where my initials (“LA”) appear following an abstract or description it was written by me; where “” appear, the abstract came from the cited source (either ERIC, an annotated bibliography, scholarly review, online source such as Amazon or World Cat, or the publisher website); and where no initials nor “” appear the abstract was provided by the author or journal service in keeping with common scholarly practice (mostly in the case of articles). Any entries without abstracts/descriptions were inaccessible.

Please bear in mind the following when using the review:

  • the BOOK CHAPTERS section covers relevant chapters in otherwise irrelevant books;

  • and the BOOK section documents entire books about genocide pedagogies and/or curricula and only under the editor(s)’ name(s) (i.e., relevant chapters are not also indexed by individual authors in the BOOK CHAPTERS section).

On the Colour Coding Scheme

Cambodia Armenian The Holocaust Sudan Rwanda

Former Yugoslavia Indigenous Peoples Holodomor

Entries in the review are categorized by publication type (e.g., articles, books, book chapters, theses, curricular materials, etc.). However, many entries are also colour-coded in order to identify, where applicable, a focus on teaching a particular genocide. Some entries have several colour codes indicated in the description or abstract, whereas those exclusively focused on teaching one genocide have only the author’s name colour coded. If an entry has no colour codes anywhere it is – most often – broadly applicable to teaching on genocide. In some cases where genocide is referenced as a phenomenon in an otherwise lengthy annotation, this information is underlined.

Please note that this categorization is not intended to serve as any kind of definitive list of which atrocities were, in fact, genocides. Certain atrocities that are widely considered to be genocides (such as in East Timor or the mass killing of Bengalis during the partition of India and Pakistan) are not colour-coded here simply because there is an insufficient number – likely zero – of resources identified as pertaining to their direct instruction. The above colour-coded genocides were selected by virtue of their prevalence in the reviewed literature. Genocides other than those colour coded above that appear at least once in the review are: East Timor, Bangladesh, Iraqi Kurdistan (1988), Indonesia (1965-66), and the Hutu in Burundi. These can instead be located using any document search function.

Finally, there are certainly problematic aspects to including all genocides of indigenous peoples under the same colour code; however, given the relatively widespread references to teaching on the many genocidal acts perpetrated against disparate indigenous peoples throughout the world, I have chosen to opt for this grouping in the review in order to facilitate its use by educators interested in post/anti-colonial pedagogies and curricula.

SCHOLARLY SOURCES

Journal Articles

Abowitz, D. A. (2002). Bringing the sociological into the discussion: Teaching the sociology of genocide and the Holocaust. Teaching Sociology, 30(1), 26-38.

Discusses the necessity and challenge of integrating sociology and sociological insight into teaching and research on genocide and the Holocaust in the 21st century. It is posited that the absence of a strong and recognized core of sociology (and sociologists) in Holocaust and genocide studies (more broadly), limits how much people have learned and can learn about these phenomena, past, present, and future. What sociology can contribute, it is argued, is the theoretical foundation for analyzing these events and situating them in sociohistorical context. Sociology has the theoretical tools necessary to begin to put the pieces together, and to integrate research, teaching, and learning in this area. A sociology of genocide and the Holocaust is needed, one grounded in the study of collective behavior and social movement theory, social groups and group dynamics, interaction of structure and agency, and the social construction of race in the 20th century. That is what has been missing; it can be achieved only by bringing the "sociological" back into the discussion and by bringing the sociology of genocide and the Holocaust into curricula.

Adalian, R. (1987). How and why to teach the Armenian Genocide: Seeking a humanist perspective. Armenian Review, 40(1), 69-77.

The author offers some suggestions for teaching the Armenian genocide in some detail, with much consideration for the politics of memory and humanism. His suggestions are: the genocide must be understood as a living issue and not simply a past occurrence; and that the larger political, philosophical, sociological and moral issues pertaining to genocide must be addressed and incorporated (he goes into these in turn as they apply to the Armenian genocide). Emphasizes the personal connections of Armenian people to the genocide today. (LA)

Adams, J. (1999). Of mice and manga: Comics and graphic novels in art education. International Journal of Art and Design Education, 18(1), 62-75.

