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The efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in many industrial sectors are being counteracted by a steady increase in consumption. If emissions from consumption by Swedish consumers are studied, rather than the emissions from production within Sweden, Swedish greenhouse gas emissions become 25% higher. This is due to the fact that a large proportion of the goods that are purchased in Sweden have been produced in other countries.

Still, climate policy initiatives are mainly targeting production, with little emphasis on stimulating change in consumer behaviour. This paper focuses on the role of personal carbon trading (PCT) as an incentive to encourage environmentally responsible consumption. While PCT has mainly been studied in the United Kingdom, this paper discusses PCT in the Swedish context. PCT is compared with existing Swedish policy initiatives addressing the climate issue and the potential of PCT to induce change in personal behaviour is discussed.

1. Introduction

Sweden has been pointed out as one of the more successful among the developed nations in tackling climate change. This is related to the facts that the overall Swedish greenhouse gas emissions are decreasing; that the energy consumed in Sweden stems from low emitting energy sources; and that many energy efficiency improvements have been made in the industrial sectors. However, emission reductions achieved in industrial production are being counteracted by an increase in consumption. Further, an increasing proportion of the products purchased in Sweden have been imported from other countries, which means that Swedish emissions are significantly higher if considering emissions from consumption by Swedish consumers and not only emissions from production in Sweden.

In spite of this, climate policy initiatives are often targeting production, with little emphasis on stimulating change in consumer behaviour. Personal carbon trading (PCT), however, is a type of policy instrument targeting private emissions of CO2. A PCT scheme would resemble the European Emissions Trading Scheme, EU ETS, but instead of companies, PCT focuses on the emissions from individuals. An overall emissions cap would be set, and the right to emit CO2 would be divided equally across the population. People who consume less than their allowance could sell their surplus to others, who feel that they need to consume more.

PCT has been debated in the UK and has received attention as being an instrument which is just and equitable and has the potential to change consumer behaviour. This paper focuses on the potential role for PCT as a climate policy instrument in the Swedish context. First, Swedish greenhouse gas emissions, emission trends and climate targets are described. Thereafter, a review and assessment of the current Swedish climate policy mix is provided. Finally, personal carbon trading and its potential role as a climate policy instrument in Sweden are addressed.

2. Swedish greenhouse gas emissions and emission targets

Due to the large share of hydro and nuclear energy sources, Swedish per capita emissions of greenhouse gases are rather low in comparison with many other European countries. The largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Sweden is the transportation sector, followed by fuel combustion in energy production and fuel combustion within manufacturing industries.

There seems to be a declining trend in Swedish emissions. Between 1990 and 2006, the Swedish greenhouse gas emissions decreased by about 8.7%, with current emissions in CO2 equivalents totalling 65.7 million tonnes (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). The Swedish per capita emissions have also decreased, from 8.4 tonnes per capita in 1990 to 7.2 tonnes per capita in 2006. The energy sector showed the greatest reduction, where emission reductions have been achieved in particular in the residential and service sectors. In the transport sector however, emissions increased during the same period, mainly due to an increase in the emissions from road traffic. Heavy goods traffic accounts for most of the increase, mainly related to increased transport mileage with heavy goods vehicles.

Emissions of CO2 from industrial combustion have been fairly stable in recent years. Due to improvements in energy efficiency, both use of oil and electricity per production value decreased between 1992 and 2006. However, due to increased production, the total fossil fuel use has increased during this period.

Swedish emissions from other perspectives

From an emission reduction perspective, the overall picture for Sweden appears rather positive. However, if international transportation by flight and over sea is added, the total emissions have not decreased but have instead remained stable from 1990 until present at around 75 million tonnes CO2 equivalents. International transportation in this case includes fuels purchased in Sweden.

It can also be pointed out, that the data reported to the UNFCCC considers only territorial emissions from production in the reporting countries. A large proportion of the goods purchased in Sweden have been imported. In a recent report, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency estimated Swedish emissions using a consumption perspective. It was found that emissions of CO2 equivalents are about 25% higher when counting the emissions from consumption by Swedish consumers than when counting only emissions from domestic production (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2008). In this estimation, the emissions caused by products produced in Sweden and exported to other countries are excluded, while instead the emissions caused by production of products imported to Sweden are included. With this consumption perspective on greenhouse gas emissions, Swedish per capita emissions equal about 10 tonnes CO2 equivalents. Looking at the composition of emission sources from a consumption perspective, about 80% of total emissions are caused by private and 20% by public consumption. Emissions from private consumption can further be broken down into food (25%), housing (30%), transport (30%), and shopping (15%).

