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Degree to which objectives have been accomplished

Introduction

Although individual investigators claimed time for themselves and various supporting personnel under the aegis of the Regional Research Project S-262, and some support was available to these investigators to travel to the annual meeting, funds allotted to do actual research were extremely limited. Furthermore, rhizosphere research is not a heavily funded research area and individual investigators had only modest success in securing extramural funds to supplement the regional project. To offset these negative aspects, investigators in the regional project relied on low-cost alternatives to conduct regional work or relied on individual investigators or experiment stations willing to subsidize the more expensive research. This accounts for most of our cooperative work.

Under low-cost alternatives, members of the multistate project wrote a soil microbiology textbook, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. This textbook, which was regarded as a special educational objective, was not listed under the multistate objectives because regional research guidelines prohibit publications as objectives. Nevertheless, work on the textbook and its accompanying instructor's manual occupied a considerable portion of our time.

Under the subsidized work, the members of the regional project are grateful to the University of Delaware Experiment Station which allowed us to analyze all our fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) samples without cost, and to the U.S. Army Cold Regions Engineering Laboratory (CRREL, Hanover, NH) for analyzing all our soil samples for organic contaminants without cost. Research was redirected within the objectives to take advantage of these subsidies. This is the reason that Delaware and New Hampshire were involved in 16 of the 19 journal article manuscripts of research collaboration between two or more states. All of this cooperative work, as well as a some other work, is highlighted on the next page.

Objective 1

The objective was redefined in terms using a new methodology, FAME analysis, to identify not only individual bacteria and fungi species in the rhizosphere, but also to determine changes in microbial community structure. Objective #1 was 80% completed. FAME profiles were used to assess the influence of a) different soils, b) ecological succession (time), c) different plant genotypes, d) temperature and matric water potential, and continuous/rotational plots and associated weeds. With regards to different soils, individual FAME profiles of organisms from bulk and rhizosphere soil of bahiagrass grown in 14 different U.S. soils were obtained. The principal result of this research shows that some soils have distinct taxa of bacteria. With regards to ecological succession, whole soil FAME profiles of bulk and rhizosphere soil were obtained from soybeans over a growing season. These results show that individual soils dominate soil microbial community structure. With regards to different plant genotypes, individual FAME profiles were obtained of bacteria from bulk and rhizosphere soil of nodulating and non‑nodulating soybean and various Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, in addition to whole soil FAME profiles of endophyte and non‑endophyte‑infested tall fescue. With regards to temperature and moisture, whole soil FAME profiles were obtained at two different matric water potentials and temperatures. Our collaboration suggests that soil, ecological succession, and matric water potential are important to microbial diversity in the rhizosphere, whereas temperature and plant genotype are not.

The FAME work was then integrated with soils amended with various organic compounds. In one study, a fungicide (Benlate) was added to soil containing juniper or papaya plants. Three studies were conducted soil amended with pyrene and whole soil FAME profiles from bulk and rhizosphere soil of ryegrass were obtained under lightroom and field conditions. Generally, phytoremediation was site-specific.

In addition, scientists collaborated on two other regional manuscripts, one to assess misidentification of soil bacteria by the MIDI system and one to assess plant growth‑promoting rhizobacteria in bulk and rhizosphere soil.

Objective 2

Because most of the cooperative research effort was redirected to Objective #1 and the soil microbiology textbook, this objective was only about 20% completed. Most of the work under this objective was done with mycorrhizae. Specifically, a model system was developed to study early stages of colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizae. Several studies investigated the importance of various factors (i.e., iron, phosphite) affecting mycorrhizal colonization and glomalin production, as well as the influence of fumigation, solarization, and fertilization on arbuscular mycorrhizae colonization.

In preparation for the new multistate proposal, several studies assessed community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizae in a) reclaimed strip-mined soils planted with apple, grapes, and other selected plants, b) conventional and low-input (animal manure or manure co-composted with leaves) sustainable farming systems, c) wheat roots grown in moderate to high soil P levels, d) ryegrass grown in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, and, e) in a combination with one of the bacterial experiments above, soil contaminated with pyrene. As an overall generalization, conventional farming practices tended to decrease arbuscular mycorrhizae activity, while sustainable, organic, low-input practices tended to increase activity.

Incomplete work or areas needing further investigation:

The special education objective identified in Regional Research Project S-262 will continue in the proposed multistate project. Again, this is not listed as an objective because publications may not be listed as objectives. Scientists in the multistate project will write a second edition to the textbook and its accompanying instructor's manual as well as a new laboratory manual. As noted under Hierarchy in the Organization section, the chairpersons for the textbook and laboratory manual have already been selected.

It is the intent in the proposed multistate project to complete Objective #1 of Regional Research Project S-262. With one exception, most of the basic work is done, so FAME analysis will continue in Objective #3 of the multistate proposal as applied work to cover other soil conditions (i.e., disturbed lands and urban landscapes). The one exception is the lack of an interpretive database relating specific fatty acids (biomarkers) to particular microbial taxa. As part of the ongoing research, whole soil FAMEs associated with the various experimental treatments will be analyzed on a routine basis to obtain a more complete perspective of fatty acid dynamics and variability in soils. The University of Delaware is willing to continue a partial subsidy of FAME analysis (now $3 per sample), so it is still possible to continue both this basic and applied work.

Objective #1 in Regional Research Project S-262 also continues to some degree in Objective #2 of the multistate project, but with some modifications. Specifically, as noted in the Procedures of the multistate proposal, chemical interferences were observed with FAME and some organic compounds in soil. To avoid this, scientists working on Objective #2 may switch to phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, which may avoid most of these chemical interferences. Again, CRREL is willing to subsidize analysis of toxic organics in soil and this will account for most of the continued emphasis on toxic organics in Objective #2.

