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Universal Design and Accessibility in Education Literature

Annotated Reference List Sorted Reverse Chronological by Author

(2004). Accessibility. Distance Education Report, Magna Publications Inc. 8: 3.

Reports on the use and accessibility of web sites of institutions in their distance education courses. Percent of 2-year and 4-year Title IV degree-granting institutions; Distribution of percentages by the extent to which institutions websites follow established accessibility guidelines or recommendations for users with disability; Base of percentage on the estimated 2,300 institutions offering distance education course in 2000-2001.

(2004). Award-winners' pick. Times Educational Supplement, Times Supplements Ltd.: 20.

Features several Web sites with digital teaching ideas. Availability of information on software for primary and special needs education; Accessibility of digital video work; Inclusion of interactive drama for teenagers operating on the Internet and television.

(2004). Helpful Sites You Won't Want to Miss. School Library Journal, Reed Business Information. 50: 24.

Looks at web sites that can help the U.S. library field. Scope of the Department of Health and Human Services' new Web site for federal grants; Features of the online newsletter ";Accessibility Basics for Librarians";; Target children of the Early Reading First funds program via the Department of Education site.

(2004). Interactive Agent Helps Students Get the Information They Need. Distance Education Report, Magna Publications Inc. 8: 8.

Providing students with easily accessible, timely answers to their questions can be an important factor in student satisfaction whether they are on-campus or distance learners. While websites and portal technology can give students the information they need, they often have to search for it. To overcome limitations of the usual sources of information, the South Orange Community College District in California uses what it calls MySite Agent, an interactive conversational interface that allows students to ask questions. The system instantly responds by either answering the question or prompting the student to clarify the question.

(2004). SITES YOU CAN USE. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, Association for Career & Technical Education. 79: 59.

Presents two web sites related to education in the U.S. Site of the Instructional Materials Laboratory; Accessibility of the Education Commission of the States site; Key features of the sites.

(2004). Websites as educational motivators for adults with a learning disability. Educational Administration Abstracts, Sage Publications Inc. 39: 61.

Adults with a learning disability pose an educational challenge for teachers and support workers. They frequently have limited skills in reading and writing and may find it difficult to pay attention to topics of little interest to them. Nevertheless, they can be keen to use new technology and often have hobbies and interests that are catered for on the Internet. This article describes a project aimed to highlight the advantages and weaknesses of Web-based learning for adults with learning disability and to suggest improvements. Eight students with mild to moderate learning disability were helped to find Web sites related to their interests and supported in creating multimedia work linked to those sites. Results showed the powerfully motivating effect of the Web sites for students, but highlighted the access difficulties posed by Web sites for such students. Further work in this area is needed to develop strategies for exploiting the motivating effect of Web sites and to improve the accessibility of sites for people with low literacy levels.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Becker, S. A. (2004). E-Government Visual Accessibility for Older Adult Users. Social Science Computer Review, Sage Publications Inc. 22: 11-23.

The web offers an unprecedented opportunity to gain immediate access to government resources that might not otherwise be available to many older adults aged 60 years and over. Yet due to aging vision, there remain design barriers to the use of state and federal government web sites. This research describes aging vision and its impact on the accessibility of government web sites. It incorporates the guidelines published by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) for making senior-friendly web sites. Several software tools, including Dottie and Usability Enforcer, are described in terms of their functionality in promoting senior-friendly web sites. Data generated by the software tools and manual assessment are used to evaluate e-government compliance with vision-related NIA accessibility guidelines.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Cook, D. A. and D. M. Dupras (2004). A Practical Guide To Developing Effective Web-based Learning. JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine, Blackwell Publishing Limited. 19: 698-750.

Online learning has changed medical education, but many “educational” websites do not employ principles of effective learning. This article will assist readers in developing effective educational websites by integrating principles of active learning with the unique features of the Web. Narrative review. The key steps in developing an effective educational website are: Perform a needs analysis and specify goals and objectives; determine technical resources and needs; evaluate preexisting software and use it if it fully meets your needs; secure commitment from all participants and identify and address potential barriers to implementation; develop content in close coordination with website design (appropriately use multimedia, hyperlinks, and online communication) and follow a timeline; encourage active learning (self-assessment, reflection, self-directed learning, problem-based learning, learner interaction, and feedback); facilitate and plan to encourage use by the learner (make website accessible and user-friendly, provide time for learning, and motivate learners); evaluate learners and course; pilot the website before full implementation; and plan to monitor online communication and maintain the site by resolving technical problems, periodically verifying hyperlinks, and regularly updating content. Teaching on the Web involves more than putting together a colorful webpage. By consistently employing principles of effective learning, educators will unlock the full potential of Web-based medical education. J GEN INTERN MED 2004;19:698–707.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

D, I., C. M. D, et al. (2004). Child safety education and the world wide web: an evaluation of the content and quality of online resources. Injury Prevention. 10: 59-61.

