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and the peace factor, 14;

restoration, 142;

table of countries off, 266;

in the United States, 202

Goldenweiser, A., 158, 270, 291, 292

Government (see Popular government)

Grant, Irene, xiii

Great Britain, 19, 29, 245, 246, 288;

balance of power, 259:

and Bismarck, 8;

currency, 227, 234,

expansion, 5, 6;

and Fascism, 242;

foreign policy, 213;

general strike, 228;

and laissez-faire, 143;

National Government, 227;

off the gold standard, 23, 26, 142, 1991 244;

trade 207, 230;

unemployment benefits, 283.

world finance, 252

Great War (see World War 1)

Greece, 5-6, 24, 242;

currency, 35

Grey, Sir Edward, 259

Habeas Corpus Act, 139

Haberler, G„ 311

Habitation versus improvement, 34 ff.

Hadley, A. T„ 226

Hales, John, 36

Halevy, Elie, 281

Halifax, Lord, 245

Hamburg, 63

Hamilton, Alexander, 227

Hammond, Barbara, 171* ^^

Hammond, J. L., 171, 282

Hammurabi (in Babylonia), 51

Hampshire (England), 93, 285

Hanse, 63

Hapsburgs, 261

Hartley, David, 114

Hastings, Warren, 213

Haushofer, Karl, 263

Haute finance, 9, 13-14, 18-19, 22, 27:

England, ii;

France, ii;

function, 10-11 ;

organization, 11

Hawtrey, G. R„ 56, 72, 184, 263

Hayes, C. A., 187

Hazlitt, W., 126

Heatley. D. P., 263

Heckscher, E. F., 36, 165, 277, 278

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm, ill

Heimwehr, 241

Helvetius, Claude Adrien, 114

Henderson, H. D., 68

Henry VIII, King of England, 225

Herriot, Edouard, 147

Hershey, A. S., 16, 263

Herskovits, M. J., 163, 273, 276

Heymann, H,, 241

Hilferding, Rudolf, 25, 268

Hindenburg, von Beneckendorff und von,Paul, 23, 238, 242

Hitler, Adolf, 190, 238, 239, 243, 245, 246

Hobbes, Thomas, 114, 164

Hobson, J. A., 268

Hofmann, A„ 263

Holland, 28, 261;

and Fascism, 237, 241

Holy Alliance, 56., 17

Hoover, Herbert, 25

Householding, 54

Hewlett, Rev. J., 285

Humanity (see Society)

Hume, David, 114, 192, 260, 263

Hundred Years' Peace, 3 S-, 189, 264-265;

Bibliography, 263

Hungary, 5, 12, 23, 242;

and Bolshevism,187:

and currency, 25:

and Fascism,237, 241

Hungry Forties, 173, 226

Husicisson, William, 223

"Ideal system" (economics), x

Immigration, 204

Imperialism, 16, 151, 183. 209, 211-212,214,217

Import tariffs (.see Customs tariffs)

Imports, 212

"Improvement" versus "Habitation," 34 "•

Incas, 52, 273

India, 52, 159-160, 165;

and currency,273

Indian Reorganization Act, 293

Indians, American (see North American Indians)

Indo-China, 6

Industrial Revolution, x, 7, 34, 37^-, 77, 88-89, 119, 129, 161, 1651

causes 40;

cultural effect, 156-157;

definition 173;

origin, 30;

social conditions, 39,173

Industry, 16

Industry-Houses, 107, 117, 121

Inflation, 23, 24, 26, 142, 227

Inheritance Act, 180

Innes, A. D., 36

International institutions, 3-4: (see alsoBalance of power; Gold standard; Liberal state; Markets—self-regulating)

International labor office, 26

International system, 3-4, 15, 2off.;

failure, 28, 244;

monetary, 15

Internationalism, 10, 14

Intervention, internatioiini, ;,Interventionism, 36, 66, 149, 154, 198, 206, 207-208, 216, 223, 231

Investments, foreign, ii, 14

Irela''-J, 237

Italy, 5, 23, 30, 212, 243;

Bolshevism 190;

currency, 25;

Fascism, 237, 241 242;

industrial revolution, 175;

oreparations for war, 244

James, Isaac, 113, 285

Japan, 212, 244, 260;

Fascism, 237

Jesus, 256

Joh-Jison, Charles S., 294

Jones, Edward, 285

Jowett, Benjamin, 54

Jugoslavia, 237

Kaffirs, 157,.163, 293, 294

Kett's rebellion, 35

Keynes, John Maynard, 185

Kingfisher (see Long, Huey)

Kingsiey, Charles, 98, 158

Kingsiey, Mary H., 292

Klages, Ludwig, 238

Knight, Frank H., 250

Knowledge of constitutive facts, 255-256

Knowles, L. C. A., 175, 263

Kouwenhoven, John A., xiii

Kpelle, 59

Kraal-land system, 163

Kula ring, 59

Kula trade, 49, 50

Kwakiut! (tribesmen), 51,163

Labor, 39, 68ff., 77ff-, 163^-, 226;

code of, 87;

division of, 276;

enforced, 86,88, 95;

independent 100;

nationalization, 70;

nomadic, 164;

obligations, 115

Labor exchange, 10^5, 108, 168

Labor legislation, England, 70

Labor market (see Markets, Labor)