Emphasis on processes controlling colonization and competitiveness of beneficial rhizosphere organisms, which was Objective #2 in Regional Research Project S-262, will not continue in the proposed multistate project. Instead, Objective #2 under Regional Research Project S-262 will be replaced with a new objective, Objective #1 (ribotyping) in the multistate project. Therefore, Objective #1 is a new research direction for investigators on the multistate project. Although ribotyping of E. coli is only tangential to rhizosphere work, it has three advantages for the future multistate work. First, biogeographic work is an important part of understanding microbial diversity. Second, this work is mostly molecular genetics and given that most soil microbiological research is moving in this direction, it is important for the multistate project to go in this direction as well. Third, the possibilities of obtaining extramural funding for expanded ribotyping research are excellent.

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED OR MANUSCRIPTS

APPROVED FOR S-262 (1 OCTOBER 1995-PRESENT)

(Note: * = regional collaboration between two or more S-262 scientists)

Books:

Complete (3):

Skipper, H. D., and R. F. Turco. 1995. Bioremediation: Science and applications. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication No. 43, Madison, WI.

*Sylvia, D. M., J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer. 1998. Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

*Sylvia, D. M., J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer. 1998. Instructor’s manual for principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Book chapters (36):

*Angle, J. S., and J. V. Gagliardi. 1998. Viruses. p. 132-148. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Angle, J. S., J. V. Gagliardi, M. S. McIntosh, and M. A. Levin. 1996. Enumeration and expression of bacterial counts in the rhizosphere. p. 233-251. In G. Stotzky and J.–M. Bollag (ed.) Soil biochemistry, Vol. 9. Marcel Dekker, NY.

Benny, G. L., R. A. Humber, and J. B. Morton. 2000. Zygomycota: Zygomycetes.In D. J. McLaughlin, P. A. Lemke, and E. McLaughlin (ed.) The mycota, Vol. 7a, Systematics and Evolution. Springer-Verlag, NY (in press).

Donnelly, P. K., and J. A. Entry. 1998. Bioremediation of soils with mycorrhizal fungi. p. 417-432. In D. C. Adriano, J. M. Bollag, W. Frankenberger, and R. Sims (ed.) Bioremediation of contaminated soils. American Society of Agronomy Monograph 37.

Douds, D. D., and G. Nagahashi. 2000. Signaling and recognition events prior to colonization of roots by AM fungi. p. 11-18. In G.K. Podila and D. D. Douds, Jr. (ed.) Current advances in mycorrhiza research. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

Douds, D. D., Jr., V. Gadkar, and A. Adholeya. 2000. Mass production of VAM fungus biofertilizer. In K. G. Mukerji, B. P. Chamola, and J. Singh (ed.) Mycorrhizal biology. John Wiley & Sons, NY. (in press)

Entry, J. A., and W. H. Emmingham. 1996. Accumulation of lead and zinc form contaminated soil by tree seedlings. p. 229-306. In E.L. Kruger, T. A. Anderson, and J. R. Coats (ed.) Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants. American Chemical Society Press, Washington, DC.

Entry, J. A., P. A. Rygiewicz, L. S. Watrud, and P. K Donnelly. 1999. The influence of adverse soil conditions on formation and function of arbuscular mycorrhizae.In P. P. Singh and A. K. Sharma (ed.) VA mycorrhizas—interactions in plants, rhizosphere and soils. Oxford Publishing Company, NY (in press).

Entry, J. A., N. C. Vance, M. A. Hamilton, and D. Zabowski. 1995. In situ remediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides. p. 1055-1066. In G. W. Gee and N. R. Wing (ed.) In situ remediation: Scientific basis for current and future technologies. Batelle Press, Richland, WA.

Entry, J. A., L. S. Watrud, R. S. Mannasse, and N. C. Vance. 1996. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides. p. 299-306. In E.L. Kruger, T. A. Anderson and J. R. Coats (ed.) Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants. American Chemical Society Press, Washington, DC.

*Fuhrmann, J. J. 1998. Microbial metabolism. p. 189-217. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

*Germida, J. J. 1998. Transformations of sulfur. p. 346-368. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Grady, C. P. L., Jr., H. D. Skipper, and W. T. Frankenberger. 1995. Educational needs in bioremediation. p. 305-317. In H. D. Skipper and R. F. Turco (ed.) Bioremediation: Science and applications. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication No. 43, Madison, WI.

Graham, J. H. 2000. Assessing costs of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in agroecosystems. p. 127-140. In G.K. Podila and D. D. Douds, Jr. (ed.) Current advances in mycorrhiza research. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

*Graham, J. H., and D. J. Mitchell. 1998. Biological control of soilborne plant pathogens and nematodes. p. 427-446. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Hahn, A., S. F. Wright, and B. Hock. 2000. Immunochemical characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The Mycota, Vol. IX (in press).

*Hartel, P. G. 1998. The soil habitat. p. 21-43. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Jarstfer, A. G., and D. M. Sylvia. 1996. Isolation, culture and detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. pp. 406-412. In C. J. Hurst et al. (ed.) Manual of environmental microbiology. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Jarstfer, A. G., and D. M. Sylvia. 2000. Aeroponic culture of VAM fungi. In A. K. Varma and B. Hock (ed.) Mycorrhiza: Structure, function, molecular biology and biotechnology, 2nd ed. Springer‑Verlag, Berlin (in press).

Jarstfer, A. G., and D. M. Sylvia. 2000. Isolation, culture and detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. p. 406-412. In C. J. Hurst et al. (ed.) Manual of environmental microbiology. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC (in press).

Morton, J. B. 1996. Mycorrhizae. p. 324-327. In Anonymous (ed.) McGraw–Hill 1997 yearbook of science and technology. McGraw–Hill, NY.