Swedish emission targets

Looking at the emission data, it appears that Sweden will reach its commitment in the Kyoto protocol as well as the target set up by the Swedish parliament. However, the urge for more ambitious targets is being emphasised, in Sweden as well as in other countries. The Swedish government has stated that the Swedish emissions in year 2020 should be about 25% lower than the emissions in 1990. In addition, as a long-term emission target adopted by the Swedish Parliament, Swedish per capita emissions should be lower than 4.5 tonnes in 2050.

Also on the EU level, the need for ambitious climate targets is identified. The climate goals for the EU should be partly reached by the European Emissions trading Scheme. For sectors not included in the EU ETS, including transport, housing, agriculture and waste, emissions should be cut by 10% from the levels in 2005 by 2020. For Sweden, this means a reduction in emissions in these sectors by 17% by 2020, compared to the levels in 2005. In addition, Sweden’s share of renewable energy demand should be 49% by 2020 (Commission of the European Communities, 2008). However, looking at the very long-term, an increasing number of countries, including Sweden, are identifying a need for near zero emission targets (Scientific Council on Climate Issues, 2007).

3. Existing climate policy instruments in Sweden

As part of the historical and evolving Swedish climate policy strategy, several policy instruments have been implemented to combat greenhouse gas emissions, both sector-specific and generic instruments. In this section, some of the most important Swedish climate policy instruments are reviewed and assessed.

Trading systems

The EU Emission Trading Scheme, EU ETS, is one of the most important means of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in the EU region. The EU ETS started in 2005 and covers around 11,000 installations in the energy and some energy-intensive industrial sectors, including the iron and steel industry, the mineral industry and the pulp and paper industries. From 2012, the EU ETS will also include aviation (Directive 2008/101/EC).

Another important means of targeting the CO2 emissions in the electricity and heat production sector in Sweden is the system of Green Certificates. The system is not primarily aimed at reducing CO2 emissions, but to promote the production of energy from renewable sources.

Energy and CO2 taxes

The Swedish energy and CO2 taxes apply on combustion of fuels in engines or fuels used for heating, and electricity generation. Waste is also treated as a material subject to the regular CO2 and energy tax legislation. The EU energy directive leaves room for countries to exempt energy intensive industries from the energy tax, provided that they take part of an arrangement which leads to the fulfilment of similar environmental targets. In Sweden, energy intensive industries taking part in the Programme for increasing energy efficiency in energy intensive industries are in this way excluded from the energy tax, which means that a long list of industrial activities are to some degree exempted from these taxes. Households pay full energy and CO2 tax on fuels used for heating. No tax is paid on fuels used in shipping, train or commercial aviation.

Incentives to purchase and produce clean vehicles

A number of instruments form a set of incentives to purchase or lease low emission and alternatively fuel cars. For private consumers, a subsidy is given for each clean vehicle purchased, during a period between April 2007 and December 2009. In addition, taxation of private cars and other light duty vehicles is linked to emissions of CO2. For companies, taxation of prerequisites of company cars is reduced for alternatively fuelled cars and hybrid cars. Finally, a range of local policies concerning public transport, parking policies, and the exemption from congestion tax in Stockholm for alternative cars further subsidise this category of cars. In addition, 85% of the vehicles bought or vehicles for which leasing agreement is introduced by any authority under the Swedish government must be so called clean vehicles.

Other subsidies

The Climate Investment Programmes (Klimp) are programmes aimed at achieving long term emission reductions. Between 2003 and 2008, the government awarded local authorities investment support for programmes aimed at enabling CO2 emission reductions in sectors such as electricity and heating, transport and waste.

A range of instruments are targeting emissions from energy use in residential and other buildings. All are instruments in the form of subsidies, targeting CO2 emissions from different technologies and buildings operated by different actors. A typical example is the subsidy for reducing oil use in residential houses. Consumers have responded extremely well to the incentive and use of oil for heating is in sharp decline.

Regulatory instruments

The Environmental Code contains the general, overriding Swedish environmental legislation. In the climate area, it can be mentioned that prior to starting a new manufacturing installation, according to the Environmental Code, a permission is needed, where also the emissions of greenhouse gases from the installations are regulated.

Assessment of the current climate policy mix

Having reviewed the Swedish climate policy mix, it appears that from a production perspective, most sectors are covered by a range of instruments. Climate polices in Sweden constitutes a mix of instruments, geared at different actors, activities and emissions. Instruments target both individual and public consumers, commercial actors, and municipalities. However, some key exceptions exist. In the aviation sector, both domestic and international aviation is fully exempted from both energy and CO2 taxes as well as from VAT on aviation fuel. However, aviation will be included in the EU ETS in the future. In addition, only indirect effects influence key emissions in the agricultural sector. In particular, no polices are geared at methane emissions from livestock.