The purpose of this study was to assess the content, quality, and type of internet resources available for safety education. Using 19 search engines with search strings targeting major forms of injury, identified resources were classified by audience group, accessibility, and authorship. Two independent reviewers rated each resource on the basis of its content and a set of quality criteria using a three point scale. Overall, 10 (18.2%) resources were of highest quality, four (7.3%) were intermediate, and 41 (74.5%) were not recommended. Eighteen months after the original search, 67.3% of all resources and 90% of the highest quality resources were still on the internet. This study provides a methodology for evaluating child safety resources on the world wide web and demonstrates that most internet resources for safety education are of dubious quality. A rating system such as the one developed for this study may be used to identify valuable internet materials.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Dianis, L. K. (2004). Do These Web Sites WORK? District Administration, Professional Media Group, LLC. 40: 24-27.

Evaluates the Web site of Charleston County School District, South Carolina. Accessibility; Response time; Information contained in the site.

Farel, A. M. and S. C. Paliulis (2004). Improving the Accessibility of an Analytic and Technical Skills MCH Toolbox. Maternal & Child Health Journal, Kluwer Academic Publishing. 8: 31-33.

Objectives : To assess our analytic and technical skills website for accessibility and to make necessary corrections. Methods : We used commercially available software (Jaws and LIFT for Dreamweaver) and an individual with visual impairments to evaluate our self-instructional, analytic, and technical tools. We identified problems in tables, images, multimedia content, PDF files, and links. Results : We repaired the site by using LIFT to make appropriate modifications to the website and tools. Conclusions : Improving accessibility is advantageous for all Internet users. In addition to responding to legislative mandates, accessible web design creates pages that are often more readable, easier to navigate, and faster to download. Improving the accessibility of websites that incorporate charts and graphs strengthens the ability of all members of the MCH workforce to address the core functions.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Johnson, E. B. (2004). The dismantling of public education and how to stop it / Elaine B. Johnson. Lanham, Md. ; Oxford, ScarecrowEducation.

Kent, A. M. (2004). IMPROVING TEACHER QUALITY THROUGH PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. Education, Project Innovation. 124: 427-435.

Professional development is the catalyst to transforming theory into current best teaching practices. In order to provide effective professional development, there are many variables that must he considered by the school principal including teacher beliefs and receptivity, the school climate, and available local school support. Ultimately, administrators must focus on linking effective professional development to teacher quality in order to Yield student success.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Lazar, J., A. Dudley-Sponaugle, et al. (2004). Improving web accessibility: a study of webmaster perceptions. Computers in Human Behavior. 20: 269.

Large percentages of web sites continue to be inaccessible to people with disabilities. Since tools and guidelines are available to help designers and webmasters in making their web sites accessible, it is unclear why so many sites continue to be inaccessible. In this paper, we present the “Web Accessibility Integration Model,” which highlights the multiple points within web development where accessibility can be incorporated or forgotten. It is uncertain why webmasters do not use the various tools and guidelines that currently are available for making web sites accessible. A survey was created, and data was collected from 175 webmasters, indicating their knowledge on the topic of web accessibility and the reasons for their actions related to web accessibility. Findings and future directions for research are discussed.Copyright 2004 Elsevier

Lohrmann, S. and J. Talerico (2004). Anchor the Boat: A Classwide Intervention to Reduce Problem Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, PRO-ED. 6: 113-120.