Morton, J. B. 1999. Evolution of endophytism in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the Glomales. p. 121-140. In C. W. Bacon and J. H. White (ed.) Microbial endophytes. Marcel Dekker, NY.

*Morton, J. B. 1998. Fungi. p. 72-93. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Morton, J. B. 1999. Evolution of endophytism in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of Glomales. p. 121-140. In C. W. Bacon, and J. H. White. (ed.) Microbial endophytes. Marcel Dekker, NY.

Morton, J. B., R. E. Koske, S. L. Stürmer, and S. P. Bentivenga. 2000. Protocols for measurement of diversity among arbuscular fungi. In G. Mueller, A. Rossman, and G. Bills (ed.) Biological diversity handbook series: Standard methods for fungi. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC (in press).

*Mullen, M. D. 1998. Transformations of other elements. p. 369-386. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Pedersen, C. T. and D. M. Sylvia. 1996. Mycorrhiza: Ecological implications for plant interactions. p. 195-222. In K. G. Mukerji (ed.) Concepts in mycorrhizal research. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

*Skipper, H. D. 1998. Bioremediation of contaminated soils. p. 469-481. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Stockel, D. L., E. C. Mudd, and J. A. Entry. 1996. Herbicide mobility and degradation in riparian wetlands. p. 114-132. In E. L. Kruger, T. A. Anderson, and J. R. Coats (ed.) Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

Sylvia, D. M. 1999. Fundamentals and applications of arbuscular mycorrhizae: A "biofertilizer" perspective. p. 705-723.  In J. O. Siqueira et al. (ed.) Soil fertility, biology, and plant nutrition interrelationships. Viçosa: SBCS, Lavras: UFLA/DCS.

*Sylvia, D. M. 1998. Mycorrhizal symbioses. p. 408-426. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Sylvia, D. M., and D. O. Chellemi. 2000. Interactions among root-inhabiting fungi and their implications for biological control of root pathogens. Adv. Agron. (In press).

*Wagner, G. H., and D. C. Wolf. 1998. Carbon transformations and soil organic matter formation. p. 218-258. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Wolf, D. C., and L. C. Purcell. 1999. Ineffective nitrogen fixation. p. 9-10. In G. L. Hartman, J. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Rupe (ed.) Compendium of soybean diseases, 4th ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

*Wollum, A. G., II. Introduction and historical perspective. p. 3-20. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

*Zuberer, D.A. 1998. Biological dinitrogen fixation: Introduction and nonsymbiotic. p. 295-321. In D. M. Sylvia, J. J. Fuhrmann, P. G. Hartel, and D. A. Zuberer (ed.) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Refereed Journals (published, in press, or accepted; 142)

Angle, J. S., M. A. Levin, J. V. Gagliardi, and M.S. McIntosh. 1995. Validation of microcosms for examining the survival of Pseudomonas aureofaciens (lacZY) in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:2835-2839.

Arredondo–Peter, R., M. S. Hargrove, G. Sarath, J. Moran, J. Logrman, J. S. Olson, and R. V. Klucas. 1997. Rice hemoglobins: Gene coding, analysis, and oxygen‑binding kinetics of a recombinant protein synthesized in Escherichia coli. Plant Physiol. 115:1259‑1266.

Aziz, T., D. M. Sylvia, and R. F. Doren. 1995. Activity and species composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi following soil removal. Ecol. Appl. 5:776-784.

Bago, B., P. E. Pfeffer, D. D. Douds, Jr., J. Brouillette, G. Bécard, and Y. Shachar-Hill. 1999. Carbon metabolism in spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices as revealed by NMR spectroscopy. Plant Physiol. 121:263- 271.

Bentivenga, S. P., and J. B. Morton. 1995. A monograph of the genus Gigaspora incorporating developmental patterns of morphological characters. Mycologia 87:720-732.

Bentivenga, S. P., and J. B. Morton. 1996. Congruence of fatty acid methyl ester profiles and morphological characters of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Gigasporaceae. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 93:559-5662.

Bentivenga, S. P., J. D. Bever, and J. B. Morton. 1997. Genetic variation of morphological characters within a single isolate on the endomycorrhizal fungus, Glomus clarum. Am. J. Bot. 84:1211‑1216.

Bever, J. D., and J. B. Morton. 1999. Heritable variation of spore shape in a population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: Suggestions of a novel mechanism of inheritance. Am. J. Bot. 86:1209-1216.

Bever, J. D., J. B. Morton, J. Antonovics, and P. A. Schultz. 1996. Host-dependent sporulation and species diversity of arbuscular fungi in a mown grassland. J. Ecol. 84:71-82.

Bhgwat, A. A., K. C. Gross, R. E. Tully, and D. L. Keister. 1996. Beta glucan synthesis in Bradyrhizobium japonicum: Characterization of a new locus (ndvC). J. Bacteriol. 178:4635-4642.

*Cattelan, A. J., P. G. Hartel, and J. J. Fuhrmann. 1998. Bacterial composition in the rhizosphere of nodulating and non-nodulating soybean. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62:1549-1555.

*Cattelan, A. J., P. G. Hartel, and J. J. Fuhrmann. 1999. Screening plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to promote early soybean growth. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63:1670-1680.

Cha, D. K., J. J. Fuhrmann, D. W. Kim, and C. M. Golt. 1999. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology for monitoring Nocardia levels in activated sludge. Water Res. 33:1964-1969.

Chellemi, D. O., F. M. Rhoads, S. M. Olson, J. R. Rich, D. Murray, G. Murray, and D. M. Sylvia. 1999. An alternative, low-input production system for fresh market tomato. J. Altern. Agric. 14:59-68.