However, if the consumption perspective is again considered, it appears that a proportion of consumption is not covered by the Swedish policy mix. According to calculations by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (2008), there are currently about 19 million tonnes CO2 equivalents from production of imported goods that are not covered by any policy. Consider again the four categories of private consumption: transportation, housing, food and shopping. Consumption of transportation is directly influenced by the taxation of energy and CO2 taxes, subsidies and tax exemptions. Polices in the heat and electricity sector influence consumption patterns for products and services related to housing. For consumption of food, emissions during production and transportation are only indirectly targeted by the taxes energy and CO2.

Finally, for shopping, all polices are upstream in the production chain. Thus, whereas there are a range of policies targeting the consumption side in the transport and housing categories, the categories shopping and food are only indirectly targeted. Moreover, many of the products in these categories have been imported, and the emissions during their production and transports of them are not covered by any Swedish climate policy instrument.

4. Personal Carbon Trading as a potential Swedish climate policy instrument

Regarding the Swedish emissions from a consumption perspective, it is clear that some emissions are currently not covered by policies. Further, in order to reach the near zero emission targets, radical changes in terms of changes in consumer behaviour are most likely needed. This is perhaps the most important feature of personal carbon trading, i.e. its potential to induce change in consumer behaviour.

In spite of energy efficiency improvements, emissions are increasing in some areas due to increased consumption and production. A benefit of personal carbon trading is that it includes awareness raising since the costs of CO2 become visible for consumers. In a study by Bristow et al., (2008) it was found that for individuals that were willing to make changes in their behaviour, the emission reductions were 50% higher under a personal trading scheme than under a carbon tax scheme. However, more people said that they would change their behaviour under a tax scheme than under a trading scheme. Further, individuals seem to find it easier to make changes in their transport behaviour than in their domestic energy use. When asked to change their transport habits towards a 60 per cent reduction targets, households were able to achieve an average saving of 21 per cent (Prescott, 2008). This raises the question about how much people are willing and able to save without supportive measures.

The personal trading schemes discussed and investigated in the UK context have mainly been aimed at targeting private consumption of household energy and private consumption of fuel for transportation. Recalling the Swedish greenhouse gas emissions and the Swedish policy mix, it appears that emissions from the residential sector are already declining due to some policy instruments already implemented.

In the transport sector, however, Swedish emissions are increasing. However, the increase is most apparent in the area of heavy goods transports. In addition, also for private transports, there is a range of policy measures implemented, as described earlier. The question remains if these policy instruments will prove sufficient. As Prescott (2008) points out, during a period when the costs for driving and flying have decreased or remained at stable level, at the same time, incomes have increased which has made driving and flying more affordable. During the same period, bus and train fares have increased.

The consumption categories that are not directly covered by any Swedish policies are food and shopping, which are instead targeted on the production side. In particular, the proportion of food and consumables that is imported is not covered by any Swedish policy instrument. However, including these consumption categories in a PCT scheme has not been investigated to any greater extent in the UK. Although there have been suggestions to include consumption of all products and services under a PCT scheme, this has been declared not feasible within any near future by the Tyndall centre (Starkey & Andersson, 2005).

A critique against personal carbon trading is that it would be quite costly. A personal carbon trading scheme that considers emissions during the various production processes of consumables and food would certainly be no exception. In addition, finding accurate emission data in particular for imported goods would be very difficult. Further, the way emission data is currently reported to the UNFCCC, there is currently little incentive for nations to include emissions that occur in other countries in their domestic policies.

The introduction of a new PCT scheme would likely lead to interactions with other carbon related policies that are already in existence. Of particular concern would the interaction with the current EU ETS. Implementing a PCT scheme alongside the EU ETS could cause problems regarding double counting. However, problems regarding policy interactions have always existed and could be addressed.

6. Concluding remarks

It appears as if current Swedish emissions are targeted quite well by the existing policy mix. In the short term, there could possibly be room for personal carbon trading as a Swedish policy instrument in the transportation sector. Further studies would be needed to find out how people would react under such a scheme and what the benefits would be from a personal carbon trading scheme compared to other policy initiatives.

In the long term perspective, if the near zero emission target should be achieved, new and innovative measures will certainly be needed. In order to reach such targets, improvements in energy efficiency will not be enough. Changes in behaviour are also needed. Currently however, energy efficiency achievements are being counteracted by increasing consumption. In addition, a large proportion of the goods consumed have been imported and these emissions are not covered by domestic policies. An innovative system such as personal carbon trading could address these problems and has at the same time the potential of being an equitable policy instrument.