Labor organization, 86

Labor parties, 144, 228, 235

Laissez-faire, 117, 119, 132, 137. 139, 140-141, 148 ff„ 282

Land, 34, 37, 68ff., 77, l78ff.:

colonies,178

Langer, W. L., 264, 268

Lassalle, Ferdinand, 25, 106, 108

Lasswell, H. D., 263, 264

Latin America and Fascism, 237

Latvia, 24, 240, 242

Laud, William, Archbishop, 35

Lawrence, D. H., 238

Lawson, 105

League of Nations, 26, 27;

balance of power, 21, 241;

collapse, 23;

gold delegation of, 233

League council, 22

Loathes, Sir Stanley Mordaunt, 263, 268

Leigh, Robert D., xiii

Lenin, Nikolay, 16, 23, 25

Lesser, Alexander, 291

Libel Act, 140

Liberal state, 3, 28, 29, 185

Linton, Ralph, 271

Lippmann, Walter, 44, 141, 148, 263, 283

Lipson, Ephraim, 275

Lithuania, 24, 242

Lloyd George, David, 148

Locke, John, 106, 112, 124, 225

Loeb, E. M., 163, 275, 276

London, Eng,, 173, 186, 193

Long, Huey, 241

Lorimer, Frank, 292

Lowie, Robert Harry, 270

Luddism, 81, 166

Lueger, Karl, 147

Luson, Hewling, 285

Luther, Martin, 111

Luxembourg, neutralization, 8

Lyons, France, 163, 165

Lysis (Michael Le Tellier), 268

Macaulay, Thomas B., 176, 225, 226

Machiavelli, Niccolo, 111

Maciver, Robert M., xii

Machines, 74, 119

Madagascar, 6

Mair, L. P., 163, 291, 292

Malinowski, Bronislav, 47, 269 5-

Malthus, Thomas Robert, 80, 84, 85, 98,104, 113, 116, 121-123, 126, 223, 280,288

Manchester, Eng., 136, 166

Mandeville, Doctor, 108

Mankind (see Society)

Mantoux, P. L., 122, 269

Manufactures, 94

Market economy, x, 30, 72, 77, 101, 130,178 ff„ 186, 214 ff„ 223 ff., 254, 293-294;

ancient Greece, 54:

definition, 40, 42-43, 68:

England, 30:

successor of Speenhamland, 102

Market system, 38, 41, 75, 81, 123-124, 130-131, 133, 139, 149 ff„ 155, i62ff.,186, 217!

collapse of, 234;

self-regulating, 29-30

Markets, 28, 41, 43-44, 54^., i62ff., 178ff„ i92ff., 218, 249^, 269, 275;

customs and ceremonies, 61—62;

definition 56;

fairs, 60;

free, 140;

India, 160;

labor, 70, 72, 77, 78, 80, 88, 117, 127,135, 137-138, i62ff., 176-177, 181, 216, 225, 231, 252, 254, 290;

land, 72, i62ff.,i78ff„ 216, 231, 252; local, 58, 61-62,64;

money, 18, 72, i62ff., 231, 252;

national, 61, 65-66, 115;

one big market, 72, 178;

origin, 63;

ports, 60;

real estate, 178;

self-regulating, 3, 38, 40 ff„57, 67ff„ 83, 127, 131-132, 135, 138, 14lff-, 148 ff„ 189, 200, 208, 216, 274;

[309]

United States, 201 ;

world, 76

Marshall, Dorothy, 286

Marshall, T. H..288

Martineau, Harriet, 90, 98, 100, 225, 281,285

Marx, Karl, x, 25, 72, 84, 108, 126, 151,166, 280-281

Massle, J., 285

Materialism, 30, 40

Mayer, J. P., 263, 264

Mead, Margaret, 158, 291

Meeting of Sufferings, 106

Melanesians, 292

Mellonie, F. C„ 286

Mendershausen, Horst, xiii

Mercantilism, 36, 67, 70, 74, 86, 278 Meredith, H. 0., 79

Metternich, von, Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince, 7

McFarlane, John, 103, 285, 293

Micronesians, 272

Middle classes, 17, 24, 100, 133, 172, 173,185, 186, 187:

Austria, 188:

(see alsoClasses)

Mill, James, 164

Mill, John Stuart, 25, 84, 203

Millins, Mrs. S. G„ 157

Mines Act, 146

Minstrels, 270

Mises, von, Ludwig, 25, 44, 141, 176-177,189, 195, 226, 227, 283

Mitchell, W. C., 282

Mond, Sir Alfred, 283

Mond Plan, 289

Money, 24-25, 54, 57-58, 68ff., 77, 195,196, 199, 202-203, 276-277;

commodity,131, 193, 196, 252;

Egypt, 51;

free 205-206;

token, 193, 196, 198, 252;

United States, 227 ;