Douds, D. D. 1997. A procedure for the establishment of Glomus mosseae in dual culture with Ri T‑DNA transformed carrot roots. Mycorrhiza 7:57‑61.

Douds, D. D., Jr., and P. D. Millner. 1999. Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 74:77-93.

Douds, D. D., G. Nagahashi, and G. D. Abney. 1996. The differential effects of cell wall-associated phenolics, cell walls, and cytosolic phenolics of host and non-host roots on the growth of two species of AM fungi. New Phytol. 133:289-294.

Douds, D. D., P. E. Pfeffer, and Y. Shachar-Hill. 2000. Application of in vitro methods to study carbon uptake and transport by AM fungi. Plant Soil (in press).

Douds, D. D., Jr., L. Galvez, G. Bécard, and Y. Kapulnik. 1998. Regulation of mycorrhizal development by plant host and AM fungus species in alfalfa. New Phytol. 138:27-35.

Douds, D. D., L. Galvez, M. Franke–Snyder, M. Reider, and L. E. Drinkwater. 1997. Effect of compost addition and crop rotation upon VAM fungi. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 65:257‑266.

El–Kenawy, Z., J. S. Angle, P. van Berkum, and R. L. Chaney. 1997. Zinc and Cd effects on the early stages of nodulation of white clover. Agron. J. 89:875‑880.

Entry, J. A. 1999. Influence of nitrogen on atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation in blackwater and redwater forested wetland soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils 29:348-353.

Entry, J. A. 1999. Influence of nitrogen on cellulose and lignin degradation in blackwater and redwater forested wetland soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils (in press).

Entry, J. A., and W. H. Emmingham. 1995. The influence of dairy manure on atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralization in pasture soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 75:379-383.

Entry, J. A., and W. H. Emmingham. 1995. Sequestration of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil by seedlings of Eucalyptus tereicornis. Can. J. For. Res. 25:1044-1047.

Entry, J. A., and W. H. Emmingham. 1996. Nutrient content and extractability in riparian soils supporting forests and grasslands Appl. Soil Ecol. 4:119-124.

Entry, J. A., and W. H. Emmingham. 1996. The influence of vegetation on microbial degradation of atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in riparian soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 76:101-106.

Entry, J. A., and W. H. Emmingham. 1998. Influence of forest age on forms of carbon in Douglas-fir soils in the Oregon Coast Range. Can. J. For. Res. 28:390- 395.

Entry, J. A., and C. C. Mitchell. 1998. Soil C, N, and crop yields in Alabama’s long-term "Old Rotation" cotton experiment. Soil Till. Res. 47:331-338.

Entry, J. A., and R. E. Sojka. 2000. Influence of polyacrylamide on movement of microorganisms in irrigation water. Environ. Pollut. (in press).

Entry, J. A., and L. S. Watrud. 1998. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in Alamo switchgrass. Water Air Soil Pollut. 104:339-352.

Entry, J. A., and L. S. Watrud. 1999. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. Environ. Pollut. 104:449-457.

Entry, J. A., and L. S. Watrud. 2000. Influence of organic amendments on accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species. Water Air Soil Pollut. (in press).

Entry, J. A., P. K. Donnelly, and W. H. Emmingham. 1995. Atrazine and 2,4-D mineralization in relation to microbial biomass in soils of young, second, and old-growth forests. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2:77-84.

Entry, J. A., P. K. Donnelly, and W. H. Emmingham. 1995. Mineralization of atrazine and 2,4-D in soils inoculated with Phanerochaete crysosporium and Trappea darkeri. Appl. Soil Ecol. 3:85-90.

Entry, J. A., C. C. Mitchell, and C. B. Backman. 1997. Influence of management practices on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and cotton yield in Alabama’s "Old Rotation." Biol. Fertil. Soils 24:353-358.

Entry, J. A., C. A. Strausbaugh, and R. E. Sojka. 2000. Wood chip–polyacrylamide cores as a carrier for biocontrol bacteria suppresses Verticllium wilt on potato. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. (accepted)

Entry, J. A., D. W. Reeves, C. B. Backman, and R. L. Raper. 1996. Influence of tillage and wheel traffic on microbial biomass, residue decomposition and extractable nutrients in a coastal plain soil. Plant Soil 180:129-137.

Entry, J. A., D. W. Reeves, C. B. Backman, and R. L. Raper. 1996. Influence of compaction from wheel traffic and tillage on arbuscular mycorrhizae infection and nutrient uptake by Zea mays. Plant Soil 180:139-146.

Entry, J. A., B. H. Wood, J. E. Edwards, and C. W. Wood. 1997. Influence of organic by-products and nitrogen source on chemical and microbiological status of an agricultural soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils 24:196-204.

*Entry, J. A., R. K. Hubbard, J. E. Thies, and J. J. Fuhrmann. 2000. Influence of vegetation in riparian filterstrips on coliform bacteria. I. Movement and survival in surface and groundwater. J. Environ. Qual. (in press).

*Entry, J. A., R. K. Hubbard, J. E. Thies, and J. J. Fuhrmann. 2000. Influence of vegetation in riparian filterstrips on coliform bacteria. II. Survival in soil. J. Environ. Qual. (in press).

Entry, J. A., G. B. Runion, S. A. Prior, R. J. Mitchell, and H. H. Rogers. 1998. Influence of CO2 enrichment and nitrogen fertilization on tissue chemistry and carbon allocation in longleaf pine seedlings. Plant Soil 200:3-11.

Entry, J. A., D. W. Reeves, E. C. Mudd, W. J. Lee, E. A. Guertal, and R. L. Raper. 1996. Influence of wheel traffic and tillage on microbial biomass, residue decomposition and extractable nutrients in a Coastal Plain soil. Plant Soil 180:129-137.