Bristol, A. Zanni, A. Wardman, M. & Kumar, P., 2008. Personal carbon trading: using stated preference to investigate behavioural response. Final report. Leicestershire: Loughborough University.

Commission of the European Communities, 2008. Impact Assessment. Document accompanying the Package of Implementation measures for the EU’s objectives on climate change and renewable energy for 2020, Commission staff working document, SEC(2008) 85/3. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.

Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008.

European Environment Agency, 2008. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projection in Europe 2008 – Country profile: Sweden. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.

Kerr, A. & Battye, W., 2008. Personal Carbon Trading: Economic efficiency and interaction with other policies. London: Royal Society for the encouragement of arts, manufacture and commerce.

Prescott, M., 2008. A persuasive climate. Personal carbon trading and changing lifestyles. London: Royal Society for the encouragement of arts, manufacture and commerce.

Scientific Council for Climate Issues, 2007. Vetenskapligt underlag för klimatpolitiken. Rapport från Vetenskapliga rådet för klimatfrågor. Miljövårdsberedningens rapport 2007:03. Stockholm: Scientific Council for Climate Issues.

Starkey, R. & Anderson, K., 2005. Domestic Tradable Quotas: A policy instrument for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy use. Tyndall Technical Report 39. Manchester: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Manchester.

Swedish Energy Agency & Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Styrmedel i klimatpolitiken. Delrapport 2 i Energimyndighetens och Naturvårdsverkets underlag till Kontrollstation 2008. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2007. Sweden’s National Inventory Report 2008. Stockholm: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2008. Konsumtionens klimatpåverkan. Rapport 5903. Stockholm: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Experience of promoting consumer education in Estonia

Tiina Vänt and Jana Tamm

Tiina Vänt tiina_peava@,

Jaana Tamm, jaana@tlu.ee

Tallinn University

Tiina Vänt

Tallinn University

Narva road 25, Tallinn, 10120, Estonia

+372 6409 437


Jaana Tamm

Tallinn University

Narva road 25, Tallinn, 10120, Estonia

+372 6409 437



Our everyday lives are filled with different product commercials and offers, which lead us into increased consumption. Day by day it becomes more difficult to choose one product or service over another. We all, adults, youth and children, are consumers. Many commercials are especially directed to children, who by influencing parents can attain the purchase of the product. How is it possible in the midst of all the advertising and special deals to remain in the area of „reasonable consumption“ rather thanpurchasing a product that at the moment seems important in the commercial, yet within few days is of no use at home? As with all other capabilities, responsible consumerism must be studied and practiced. For this reason, the words “consumer training” are gaining more and more importance in Estonia.


Consumer training in Estonia has been striving towards influencing the teacher training curricula and general education. This effort has received a helpful push from examples of other European countries as well as the willingness of the Estonian Consumer Protection Board to cooperate and offer sufficient support.

A considerable proportion of consumer training in teacher training programmes can be noticed especially in the Nordic Countries. The course Consumer Citizenship - towards sustainable development (3 ects) is part of the the intermediate studies of Home Economics teacher training programme in the University of Helsinki. The course covers legislation, different institutions and cooperation programmes and opportunities for further knowledge. (University of Helsinki) In Tallinn University in Estonia the home economics teacher training programme's specialty subjects include the course Family Economics and Consumer Education with the volume of 3 ects (Tallinn University), during which the future teachers receive information on consumer education and readiness to develop interesting and variable teaching methods and topics in the consumer training area which can be used later in on the job.

Consumer education offered by different insitutions has been in the national curriculum in Estonia of primary and secondary education since 1996. The need for consumer education has been formulated explicitly in the current curriculum (from 2002), where general aims include: the student honours and obeys legislation, is informed about his/her obligations and responsibilities as a citizen; sees himself/herself as a member of his/her nation, citizen and tied to Europe and all human race. Given general aims are put into practice in three curricula – Estonian language (mother tongue), social studies and home economics; in the two former curricula mainly on a theoretical level, in home economics also through practical studies.

