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by

Maria Elena Gonzalez

2008

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The Dissertation Committee for Maria Elena Gonzalez certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation:




“Crises” in Scholarly Communications:

Insights from Forty Years of the Journal of Library History,

1966 – 2005

Committee:

Patricia K. Galloway, Supervisor

Donald G. Davis, Jr.

Barbara Immroth

Loriene Roy

Emilio Zamora

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“Crises” in Scholarly Communications:

Insights from Forty Years of the Journal of Library History,

1966 – 2005


by

Maria Elena Gonzalez, B.A.; M.L.I.S.

HIDDEN TEXT: Given first name, and previous academic degrees (B.A. or higher) B.A., B.S., etc. Your official name is the name which appears on your UT transcript.

Dissertation

Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

The University of Texas at Austin

in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements

for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

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The University of Texas at Austin

May 2008

Dedication

This dissertation is dedicated to past, present, and future contributors to the

Journal of Library History, Philosophy, and Comparative Librarianship, and its subsequent incarnations,

Libraries & Culture and Libraries & the Cultural Record



Acknowledgements

Unlike almost any other project I have undertaken to completion, this dissertation is the product of unplanned, unforeseen, and improbable circumstances. The choice of focus is a happy result of the catastrophic derailing of my original academic intentions.

For the happy result, I must thank Bette Oliver and Hermina Anghelescu for creating an uproarious, visually rich, and most intellectually stimulating environment within the 191 square feet that once served as the editorial office for Libraries & Culture (Journal). If it had not been for the lively intensity that radiated from that space, I never would have discovered that the quarters of a scholarly journal could be the nexus for such wide ranging discussions and deep questioning of academic traditions and the life of the mind.

Once I settled in to enjoy the daily rhythm of the office, Don Davis graciously overlooked my trespassing and characteristically inveigled me to assume some responsibility for the Journal. Over the course of four years, he engaged me in a series of challenging tasks, most of which I did “for fun.” The most disconcerting task that he offered me was the taking apart of the editorial office, when it came time to pass the editorial leadership of the Journal to a new team.

As I dismantled the editorial office, and later his own which Davis had occupied for 23 years, I discovered the materiality as well as the personal connections that had sustained the Journal for so long. When they came to grieve the passing of an era and make their claims for this or that book, a jar of molasses, a lost umbrella, many friends of the Journal became my own.

A cast of characters from the most near library world came by. Mark and Barbara Tucker, Michael Winship, Bob Dawson, Jon Aho, Rich Oram, Irene Owens, David Gracy and many others told stories and reminisced as they watched the parts of the once whole disappear into banker’s boxes and moving vans.

For seeing the possibilities of turning this unfolding socio-cultural phenomenon into a believable dissertation, I am grateful to my Committee Chair, Pat Galloway. She literally leaped at the chance to work on this foolhardy project at that risky time in an academic life when she had not yet reached tenure. My cap is off to her and to the rest of my committee—Don Davis, Barbara Immroth, Loriene Roy, and Emilio Zamora—who went along with the madness. They remained steadfast in their belief that I would complete this dissertation that required two years to complete.

During those years, which included the death of my mother, I shared the grief and enjoyed the understanding of many of my family members, especially from my cousin Hector Rodriguez, his wife Flor, and their children, Hector, Flor Jeanette, Chuck, and Suzanne. When the going got rough Flor’s brother, Jorge Alvarez, and my brother-in-law, Rick Gottlieb, provided unerring medical and legal advice, respectively.

As I went through different research stages and the interviewing processes, I received wholehearted support and incomparable insights from Ronald Blazek, Fran Miksa, Wayne Wiegand, Bob Williams, and Martha Jane Zachert. All of them had already made tremendous contributions to the Journal from the very early days at Florida State University but did not fail to respond to my intrusive questions.

Various scholarships from the School of Information and a prestigious Editorial Fellowship awarded by the UT Office of Graduate Studies at the University of Texas at Austin buoyed me through all the years of doubt that plague doctoral students.

I thank the Gates Foundation for the unstinting financial support of my graduate studies without which I would have been in debt for many years. The financial support made it possible for me to work for ridiculous student wages and to serve the university and the community of Austin in many ways as a volunteer.

Mary M. Case, now University Librarian at University of Illinois at Chicago, merits a special commendation for brilliantly defining the position and outlining the strategies of U.S. research librarians in challenging the practices of international commercial publishers that often are found at the center of the crises in scholarly communications. When I met Mary, she was Director of the Office of Scholarly Communications for the Association of Research Libraries and courageous founder and defender of SPARC. Her scholarship challenged me to reach further back in time to understand the historical trajectory of ARL and of Reed Elsevier, the nominal nemesis.