A justification for the inclusion of graphic comic art in post-14 art education following the development of graphic novels in Europe, Japan and the USA. in recent years. The case is based on the visual dynamics of the medium and the potential for a critical realism which can be exploited in students' studio practice and research. Particular attention is given to the Holocaust novel Maus and selected Japanese 'Manga' comics which have made an impact in the west, such as Barefoot Gen and Adolf. The article analyses the various innovative visual forms that these graphic novels utilise and considers their effectiveness as a vehicle for practice and research in the institutional art curriculum.

Adams, J. (2008). The pedagogy of the image text: Nakazawa, Sebald and Spiegelman recount social traumas. Discourse, 29(1), 35-49.

The paper discusses the pedagogy of the image text, a term that encompasses the graphic novels of Nakazawa and Spiegelman and the heavily illustrated novels of Sebald. Increasingly, artist-authors have turned to the image-text medium to represent catastrophic social events, and these three authors' works are discussed as seminal documents of cataclysmic societal events, such as the bombing of Hiroshima or the Holocaust. All have provided a narrative visual framework that attempts to inform us of the lived experience of these traumatic moments, insofar as their medium will permit, and these methods are discussed and compared. The pedagogic impulse - the desire to inform a contemporary audience of such major historical events - is evident in all three selected authors' works. Their diverse yet comparable visual methods, and the ways in which they seem to imbue us with authentic vicarious experiences arguably constitute a visual pedagogy of social crises.

Albrecht, T. L., & Nelson, C. E. (2001). Teaching the Holocaust as an interdisciplinary course in psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 28(4), 289-291.

Teaching the Holocaust in psychology provides an important opportunity to explain to students how social prejudice, hate group activity, and even genocide are grounded in explanatory concepts of bias, social prejudice, and language. At the same time, research on prosocial behavior helps explain the motivations and actions of rescuers. The subject of the Holocaust creates a powerful cognitive and emotional impact on students, provides a powerful illustration for studying important aspects of human behavior, and readily illustrates several key concepts in social psychology.

Alexander, J. (2008). Teaching with Holocaust narratives. Use of English, 59(2), 127-138.

Explores how two recent children's novels, Morris Gleitzman's "Once" and John Boyne's "The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas", provide an opportunity to review the use of Holocaust narratives within schools. Argues that though the arguments for and against the use of fictional accounts are powerful, it is possible that the classroom dialogue stimulated by reading these novels is itself of value as the English teacher's contribution to the educational task in relation to comprehending the Final Solution.

Allen, R. (2000). Springboards into Holocaust: Five activities for secondary social studies students. Southern Social Studies, 25(2), 17-29.

Explains that in a study of the Holocaust teachers must connect the stories of the Holocaust to the lives of their students. Provides five activities about the Holocaust that focus upon teaching tolerance. Addresses the children of the Holocaust, difference versus deviance, social identity, and The Night of Broken Glass.

Baker, R. W. (1989). Facing History and Ourselves: Curriculum produces political debate. Curriculum Review, 28(6), 4-10.

“A detailed and fascinating article about the purpose and methods as well as the controversy surrounding the Facing History and Ourselves program, a teacher training and curriculum organization that provides service for teachers and students for addressing issues of prejudice and intolerance in twentieth century history (with a special focus on the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust).”2

Bardige, B. (1981). Facing History and Ourselves: Tracing development through analysis of student journals. Moral Education Forum, 6, 42-48.

Baron, L. (2003). Not in Kansas anymore: Holocaust films for children. The Lion and the Unicorn, 27, 171–200.

An extensive overview of available Holocaust films for children with analyses of the film genre and the devices used by the filmmakers. Several films are discussed in detail: A Friendship in Vienna, The Island on Bird Street, The Devil’s Arithmetic. The author concludes by discussing The Apt Pupil and Life is Beautiful as appropriate movies to screen for children about Nazism and the Holocaust.

Bartov, O. (1998). The lessons of the Holocaust. Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies, 12, 13-20.