(see also Currency:Wealth)

Montesquieu, de, Charles de Secondat, 66,225

More, Hannah, 170-171, 186

More, T„ 111

Morgan, John Pierpont, 28

Morgans, 27

Morocco, 12, 19, 28

Mowat, R. B„ 263

Muir, Ramsay, 264

Munich, Germany, 245

Munster, treaty of, 6, 261

Mussolini, Benito, 25, 190, 238, 243

Nasmith, James, 285

National Charity Company, 107

Nationalism, 16, 198

National Socialist Revolution, if

Nazism, 242, 245

Netherlands (see Holland)

Neutralization, 8

New Deal, 23, 202, 227, 229, 244

New Lanark, 170

New poor law, 224, 225

Norman, Montagu, 245,246

North American Indians, 161, 291, 292-293

Norway, 8, 337, 241

Poor Law, 70, 78 ff., 118, 136, 280—281,289;

bibliography, 284 ff.;

New Poor Law, 140 ;

and the parish, 87;

rates, 98;

versus revolution, 93

Poor Law amendment, 80, 224:

bill, 137

Poor Law bill, 117

Poor Law reform, 84, 102, 107, 156;

act,82, 83, 166, 173;

commissioners, 101

Poor rates (.see Rates)

Popular government, 223

Population, 39, 125, 161, 293

Portugal, 28

Postan, M. M., 278

Postlethwayt, Malachy, 103

"Postwar Revolutions," 22, 240

Poverty (see Pauperism) •

Power, Eileen Edna, 278

Power finance versus Dollar diplomacy,10, 13, 15

Prague, Czechoslovakia, 246

Prescription Acts, 180

Primitive man, 44, 45—46, 53

Price, Dr., 122

Prices, 68, 115. 123, 192

Prices (see also Food prices)

Productive organization, 130 ff., 192 ff.

Profits, 41

"Proletarian," 161

Protectionism, xi, 136, 142, 144, 151 ff„161, 176, 203-204, 205, 211, 216, 218,278:

Europe, 192;

United States, 202;

(see also Customs tariffs)

Proudhon, Pierre Joseph, 25, 106, 108

Prussia, 5, 147, 239;

and Fascism, 237

Prussianism, 216-217

Public Libraries Act, 146

Public utilities, 16

Puritans, 108

P.W.A., 283

Quakers, 105

Quesnay, Franiois, 84, 114, 135, »l*

Railways, 14,16

Ratcliffe-Brown, 271

Rates, 96 ff., 122

Rauschning, H., 242

Raw material, 190

Real Property Act, 180

Reciprocity, 478., 54 ff., 61, 270;

centricity, 48-49, 54^.;

Kula trade, 49?

symmetry, 48-49, 54ff„ 272

Redistribution, 6, 475., 55, 56. 2^2 ff.

Reform Bill, 80

Regeneration Societies, 169

Reichsmark, 215, 243

Remer, Charles Frederick, 268

Rhodes (island), 54

Ricardo, David, 25, 84, 85, 98, 104, 108, 111, 115, 116, 126, 127, 137, 182, 196, 203, 223, 2.86, 280, 288

"Right to live," 78 ff., 88, 101, 117

Rivera, de, Primo, 238

Robbins, L., 263

Robinson, Henry, 105

Rockefeller Foundation, xii, 1.

Rodbertus, Johann Karl, 183

Rogers, Wood, 113

Roman Catholic Church, 7, 9, 147

Roosevelt, Theodore, 148

Rostovtzeff, M. l„ 263

Rothschild, Nathan Meyer, 23

Rothschilds (family), 10, 17, 27

Roumania, 5, 24, 242;

currency, 17

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 7, 44, 84

Ruggles, Theodore, 285

Russell, Bertrand, 263

Russia, 5,8, 18, 19, 29, 247—248;

balance of power, 260;

currency, 25:

five year plans, 23;

Socialism, 234, 244, 246-247

Russian Revolutic., 247

Sabatier, William, 285

Sadler, Michael Thomas, 166

St. Giles-in-the-Field, 285

Saint-Simon, de, Claude Henri, Count,169—170

Satanic mills, x, 33 ff.

Saunders, Robert, 285

Savages (see Primitive man)

Schacht, Hjalmar,245

Schafer, Felix, xiii, 197

Schmoller, Gustav Friedrich von, 278

Schuman, F., 260, 263

Schumpeter, Joseph Alois, 283

Seipel, Ignaz, 228 Serbia, 6

Seven Years' War, 212

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, yth Earl, 166

Sheep farming, 34

Sherer, J. G., 285

Sheriffian empires, 7

Siam, 6

Silesian loan, 16

Simon, Sir John, 245

Simon, Lord, 246

Slaves, 116

Smith, Adam, 43, 44, 88, 92, 93, 103, 110,111, 112, 114, 124, 140, 165, 212, 250,293

Snowden, Philip, 25, 228

Social Democrats, 147, 187, 239

Social insurance, 176

Socialism, 29, 234-235

Society, x, xi, 3, 24, 30, 40, 46, 55, 71-72, 73, 84-85, 111, 162, 186, 196-197, 216, 278-279,

freedom, 249 256;

and the industrial revolution, 39;

primitive, 46-47, 57-58;

research on,269;

self-protection, 1305.