Likewise, I owe many thanks to Joanna Hitchcock, Director of the University of Texas Press, for pointing out that the issues of concern to a university press and to the humanities in particular differed from those of commercial publishers serving the sciences. Joanna indulged my many questions and directed my reading in the eloquent literature about university presses by their directors.

I am in great debt to the librarians and archivists at the University of Texas at Austin, Florida State University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign who assisted my research by procuring and not discarding the tons of obscure materials necessary to produce a dissertation of this sort.

Kudos to the Emerald Group administration for the courteous and prompt response and unequivocal permission for me to use all and any materials authored by me and published in Emerald journals.

Much due appreciation goes to my cohorts who took time to compare notes on obscure points on method and expression, and especially to Sherre Paris, who spent her precious time telling me about the early training of photojournalists instead of writing her dissertation about it. I would like to mark high regards for my faithful colleagues Jeanne Drewes, Julie Arnott, and Tina Mason, who never chided me for temporarily putting aside my work in preservation to pursue this dissertation.

During the writing of a dissertation inevitably very special people—the angels of doctoral students—arrive to provide support and sustenance. Two of my angels, Michael Hodges and Jeff Newberry, kept me alert with cakes concocted of nothing but love, butter, and sugar and protected my archival shrine at UT’s Collection Deposit Library. Marc Frazier, Kirby Sams, and the indefatigable crew at Hyde Park Gym not only kept my body and soul together but the hipbone connected to the ham bone, too.

I will be forever grateful to the entire Metzger family, who faced life’s most harrowing turns with forbearance and aplomb, fiddling, singing and tap-dancing, especially Chela, who humored me through the darkest days of writing these pages.

Addie the cat, at her most petulant, reminded me that doctoral students everywhere face obstacles and demands from friends and family much greater than I ever had to face—even when she wanted food at 4 o’clock in the morning.

Crises” in Scholarly Communications:

Insights from Forty Years of the Journal of Library History,

1966 – 2005

Publication No._____________

Maria Elena Gonzalez, Ph.D.

The University of Texas at Austin, 2008

Supervisor: Patricia K. Galloway

The study examines the first forty years of a humanities journal, Libraries & Culture (hereafter Journal). Founded in 1966 as The Journal of Library History, its contributors shaped and reshaped the Journal according to the values, habits, and competencies that they brought to changing circumstances. Over a period of forty years marked by administrative, managerial, financial, editorial, and technical challenges, the editors transformed the Journal into an interdisciplinary and erudite publication distant from its earliest beginnings as a compendium of entertaining vignettes and didactic notes on the writing and uses of library history.

This study considers salient points of transformation during the life of the Journal, highlighting issues associated with various crises in scholarly communications. Key issues confronted by the Journal include the now familiar dilemmas over journal pricing structures, subscription cancellations, bibliographic control, prestige surveys and citation rankings, pressures on authors to publish, peer-review, and modes of dissemination. Historical and sociological contexts frame the resolutions of these dilemmas that are treated chronologically as they erupted in the trajectory of the Journal.

The historical investigation draws on archival sources, secondary sources, interviews, participant observation, and close reading of the publication to construct a narrative about the Journal in the context of 1) changing priorities in higher education; 2) challenges faced by university presses and scholarly publication in general; and 3) professional and disciplinary developments in librarianship.

The characters, actions, and settings of the history are interpreted through a sociological lens, crafted from a beginner’s understanding of the work of Pierre Bourdieu. Bourdieu’s concepts of social field, multiple forms of capital, capital conversion, and habitus form the interpretive frame for the narrative.

The choice of Bourdieu’s heuristic approach implies a broader interest in framing scholarly communications as value negotiations among sets of players in interdependent social fields. The players struggle not just to preserve their positions in the production and dissemination of scholarship, but also contend with others in powerful social fields—state governments, university hierarchies, and markets—about the creation of cultural capital and the power to define what is legitimate knowledge.

Table of Contents

HIDDEN TEXT: If you choose to place the chapter number (“Chapter 1”) and the chapter title (“Introduction”) on different lines, the automatically generated table of contents will reflect that format. After creating a new table of contents, set them on the same line by deleting the page number and paragraph marker at the end of each chapter number line.