Despite the fact, that the need for consumer education is justified in the national curriculum and universities hold courses respectively, the Estonian Consumer Protection Board – a national institution - has been the main initiator and deliverer of the practical consumer education. The main goal of the Board is to help the consumer protect his lawful rights allowing him to be smart participant in market relations and a qualified opponent to the offerors of services and products – merchants. In addition to the main aim, the Consumer Protection Board is obliged in accordance with European Union Amsterdam Treaty, article No 153, to furnish information and offer training courses, i.e. to train independent critical and informed consumers by giving them basic knowledge on consumer education and the topics related, so that the students might be aware of the influences they face during different lifestyles, having specific consumption habits, values and patterns. (ECPB)

Estonian Consumer Protection Board has initiated many different consumer education projects, aimed at school students and has issued the necessary study materials. In developing consumer education the Consumer Protection Board is cooperating with institutions and specialists from different areas of society. For example the competition for pupils called „Let's Manage“ was developed and is carried out in cooperation with students and faculty members of the Tallinn University. The aforementioned project creates possibilities for cooperation between general education school, university and Consumer Protection Board i.e. between pupils, teachers, students, faculty members and government office.


Since 2001 the Estonian Consumer Protection Board has been organising the competition „Let's manage“ initiated by the Phare twinning project, for pupils in order to raise knowledge of consumer protection and gain wider public attention. The idea of the project originates from the cooperation partner Swedish Consumer Protection Board (Konsumentverket). The target group of the game is pupils from 8th grade (from 14 years of age). (ECPB)

Project-based learning was selected for „Let's manage“, which creates opportunities for integrating different subjects (home economics, handicraft, studies of art, social studies, civics, economic studies etc) and strengthens cooperation among different subject teachers. This is also emphasised in the national curriculum, drawing attention to the fact that the use of project-based learning creates possibilities for integration within other subjects, because problem solution requires knowledge and skills from different areas. (National Curriculum) Kärpijoki, in the collection of working methods, also emphasises the suitability of project-based learning in consumer education. (Kärpijoki, 1999) „Let's manage“ competition initiates a study-project for the students of Tallinn University as well, who will implement their knowledge in the study-project when preparing and holding the final competition.

The structure of the project „Let's manage“ in Estonia:

  • Beginning assignment is posed to the participants of the project by the officers of the Consumer Protection Board, home economics specialty faculty members of the Tallinn University and by the working group including the specialists in the field of the project topic.

  • Information about the upcoming project is disseminated in different media channels.

  • A minimum of two seminar/workshops are held for the advisors of the pupils participating in the project, during which didactic knowledge concerning the topic of the project and materials for using the lessons are given. Teachers receive written material including useful information and presentations from the seminar.

  • Pupils formulate teams and produce a written report, according to the beginning assignment. Depending on the posed assignment visual materials (videos, drawings, games, pictures etc) may be added to the report. Final report will be submitted to the Consumer Protection Board on a given date.

  • The working group carrying out the project and the students of Home Economics in Tallinn University choose 3 finalists from among the submitted projects, and two teams for the special award. Other teams receive written feedback on the positive and negative aspects of theirprojects.

  • The working group prepares the final competition, where teams have to tackle different theoretical and practical assignments.

  • The final competition is held in which the teamwhich covers the given topic best, wins. Sponsors who are supporting the project present financial awards for the teams taking part in the final competition.

  • The project is closed with a summarising analysis, teachers receive feedback forms

Overview of the competition topics throughout the years

The topic of the first competition, which took place in 2001, was „We'll manage healthy and economically“ with the goal of giving pupils knowledge on consumer protection and teaching them to consume economically and with concern for the environment. The jurisdiction of the national curriculum supported the choice, as it is written: a student values healthy living standards, develops his/her spirit and body. (National Curriculum) One of the assignments was managing a four-member family within a given budget for one week. Different aspects of the beginning assignments required pupils to use theoretical knowledge, practical skills as well as skills for using creativity and cooperation.

The next year the project was entitled „We'll manage a fun and cool party!“. The following topics were discussed: consumer protection (including signs on textile and dry cleaning), healthy food, etiquette, fire safety, budget preparation, and environment protection. The goal of the project was to teach pupils to plan their income and expenses through role games, using fantasy and experience and knowledge on consumer education. For example, pupils had to draft a rental agreement in accordance with the legislation.

In 2003/2004 the topic of the project was „We'll manage a nice field trip in Estonia!“ The importance of the topic can be seen in the Estonian National Curriculum, where environment and the economical use of natural resources and healthy living standards are emphasised. (National Curriculum) Through the chosen topic pupils were directed to discover various new hiking opportunities in Estonian nature. As a part of the assignment, pupils had to plan a three-day field trip. Through feedback it was found that some of the teams even carried out their ideas by organising an actual trip.

The goal of the next project (in 2004/2005) entitled „We'll manage furnishing the kitchen and prepare a healthy dinner“ was to teach pupils to manage in a home environment by using their fantasy and skills. The assignment was to furnish a cosy kitchen with necessary equipment, buy cleaning aids for cleaning the house and plan a fancy dinner with the family. In addition, the youth had to think of an educational game that would be interesting and useful for other young consumers. A board game entitled “Consumer Awareness” prepared by one of the finalists, proved to be very resourceful and good didactic material for consumer training. The game was printed by Consumer Protection Board and has been sent to all Estonian schools of general education.