Sokolnikoff, G. Y., 25

Somerset, Lord Protector, 35

Sontag, R. J„ 7, 264, 268

Sorel, Georges, 238

Southey, Robert, 166

Spain, 5, 28, 34

Spanish-American War, l6-iy

Spann, Othmar, 238

Speenhamland, 77 ff., 95 5-, 122-123, 165, 223, 289, 294:

abolition, 101;

cotton in-dustry, 136;

law, 77, 79, 94, 102;

litera­ture of, 280 ff.;

payment of rates, 92

Spencer, Herbert, 44, 84, 141, 14^ 146, 186, 226, 283

Spitalfields institution, 285

Staley, Eugene, 268

Stalin, Joseph, 106

Statute of Artificers, 70, 16-87, 166, 224, 289

Stephen, Sir Leslie, 106, 121, 281

Stolper, G., 263

Storage (primitive societies), 48, 49, 51

Storm troops, 188

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl, 35

Strains and stresses, 209 ff.

Strikes, 230-231

Stuart policy, 35, 37, 76

Sumner, William Graham, 141, 141, ^26

Switzerland, 5, 261

Syria, 6

Symbiosis, 28, 52, 242, 276

Tariffs (see Customs tariffs)

Tawney, R. H., 35

Telford, Thomas, 93, 119

Temple, Sir William, 259

Ten Hours Bill, 166

Thirty Years' Peace, 17

Thompson, E., 294 Thurnwald, R. C„ 52, 57, 6», 158, 159.164, 269 ff„ 275 ff., 291

Thyssen, Fritz, ii

Tikopia, 274 '

Tocqueville, de, Charles Henri, 176

Totalitarianism, 28

Townsend, William, 93, 94, 111, 118, 127, 137, 223, 280, 285

Toynbee, A. J., 164, 189, 260, 263, 283

Trade, 91, 103, 265-266, 274-275.

ceremonial, 61;

fluctuation, 91-92;

foreign, 207, 277:

local, 58, 60, 63, 64;

long distance, 58, 63;

and peace, 15, 22;

national, 59, 60;

sea-borne, 39:

silent (or dumb), 59:

World, 217;

(sea also. Free trade)

Trade cycle, 93, 206

Trade unions, 108, 144, 183, 204;

on the continent, 176;

in England, 176;

laws,148:

and Owenism, 168

Treaty of Berlin, 1878, 15

Treaty of 1648, 261

Treaty of Utrecht, 6, 261

Treaty of Munster and Westphalia, 6,261

Trevelyan, G. M., 186, 259

Trobriand Islanders, 47, 4»-5»

Trotzky, Leon, 23, 25, 343

Tudor period, 34^.

Tudors, 76, 186, 280

Tunis, 6

Turkey, 8, 15 Turner, Frederick, 261

Tutorial classes, xiii

TVA, 185

"Two Nations," 118,396

Ukraine, 238

Ulloa, de, Antonio, 113

Unemployment, 87, 94, 144, *(>9 ff- **4l

invisible, 91

Union shops, 168

United States, 28, 39, 317;

and the balance of power, 260;

and customs tariffs, .8171

[311]

and expansion, 5;

and Fascism 337, 341;

and the gold standard, 26;

and laissez-faire, 143;

and prosperity, 343;

off the gold standard, 142, 199, 339, 244

Universal suffrage, 306

Utopia, 3, i03ff-, 311, 354

Utrecht, Treaty of (see Treaty of Utrecht)

"Utu," 61

Vaccination, 146

Vancouver, John, 285

Vattel, de, Emmeriche, 363

Venice, g, 63

Vienna, 33, 36, 147, 173, 387-388

Villages of Co-operation, 168, 160

Villages of Union, 108

Viner, Charles, 268

Vives, Juan Luis, 164

Voltaire, de, Franiois Marie, 84

Wafer, Lionel, 113

Wages, 39, 78, 90, 94, 96-97, 98, 115, 164 ;

assessments, 86

Wagner, Adolph, 303

Wall Street, 36, 313, 339, 344, 345, 366, 268

War, 14-15, 151, 167 (itt olio individual wars)

Wealth, Ill-113; (itf also money)

Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, 116, 137, 383,

Weber, Max, 45. 274-375, 377

Weimar Republic, 339

Western Europe, 34

Westphalia, Treaty of (see Treaty of Munster and Westphalia)

Whately, Bishop, 177 Whitbread's minimum wage proposal, 107

Whitbread's Bill, 377, 389

Wicksell, Knut, 203 Wieser, Friedrich, Freiherr von, 303

Williams, F. E., 291-292

Wilson, Rev. Edward, 286, 290

Wilson, Woodrow, 31, 33, 23

Wissel, dark, 391

Wood, J., 286

Woolen industry, 34, 37, 74

Working class (see Labor)