Entry, J. A., N. C. Vance, M. A. Hamilton, D. Zabowski, L. S. Watrud, and D. C. Adriano. 1996. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides. Water Air Soil Pollut. 88:167-176.

Espeleta, J. F., D. M. Eissenstat, and J. H. Graham. 1999. Citrus root responses to localized dry soil: A new approach to study of mycorrhizal effects on the roots of mature trees. Plant Soil 206:1-10.

Fang, C. W., M. Radosevich, and J. J. Fuhrmann. 2000. Atrazine and phenanthrene degradation in grass rhizosphere soil as related to microbial community structure. Soil Biol. Biochem. (accepted)

Farmer, D. J., and D. M. Sylvia. 1998. Variation in the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer of a diverse collection of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycol. Res. 102:859-865.

Feng, Y., R. D. Minard, and J.–M. Bollag. 1998. Photolytic and microbial degradation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17:814-819.

Feng, Y., J.–H. Park, T. C. Voice, and S. A. Boyd. 2000. Bioavailability of soil-sorbed biphenyl to bacteria. Environ. Sci. Technol. (in press)

Franzluebbers, A. J., F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1995. Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass, and mineralizable carbon in sorghum manage­ment systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59:460-466.

Franzluebbers, A. J., F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1995. Tillage and crop effects on seasonal soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59:1618-1624.

Franzluebbers, A. J., F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1995. Tillage-induced seasonal changes in soil physical properties affecting soil CO2 evolution under intensive cropping. Soil Till. Res. 34:41-60.

Franzluebbers, A. J., F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1996. Seasonal dynamics of active soil carbon and nitrogen pools under intensive cropping in conventional and no tillage. J. Plant Nut. Soil Sci. 159:343-349.

Franzluebbers, A. J., F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1998. In situ and potential CO2 evolution from a Fluventic Ustochrept in south central Texas as affected by tillage and cropping intensity. Soil Till. Res. 47:303‑308.

Franzluebbers, A. J., R. L. Haney, F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1996. Active fractions of organic matter in soils with different texture. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28:1367-1372.

Franzluebbers, A. J., R. L. Haney, F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1999. Assessing biological soil quality with chloroform fumigation-incubation: Why subtract a control? Can. J. Soil Sci. 79:521-528.

Franzluebbers, A. J., R. L. Haney, F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1996. Determination of microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralization following rewetting of dried soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:1133-1139.

Franzluebbers, A. J., S. F. Wright, J. A. Stuedemann, and H. H. Schomberg. 2000. Soil aggregate distribution and glomalin in pastures of the southern Piedmont USA. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. (in press)

*Franzluebbers, A. J., N. Nazih, J. A. Stuedemann, J. J. Fuhrmann, H. H. Schomberg, and P. G. Hartel. 1999. Soil carbon and nitrogen pools under low- and high-endophyte-infected tall fescue. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63:1687-1694.

Gagliardi, J. V., and J. S. Karns. 2000. Leaching of E. coli O157:H7 in diverse soils under various agricultural management practices. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:877-883.

Gagliardi, J. V., J. S. Buyer, J. S. Angle, and E. Russek–Cohen. Comparison of soil microbial community structural and functional analyses following inoculation of genetically engineered and non-engineered pseudomonads to wheat roots in diverse soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. (accepted)

Glucksman, A. M., H. D. Skipper, J. S. Domingo, and R. L. Brigmon. 2000. Use of fatty acid methyl esters to detect microorganisms from water. J. Appl. Bacteriol. (accepted).

Graham, J. H., and L. K. Abbott. 2000. Wheat responses to aggressive and nonaggressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil (in press).

Graham, J. H., and D. M. Eissenstat. 1998. Field evidence for carbon costs of citrus mycorrhizas. New Phytol. 140:103-110.

Graham, J. H., D. L. Drouillard, and N. C. Hodge. 1996. Carbon economy of sour orange in response to different Glomus spp. Tree Physiol. 16:1023-1029.

Graham, J. H., L. W. Duncan, and D. M. Eissenstat. 1997. Carbohydrate allocation patterns in citrus genotypes as affected by phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizal colonization and mycorrhizal dependency. New Phytol. 135:335‑343.

Graham, J. H., N. C. Hodge, and J. B. Morton. 1995. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles for characterization of glomalean fungi and their endomycorrhizae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:58-64.

Griffiths, R. P., J. A. Entry, E. R. Ingham, and W. H. Emmingham. 1997. Chemistry and microbiological activity of forest and pasture riparian zone soils along three Pacific Northwest streams. Plant Soil 190:169-178.

Haney, R. L., A. J. Franzluebbers, F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1999. Soil C extracted with water or K2SO4:pH effect on determination of microbial biomass. Can. J. Soil Sci. 79:529-533.

Haney, R. L., S. A. Senseman, F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer. 1999. Effect of glyphosate on soil microbial activity and biomass. Weed Sci. 48:89-93.

Hartel, P. G., W. I. Segars, N. Stern, J. Steiner, and A. Buchan. 1999. Ribotyping to determine the host origin of Escherichia coli isolates in different water samples. p. 377-382. In D. S. Olsen and J. P. Potyondy (ed.) Wildland hydrology. American Water Resources Association Technical Publications Series TPS-99-3, Herndon, VA.

Ibekwe, A. W., J. S. Angle, R. L. Chaney, and P. van Berkum. 1997. Zinc and Cd toxicity to alfalfa and its microsymbiont. J. Environ. Qual. 25:1032‑1040.

Ibekwe, M., J. S. Angle, R. L. Chaney, and P. van Berkum. 1997. Zinc and Cd effects on Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and while clover using chelate buffered solution. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62:204‑211.