The fifth competition from the series „Let's manage!“ was carried out in the school year 2005/2006. It was entitled „We'll manage a national evening!“. The choice of the topic was influenced by the keyword „Estonian cuisine“ in the Estonian food culture of 2005. The goal of the competition was to present our food culture, national meals, food products and tradition, including the specifics of each location of the youth, to the visiting foreign sister-class. The topic was again supported by the National Curriculum: the student acknowledges himself/herself as a member of his/her nation, feels the connection to Europe and all human race, knows and respects his/her national culture, is informed about and has knowledge of different world nations' cultures, and respects them and treats them without bias. In addition to the planning of the three-day visit for the guests, they had to address the challenges of the border crossing.

The sixth competition entitled „We'll manage creating an advertisement!“ is being organised at the moment. Teams must analyze two Estonian commercials and must create a commercial for youthintroducing consumer rights and obligations.

These project descriptions give a clear overview of the wide scope of the topics covered. Variability has been the goal for choosing topics and opportunities for uniting different subjects have created a good challenge for subject teachers to pursue closer cooperation. Due to active subject teachers, 24 schools from different Estonian counties have been participating in one competition within a topic, and the maximum number of teams per year has been 31. (Table 1)

Table 1.

The number of schools and teams participating by year



Number of schools

Number of teams


We'll manage healthy and economically




We'll manage a fun and cool party




We'll manage a nice field trip in Estonia




We'll manage furnishing the kitchen and healthy dinner




We'll manage a national evening




We'll manage creating an advertisement



Teachers' seminars

Seminar/workshops for advising teachers have been part of each project. The competition conditions, evaluation criteria and working methods are introduced in the seminars and theoretical lectures (on consumer protection, environment protection, eating and media) are held. Also helpful materials, including teacher's handbooks (summarizing all materials discussed in the training) and informational booklets by different institutions, are distributed to the teachers and pupils for successful participation in the project.

In the workshops didactic tips are shared by faculty members of the Home Economics subject in Tallinn University. For years, gaining theoretical knowledge through active study assignments has been the ground for choosing didactic solutions, the former being nowadays the most motivating method for guiding students in obtaining knowledge. Knowledge gained through personal experience and/or practical activity will be affirmed and is most likely to be used again. (Hitch, Youatt, 2002) An important aspect while choosing didactic examples and assignments, is their compatibility with pupils age andtheir relevance and appropriateness in the society. For example, the marketing strategies of the products carrying a brand of the Estonian cartoon hero „Lotte“ were analysed during the workshop held within the present project (We'll manage creating an advertisement).

The seminar/workshops are promote various parties (teachers, faculty members, specialists) by giving the opportunity to learn from each other and use the co-produced methods in advancing the consumer education. The teachers emphasize the positive seminar/workshops in their feedback. Many participants find this training very useful and interesting and have discovered topics for carrying out other subject classes, even for thehomeroom teacher class. (Aruste, 2004)

Throughout the years, feedback given by the teachers has allowed the project working group to develop the competition and make it more pupil-friendly, to choose relevant challenges, and to correct the volume of the work.


The consumer education pilot project initiated in the 2001 has become an annual project that reaches its goals by cooperating with various institutions and educating well-informed and responsible future consumers. Experience over the years shows that the form of the competition (project-based learning) has proved itself. Pupils are glad to gain knowledge through practical experiences, learning outside traditional lessons and school rooms. Faculty members find it practical in developing and varying their work while gaining experience working with the pupils other than their own students. For students, participating in the project is a unique with a new study method that requires fitting into a working group and offers a refreshing alternative to academic study. Long-term sponsorship by different Estonian companies shows that businesses recognize the need for educating future consumers and are ready to continue the investment. Opinions of the different institutions who have participated in the projects, allow suggesting similar competitions for other countries in order to advance consumer education.


  • Aruste, A. (2004). Consumer education through Home Economics. Diploma thesis. Tallinna University: Department of Craft

  • ECPB. Estonian Consumer Protection Board. Viewed 19.02.2009, http://www.tka.riik.ee/?lang=en

  • Hitch, E.J., Youatt, J. P. (2002) Communicating Family and Consumer Sciences. A Guidebook for Proffessionals. The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

  • Kärpijoki, K. (1999) Goals of consumer education, its substance and working methods for teacher training. Helsinki: Oy Edita Ab.