Universal interventions are designed to systematically teach and reinforce consistent behavioral expectations. The purpose of this study was to provide an example of a group contingency classwide intervention called Anchor the Boat that operationally defined behavioral expectations, taught those expectations using teacher-directed instruction and role playing, and reinforced students when they met the behavioral criteria. Ten students attending a fourth- and fifth-grade learning-support classroom participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across three subject areas (i.e., reading, language arts, math) was used to evaluate the effects of the program on three target behaviors: talk outs, out of seat, and incomplete assignments. Following the classwide intervention, a substantial and steady decrease in level and rate was observed for talk-out behavior across all three classes. However, results for incomplete assignments and out-of-seat behavior are ambiguous and inconclusive.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Monolescu, D., C. Schifter, et al. (2004). The distance education evolution : issues and case studies. Hershey, PA, Information Science Pub.

Owen, J. E., J. C. Klapow, et al. (2004). Improving the effectiveness of adjuvant psychological treatment for women with breast cancer: The feasibility of providing online support. Psycho-Oncology, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 13: 281-292.

Many well-designed studies have shown psychosocial treatments for cancer to be efficacious for improving patients' quality of life, but the actual impact of these treatments may be limited by low rates of participation. Web-based treatment formats could improve effectiveness by increasing availability and accessibility. Two phases of a feasibility study are reported in this article. In the first phase, we sought to assess internet access and perceived interest in online support among 136 women with breast cancer (June–October, 1999). Levels of interest in participating in an online psychosocial treatment were associated with age, outcome expectancy, and barriers to using the internet but not stage or time since diagnosis. In the second phase, we document accrual rates among several methods of recruitment during a randomized trial (February–December, 2001) and report changes over time in internet access. Recruitment rates were substantially higher when a study representative was available in clinic to provide information about the treatment than for all other methods of recruitment. Access to the internet increased between 1999 (63%) and 2001 (70%) and varied across age groups. These results suggest that internet-based psychosocial treatments, with notable limitations, are feasible for increasing the impact of psychosocial care. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Roach, R. (2004). Web Site Markets Virginia Colleges. Black Issues in Higher Education, Cox Matthews and Associates Inc. 20: 37.

Introduces VirginiaMentor, an Internet-based resource for prospective students, from the Council of Independent Colleges of Virginia and the State Council of Higher Education. Features of the Web site; Multimedia capabilities; Accessibility of the site.

Tileston, D. W. (2004). What every teacher should know about effective teaching strategies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London, Corwin Press.

Walkup, N. (2004). Art Ed Online. School Arts. 103: 28.

Features various web sites related to the art industry. Information on women artists; Accessibility of the web sites; Educational information for students.

Wilkinson, A., A. Forbes, et al. (2004). An exploration of four web-based open and flexible learning modules in post-registration nurse education. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 41: 411.

This paper presents an exploratory evaluation of four newly developed web-based modules for post-registration nurses. The topics for the modules were: dermatology; diabetes; mentorship; and prescribing. Study objective: To explore the students’ perceptions of the web-based modules before and after completing the modules. Design: A pre-post test design using questionnaires and group interviews. Participants: 39 students enrolled on the modules, pre-module data were collected on 74% (n=29) and post-module data on 71% (n=28). Findings: None of students had previous web-based education experience. 79% (n=31) completed and 66% (n=26) passed the modules. Students level of IT skills prior to commencing the modules were important in explaining module completion and outcome. The modules were rated highly in terms of achieving learning outcomes with moderate ratings for level of support and utility of learning materials. The content analysis of the interviews highlighted the importance of preparing students ensuring they have the IT and independent learning skills necessary to participate in web-based learning programmes, together with a number of issues relating to the accessibility of the learning materials. The perceived benefits of this mode of learning were that they offered flexible and resource rich learning. The downside was that the learning can be isolating. Conclusions: This form of learning may not be suited to all groups of nurses or all educational topics. Further research is required to establish the educational benefits of different approaches to e-learning.Copyright 2004 Elsevier

Witt, N. and A. McDermott (2004). Web site accessibility: what logo will we use today? British Journal of Educational Technology, Blackwell Publishing Limited. 35: 45-56.