The Dissertation Committee for Maria Elena Gonzalez certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: ii

Crises” in Scholarly Communications: ii

Insights from Forty Years of the Journal of Library History, ii

1966 – 2005 ii

Crises” in Scholarly Communications: iii

Insights from Forty Years of the Journal of Library History, iii

1966 – 2005 iii

by iii

Maria Elena Gonzalez, B.A.; M.L.I.S. iii

Dissertation iii

Doctor of Philosophy iii

The University of Texas at Austin iii

May 2008 iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Insights from Forty Years of the Journal of Library History, ix

1966 – 2005 ix

Table of Contents xi

List of Tables xvii

List of Figures xxiv

List of Illustrations xxxii

Situation 1

Literature 2

Approach to Situation 5

Research Questions 5

Investigation 12

The Idea for the Investigation 14

Approach and Methods 18

Forms of Capital and Capital Conversions 31

Borrowings 33

Adaptation of Bourdieusian Concepts and Frameworks 35

Arriving at The Logic of Social Fields 39

Exploring the Logic of the Field 41

Limitations 42

Role of Researcher 44

Confidentiality and Privacy of the Contributors 46

Organization of the Chapters 48

Value of the Study 48

Chapter 2: Founding of the Journal of Library History (Journal) 49

Social Structure of Library History in the United States 49

The Library History Round Table 49

The Library History Seminars 52

The Journal 54

Parent to the Journal 56

Antecedents to the Founding of the Journal 58

A Peculiar Scholarly-Social Nexus 60

In the Interim: FSU 1953 -1965 64

Launching the Journal 68

Response to the Founding of the Journal 71

A Sociological View of the Origins of the Journal 72

Chapter 3: The Shores Years, 1965 - 1967 79

Scope and Aims of the Journal 79

Who Conceived the Journal and Why 83

Finding a Publisher 90

Falling Back on the Good Ol’ Boys 91

Faculty Publications Board 93

Editorial Board Structure 95

Responsibility, Titles, and Authority 98

Format, Aesthetics, and the Ordering of Features 101

Discipline, Devotion, and Rewards 112

Awards and Grants 113

Scholarships for Attendance at Library History Seminars 116

Relations with Advertisers 117

Who Were the Subscribers? 120

Star Talent 121

Early Results 122

Two Perspectives 124

Contributor Positions and Structure of the Field, 1966 131

Another Bourdieusian Structuring Device 139

Editor by Default 142

Editorial Duties and Policies 145

The Editorial Office 147

Manuscript Selection Criteria 149

Bibliographic Endeavors 153

Historiographic Base 158

The Historiographic Base is Fine but the Finances are Fracturing 171

Finding a Suitable Suitor 176

Position Leavings and Takings 177

Contributor Positions and Structure of the Field, 1973 181

184

Symbolic Violence 186

Chapter 5: Transition to the University of Texas at Austin 190

A Different Periodical Management Model 194

UT Press, 1976 196

Institutional Context of Negotiations at UT 200

Key Changes 204

A New Set of Positions and Relations in Social Space 214

Chapter 6 : The Davis Years, 1977 - 2005 217

Part I: JLH at the University of Texas at Austin, 1977 - 1988 217

Improvement of the Journal 217

Counsel from Other Journal Editors 220

Strengthening the Support Network 221

Portents of Stability Against a Background of Relative Turmoil 224

Confronting the Black Dog 228

Another Stabilizing Influence 232

Under the Review of Peers 234

Indexing the Journal’s Contents 239

Indexing and Abstracting Services 241

Reviews 243

1985 Kohl and Davis Report 246

Broadening the Base 247

Contributor Positions and Structure of the Field, 1980 248

Logic of the Field, 1980 251

Unexplained Scattering of Positions, 1980 253

Contributor Positions and Structure of the Field, 1987 255

Logic of the Field, 1987 258

Part II: Libraries & Culture, 1988 - 2005 260

Name Change, 1988 260

Beyond Revisionism: Pluralism and Multiculturalism 262

Summer 1990 266

The Journal’s Silver Anniversary, 1991 268

Self-Appraisals 270

Double Blind Peer Review 273

The Journal Goes Online, 1997 280

The Journal Becomes Part of Project Muse, 2001 282

The 2005 Nisonger-Davis Perception Study 284

The Changing Habitus of the Journal 286

Contributor Positions and Structure of the Field, 1994 287

Contributor Positions and Structure of the Field, 2001 293

Changes over Time 297

Chapter 7: Conclusion: Perennial Crises 304

The Panorama of Scholarly Communications 304

The “Crises” in Scholarly Communications 309

The Language of “Crisis” 311

Continuance and Stability 314

What Next or The “Space of Possibles” 316

Appendices 320

Appendix A – Abbreviations 321

Appendix B – Glossary 324

Appendix C – Variable and Conversion Tables 328

337

Appendix D 342

Bibliography 362

Archival Sources 362

Professional and Organizational Publications 362

Bio-Bibliographical Sources 364

Interviews 364

Electronic Correspondence 364

Books and Articles 365

Vita 396



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