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Bar-Ilan University Library maintains, on computer disk, a list of all the publications, with abstracts, known in Hebrew and English, on environmental ethics in Judaism, and this can be made available either on disk or in printout (about 80-100 pages when printed). (Israel) (v5,#1)

Barash, David P. Sociobiology and Behavior. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 1(1979):181 85.

Barbanell, Edward Morris, Private Property and Common-property Arrangements: The Case of Water in the West, Pd.D. thesis, Department of Philosophy, University of Utah, 1999. Private ownership is not the preferred end state for all scarce resources, illustrated by water in the American West. Because of water's "factor endowments", e.g., its degrees of jointness, divisibility and excludability, one individual's use creates significant negative externalities for other users. Individuals' interests can be better protected by splitting the various rights of ownership between individual resource users and the "resource community" to which they belong. This dissertation offers an expanded framework of "ownership", or rights-relationships. Locke's account of property is inadequate for water and other resources with similar factor endowments. Economists often conflate "open access" with "common ownership." The former describes a state of affairs where there are no rights-relationships at all, whereas the latter denotes a situation where definite property rights have been established. When the rights-relationship among members of a resource community is based on shared expectations of reciprocal behavior, then a common-property arrangement can function effectively to control the overuse of scarce resources. The advisor was Bruce Landesman. (v.13,#4)

Barbato, Joseph and Lisa Weinerman, eds., Heart of the Land: Essays on the Last Great Places. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994. 297 pages. A Nature Conservancy sponsored book. Thirty essays by well-known nature writers about places that still retain the ability to inspire, to awe, and to fire our collective imaginations. The essayists find that such places move us in ways that we intuitively understand but cannot adequately explain. Samples: Terry Tempest Williams, "Winter Solstice at the Moab Slough (Colorado Plateau, Utah)"; Rick Bass, "On Willow Creek" (Texas Hill Country); Joel Achenbach, "The Most Patient of Animals" (Clinch Valley, Virginia). "Of course we shouldn't protect a wild core such as the Texas hill country because it is a system still intact with the logic and sanity that these days too often eludes our lives in the city. We should instead protect the hill country simply for its own sake, to show that we are still capable of understanding (and practicing) the concept of honor: loving a thing the way it is, and trying, for once, not to change it" (Rick Bass). Barbato is an editorial director at the Nature Conservancy; Weinerman is with Nature Conservancy in Latin America. (v7,#1)

Barber, Benjamin R., "Democracy at Risk: American Culture in a Global Culture," World Policy Journal 15(no.2, 1998), p.29. (v.9,#4)

Barber, Charles Victor. "Forest Resource Scarcity and Social Conflict in Indonesia," Environment 40(no. 4, May 1998):4- . As economic tensions escalate and unsustainable logging practices continue, the risk of civil violence in Indonesia is rising. (v9,#2)

Barber, Jeffrey. "The Sustainable Communities Movement," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):338. (v8,#2)

Barbier, Edward B., "The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development," Environmental Conservation 14(no. 2, Summer, 1987):101-110. Sustainable development is perhaps a difficult concept to define with analytical rigor but it is nevertheless a useful concept. One makes an effort to mazimize simultaneously goals in three areas (1) Biological system goals, such as genetic diversity, resilience, biological productivity; (2) Economic system goals, such as satisfying basic needs, reducing poverty, equity-enhancing, increasing useful goods and services; and (3) Social system goals, such as cultural diversity, institutional sustainablility, social justice, and participation. This forces tradeoffs, since all these goals cannot at once be maximized, and optimum solutions can be sought. Barbier is with the International Institute for Environmental and Development, London.

Barbier, Edward B. "Elephant Ivory and Tropical Timber: The Role of Trade Interventions in Sustainable Management," The Journal of Environment and Development 4, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 1- . (v6,#4)

Barbour, Ian G., "Theology, Ethics, and the Environment," Chapter 6 (pp. 119-140) in Barbour, Nature, Human Nature, and God (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002). Brief survey of the main issues, with Barbour's characteristic capacity to digest and appraise the critical issues. (v.14, #4)

Barbour, Ian G. Technology, Environment, and Human Values. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 5(1983):367 70.

Barbour, Ian G., "The Churches and the Global Environment," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences) Bulletin 16 (No. 3, Summer 1996):1-9. A response to Al Gore's Earth in the Balance. We are not isolated individuals but are constituted by our relationship as persons-in-community, and we are part of a wider created order. ... Stewardship can easily be distorted into care for nature merely for the sake of the benefits it confers on us. Barbour taught religion and science at Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota. (v7,#4)

Barbour, Ian G., "Experiencing and Interpreting Nature in Science and Religion," Zygon 29(1994):457-487. Three paths from nature to religious interpretation: (1) From religious experience in the context of nature. (2) Scientific findings concerning cosmology or evolution used as evidence of design. (3) Traditional religious beliefs reformulated in the light of current natural science. All three can contribute to relating science and religion. Barbour is in physics and religion at Carleton College, emeritus. (v5,#4)

Barbour, Ian G., Nature, Human Nature, and God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. (v.13,#4)

Barbour, Ian. Ethics in an Age of Technology: The Gifford Lectures 1989 1991, vol 2. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.