Bartrop, P. R. (1985). “Hitler would’ve known how to deal with the Asian invasion”: The Holocaust and Australian education. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 31(1), 147-153.

Bartrop, P. R. (1997). Comparative Genocide Studies at the University of South Australia: A report on a course. International Network on Holocaust and Genocide, 12(3), 10-12.

Beer, M. (2005). Voices from Rwanda: When seeing is better than hearing. Teaching History, 120 (September), 54-57.

Where were you when you last witnessed history being formed? How did you know that the events you had witnessed would turn out to be significant? The missile attack on a plane in Rwanda on 6 April 1994 passed Martyn Beer by at the time. It was later that he came to see that this event, or more specifically the genocide which followed it, as both significant and worthy of study. Beer did not stop merely at studying it He began to teach it to his students, and then to plan one of the most ambitious field trips ever attempted by a school history department. This article is not really about the trip, though. Instead, Beer argues that the Rwandan genocide is worthy of study, and that it both illuminates and is illuminated by the other genocides of the twentieth century. He provides some initial resources to teachers who would like to teach about Rwanda but do not really know where to start, and guidance on where to find further resources. Most importantly of all, he provides a genuine rationale for varying the Key Stage 3 curriculum in response to recent events.

Belloni, R. (2008). Role-playing international intervention in conflict areas: Lessons from Bosnia for Northern Ireland Education. International Studies Perspectives, 9(2), 220-234.

Role-playing is a useful exercise in overcoming some of the limits of traditional lecture-based teaching. While lectures presuppose the existence of a knowledgeable professor transmitting information to overall passive students, role-playing requires both the redefinition of the professor/student relationship and the active and purposeful involvement of students. This paper is an initial attempt to assess a role-play designed to achieve three main results: Support students to take a more active role and ownership of their learning process; develop students' research, writing and presentation skills; and apply their knowledge to a specific case. Substantively, the exercise aimed at investigating the dynamics of conflict management and intervention in conflict areas by addressing a crisis situation in a Bosnian town. Because this exercise took place in an area (Northern Ireland) with a long history of conflict, all students had very personal and direct knowledge of inter-communal tensions and clashes. Role-playing gave them an opportunity to investigate critically the dynamics of conflict management and the limits of external intervention.

Ben-Bassat, N. (2000). Holocaust awareness and education in the United States. Religious Education, 95(4), 402-423.

Experimentation in Holocaust education began in American schools in the mid-1970s. After construction of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., the subject gained momentum. The last two decades have seen continuous development. In five states, Holocaust education is required at all school levels; in sixteen others, it is highly recommended. Serious teaching of the Holocaust started in earnest only long after World War II, when the horrors were at a distance and survivors started breaking the silence. Only then did systematic research begin. Teaching about the Holocaust developed as a result of Holocaust consciousness and of the growing feeling of its relevance to American culture. Such instruction also developed against a background of ongoing public debate concerning the Holocausts uniqueness, a controversy that has found its way into various teaching programs.

Ben-Peretz, M. (2003). Identifying with horror: Teaching about the Holocaust – A response to Simone Schweber's “Simulating Survival”. Curriculum Inquiry, 33(2), 189-198.

Presents a response to an article about the teaching of Holocaust through simulation. Comments on the impact of Schweber’s article, reasons for teaching the Holocaust and implications for teacher education.

Berger, J. (2003). Teaching history, teaching tolerance: Holocaust education in Houston. The Public Historian, 25, 125-131.

A historian reviews the Holocaust Museum Houston’s educational programs, describing the programs in great detail in terms of materials and pedagogy. The testimonies of Holocaust survivors living in Houston are part of the exhibits and included in the programs. The programs are described as successfully portraying the many resistance efforts, as well as conveying a contemporary message about not being a bystander while injustice and/or atrocity occur. The author finds the programs to be incredibly effective. (LA)

Berlak, A. (1999). Teaching and testimony: Witnessing and bearing witness to racisms in culturally diverse classrooms. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(1), 126-127.