The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act has amended the Disability Discrimination Act and requires that students with a disability not be discriminated against or substantially disadvantaged by establishments of further and higher education. Academic web site developers must take steps to ensure that their sites fulfil this requirement, and guidance on compliance is provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative's (WAI) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, which offer three levels for assessing accessibility. Tools which give developers feedback on their site are available, but following their recommendations alone will not guarantee SENDA compliance. An audit of UK academic web sites has shown discrepancies between the level of compliance that sites are claiming and that which has been achieved. This would seem to demonstrate that there is a misunderstanding of the requirements necessary to create accessible web sites. This problem is exacerbated by the academic sector's widespread reliance on software accessibility tools, the use of which tends to lead developers to rely on the tools’ quantitative approach when what is required is the inclusion and development of a more qualitative view which prioritises inclusive design from the outset.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Witt, N. and D. Sloan (2004). Access as the norm, not as an add-on. Times Higher Education Supplement: 14-15.

Focuses on the implications of disability legislation for higher education in Great Britain. Efforts of developers to provide accessible e-learning to disabled learners; Lack of definitions to what web and e-learning content providers must do to avoid breaching the Disability Discrimination Act 1995; Effect of lack of standards and the introduction of legislation on web design companies.

Yee Hsieh, P. (2004). A Case Study. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, Association for Educational Communications & Technology. 48: 60-68.

This article describes how instructional technology theories have been applied in developing Web-based training to enable a large state system of higher education, The Texas A&M University System, to meet its human resources (HR) training needs more efficiently. In the course of two years, six courses have been developed and approximately 12,000 employees have taken one or more courses. The courses are accessible via an employee information portal called HRConnect, which allows A&M System employees to view payroll and benefits information, as well as access online training. The design of the courses follows a simple tutorial format. To provide the opportunity for active learning, about one-third of the pages are practice questions.

(2003). Accessibility. Distance Education Report, Magna Publications Inc. 7: 3.

Presents a chart that shows the percentage of degree-granting institutions in the U.S. that use Web sites in their courses and the percentage of those institutions whose Web sites follow accessibility guidelines or recommendations for users with disabilities.

(2003). Eisenhower National Clearinghouse. Science Teacher. 70: 74.

Introduces the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse Online, a web site offering a professional development page for mathematics and science curricula. Accessibility of the site; Inclusion of information about long-term classroom planning and professional development in the site; Contact information.

(2003). . Distance Education Report, Magna Publications Inc. 7: 5.

Features , an online subscription-based listing of articles, authors and events for global education professionals. Aim of the Web site and its companion newsletter; Accessibility of the Web service; Future plans for the site.

(2003). SWANSEA GIVES SIZE AND SPEED PRIORITY. Times Higher Education Supplement: 6.

Features of the website of Swansea University in Wales. Compliance with the Web Accessibility Initiative; Optimization of the site for printing; Use of validation tools.

(2003). Web Site Accessibility (Universal Design). Technology & Learning, CMP Media LLC. 24: 48-50.

Presents information on Web sites that provide help in designing Web pages that comply with the requirements of Universal Design. Web site of CAST; List of Checkpoints for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0; Web site on how people with disabilities use the Web.

Branzburg, J. (2003). Publish Your Lesson Plans Online. Technology & Learning, CMP Media LLC. 24: 44.

Focuses on the online publication of lesson plans in the U.S. Requirements for publication at ; Accessibility of lesson plan in Web sites; List of lesson plan sites. INSET: Submit Your Lesson Plans.

Bray, M., C. P. Flowers, et al. (2003). ACCESSIBILITY OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS' WEB SITES FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES. Education, Project Innovation. 123: 815.

Many Elementary Schools use the World Wide Web (WWW) to disseminate and gather information. On-line barriers limit the accessibility of the WWW for students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accessibility of Elementary Schools' home pages. A total of 244 Elementary School web sites were located using a popular online directory and evaluated for accessibility. A software program was used to quantify the number of accessibility errors at each site. The results indicated that most (57.4%) Elementary School home pages had accessibility problems, many of which were severe and should be given a high priority for correcting. The good news is that the majority of the errors can easily be corrected. The work reflects a need for Elementary Schools to examine the accessibility of their home pages. Direction for improving accessibility is provided.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Brunken, R., J. L. Plass, et al. (2003). ";Direct Measurement of Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning."; Educational Psychologist38(1): 53-61.

California State Postsecondary Education Commission Sacramento.[BBB12341] (2003). Reviewing the Community Learning Center: An Educational Center of the MiraCosta Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges. Commission Report. California: 82.