Ibekwe, M. A., P. van Berkum, R. L. Chaney, and J. S. Angle. 1997. Differentiation of clover rhizobia isolated from metal contaminated and control soils with varying pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 61:1679‑1685.

Jarstfer, A. G., P. Farmer–Koppenol, and D. M. Sylvia. 1998. Tissue magnesium and calcium affect development and reproduction of an arbuscular mycorrhiza. Mycorrhiza 7:237-242.

Johnson, N. C., Graham, J. H., and F. A. Smith. 1997. Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism‑parasitism continuum. New Phytol. 135:575‑585.

Kennedy, J. L., J. C. Stutz, and J. B. Morton. 1999. Glomus eburneum and G. luteum, two previously undescribed species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, with emendation of G. spurcum. Mycologia91:1083-1093.

Lee, W. J. , C. W. Wood, D. W. Reeves, J. A. Entry, and R. L. Raper. 1996. Interactive effects of wheel-traffic and tillage on soil carbon and nitrogen. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 27:3027-3043.

Marshall, S. B., M. L. Cabrera, C. W. Wood, L. C. Braun, M. D. Mullen, and E. A. Guertal. 1999. Denitrification from fescue pastures fertilized with broiler litter. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1978-83.

McCulley, R., T. Boutton, S. Archer, D. Zuberer, F. Hons, and A. Hubbard. 1997. Spatial–temporal variation in soil respiration and microbial biomass in a subtropical savanna parkland. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 78:283.

Melhorn, C. G., M. D. Mullen, D. D. Tyler, and B.N. Duck. 1998. Biological and biochemical soil properties in no‑till corn with different cover crops. J. Soil Water Conserv. 53:219-224.

Miller, J., A. G. Wollum, II, and J. B. Weber. 1997. Degradation of 14C primusulfuron in soil from four depths under sterile and nonsterile conditions. J. Environ. Qual. 26:440‑445.

Miller, J., A. G. Wollum, II, and J. B. Weber. 1997. Degradation of 14 C atrazine and 14C metolachlor in soil from four depths under sterile and nonsterile conditions. J. Environ. Qual. 26:633‑638.

Mitchell, C. C., and J. A. Entry. 1998. Soil C, N and crop yields in Alabama’s long-term "Old Rotation" cotton experiment. Soil Till. Res. 47:331-338.

Morton, J. B. 1995. Taxonomic and phylogenetic divergence among five Scutellospora species (Glomales, Zygomycetes) based on comparative developmental sequences. Mycologia 87:127-137.

Morton, J. B. 1996. Redescription of Glomus caledonium based on correspondence of spore morphological characters in type specimens and a living reference culture. Mycorrhiza 6:161-166.

Morton, J. B., S. P. Bentivenga, and J. D. Bever. 1995. Discovery, measurement, and interpretation of diversity in symbiotic endomycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes). Can. J. Bot. 73 (Suppl. 1):S25-S32.

Morton, J. B., J. D. Bever, and F. L. Pfleger. 1997. Taxonomy of Acaulospora gerdemannii and Glomus leptotichum, synanamorphs of one anamorphic fungus in Glomales. Mycol. Res. 101:625‑631.

Mpepereki, S., A. G. Wollum, and F. Makonese. 1996. Growth temperature characteristics of indigenous Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium isolates from Zimbabwean soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28:1537‑1539.

Mullen, M. D., C. G. Melhorn, D. D. Tyler, and B. N. Duck. 1998. Biological and biochemical soil properties in no-till corn with different cover crops. Soil Water Conserv. 53:219-224.

Nagahashi, G., and D. D. Douds. 1997. Appressorium formation by AM fungi on isolated cell walls of carrot roots. New Phytol. 136:299‑304.

Nagahashi, G. and D. Douds, Jr. 1999. A rapid and sensitive bioassay with practical application for studies on interactions between root exudates and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Biotechnol. Tech. 13:893-897.

Nagahashi, G., and D. D. Douds, Jr. 2000. Partial separation of root exudate components and their effects upon the growth of germinated spores of AM fungi. Mycol. Res. (in press).

Nagahashi, G., D. D. Douds, and G. D. Abney. 1996. Phosphorus amendment inhibits hyphal branching of the VAM fungus Gigaspora margarita directly and indirectly through its effect on root exudation. Mycorrhiza 6:403-408.

Nagahashi, G., D. D. Douds, Jr., and G. Bécard. 1999. Recognition and communication events between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and host roots. Curr. Top. Plant Biol. 1:63-75.

Nagahashi, G., D. Douds, Jr., and M. Buee. 2000. Light-induced hyphal branching of germinated AM fungus spores. Plant Soil (in press).

*Nichols, T. D., D. C. Wolf, H. B. Rogers, C. A. Beyrouty, and C. M. Reynolds. 1997. Rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated soils. Water Air Soil Pollut. 95:165‑178.

*Oka, N., P. G. Hartel, and J. J. Fuhrmann. 1997. Effect of plant genotype on rhizobacterial composition of Arabidopsis thaliana. p. 437-440. In A. Ogoshi, K. Kobayashi, Y. Homma, F. Kodama, N. Kondo, and S. Akino (ed.) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria—present status and future prospects. OECD, Paris.

*Oka, N., P. G. Hartel, O. Finlay–Moore, J. Gagliardi, D. Zuberer, J. J. Fuhrmann, J. S. Angle, and H. D. Skipper. 2000. Misidentification of soil bacteria by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and BIOLOG analyses. Biol. Fertil. Soils (in press).

*Olexa, T. J., T. J. Gentry, P. G. Hartel, D. C. Wolf, J. J. Fuhrmann, D. M. Sylvia, and C. M. Reynolds. 2000. Mycorrhizal colonization and microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of annual ryegrass grown in pyrene-amended soils. Int. J. Phytoremed. (accepted).