This article is an effort to understand some patterns of student response in four sections of a cultural diversity course I taught during two subsequent spring semesters. I wanted to understand why students in one of the two sections each semester were quite receptive to the multicultural and antiracist perspectives of the course, and the tone and feeling in those sections were quite positive throughout, while in the two other sections both I and most of the students, from the outset, experienced the course as a difficult, somewhat aversive, ongoing struggle. I also wanted to understand why students in both the difficult and receptive second semester sections were much more satisfied with and impacted by the course than were their first semester counterparts. I wondered if I had learned something about teaching this course that I did not yet understand. I, a woman of European descent, explore these questions in terms of a framework explicated in Testimony, a book that seeks to understand surviving victims', perpetrators', and bystanders' way of thinking and not thinking about the Holocaust. My effort is to make sense of my experiences and the experiences of the White students and the small minority of Latino, Asian American, mixed heritage, and African American students by looking at them in terms of witnessing institutional and personal racisms and bearing witness to them both outside and inside our classrooms, and the powerful forces that militate against our knowing and our telling.

Betten, N., Allen, R., & Waddell, C. (2000). Designing a Holocaust institute for educators: Opportunities and problems. Teaching History: A Journal of Methods, 25(2), 69-79.

Considers the development of the Holocaust Institute at Florida State University, addressing its subject content and various problems. Describes how the Institute enables teachers by providing direction and examples to integrate Holocaust material into their school curriculum.

Bischoping, K. (2004). Timor mortis conturbat me: Genocide pedagogy and vicarious trauma. Journal of Genocide Research, 6(4), 545-566.

Genocide instructors in the social sciences speak little of how their pedagogy should address students' emotions, and even less of their own emotional states. I provide a personal narrative about my teaching experiences that illustrates the issues that instructors may face and the significance of addressing them. The narrative is analyzed using three concepts from social and clinical psychology--burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious traumatization--with which instructors should familiarize themselves. These concepts are also employed to identify characteristics of genocide studies that increase the burden on instructors, including the isolation in which many work, the historical persistence of genocide, and the discourse of obligation in genocide studies. I propose that, were genocide researchers to cast a much wider net as they select cases for comparison, some of the burdens of their fearful topic would be alleviated.

Bischoping, K., Dodds, C., Jama, M., Johnson, C., Kalmin, A., & Reid, K. (2001). Talking about silence: Reflections on `race' in a university course on genocide. Reflective Practice, 2(2), 155-169.

This example of a reflective dialogue was written by a university instructor and five students who had completed her Sociological Understandings of Genocide class. In this dialogue, they identify numerous ways that silences about race affect relations among course participants, curricular choices and the field of genocide studies. The authors also suggest means of dispelling such silences, including naming racism when it occurs, mandating curricular change at an elementary school level, and using critical genealogy and other means of encouraging students to see how racism is an immediate problem for all. In taking up their common concerns, the authors' voices often diverge in ways that may be indicative of their various identities and social locations (e.g. as teachers or students, as White or Black women). Moreover, their voices sometimes depart from dialogic exchange into tangents, repetitions, and monologues that, through their complex form, illustrate the complexities and disjunctures of the topics being addressed.

Bigelow, W. (1992). Once upon a genocide: Christopher Columbus in children’s literature. Language Arts, 69(2), 112-120.

Reviews several children's biographies of Columbus and challenges the image of Columbus portrayed in these books. Calls upon educators to be more critical when having elementary school students read about Columbus.

Blondo, R., & Burroughs, W. (1993). Correspondence urging bombing of Auschwitz during World War II. Social Education, 57(2), 150-155. [ERIC 469 691]

“Presents a classroom lesson utilizing primary sources, including two letters confronting the issue on whether or not Allied planes should have bombed Auschwitz. Includes seven teaching strategies and identifies additional resources.”3

Blum, L. A. (1995). The Holocaust and moral education. Report from the Institute for Philosophy & Public Policy, 15(2+3).

Blutinger, J. C. (2009). Bearing witness: Teaching the Holocaust from a victim-centered perspective. History Teacher, 42(3), 269-279.