This report from the California Postsecondary Education Commission considers the request by the Governors of the California Community Colleges and the MiraCosta Community College District (MCCD) to secure approval for the Community Learning Center in Oceanside. The MCCD serves a traditionally affluent, white region that has recently become far more diverse, with strong immigration from Central and South America and many Asian nations. As a result, many adults in the region are deficient in English language skills. Most of the ESL classes in the region were originally offered at the Adult Learning Center in Oceanside. The facility, with enrollment approaching 5,000 students, became overcrowded, and the perception grew that it was substandard. The first phase of the Community Learning Center construction project is complete. The cost for the final phase will be between $5-8 million, with funds coming from the state. The project criteria examined by the Commission include: (1) description and overview; (2) enrollment projections; (3) alternatives; (4) academic planning and program justification; (5) student services and outreach; (6) support and capital outlay; (7) geographic and physical accessibility; (8) effects on other institutions; (9) environmental impact; and (10) economic efficiency. The Commission concluded that the Center should be approved. (Contains 11 references.) (Author)

Cheh, J. A., K. M. Ribisl, et al. (2003). An Assessment of the Quality and Usability of Smoking Cessation Information on the Internet. Health Promotion Practice. 4: 278-287.

Little is known about the quality and usability of on-line health information. This analysis evaluated smoking cessation Web sites' content quality and usability. Thirty sites were analyzed to determine their adherence to established tobacco cessation guidelines and their accessibility, usability, credibility, and currency. Most explained addiction (86.7%) and mentioned nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (93.3%) and social support (93.3%). However, few explained potential side effects of NRT (33.3%) or which smokers should avoid using NRT (30.0%). Two sites advocated substituting smokeless tobacco or herbal cigarettes when quitting, and 16 (53.3%) provided information written at greater than an eighth-grade level. Few sites provided a search mechanism (40.0%) or offered text-only versions (30.0%), and most (83.3%) failed to indicate when content pages were last updated. Most sites adhered to established cessation guidelines. A small subset offered erroneous and potentially harmful information. Applying fundamental design principles would improve accessibility, usability, credibility, and currency.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Clark, R. C. and R. E. Mayer (2003). E-Learning and the science of instruction : proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

Clarkson, J. (2003). Inclusive design : design for the whole population. London ; New York, Springer.

CRAGG, C. E. B., N. EDWARDS, et al. (2003). Integrating Web-based Technology Into Distance Education for Nurses in China: Computer and Internet Access and Attitudes. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 21: 265.

SUMMARY: To increase continuing education accessibility, nurses around the world are turning to Web-based instruction. However, for Internet education to be successful, particularly in developing countries, nurses must have access to computers and the Internet as well as positive attitudes toward this form of learning. As part of a distance education project for nurses of the Tianjin Municipality in China, a survey of nurses was conducted to examine their sources of professional knowledge as well as their computer and Internet access and attitudes. The attitudes of the nurses were generally positive, and there was evidence of rapidly increasing use of and access to computers and the Internet. This article reports the results of that survey and their implications for Web-based teaching of Chinese nurses.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Curry, C. (2003). Universal Design Accessibility for All Learners. Educational Leadership, Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. 61: 55-60.

Focuses on the use of technologies in the Blue Mountain project of Lily Goldberg's universally designed class in New South Wales. Approach of Goldberg to the project; Origins of universal design for education; Consideration given to student diversity in a universally designed environment.

Curwin, R. L. (2003). Making good choices : developing responsibility, respect, and self-discipline in grades 4-9. Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London, Corwin Press.

D'Ambrosio, R., F. Mondeaux, et al. (2003). OREGON'S TRANSITION TO A MANAGED CARE MODEL FOR MEDICAID-FUNDED SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT: Steamrolling the Glass Menagerie. Health & Social Work, National Association of Social Workers. 28: 126-136.

The approval of a Health Care Financing Administration (now called Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) 1115 Medicaid waiver in Oregon allowed the state to design and implement an expanded publicly funded health care system, the Oregon Health Plan (OHP). Integral to OHP is the administration of physical and behavioral health services, including outpatient substance abuse treatment, through contracted managed care organizations. The two overarching changes to the outpatient substance abuse treatment system were expanded Medicaid eligibility and new operating procedures for the outpatient substance abuse treatment system. The authors used grounded theory to examine the effects of this transition on the treatment system, with an emphasis on the experiences of treatment providers.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Deal, I., Walter F. (2003). The Technology Teacher's Tool Box: Streaming Media. Technology Teacher, International Technology Education Association. 62: 18.