  • National Curriculum of the Estonian Basic and Upper Secondary School, Viewed 19.02.2009, http://www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=174787

  • Tallinn University. Department of Craft. Viewed 19.02.2009, http://www.tlu.ee/?LangID=1&CatID=2425

  • University of Helsinki. Department of Home Economics and Craft Science. Viewed 19.02.2009, http://www.helsinki.fi/kktl/english/home_economics.htm

From Consumer to Stakeholder Citizenship: A Model towards ‘World Citizenship’ for Lesser Developed Countries

Müberra Yüksel and Sevgi Kalkan

Assist. Prof. Müberra Yüksel,*

Assist. Prof Sevgi Kalkan **

The encouragement of consumerism has been justified on the economic argument that increasing demand would lead to growth, which would ultimately tickle down to benefit all. Under the conditions of globalization, however, the basic relationship between consumption and growth has been weakened because of the displacement of production to lesser developed countries (LDCs) along with the widening gap of consumption level between the developed countries (DCs) and LDCs.

Consumption in the developed world has created socially and environmentally undesirable consequences all over the world. Unethical or irresponsible corporate practices have also made consumers become aware of these companies and turned them into consumer citizens mostly in developed countries.

An opinion poll of 25,000 consumers in 23 countries has indicated the increasing importance consumers are putting on the social responsibility of companies. Although these findings verify the hypothesis that “the more that social interaction is de-territorialized, the more interrelations are taking place beyond the control of the nation-state, and the more the perception of (national) citizenship is weakened, the more the notion of corporate/ consumer, citizenship is growing globally.”Yet, we claim this increase is less particularly in putting consumer citizenship in practice in LDCs.

It is hard to expect workers (as consumers in LDC) who cannot even afford to buy what they are manufacturing in LDCs to become consumer citizens.In order to identify the obstacles of being consumer citizens in LDCs, in this paper we will try to investigate the leading arguments that relevant non-governmental organizations hold in Turkey.

Keywords: Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) as mediators, Implementation, Stakeholders, Rights and Duties.

1 This concept was previously developed by Baptista (2008).

2 Available at http://mobgas.jrc.it.

3 Also, it should be considered the expenses associated to the measures so that the overall environmental benefit is higher.

4 More information on .uk/communityhousehold.aspx.

5 More information on /dataoecd/29/22/2397833.pdf.

6 This theoretical setting derives from Mary Douglas’ theory of dynamic integration with the classical structural perspectives in which (co)determining factors are the social, political and historical contexts within which behavioural patterns take place, and in our case, consumption choices (see Beato, 1998).

7 Coordinated by the present author, the research is the outcome of an interdisciplinary effort involving agrarian and environmental economists as well as environmental and cultural sociologists and methodologists. Though significant synergies were achieved, there are specific merits to be acknowledged: the survey on available literature was carried out by Daniele di Nunzio and Serena Rugiero of IRES; the investigation model was defined together with Prof. Davide Marino of Università del Molise; the questionnaire was compiled by Anna Ancora, a methodology researcher; the data were processed by Prof. Stefano Nobile of ‘La Sapienza’ University of Rome and by Prof. Roberto Rocci of ‘Tor Vergata’ University of Rome.

8 Introduced in Italy by Prof. Andrea Segre, Last Minute Market projects aim “to transform waste into a resource”. The projects are activated by Carpe Cibum, a co-operative providing a service that makes possible the reutilisation of unsold goods which have no commercial value but  which are still fit for consumption. These items are made available through donations to Bodies and Associations that provide assistance to people belonging to disadvantaged social classes. A similar initiative, the Food Bank focuses on collecting food surplus that is then distributed by charity organisations that assist the poor and the outcasts. The first food bank was set up in Phoenix, Arizona, at the end of the Sixties. In Italy, the initiative was developed and consolidated by Danilo Fossati, chairman of the food producer Star, and by monsignor Luigi Giussani, founder of the ecclesial movement Communion and Liberation. Europe can rely on 174 food banks in 13 countries (Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, United Kingdom, Ireland, Poland, Latvia, Ukraine).

9 L’Escola del Consum de Catalunya (Consumption School of Catalunya) is an institution which belongs to the Agència Catalanadel Consum de la Generalitat de Catalunya (the Catalan Agency of Consumption of the Generalitat of Catalonia) (Catalonia-Spain) www.consum.cat

10 The basic idea behind this contribution is closely linked to our conjoint research project NaNu! (www.nanu-projekt.de), in which we are responsible for the project part “passive houses” (www.energiecomforthaus.de).