A fundamental problem faced by anyone who wishes to teach the Holocaust, or any other mass slaughter, is the tension between the desire " to allow the dead their voices to make the silence heard," and a historical narrative that often deals almost exclusively on perpetrator actions. This bias in the narrative derives from the tendency in history, particularly in classroom teaching, to focus on historical actors. In the case of the Holocaust, this results in teaching the event from a German-centered perspective. This perpetrator-based discourse not only mirrors Nazi language, it exacerbates the image of Jews as going passively to their deaths like sheep to the slaughter. The solution to this problem is deceptively simple: to teach the Holocaust both from a victim-centered perspective, as well as from a perpetrator-based perspective. Both are essential in order to give the students a fuller understanding of the issues surrounding this event. This means giving voice to the victims, all the victims, and treating their experience as something of historical value in itself. Yet, almost all the discussion of how to construct a victim-centered narrative has been theoretical. How then can and should an instructor teach this subject from a victim-centered perspective? Survivor testimonies should play a central role in creating such a narrative, but these in turn raise distinct problems for the instructor. These include finding appropriate material to use in the classroom, particularly due to the disparity between the wealth of memoirs on the Jewish experience and the relative paucity of accounts written by non-Jews, but also the methodological problems inherent in this sort of material, namely the atypical experience of the survivor and distortions of memory that can creep into their memoirs.

Boersema, J. R., & Schimmel, N. (2008). Challenging Dutch holocaust education: Towards a curriculum based on moral choices and empathetic capacity. Ethics and Education, 3(1), 57-74.

We analyse the way in which the Holocaust is taught in The Netherlands, with an emphasis on critically examining the content of secondary school textbooks used to teach Dutch students about the history of the Holocaust. We also interview Dutch educators, government officials and academics about the state of Dutch Holocaust education. Our findings indicate that Dutch students are underexposed to the Holocaust and lack basic knowledge and conceptual understanding of it. Fundamental concerns regarding the civic obligations of citizens in a democracy and basic principles of human rights that are raised by the history of the Holocaust in The Netherlands are often ignored or examined superficially, sometimes because of ambivalence about the extent of Dutch involvement in the genocide of Dutch Jewry. Little attention is paid to the complex moral choices that Dutch citizens faced during the Second World War and the life-or-death implications such decisions had for Dutch Jews. Finally, Jewish history and culture and the history of European anti-Semitism are rarely addressed in textbooks and history lessons about the Holocaust, undermining efforts to sensitise students to the implications of the Holocaust for The Netherlands and for Europe as a whole. In our conclusion, we offer some models of Holocaust education that could significantly improve the quality and content of Dutch Holocaust education.

Brabeck, M., Kenny, M., Stryker, S., Tollefson, T., & Stern Strom, M. (1994). Human rights education through the Facing History and Ourselves program. Journal of Moral Education, 23, 333-347.

This study examined the effects of the Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO) human rights program on moral development and psychological functioning. The FHAO curriculum significantly increased 8th grade students' moral reasoning (Rest's 1979 Defining Issues Test) without adversely impacting on their psychological well-being (scores on depression, hopelessness or self-worth inventories). Girls were more empathic and had higher levels of social interest; boys had higher global self-worth scores; there were no differences between boys and girls in their moral reasoning scores and no gender differences in the psychological impact of the course. This study adds to the literature which suggests that human rights education positively affects students' moral development. [Study gives an overview of FHAO content including the Holocaust and the Armenian and Cambodian genocides.]

Brabham, E. G. (1997). Holocaust education: Legislation, practices, and literature for middle school students. Social Studies, 88(3), 139-142.

Presents a brief examination of Holocaust education legislation, and points out limitations in existing practices for using literature to teach the history of the Holocaust and discuss examples of Holocaust literature. Holocaust education legislation and practices; Holocaust literature, non-fiction and fiction type; Importance of legislation, practices and literature for teaching the history of the Holocaust.