Focuses on the utility of streaming media as a teaching aid. Creation of online-accessible content; Options available to teachers for upgrading learning modules; Popularity of audio and video streaming on the Internet; Overview of the process involved in streaming media.

DeLapp, L. R. (2003). Supporting Early Childhood Initiatives: Legislative Strategies for Everyday People. District of Columbia: 37.

As states and communities work to improve the accessibility and quality of supports and services for young children and their families, they find that their greatest challenge is in gaining and maintaining concerted attention and resources for planning, financing, implementing, and sustaining high-quality, coherent systems. This brief addresses strategies that parents and other community members can use to influence the basic legislative processes and when to use alternatives to legislation, and includes examples and lessons learned from state and local efforts. The sections of the brief are: (1) ";Supporting Early Childhood Initiatives: Legislative Strategies for Everyday People,"; describing growing concerns about early childhood and when to use alternatives to legislation; (2) ";The ABCs of Legislation: Legislative Strategies to Support Early Childhood Initiatives,"; reviewing the basic purposes and forms of legislation, including statutes, resolutions, and budgets; (3) ";Legislative Strategies in Times of Budget Crisis: Case Studies of Caring Communities and Healthy Start,"; illustrating how advocates for Missouri's Caring Communities and California's Healthy Start influenced their state legislatures to restore some of the programs' funding; and (4) ";The Art of Advocacy (for Everyday People),"; offering basic guidelines for educating and working with policymakers at all government levels, including identifying the problems, building coalitions, getting to know key policymakers, becoming a source of information, understanding the process, making ideas heard, and supporting policymakers who support the advocate's issues. The brief concludes with a list of additional resources on financing early care and education initiatives. (KB)

Deverson, T. (2003). FREE RESOURCES. Times Educational Supplement, Times Supplements Ltd.: 19.

Features several Web sites offering information about education. Accessibility of the .uk for book 'Cats in Classroom'; Offering of Internet museum at ; Recognition of the film 'Whale Rider' according to .

Donston, D. (2003). Web access for all. eWeek, ZDNet. 20: 54.

There are dozens of reasons why web accessibility may not be high on organizations' priority lists but the issue should at least be kept in mind by managers in information technology industry. At issue most often with web accessibility is vision impairment. Problems arise when, for example, graphics and images don't have associated alternative text, or colors are used to convey meaning. People with hearing, mobility and cognitive challenges may also require that web content be coded to meet their needs. Companies that want to make it as easy as possible for their internal and external customers to use the corporate web site to research, buy and sell are building virtual access ramps to their sites as part of the web development and upgrade cycle.

Duffey, R. (2003). Innovation in Nuclear Technology for the Least Product Price and Cost. Nuclear Plant Journal, Presidents & Prime Ministers. 21: 25.

Explores economic and social issues associated with the developments in the nuclear reactor designs. Overview of the Universal Learning Curve; International energy projections, studies and scenarios; Importance of learning rates for projecting future costs in energy scenarios and between competing options; Role of hydrogen production; Learning and experience curve based on classic economic forces.

Ermann, M. D. and M. S. Shauf (2003). Computers, ethics, and society. New York, Oxford University Press.

Field, S., M. D. Sarver, et al. (2003). Self-Determination. Remedial & Special Education, PRO-ED. 24: 339-349.

Self-determination should be a central organizing concept in postsecondary programs for all students with disabilities, including those with learning disabilities. The importance of self-determination is supported by numerous studies, including one by Sarver (2000), who found a significant relationship between the grade point averages of students with learning disabilities and their levels of self-determination. Interviews with students about postsecondary environments demonstrate that specific environmental factors and personality markers are important to postsecondary success. Characteristics of environments that support self-determination are discussed within the context of postsecondary education settings. These characteristics include self-determined role models, self-determination skill instruction, opportunities for choice, positive communication patterns and relationships, and availability of supports. Universal Design for Instruction, a new paradigm for college students with learning disabilities, fosters self-determination by offering students productive opportunities for learning.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Gauch, S., J. Chaffee, et al. (2003). Ontology-based personalized search and browsing. Web Intelligence & Agent Systems, IOS Press. 1: 219-234.