Workmen's Compensation, 146, 147

Workmen's Compensation Act, 146

Workers' Educational Association, xii

World War 1, 20-21, 23, 188, 189, 311

World Wars 1 and 11 compared, 49

WPA, 283

Wright, Quincy, 264

Young, Arthur, 107

Young, Sir W., 286

Young Plan, 315

Zamindar, 156

Zapotec Indians, 194

Zeisd, Han*, xui

[312]

AUTHORS' INDEX

Applegarth, Robert, 284

Arnold, Thurman, 148

Ashley, Sir William James, 377-378, 286

Barnes-Becker-Becker, 263

Barnes, Donald Grove, 263

Beer, Max, 282

Belasco, P. S., 286

Bellers, John, iosff-, 110

Belsham, Will, 284

Benedict, Ruth, 271

Bentham, Jeremy, 84, 106 ff„ 117, 119, 139, 140, 168, 180, 225, 280, 281, 284

Blackmore, J. S., 286

Blake, William, 98

Blanc, Louis, 106, 108

Borkenau, Franz, 182

Brinkmann, C., 164, 169, 179

Bucher, K.., 180

Buecher, Carl, 273, 374, 279

Buell, R. L., 263

Burke, Edmund, 84, 93, ii6ff., 127, 324, 227, 260, 280, 284

Cannan, E„ 124

Canning, Charles John, 93, 313, 359, 265

Carlyle, Thomas, 98

Carr, E. H., 204, 263

Clapham, J. H., 41, 93, 97-98, 263, 282, 286

Cobbett, William, 226

Cole, G. D. H., 168, 217

Collier, John, 160, 292

Condoreet, de, Marie Jean, Marquis, 113

Cooke, Edward, 113

Corti, Egon Caesar, 268

Cowe, James, 284

Crossman, R. H, S., 263

Crumple, Samuel, 284

Cunningham, William, 73, 303, 263, 278, 282

Darwin, Charles, 84, 113

Davies, David, 92

Defoe, Daniel, 108 ff„ 384

Dicey, A. V„ 140, 147, 166, 180, 281-282, 283

Dickens, Charles, 98

Diderot, Denis, 84

Disraeli, Benjamin, 1st Earl of Beacons-field, 82, 166, 212

Drucker, Peter F„ xiii, 171

Dyer, George, 284

Earle, Edward Mead, 368

Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, 384

Engels, Friedrich, 91, 98, 280-281

Eulenburg, F., 19

Fay, S. B„ 363

Feis, H., 10, 363, 268

Firth, R., 61, 270, 271, 373, 274

Fourier, Frantois Marie Charles, 106, 108

Funnell, William, 113

Gairdner, J., 36

George, Henry, 25

George, Stephan, 238

Gibbins, H. de B., 36

Gilbert, Thomas, 284

Godwin, William, 84, 85, 121, 127, 284

Goldenweiser, A., 158, 270, 391, 393

Haberler, G., 211

Hadley, A. T., 226

Hales, John, 36

Halevy, Elie, 281

Hammond, Barbara, 171, 283

Hammond, J. L., 171, 283

Hampshire (E. Poulter), 385

Hartley, David, 114

Hausbofer, Karl, 363

Hawtrey, G. R., 56, 72, 184, 363

Hayes, C. A., 187

Hazlitt, W., 126

Heatley, D. P., 263

Heckscher, E. F., 36, 165, 277, 278

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm.lii

Helvetius, Claude Adrien, 114

Henderson, H. D., 68

Hershey, A. S., 16, 263

Herskovits, M. J„ 163, 273, 276

Heymann, H„ 241

Hindenburg, von Beneckendorff 2nd von Paul, 23, 238, 242

Hirst, J„ and Redlich, 140

Hitler, Adolf, 190, 238, 239, 243, 245, »4<

Hobbes, Thomas, 114, 164

Hobson, J. A., 268

Hofmann, A., 263

Hewlett, Rev. J„ 285

Hume, David, 114, 192, 260, 263

Ilbert, 140

Innes, A. D„ 36

James, Isaac, 113, 285

Johnson, Charles S„ 294

Jones, Edward, 285

Jowett, Benjamin, 54

Kingsiey, Charles, 98,158

Kingsiey, Mary H., 293

Klages, Lodwig, 238

Knight, Frank H., 250

Knowles, L. C. A„ 175, 263

Langer, W. L., 264, 268

Lassalle, Ferdinand, 25, 106, 108

Lasswell, H. D„ 263, 264

Lawrence, D. H., 238

Lawson, 105

Leathes, Sir Stanley Mordaunt, 263, 268

Lesser, Alexander, 201

Linton, Ralph, 271

Lippmann, Walter, 44, 141, 148, 263,.^3

Lipson, Ephraim, 275

Locke, John, 106, 112, 124, 225

Loeb, E. M., 163, 275, 276

Lorimer, Frank, 292

Lowie, Robert Harry, 270

Luson, Howling, 285

Luther, Martin, ill

Lysis, (Michael Le Tellier), a68

Macaulay, Thomas B„ 176, 335, 116

Machiavelli, Niccolo, 111

Mair, L. P., 163,291, 292

Malinowski, Bronislav, 47, 269

Malthus, Thomas Robert, 80, 84, 85, 98,104, 113, 116, 121-123, 126, 323, 380,288

Mantoux, P. L„ 122, 269

Marshall, Dorothy, 286