Pawlowska, T.E., D. D. Douds, and I. Charvat. 1999. In vitro propagation and life cycle of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum. Mycological Res. 103:1549-1556.

Pedersen, C. T., and D. M. Sylvia. 1997. Limitations in the use of benomyl in evaluating mycorrhizal functioning. Biol. Fertil. Soils 25:163-168.

Pedersen, C. T., D. M. Sylvia, and D. G. Shilling. 1999. Pisolithus arhizus ectomycorrhiza affects plant competition for phosphorus between Pinus elliottii and Panicum chamaelonche. Mycorrhiza 9:199-204.

Pfeffer, P. E., D. D. Douds, G. Bécard, and Y. Shachar–Hill. 1999. Carbon uptake and the metabolism and transport of lipids in an arbuscular mycorrhiza. Plant Physiol. 120:587-598.

Ramirez, M. E., D. W. Israel, and A. G. Wollum, II. 1997. Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of similar serotypes of soybean bradyrhizobia from two soil populations. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29:1539‑1545.

Ramirez, M. E., D. W. Israel, and A. G. Wollum, II. 1997. Phenotypic characterization of soybean bradyrhizobia in two soils of North Carolina. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29:1547‑1555.

Redecker, D., J. B. Morton, and T. D. Bruns. 2000. Ancestral lineages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales). Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 14:276-284.

Redecker, D., J. B. Morton, and T. D. Bruns. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of Glomus sinuosum and Sclerocystis coremioides places both taxa firmly in Glomus. Mycologia 92:282-285.

*Reynolds, C. M., D. C. Wolf, T. J. Gentry, L. B. Perry, C. S. Pidgeon, B. A. Koenen, H. B. Rogers, and C. A. Beyrouty. 1999. Plant enhancement of indigenous soil micro-organisms: A low-cost treatment of contaminated soils. Polar Rec. 35:33-40.

Rillig, M. C., S. F. Wright , M. F. Allen, and C. B. Field. 1999. Rise in carbon dioxide changes soil structure. Nature 400:628.

*Rogers, H. B., C. A. Beyrouty, T. D. Nichols, Jr., D. C. Wolf, and C. M. Reynolds. 1996. Selection of cold-tolerant plants for growth in soils contaminated with organics. J. Contam. Soil 5:171-186.

Runion, G. B., J. A. Entry, S. A. Prior, R. J. Mitchell, and H. H. Rogers. 1998. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and water stress on tissue chemistry and carbon allocation in Pinus palustris seedlings. Tree Physiol. 19:329-335.

Salinas–Garcia, J. R., F. M. Hons, J. E. Matocha, and D. A. Zuberer. 1997. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics as affected by long-term tillage and nitrogen fertilization. Biol. Fertil. Soils 25:182-188.

Schultz, P. A., J. D. Bever, and J. B. Morton. 1999. Acaulospora colossica sp. nov. from an old field in North Carolina and morphological comparisons with similar species, A. laevis and A. koskei. Mycologia 91:676-683.

Schutter, M. E., and J. J. Fuhrmann. 1999. Microbial responses to coal fly ash under field conditions. J. Environ. Qual. 28:648-652.

Séjalon-Delmas, N., A. Magnier, D. D. Douds, and G. Bécard. 1998. Cytoplasmic autofluorescence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora gigantea and non destructive fungal observations in planta. Mycologia 90:921-926.

Skipper, H. D., A. G. Ogg, and A. C. Kennedy. 1996. Root biology of grasses and ecology of rhizobacteria for biological control. Weed Technol. 10:610-620.

Stürmer, S. L., and J. B. Morton. 1997. Developmental patterns defining morphological characters in spores of species in Glomus (Glomales, Zygomycetes). Mycologia 89:72‑81.

Stürmer, S. L., and J. B. Morton. 1999. Scutellospora rubra, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal species from Brazil. Mycol. Res. 103:949-954.

Stutz, J. C., and J. B. Morton. 1996. Successive pot cultures reveal high species richness of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi in arid ecosystems. Can. J. Bot. 74:1883-1889.

Stutz, J. C., R. Copeman, C. A. Martin, and J. B. Morton. 2000. Patterns of species composition and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arid regions of southwestern North America and Namibia, Africa. Can. J. Bot. (in press)

Surange, S., A. G. Wollum, II, K. Kumar, and C. S. Nautiyal. 1997. Characterization of Rhizobium from root nodules of leguminous trees growing in alkaline soils. Can. J. Microbiol. 45:1500‑1515.

Sylvia, D. M. 1998. Taskforce on technology-assisted graduate instruction at the University of Florida. J. Nat. Resour. Life Sci. Educ. 27:159-161.

Sylvia, D. M. 2000. Short root densities, ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, and associated phosphatase activity in a slash pine plantation. J. Sustainable For. (in press).

Sylvia, D. M., and D. O. Chellemi. 2000. Interactions among root-inhabiting fungi and their implications for biological control of root pathogens. Adv. Agron. (in press).

Sylvia, D. M., and A. G. Jarstfer. 1997. Distribution of mycorrhiza on competing pines and weeds in a southern pine plantation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 61:139-144.

Sylvia, D. M., A. Alagely, D. Kent, and R. Mecklenburg. 1998. Mycorrhiza of landscape trees produced in raised beds and containers. J. Arboric. 24:308-315.

Syvertsen, J. P. and J. H. Graham. 1999. Phosphorus supply and arbuscular mycorrhizas increase growth and net gas exchange responses of two Citrus spp. grown at elevated CO2. Plant Soil 208:209-219.

Tavaria, F. K., and D. A. Zuberer. 1998. Effect of low pO2 on colonization of maize roots by a genetically altered Pseudomonas putida [PH6(L1019)]. Biol. Fertil. Soils 26:43-49.