As the number of Internet users and the number of accessible Web pages grows, it is becoming increasingly difficult for users to find documents that are relevant to their particular needs. Users must either browse through a large hierarchy of concepts to find the information for which they are looking or submit a query to a publicly available search engine and wade through hundreds of results, most of them irrelevant. The core of the problem is that whether the user is browsing or searching, whether they are an eighth grade student or a Nobel prize winner, the identical information is selected and it is presented the same way. In this paper, we report on research that adapts information navigation based on a user profile structured as a weighted concept hierarchy. A user may create his or her own concept hierarchy and use them for browsing Web sites. Or, the user profile may be created from a reference ontology by 'watching over the user's shoulder' while they browse. We show that these automatically created profiles reflect the user's interests quite well and they are able to produce moderate improvements when applied to search results.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Goldsborough, R. (2003). Search the Web Like a Pro. Black Issues in Higher Education, Cox Matthews and Associates Inc. 20: 44.

Reports the development of a pay Web site that automates Web searching by Paul Krupin, a researcher for the U.S. Department of Energy, in 2003. Reason for developing the Web site; Accessibility of the Web site; Tips for using the site.

Goldsborough, R. (2003). Sprucing Up a Web Site. Black Issues in Higher Education, Cox Matthews and Associates Inc. 20: 38.

Offers advice on sprucing up a Web site. Programs for creating and maintaining Web sites; Guidelines in improving navigation, usability and accessibility; Reasons for redesigning a site.

Greenhalgh, T. (2003). Grant targets website access for the disabled. Times Higher Education Supplement: 6.

Reports on the inauguration of EduServ Grants Programme in Great Britain. Compliance of website accessibility requirement; Right for disabled students to education and training; Purchase of sitewide license.

Johnson, C. (2003). Log on to literature. Times Educational Supplement, Times Supplements Ltd.: 13.

Features Kids' Review, a literary Web site that helps school children find stimulating reading materials to improve their critical skills in Great Britain. Approval of the site through the Curriculum Online content provider; Accessibility of resources for library sessions; Details of the different areas of the site.

Johnson, R. and H. R., John (2003). Websites as educational motivators for adults with learning disability. British Journal of Educational Technology, Blackwell Publishing Limited. 34: 479.

Abstract Adults with learning disability pose an educational challenge for teachers and support workers. They frequently have limited skills in reading and writing, and may find it difficult to pay attention to topics of little interest to them. Nevertheless, they can be keen to use new technology, and often have hobbies and interests that are catered for on the Internet. This article describes a project aimed to highlight the advantages and weaknesses of web-based learning for adults with learning disability, and to suggest improvements. Eight students with mild to moderate learning disability were helped to find websites related to their interests, and supported in creating multimedia work linked to those sites. Results showed the powerfully motivating effect of the websites for students, but highlighted the access difficulties posed by websites for such students. Further work in this area is needed, to develop strategies for exploiting the motivating effect of websites, and to improve the accessibility of sites for people with low literacy levels.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Junion-Metz, G. and W. Minkel (2003). Make Yourself Accessible. School Library Journal, Reed Business Information. 49: 34.

Features several software products that offer tips for making Web sites easier to access. Windows 2000 Accessibility Tutorials from Microsoft Corp.; WebAIM How-To Tutorials from Web Accessibility in Mind; Accessibility Checkers from The Watchfire Corp. and Web Accessibility in Mind.

Keates, S. and J. Clarkson (2003). Countering design exclusion : an introduction to inclusive design. London ; New York, Springer.

Keller, J. (2003). unitedstreaming. Technology & Learning, CMP Media LLC. 23: 16.

Evaluates the computer-assisted teaching material unitedstreaming. Focus of the curriculum; Features of the teaching tool; Accessibility of the material from a Web-enabled computer.

Kenny, N. P., K. V. Mann, et al. (2003). ";Role modeling in physicians' professional formation: reconsidering an essential but untapped educational strategy."; Acad Med78(12): 1203-10.