Marshall, T. H., 288

Martineau, Harriet, 90, 98, 100, 335, z8i,285

Marx, Karl, x, 25, 73, 84, 108, 126, 151,166, 280-281

Massie, J„ 285 Mayer, J. P., 263, 264

Mead, Margaret, 158, 291

Mellonie, F. C., 286

Meredith, H. 0„ 79

Metternich, von, Klemens Weniel Ne-pomiik Lothar, Prince, 7

McFarlane, John, 103, 285, 393

Mill, James, 164

Mill, John Stuart, 35, 84, 303 MUlins, Mrs. S. G., 157

Mises, Ludwig von, 35, 44, 141, 176-177,189, 195, 226, 227, 283

Mitchell, W. C., 282

Montesquieu, de, Charles de Secondat, 66,225

More, Hannah, 170-171,186

More, T„ ill

Mowat, R. B„ 363

Muir, Ramsay, 264

Nasmith, James, 285

Oastler, Richard, 165-166

Ohiin, b.j 180

Onken, 11 364

Oppenheim, L., 363

Ortes, Giammaria, 103

Owen, Robert, ix, 84, 85, 105-106, 108, 110, 120, 1378., 157, 168, i7off., 326,256, 285,293

[313]

Paine, Thomas, 93, 285

Palgrave, Robert Harry Inglia, Sir, 386

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, 3rd Vicount, 259, 265

Pantlen, Herman, 278

Penrose, E. F„ 180, 201

Pew, Richard, 285

Phillips, W. A., 264

Pirenne, Henn, 60, 361, 363, 374-375.277^

Pitt, William Morton, 285

Pitt-Rivers, 291

Plato, 114

Polanyi, Karl, ix, x, xiv, 232, 337

Postan, M. M., 278

Postlethwayt, Malachy, 103

Power, Eileen Edna, 278

Proudhon, Pierre Joseph, 25, 106, 108

Quesnay, Franiois, 84, 114, 135, 313

Ratcliffe-Brown, 271

Rauschning, H., 242

Redlich and Hirst, J„ 140

Remer, Charles Frederick, 268

Ricardo, David, 25, 84, 85, 98, 104, 108,ill, 115, 116, 126, 127, 137, 182, 196,203, 223, 226, 280, 388

Robbins, L., 263

Robinson, Henry, 105

Rodbertus, Johann Karl, 182

Rostovtzeff, M. 1., 263

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 7, 44, 84

Ruggles, Theodore, 285

Russell, Bertrand, 263

Sabatier, William, 285

St. Giles-in-the-Field, 285

Saint-Simon, de, Claude Henri, Count,169-170

Saunders, Robert, 285

Schafer, Felix, xiii, ip7

Schmoller, Gustav Friedrich von, 378

Schuman, F„ 260, 263

Schumpeter, Joseph Alois, 282

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, yth Earl, 166

Sherer, J. G., 285

Smith, Adam, 43, 44, 88, 92, 93, 103, iio,III, 112, 114, 124, 140, 165, 312, 350, 293

Sontag, R. J„ 7, 264, 268

Sorel, Georges, 338

Southey, Robert, 166

Spann, Othmar, 238

Spencer, Herbert, 44, 84, 141, l4S, 146.186, 226, 283

Spitalfields institution, 285

Staley, Eu^pie, 268

Stephen, Sir Leslie, 106, 131, 281

Stolper, G., 263

Sumner, William Graham, 141, 142, 226

Tawney, R. H„ 35

Thompson, E., 294

Thurnwald, R. C„ 52, 57, 62, 158, 159,164, 2695., 275^-, 291

Townsend, William, 93, 94, iliff., 118, 127, 137, 223, 280, 285

Toynbee, A. J., 164, 189, 260, 263, 282

Trevelyan, G. M., 186, 259

Ulloa, de, Antonio, 113 , John, 285

Vattel, de, Emmeriche, 263

Viner, Charles, 268

Vives, Juan Luis, 164

Voltaire, de, Francois Marie, 84

Wafer, Lionel, 113

Wagner, Adulph, 203

Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, 116, 137, 382, 286

Weber, Max, 45, 274^2751 277

Whately, Bishop, 177

Wicksell, Knut, 203

Wieser, Friedrich, FreiheiT von, 303

Williams, F. E., 291-292

Wilson, Rev. Edward, 286, 290

Wilson, Woodrow, 31, 22, 33

Wissel, dark, 291

Wood, J., 286

Young, Arthur, 107

Young, Sir W., 386

AUTHOR'S ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

this book was written in America during the Second World War. But it was begun and finished in England, where the author was Lecturer for the Extramural Delegacy of the University of Oxford and the corresponding institutions of the University of London. Its main thesis was developed during the academic year 1939-40 in conjunction with his work in Tutorial Classes, organized by the Workers' Educa­tional Association, at Morley College, London, at Canterbury and at BexhiU.

