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THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor in Chirf

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor in Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes

LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN


THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

Or

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor in Chi)

WITH THE SOLE ASSISTANCE, AFTER VOLUME VI., OR

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(Amociate Editor)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology)

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations)

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgim and Religious Order8)

JAMES FREDERIC MCCURDY, PH.D., LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament)

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament)

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History)

FRANK HORACE PIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME IX

PETRI   REUCHLIN

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953


EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY CUSHING   MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1953


EDITORS

BAIL MACAQLEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR IN CHIEF.)

Professor of Church History, New York University.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(A$BOCIATE EDITOR.)

New York,

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion.

Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME IX

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D.,

D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.) (Department of as 01d Testament.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of] the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders.)

Rector of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y.

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History Southwestern Baptist

Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Tex.

FRANK HORACE QIZETELLY, F.S.A.,

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the STANDARD Drcrroxsar, etc.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX

JUSTIN EDWARDS ABBOTT, D.D., CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

Missionary in Bombay, India. Pastor at St. Michael's, Hamburg.

HANG ACHELIS, Ph.D., Th.D., EDWIN DiUNSELL BLISS, D.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Halls. Author of Books on Missions, Washington, D. C.

SAMUEL JUNE BARROWS (t), D.D., THEODORA CROSBY BLISS,

Late Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association, Writer on Missions.

New York. MABEL THORP BOARDMAN,

GEORGE JAMES BAYLES, Ph.D., Member of Executive Committee of the American

r r National Red Cross.

Writer on Civil Church Law. HEINRICH BOEHMER Ph .D., Th.D.,

DONALD BEATON, Professor of Church History, T?niversity of Bonn.

Minister at Wick, Scotland. GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETSCH,

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, Th.D.,

D.D., Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary. GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

GEORG BEER, Ph.D., Th.Lic., Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.

Extraordinary Professor of the Old Testament in the Evan­

gelical Theological Faculty, University of Strasburg.

HENRY BEETS,

Stated Clerk of the Synod of the Christian Reformed Church,

Editor in Chief of The Banner, Grand Rapids, Mich.

EARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BENZIN­

GER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice Consul for Holland in

Jerusalem.

FRIEDRICH HEINRICH BRANDE$,

Th.D.,

Reformed Minister and Chat at Biickeburg, Schaum­

burg ippe.

EDUARD BRATSE (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.

CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

Litt.D..

Professor of Theological Encyclopedia end Symbolics, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.

JOHN BROWNE ( fi),

Late Pastor at R.eatham, Suffolk Co., England.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX.

OSKAR GOTTLIEB RUDOLF

BQDDENSIEG (t), Ph.D.,

Late Director of the Teachers' Seminary in Dresden.

FRANTS PEDER WILLTAX BUHL, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Semitlo Languages, University of Copenhagen.

KARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consietorial Councilor in Munich.

JOHN KENNEDY CAMERON, M.A.,

Professor of SystematEdinburic Theol

gogy, Free Church College,

h.

HUBERT CARL ETON, X.A.,

Editor of St. Andrew's Cross and General Secretary of the

Brotherhood of St. Andrew, Boston.

HEREWARD CARRINGTON,

Writer on Psychical Research.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

WALTER AUGUST ANTON NATHAN

CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Erlangen.

JACQUES EUGf$NE CHOISY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

FE$DINAND COHRS, Th.Lic.,

Consietorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Germany.

LEIGHTON COLEMAN (t), D.D.,

Late Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Delaware.

WILLIAX RUSSELL COLLINS, AD.,

Professor of Litu~r es and Ecclesiastical Polity Reformed

Episcopal geological Seminary. Philadzphia.

EDWARD TANJORE CORWIN, D.D.,

Church Historian, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

SAMUEL CRAHER, Th.D.,

Professor of the History of Christianity,. University of Am­

sterdam, and Professor of Practrosl Theology,

Mennonite Theological Seminary, Amsterdam.

WILHELM CREIZENACH,  h.D.,

Professor of German Philology in the University of Cracow.

HERMANN DALTON, Th.D.,

Retired Consietorial Councilor, Berlin.

WILLIAM JOHNSON DARBY, D.D.,

Assistant Secretary of the Board of Education of the Pres­

byterian Church in the United States.