Vance, N. C., and J. A. Entry. 2000. Soil processes important to restoration of a headwaters catchment in the Siskiyou Mountains. For. Ecol. Management (in press).

Waggoner, P. J., and D.A. Zuberer. 1996. Response of nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in mine spoil to urea or ammonium sulfate. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:477-486.

Walworth, J. M., C. R. Woolard, J. F. Braddock, and C. M. Reynolds. 1997. Enhancement and inhibition of soil petroleum biodegradation through the use of fertilizer nitrogen: An approach to determining optimum levels. J. Contam. Soils. 6:465‑480.

Wright, S. F. A fluorescent antibody assay for hyphae and glomalin from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil (in press)

Wright, S. F., and R. L. Anderson. Aggregate stability and glomalin in alternative crop rotations for the central Great Plains. Biol. Fertil. Soils. (in press)

Wright, S. F., and A. Upadhyaya. 1998. A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 198:97-107.

Wright, S. F., and A. Upadhyaya. 1998. Comparison of N-linked oligosaccharides of glomalin from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soils by capillary electrophoresis. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13:1853-185.

Wright, S. F., and A. Upadhyaya. 1999. Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi activity by the glomalin concentration on hyphal traps. Mycorrhiza 8:283-285.

Wright, S. F., J. L. Starr, and I. C. Paltineanu. 1999. Changes in aggregate stability and concentration of glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, during transition from plow- to no-till management. Soil Sci. Soc Am. J. 63:1825-1829.

*Wright, S. F., M. Franke–Snyder, J. B. Morton, and A. Upadhyaya. 1996. Time-course study and partial characterization of a protein on hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during active colonization of roots. Plant Soil 181:193-203.

Xiong, K., and J. J. Fuhrmann. 1996. Comparison of rhizobitoxine-induced inhibition of b-cystathionase from different bradyrhizobia and soybean genotypes. Plant Soil 186:53‑61.

Xiong, K., and J. J. Fuhrmann. 1996. Soybean response to nodulation by wild‑type and an isogenic Bradyrhizobium elkanii mutant lacking rhizobitoxine production. Crop Sci. 36:1267‑1271.

Refereed Journals (submitted; 13):

Bago, B., P. E. Pfeffer, D. D. Douds, J. Brouillette, G. Bécard, and Y. Shachar–Hill. Carbon metabolism in spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices as revealed by NMR spectroscopy. Plant Physiol.

Bever, J. D., P. A. Schultz, A. Pringle, and J. B. Morton. 2000. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: More diverse than meets the eye and the ecological tale of why. BioScience

*Franke–Snyder, M, D. D. Douds, L. E. Drinkwater, P. Wagoner, and J. B. Morton. Diversity of communities of arbuscular (AM) fungi present in conventional versus low-input agricultural sites in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Applied Soil Ecol.

Gagliardi, J.V., and J. S. Karns. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 from manure and irrigation water in soil and on cover crops. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.

*Gagliardi, J. V., R. S. Angle, J. J. Germida, R. C. Wyndham, C. P. Chanway, R. J. Watson, C. Greer, H. H. Yu, T. McIntyre, M. A. Levin, E. Russek–Cohen, S. Rosolen, J. Nairn, A. Seib, T. Martin–Heller, and G. Wisse. Intact soil-core microcosms for pre-release testing of introduced microbes: Comparison with multi-site field releases in diverse soils and climates. Can. J. Microbiol.

*Gentry, T. J., D. C. Wolf, C. M. Reynolds, and J. J. Fuhrmann. Pyrene influence on soil microbial populations. Bioremed. J.

Nagahashi, G., D. D. Douds, M. Buee, and G. Bécard. Light-induced hyphal branching of germinated AM fungus spores. New Phytol.

Nagahashi, G., D. D. Douds, M. Buee, and G. Bécard. Morphological effects and ecological implications of the effect of root exudate signals upon growth of germinated AM fungus spores. New Phytol.

*Nazih, N., O. Finlay–Moore, P. G. Hartel, and J. J. Fuhrmann. 2000. Whole soil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of early soybean rhizosphere as affected by temperature and matric water potential. Soil Biol. Biochem.

Pidgeon, C. S., and C. M. Reynolds. Rhizosphere effect on treatment rates, sequence, and endpoints in a petroleum-contaminated Alaskan soil. Int. J. Phytoremed.

Scantling, M. K., D. C. Wolf, A. L. Waldroup, and C. M. Reynolds. Influence of poultry waste on bioremediation of motor oil-contaminated soil. J. Environ. Qual.

van Berkum, P., and J. J. Fuhrmann. 2000. Evolutionary relationships among the soybean bradyrhizobia reconstructed from 16S rRNA gene and internally transcribed spacer region sequence divergence. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.

Vasilas, L. M., B. L. Vasilas, J. J. Fuhrmann, J. T. Sims, C. M. Hamilton, R. W. Taylor, and W. F. Ritter. Agronomic and environmental implications of different rates of broiler litter amendments to soybeans. Agron. J.

Experiment Station and Extension Bulletins: 1

Patents: 1

Theses: 12 (4 Ph.D. and 8 M.S.)

Abstracts and Proceedings: 147

Non-Refereed Publications: 12

Newspaper, Magazines, etc.: 0

SIGNATURES

Project Title: Soil Microbial Taxonomic and Functional Diversity as Affected by Land

Use and Management

_______________________________________ ________________________

Administrative Advisor Date

_______________________________________ ________________________

Chair, Regional Association of Directors Date

_______________________________________ ________________________

Chair, Multistate Review Committee Date

_______________________________________ ________________________

Administrator, CSREES Date

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