Forming technically proficient, professional, and humanistic physicians for the 21st century is no easy task. Mountains of biomedical knowledge must be acquired, diagnostic competence achieved, effective communication skills developed, and a solid and applicable understanding of the practice and role of physicians in society today must be reached. The central experience for learners in this complex and challenging terrain is the ";modeling of"; and ";learning how to be"; a caregiver and health professional. Role modeling remains one crucial area where standards are elusive and where repeated negative learning experiences may adversely impact the development of professionalism in medical students and residents. The literature is mainly descriptive, defining the attributes of good role models from both learners and practitioners' perspectives. Because physicians are not ";playing a role"; as an actor might, but ";embodying"; different types of roles, the cognitive and behavioral processes associated with successfully internalizing roles (e.g., the good doctor/medical educator) are important. In this article, the authors identify foundational questions regarding role models and professional character formation; describe major social and historical reasons for inattention to character formation in new physicians; draw insights about this important area from ethics and education theory (philosophical inquiry, apprenticeship, situated learning, observational learning, reflective practice); and suggest the practical consequences of this work for faculty recruitment, affirmation, and development.

Kirkpatrick, C. H. (2003). Getting Two for the Price of One: Accessibility and Usability. Computers in Libraries, Information Today Inc. 23: 26.

Argues that when library Web sites comply with accessibility guidelines for people with disabilities that the sites work better for everyone. Other items for people with disabilities that have benefitted others; Standards for accessibility, including the recommendations of the Web Accessibility Initiative of the World Wide Web Consortion, and Section 508; Benefits of accessible Web sites, such as that they can be read by screen reader software, that people without mice can use accessible pages with small screens, huge screens, low-resolution screens, no screens, or text-only screens, and that intuitive navigation helps everyone, disabled or not.

Klein, D., W. Myhill, et al. (2003). Electronic doors to education: study of high school website accessibility in IowaThe program of research described herein is supported, in part, by grants to Dr. Blanck from National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research... Behavioral Sciences & the Law, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 21: 27-49.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities in all aspects of daily life, including education, work, and access to places of public accommodations. Increasingly, these antidiscrimination laws are used by persons with disabilities to ensure equal access to e-commerce, and to private and public Internet websites. To help assess the impact of the anti-discrimination mandate for educational communities, this study examined 157 website home pages of Iowa public high schools (52% of high schools in Iowa) in terms of their electronic accessibility for persons with disabilities. We predicted that accessibility problems would limit students and others in obtaining information from the web pages as well as limiting ability to navigate to other web pages. Findings show that although many web pages examined included information in accessible formats, none of the home pages met World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for accessibility. The most frequent accessibility problem was lack of alternative text (ALT tags) for graphics. Technical sophistication built into pages was found to reduce accessibility. Implications are discussed for schools and educational institutions, and for laws, policies, and procedures on website accessibility. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Levine, D. R., State University of New York at Buffalo. Center for Inclusive Design & Environmental Access., et al. (2003). Universal design New York. Buffalo, N.Y., IDeA Publications Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access IDEA University at Buffalo The State University of New York.

Loiacono, E. T. (2003). Improving Web Accessibility. Computer. 36: 117.

Describes strategies for improving web accessibility. Features of web sites; Access to electronic and information technology; Web content accessibility guidelines; Validation of accessibility.

Male, M. (2003). Technology for inclusion : meeting the special needs of all students. Boston, Allyn and Bacon.

Martin-Flatin, J.-P., D. Srivastava, et al. (2003). Iterative Multi-Tier Management Information Modeling. IEEE Communications Magazine. 41: 92-99.

The management information models currently used in the Internet have several limitations. Some of them contain errors, are missing important features, or are difficult to understand. Second, standards bodies keep reinventing the wheel, which confuses the terminology (hence customers) and wastes precious time. Third, finding a good balance between too abstract and overly detailed models is a tough challenge, rarely achieved in practice. Last, the learning curve of existing data models is too steep. We propose to alleviate these problems by adopting a new process for designing and standardizing management information models. It is inspired by two techniques from software engineering: the iterative and incremental software development process, which addresses the shortcomings of the waterfall process usually adhered to by the IETF and DMTF; and multi-tier models, which capture different perspectives (e.g., analysis, design, and implementation) of the information model. Our main innovations are management-architecture-neutral universal information models (UIMs), sharing of conceptual models by different standards bodies, and specialization of the people involved in designing the different layers of the models. Our new process takes into account a number of constraints identified in real-life environments.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

Marzano, R. J., J. S. Marzano, et al. (2003). Classroom management that works : research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, Va, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Mash, S. D. (2003). Linear Thinking Pulverizes Pulcifer's Predicament. Education Digest, Prakken Publications. 69: 43-51.

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