The story of this book is a story of generous friendships. Very much is due to the author's English friends, notably Irene Grant, with whose group he was associated. Common studies linked him to Felix Schafer of Vienna, an economist, at present in Wellington, New Zealand. In America John A. Kouwenhoven helped as a trusted friend with reading and editing; many of his suggestions have been incorporated in the text. Among other helpful friends were the author's Bennington col­leagues) Horst Mendershausen and Peter F. Drucker. The latter and his wife were a source of sustained encouragement, notwithstanding their wholehearted disagreement with the author's conclusions; the former's general sympathy added to the usefulness of his advice. The author also owes thanks for a careful reading to Hans Zeisel of Rutgers University. The book was seen through the press entirely by Kouwen­hoven, with the help of Drucker and Mendershausen, for which act of friendship the author feels deeply grateful.

To the Rockefeller Foundation he is indebted for a two-year Fel­lowship, i94-i-43> which permitted him to complete the book at Ben­nington College, Vermont, following an invitation extended to him by Robert D. Leigh, then president of that college. Plans for the work were advanced by a series of public lectures and a seminar held during the academic year 1940-41- Research facilities were kindly granted by the Library of Congress in Washington, D. G., as well as by the Selig-man Library of Columbia University, New York. To all of them his thanks are due.

K.P. Shoreham, Sevenoaks, Kent.

[317]

1 Sontag, R. J., European Diplomatic History, 1871-1933, l933

2 Fell H. Europe,-the World's Banker, 1870-1 874, 1930) work we have often textually followed.

3 Feis, H. op. cit., p. 201.

4 Cf. Notes on Sources, page 264.

5 Hershey, A. S., Essentials of International Public Law and Organization, 1927, PP. 565-69.

6 Eulenburg, F„ Aussenhandel and Aussenhandelspotitik. In "Grundriss der Sozialokonornik," Abt. VIII, 1929, P- 209.

1 Tawney, R, H„ The Agrarian Problem in the i6th Century, 1912

2 Gibbins, H. de B., The Industrial History of England, 1895.

3 Innes, A. D„ England under the Tudors, 1932.

4 Gairdner, J., "Henry VIII," Cambridge Modern History, Vol. II, 1913.

5 Heckscher, E. F., Mercantilism, 1935, P. 104.

6 Clapham, J. H„ Economic History of Modern Britain, Vol. III.

1 Cf. Note» on Sources, page 269. The works of Malinowski and Thurnwald have been extensively used in this chapter.

1 Cf. Notes on Sources, page 274.

2 Hawtrey, G. R„ The Economic Problem, 1925, p. 15- "The practical applica­tion of the principle of individualism is entirely dependent on the practice of ex­change." Hawtrey, however, was mistaken in assuming that the existence of market» simply followed from the practice of exchange.

3 Thurnwald, R. C., Economics in Primitive Communitiel, 1931, p. 147.

4 Pirenne, H„ Medieval Cities, 19251 P- 148 (footnote 12).

5 Firth, R„ Primitive Polynesian Economics, 1939, P. 347.

6 Thurnwald, R. C., op. cit., p. 162-164.

7 Our presentation follows H. Pirenne's well-known works.

8 Montesquieu, L'Esprit des tois, 1748. "The English constrain the merchant. but it is in favor of commerce."

1 Henderson, H. D., Supply and Demand, 1922. The practice of the market is twofold: the apportionment of factors between different uses, and the organizing of the forces influencing aggregate supplies of factors.

2 Hawtrey, G. R., op. cit. Its function is seen by Hawtrey in making "the rela­tive market values of all commodities mutually consistent."

3 Marx's assertion of the fetish character of the value of commodities refers to the exchange value of genuine commodities and has nothing in common with the fictitious commodities mentioned in the text.

4 Cunningham, W„ "Economic Change," Cambridge Modern History, Vol. I,

1 Meredith, H. O., Outlines of the Economic History of England, 1908.

1 Martineau, H., The Hamlet, 1833.

2 Professor Usher puts the date of the beginning of general urbanization about 1795.

3 Martineau, H., History of England During the Thirty Years' Peace (1816-1846), 1849.

4 Martineau, H,, The Parish, 1833.

1 M'Farlane J/ Enquiries Concerning the Poor, 1782. Cf. also Poatlethwayt'8 editorial remark in the Universal Dictionary of 1757 on the Dutch Poor Law of 7th October, 1531.

2 Bentham, J., Pauper Management. First published l797.

1 Cf. Antonio de Ulloa, Wafer, William Funnell, as well as Isaac James (which also contains Captain Wood Rogers' account on Alexander Selkirk) and the obser­vation» of Edward Cooke.

2 Webb, S. and B., English Local Government, Vols. VII-IX, "Poor Law History."

3 Bentham, J., Principles of Civil Code, Ch. 4- (Bowring, Vol. I, p. 333.)

4 Bentham, J., ibid.

5 Bentham, J., Observation on the Poor Bill, 1797.

6 Bentham, J„ Principles of Civil Code, p. 314.

7 1832.