11 Calculated on the data on , Euromonitor International - Global Market Information Database.

12 www.nsi.bg

13 /en/List_of_video_sharing_websites

14 /wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites

15 2008 market trends, Our vision on major communication challenges, Mediaedge:cia, Paris, 2008

16 In principle, the EU's Data Protection Directive (95/46/EC) applies to profiling, as it involves the collection and processing of data about individuals. However, some question whether group profiles can be regarded as personal data when the data are anonymised and abstracted, and when profiles can be applied to individuals without identifying them.

17 www.nsi.bg

18 Banet-Weiser S. and C. Lapsansky. RED is the new Black: Brand Culture, Consumer Citizenship and Political Possibility. International Journal of Communication 2, 2008. In 2006 General Motor invited consumers to make their own online 30-second commercial for the car company’s new SUV, the Chevy Tahoe. In that same year, global pop star Bono and California politician and activist Bobby Shriver launched RED – a cause-related marketing campaign that donates a portion of profits made from sale of consumer goods such as iPods, Dell computers, an Gap clothing to the Global Funds to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

19 Consumer Citizenship Education – Guidelines (Vol. 1 Higher Education), The Consumer Citizenship Network 2005, Victoria W. Thoresen, Hedmark University College, Hamar, Norway.

21 Idem, pages 15-16.

22 In UNESCO, “UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Developement (2005-2014)”, /education/en/ev.php

23 In this stage of the proposal we expect that 8 (eight) HEI could actively integrate the Consortium.

24 Names of the HEI’s must be seen as merely indicatives at this stage of the EMICA’s proposal.

25 Here and Now – Education for sustainable consumption, Marrakech Task Force on Education for Sustainable Consumption, Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea of Italy; 2008, page 6.

26 European Programme In Consumer Affairs

27 Notwithstanding our definition, “Mainstreaming CSR“ is also used in the literature as the strengthening of CSR within the core business of companies (Berger et al. 2007).

28Stiftung Warentest is a German independent consumer organization for testing the quality of products and services. Stiftung Warentest is financed mainly through the marketing of own publications and additional governmental support (16%).

29 58 articles in 1105.

30Metaal P. is co-author of the report “Coca Yes, Cocaine No? Legal Options for the Coca Leaf” of TNI’s Drugs and Democracy project [where one can see that] the inclusion of the coca leaf alongside cocaine and heroin in Schedule I of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs from 1961”.

31 TNI Transnational Institute. Dutch research center that studies drug policy

32 Altman AJ, Albert DM, Fournier GA (1985). ";Cocaine’s use in ophthalmology: our 100-year heritage";. Surv Ophthalmol 29: 300–307. doi:10.1016/0039-6257(85)90153-5.

33 OXFAM a gather of 13 institutions to fight poverty and injustice in 100 countries in the world .co:81/node/155

34 ILSA Latin American institute for Alternative Legal Services .co:81/node/155

35 Duke, J.A., Aulik, D., and Plowman, T. 1975. Nutritional Value of Coca. Botanical Museum Leaflets 24(6):113-119.



36 /Reform/2004/Super-Coca-TNI8sep04.htm

37 /wiki/Cocaine#cite_ref-17

38 /wiki/Cocaine#cite_ref-barlow_15-0

39 Citizenship culture: a didactic program to enhance citizens’ sense of belonging and care for the city by means of strong reciprocators (Feder’s definition for those people willing to socially sanction their fellow citizens when are not obeying a social norm even if from it there is any derived benefit for him/her). For the program Mockus engaged theatre, mimes and informal games among citizens.

40 Papanek, Victor. (1995) The Green Imperative. Published by Thames and Hudson, London.

41 http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html

42 /stats1.htm (accessed 1 March 2009)

43 .za/main.php?include=docs/pr/2007/pr0613.html&menu=menus/services.html (accessed 27/02/09)

44 .za/main.php?include=docs/pr/2007/pr0613.html&menu=menus/services.html (accessed 27/02/09)

45 .za/main.php?include=about/conseducation.html&menu=mainmenu.html

46 /index.cgi?board=general

47 http://mybroadband.co.za/vb/showthread.php?t=11081

48 This paper is based on my master thesis from the Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen (Sælensminde, 2008).

* Corresponding Author: Helen Theodoropoulou, Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, 70 E. Venizelos, 17671 Athens, Greece Tel: +30-2109549205 Fax: +30-2109577050 e-mail: etheodo@hua.gr

49 The data were collected by TNS Gallup.

50 The excluded subjects did not differ significantly (the 5% level) from included subjects on any of the target variables in the first wave.

* Kadir Has University, Dept. of Advertising,

**Maltepe University, Dept. of Business Administration.

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