Braiterman, Z. (1999). Teaching Jewish studies in a radically gentile space: Some personal reflections. Religious Education, 94(4), 396-409.

In this essay, I reflect on the challenges faced by professors teaching Jewish studies in a Catholic university system. The essay records my experiences teaching two courses, "Judaism and the Holocaust" and "American Judaism: Thought and Culture," at Santa Clara University as an adjunct lecturer during the academic year 1994-95. The essay touches on broader questions concerning "the dialectics of difference" that inform cross-cultural education and exchange. Teaching Jewish studies in any Gentile space (Catholic, Protestant, or secular) entails a constructive tension between trust and suspicion, candor and reserve.

Brenner, R. F. (1999). Teaching the Holocaust in academia: Educational mission(s) and pedagogical approaches. Journal of Holocaust Education, 8(2), 1-26.

Examines approaches to teaching the Holocaust with focus on the testimony of survivors. Ethos of affirming optimism; Reader-response theory; Reassessment of ethics of post-Holocaust reality.

Brown, J. G. (2007). Teaching about genocide in a new millennium. Social Education, 71(1), 21-23.

The "Darfur is Dying" website was the winning entry of a contest called Darfur Digital Activist, launched by MTV's 24-hour college network (mtvU). The site describes the winning game as "a narrative-based simulation where the user negotiates forces that threaten the survival of his or her refugee camp. It offers a faint glimpse of what it is like for the more than 2.5 million who have been internally displaced by the crisis in Sudan." In this article, the author expresses his views on the appropriateness of using computer-based simulation as a way of teaching students about genocide. The author stands by his position: the use of the "Darfur is Dying" simulation was inappropriate. His hope is that the way new technologies are used will help students to access authentic information from primary sources. Placed within the context of multiple authentic experiences, game-like simulations may aid the process of dialogue and subsequent critical consciousness that leads to action. Even the best simulations require great care, lest they become mere entertainment.

Brown, M., & Davies, I. (1998). The Holocaust and education for citizenship: The teaching of history, religion and human rights in England. Educational Review, 50(1), 75–83.

The importance of the Holocaust is undeniable. It seems that this truism has long been accepted by teachers and education policy makers. A superficial prediction would be that the Holocaust will continue to have both a high profile and a high status in the schools and colleges of England and Wales. However, on the basis of small-scale work using data from teachers' perceptions, we draw attention to certain problems in learning about the Holocaust and begin to suggest issues which should be investigated further. The issues which need further investigation are related to the possibilities that there may be too little time devoted to teaching about the Holocaust; the events of the Holocaust may sometimes be used as a mere context for understanding World War Two; teachers may not perceive the Holocaust as being significantly unique; teachers may not collaborate effectively; there may be a lack of clarity about the nature of the affective and cognitive aims of such work.

Buckley, J. (2004). Using Holocaust literature to teach values. School Libraries in Canada , 23(4), 16-20.

The article focuses on the need to model and teach open and accepting values and attitudes towards others and this need will be fulfilled by the use of Holocaust literature. It also suggests the need to let children know the terrible consequences of allowing hatred to fester in society. The Jewish Holocaust during the World War II was such a consequence. Teaching about the Holocaust can support the teaching of acceptance and tolerance and an end to racism. On April 5, 2004, the United Talmud Torah elementary school library in Montreal, Quebec was bombed in an act of vicious anti-Semitism. An important message brought home by this terrorist act is the need for Canadian educators to do more to combat racism and anti-Semitism.

Burtonwood, N. (2002). Holocaust memorial day in schools – Context, process, and content: A review of research into Holocaust education. Educational Research, 44(1), 69-82.

The Holocaust was officially remembered in Britain for the first time on 27 January 2001. This is to be an annual event and it is intended that it will provide a focus for work in schools. The paper reviews the findings of research into Holocaust education and discusses the implications for teachers intending to respond to this important initiative.

Caplan, R. B. (2001a). Teaching the Holocaust: The experience of Yad Vashem. Teaching History, 104 (September), 24-27.