EDWIN CHARLES DARGAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Mama, Georgia.

JOHN D. DAVIS, D.D., LL.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Oriental and Old Testament Literature, Prince­

ton Theological Seminary.

JULIUS DECKE,

Church Inspector. Breslau.

MORTON DEXTER (t), BZ.A.,

Late Congregational Clergyman and Author. Boston.

FRIEDRICH CARL OTTO DIBELIUS,

Ph.D., Th.Lio~,

Archdeacon at Crossen, Germany.

ERNST VON DOBSCHUETZ, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Breslau.

LEONHARD ERNST DORN,

Head Preacher, Nordlingen, Bavaria.

WILLIE KIR";ATRICK DOUGLAS,

Dean of Due West Female College, Due West, S. C.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DEEWS, Thm.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halls.

JARMS FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

Pastor of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y.

EHIL EGLI (t), Th.D.,

late Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

CHRISTIAN FBIEDBICH DAVID

ERDMANN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.

JOHN YOUNG EVANS, X.A., B.D.,

Professor in Trevecca College, Aberwyatwyth, Wales.

JOHN OLUF EVJEN, Ph.D.,

JPmfessor of Theoloep Augpburg Theological Seminary,

PAUL JOHANNES FICKER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Strasburg.

FRITZ FLEINER, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Law, University of Heidelberg.

ROBERT VERB LL FOSTER, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Syetemritic Theology, Cumberland Presbyterian

Theological Seminary, Lebanon, Tenn.

GUSTAV WILHELM FRANK (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogm atica, Symbolise. and Christian

Ethics, University of Vienna.

FRANZ HERMANN FRANK (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Erlangen.

EMIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG,

Th.D., Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law,

University of Leipsic.

WILHELM GERMANN (t), Ph.D.,

Late Superintendent in Schleusingen, Prussian Saxony.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.,

Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion Bangor Theo­

logical Seminary, Associate Editor of 7rHE NEw

SCBAP'P' HHRZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA..

FRANZ (IOERRES, Ph.D.,

Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geo~graphy Technical High School,

and Professor at Military Xcademy, Munich.

HERXANN FREIHERR VON DER,

G10LTZ (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogmatics, University of Berlin.

JAMES ISAAC GOOD, D.D.,

Professor of Reformed Church History and Liturgics, Can.

tral Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio.

WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS, D.D.,

L.H.D.,

Author and Lecturer on Historical Subjects, Ithaca, N. Y.

PAUL QRUENBERGf, Th.D.,

Pastor in Strasburg.

CARL VON GRUENEISEN (t), D.D.,

Late Court Preacher in Stuttgart.

GEORGE GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor H~d~ Church History, University of

RICHARD HEINRICH GRUETZMACHER,

Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.

HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.

ARTHUR CRAWSHAY ALLISTON

HALL, D.D., LL.D.,

Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX.

ADOLF HARNAaH, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.

Jun, M.D.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr. Jnr.,

Professor of Church Hietory , University of Leipew Editor­

in 0hief of the Hauok Hereon Realancykdoptldis.

JOHANNES HAQSSI,EITEB, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Coneietorial Councilor Pmfe~or of New Testament Theol­

ogy and F.zeeis, University of ~reifswald.

CARL FRIEDRICH G303LG HXINRIOI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Laipaio.

MA% HEINZ39 (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Philosophy, University of Leipsic.

LUDWIG THEODOR EDGAR HENNECKE,

Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Betheln, Hanover.

WILHELM HERRMANN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Marburg.

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of

Erlangen.

RICHARD MORSE HODGE, D.D.,

Lecturer in Biblical Literature. Teachers' College,

New York City.

GUSTAV HOENNICBE, Ph.D., Th.Lie.,

Privatdocent in New Testament Exegesis, University of

Berlin.

OSWALD HOLDER E(i(iEB, Ph.D.,

Professor at Berlin and Director for the Publication of the

Monuments Germania Histories.

WILHELM HOELSCHER, Th.D.,

Pastor of St. Nicoleikirche, Leipeio.

ERNST IDELEB,

Pastor at Ahrenedorf, near Potsdam.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH IBEN (t),

Late Pastor in Bremen.

H41INRICH FRANZ JACOBSON (t), Ph.D.,




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