8 Stephen, Sir L., The English Utilitarians, 1900.

9 Mantoux P. L„ The Industrial Revolution in the Eighteenth Century 1928.

10 Cannan, E., A Review of Economic Theory, 1930.

11 Hazlitt, W., A Reply to the Essay on Population by the Rev. T. A Malthut in a Series of Letters. 1804.

12 Ricardo, D„ Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (ed. Conner, 1929, P. 86).

1 Webb, S. and B., op. cit.

2 Redlich and Hirst, J„ Local Government in England, Vol. II, p. 240, quoted Dicey, A. V., Law and Opinion in England, p. 305.

3 Ilbert, Legislative Methods, pp. a 12-3, quoted Dicey, A. V., op. cit.

4 Spencer, H., The Man vs. the State, 1884.

1 Marx, K„ Nationalokonomie und Philosophie. In "Der Historische Materialismus," 1932.

2 Millin, Mrs. S. G„ The South Africans. 1926.

3 Goldenweiser, A., Anthropology, 1937.

4 Goldenweiser, A., ibid.

5 Thurnwald, R. C., Black and White in East Africa; The Fabric of a New Civilization, 1935.

1 Mair, L. P., An African People in the Twentieth Century, 1934.

2 Loeb, E. M., The Distribution and Function of Money in Early Society. In "Essays in Anthropology," 1936.

3 Herskovits, M. J„ The Economic Life of Primitive Peoples, 1940.

4 Thurnwald, R. C., op. cit.

5 Brinkmann, C„ "Das Soziale System de» Kapitalismus," Grundrisi der Sozial-okonomik, 1924.

6 Toynbee, A., Lectures on the Industrial Revolution, 1887, p. 98.

7 Heclischer, E. F., op. cit.. Vol. II, p. 168.

8 Dicey, A. V., op. cit., p. 226.

9 Cole, G. D. H., Robert Owen, 1925, a work on -which we have heavily drawn.

10 More, H., The Lancashire Colliery Girl, May, 1795; cf. Hammond, J, L. and B., The Town Labourer, 1917, P- 230.

11 Cf. Drucker, P. F., The End of Economic Man, 1939, p. 93, in the English Evangelicals; and The future of Industrial Man, 1942, PP. 21 and 194 on statue and function.

12 Knowles, L., The Industrial and Commercial Revolution in Great Britain During the 19th Century, 1926.

1 Brinkmann, C„ "Das soziale System des Kapitalismus," Crundriss der Socialokonomik, 1924.

2 Dicey, A. V., op.. cit., p. 226.

3 Ohlin, B., Interregional and International Trade, 1935, P. 42.

4 Bucher, K., Entstehung der Volkswirtschaft, 1904. Cf. also Penro»e, E. P., Population Theories and Their Application, 19341 quotes Longficid, 1834, for the first mention of the idea that movements of commodities may be regarded as substi­tutes for movements of the factors of production.

5 Borkenau, F The Totalitarian Enemy, 1939, Chapter "Towards Collectivism."

6 Hawtrey, R. G., The Economic Problem, 1933.

7 Trevelyan, G. M„ History of England, 1926, p. 533. "England under Walpole, was still an aristocracy, tempered by rioting." Hannah More's "repository" song, "The Riot" was written "in ninety-five, a year of scarcity and alarm"—it was the year of Speenhamland. Cf. The Repository Tracts, Vol. I, New York, 1835. Also The Library, 1940. fourth series. Vol. XX, p. 295, on "Cheap Repository Tracts (1795-98)."

8 Hayes, C., A Generation of Materialism, 1870-1890, remarks that "most of the individual states, at least in Western and Central Europe, now possessed a seemingly superlative internal stability."

1 The underlying theory has been elaborated by F. Schafer, Wellington. New Zealand.

1 Penrose, E. F., op. cit. The Malthusian law is valid only under the assumption that the supply of land is limited.

2 Carr, E. H„ The Twenty Years' Crisis, 1919—1939, 1940.

1 Haberler. G.. Der internationale Handel, 1933, p. vi.

2 G. D. H. Cole calls the seventies "by far the most active period for social legislation of the entire 19th century."

1 Hadley, А. Т., Economics: An Account of the Relations between Private Property and Public Welfare, 1896.

2 Bentham, J., Manual of Political Economy, p. 44, on inflation as "forced frugality"; p. 45 (footnote) as "indirect taxation." Cf. also Principles of Civil Code, Ch. 15.

3 Polanyi, K., "Der Mechanismus der Weltwirtschaftsicrise." Der Ofterreichische Volkswirt, 1933 (Supplement).

1 Polanyi, K„ "The Essence of Fascism." In Christianity and the Social Revolution, 1933.

2 Heymann, H., Plan for Permanent Peace, 1941. Ct. Bruning's letter of Janu­ary 8th, 1940

3 Rauschning, H., The Voice of Destruction, 1940.

4 British Blue Book, No. 74. Cmd. 6106, 1939.



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