In this article Richelle Budd Caplan offers guidelines for teachers, based on its unrivalled experience. he demands that our teaching of this subject should aim to restore the identities of the victims. To do this appropriately, we should not start with destruction; our students need to be made aware of the richness and complexity of Jewish life and civilisation before the war. Using examples from the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, Richelle Budd Caplan suggests ways in which we can help our students to understand that Jews, no less than Germans, were people who had both ethical and practical decisions to make. They were not simply passive victims -- they interacted with the world they found. Teachers must help students to interact with the material they are given, in all its complexity, and restore humanity to the nameless.

Caplan, R. B. (2001b). An educational legacy: Pedagogical approaches in teaching about the fate of Jewish children during the Shoah. Journal of Holocaust Education, 10(2),

This article focuses on pedagogical approaches in teaching the Holocaust, placing a particular emphasis on the fate of Jewish children during the Shoah. The author accepts that an intensive study of this complex and difficult subject matter is not an easy task for reachers and their students, and argues that the Shoah, a human story with universal implications, should be taught utilising archival material rather than fiction or composite characters. The author includes extracts from the testimony of child survivors and briefly explores themes that might usefully be drawn out in classroom study. [Also contains a bibliography of work covering child victims and survivors.]

Carpenter, R. C., Lundell, V., & Rubin, B. (2007). Serious games in the global affairs classroom: Student impressions of Pax Warrior as an active learning tool. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 4(2), 117-129.

Online simulations are becoming increasingly popular in international affairs education, and a new wave of social learning games or serious games are now being marketed to global affairs instructors. While few studies empirically evaluate the effectiveness of such games in augmenting traditional classroom methods, it is often assumed that such use of IT significantly enhances students’ engagement with political and social issues. We explored this assumption through a qualitative analysis of student Blackboard commentary after playing the game Pax Warrior as a supplement to a genocide prevention module in a graduate policy classroom. Student comments were coded for evidence of substantive engagement, for whether the game tended to engender critical thinking or cynicism, and for student reactions to the game itself. While evidence is mixed and further study is necessary, on balance our analysis suggests that online simulations such as Pax Warrior may indeed provide a valuable means to encourage active learning in the global affairs classroom.

Carrington, B., & Short, G. (1997). Holocaust education, anti-racism and citizenship. Educational Review, 49(3) 271–82.

In this paper we assess the potential of Holocaust education as a medium for developing 'maximalist' notions of citizenship among students of secondary school age. Particular attention is given to the contribution that such teaching can make to the realisation of anti-racist goals. Because of the dearth of published work in the UK on the effects of learning about the Holocaust, we present the findings of a case study of 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions of this aspect of curricular provision. The case study, which forms the empirical core of the paper, was undertaken in 1996. The sample, comprising both males and females from a variety of ethnic backgrounds, was drawn form six secondary schools in South East England. The discussion focuses upon: (i) the impact of Holocaust education on the students' understanding of racism (and, in particular, their ability to recognise and deconstruct stereotypes); (ii) the students' opinions on the value of Holocaust education in preparing young people for active citizenship in a participatory pluralist democracy. We conclude by exploring the pedagogic implications of the study.

Cesarani, D. (2001). Does the singularity of the Holocaust make in incomparable and inoperative for commemorating, studying and preventing genocide? Britain's Holocaust Memorial Day as a case study. Journal of Holocaust Education, 10(2), 40-56.

This article is a response to the controversy surrounding the first national Holocaust Memorial Day in Britain, held on 27 January 2001. The discussion is centred on the British experience, but it is intended to have a wider resonance and relevance. It begins by summarising the aims of Holocaust Memorial Day and then looks at some of the significant interventions in the nationwide debate about it. Much of the discussion was informed by the work of the American historian Peter Novick, so the article examines his influential argument about Holocaust commemoration and education. It concludes with an attempt to answer the question set out in the title, showing briefly that researching an teaching about the Holocaust as well as the work of remembrance and memorialisation are crucial to commemorating, studying and preventing genocide.

Chalk, F., & Jonassohn, K. (1991). Genocide: An historical overview. Social Education, 55(2), 92-96.



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