Barcalow, Emmett, Moral Philosophy: Theories and Issues, 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1998. Chapter 23 is "Morality and the Environment." Barcalow is at Western New England College. (v9,#1)

Barcalow, Emmett, Moral Philosophy: Theory and Issues. Bel­mont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994. 432 pages. Paper. Contains a chapter on "Morality and the Environment." Environmental threats. Sustainable development. Present and future people. Life-centered versus human-centered environmental ethics. Barcalow is in philosophy at Western New England College. (v4,#3)

Barclay, Oliver R., "Animal Rights: A Critique," Science and Christian Belief, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 49-61. A broader and more soundly established Christian approach than that of "animal rights" (in Andrew Linzey, Tom Regan, and others) will find responsibilities for and duties to animals in the context of those to the whole creation. The term "animal rights" is inappropriate for animals. It is best abandoned for these more satisfactory and Biblically-based concepts. There is a positive mandate given to humans to care for the whole natural world. Barclay is a zoologist. (v4,#3)

Barham, Elizabeth, "Ecological Boundaries as Community Boundaries: The Politics of Watersheds," Society & Natural Resources 14(no.3, MAR 01 2001):181-. (v.12,#4)

Barham, Elizabeth. "Social Movements for Sustainable Agriculture in France: A Polanyian Perspective," Society & Natural Resources 10(no.3, 1997):239. (v8,#2)

Barker, Barry, Envronmental Studies: Concepts, Connections, and Controversies. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 2001. Biodiversity, human populations, food supplies, environmental health, energy, urbanization, and globalization. Chapter 1 is "Environmental Ethics."

Barker, Rocky, Saving All the Parts: Reconciling Economics and the Endangered Species Act. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 260 pages. Hardbound, $ 30.00 The "jobs versus the environ­ment" issues, explored in detail. Ways in which economic activity can be sustained without the loss of essential natural values. Barker is a journalist with the Idaho Falls Post Register. (v4,#2)

Barker, Terry, Review of Colin Price, Time, Discounting and Value, Environmental Values 7(1998):116.

Barker, Terry, and Jonathan Kohler, eds. International Competitiveness and Environmental Policies,Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1998. Review by Marialusia Tamborra and Dino Pinelli, Environmental Values 10(2001):268. (EV)

Barkham, J.P. "Environmental Needs and Social Justice," Biodiversity and Conservation 4(no.8, Nov. 1995):857- . (v6,#4)

Barkin, J. Samuel, and Shambaugh, George E., eds., Anarchy and the Environment: International Relations of Common Pool Resources. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999. 205 pages. $ 18.00 paper. (v.10,#1)

Barlow, Chuck D., "Why the Christian Right Must Protect the Environment: Theocentricity in the Political Workplace," The Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23 (no. 4, Summer, 1996):781- . Originally a LL.M. (Master of Laws) thesis, in the environmental law and natural resources program at the Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon, December 1995. The faculty advisor was Professor William Funk. Analyzes the rise of the Christian right as a force in American political policy, demanding adherence to traditional Biblical values. The Christian right has taken, at best, an indifferent, and at worst, a heavily anthropocentric attitude toward the use and conservation of the environment. Barlow rebuts the proposition, asserted by Lynn White, Jr., Aldo Leopold, and others, and implicitly accepted by the environmental inaction of the Christian right, that the scriptures of the Judeo-Christian tradition promote an anthropocentric environmental ethic. Rather, the Bible sets forth a "theocentric," or God-centered, approach to care of the environment. Those who claim to base their political agenda on Christianity ought to consider the Biblical mandate to use the earth's resources wisely. Address: Chuck D. Barlow, c/o Phelps Dunbar, L.L.P., P.O. Box 23066, Jackson, MS 39225 3066. (v.7,#4)

Barlow, Chuck D., Why the Christian Right Must Protect the Environment: Theocentricity in the Political Workplace, LL.M. (Master of Laws) thesis in the environmental law and natural resources program at the Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon, December 1995. The faculty advisor was Professor William Funk. The thesis analyzes the rise of the Christian right as a force in American political policy, demanding adherence to traditional Biblical values. The Christian right has taken, at best, an indifferent, and at worst, a heavily anthropocentric attitude toward the use and conservation of the environment. Barlow rebuts the proposition, asserted by Lynn White, Jr., Aldo Leopold, and others, and implicitly accepted by the environmental inaction of the Christian right, that the scriptures of the Judeo-Christian tradition promote an anthropocentric environmental ethic. Rather, the Bible sets forth a "theocentric," or God-centered, approach to care of the environment. Those who claim to base their political agenda on Christianity ought to consider the Biblical mandate to use the earth's resources wisely. The thesis will be published in The Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, Summer, 1996. Chuck D. Barlow, c/o Phelps Dunbar, L.L.P., P.O. Box 23066, Jackson, MS 39225 3066. (v7,#1)

Barlow, Connie. "Re-Storying Biodiversity by Way of Science," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):14. Sidebar: A Conversation with Edward O. Wilson. (v8,#2)

Barlow, R. M., "Buber Looks at Nature: An Alternative Epistemology," Contemporary Philosophy 12 (no. 10, July, 1989):5-11. Martin Buber's alternative, dialogic existential epistemology counters the subject-object thrust of traditional epistemologies. (v5,#4)

Barnard, AC 1991. Die lewe voor God se aangesig (Ps 65). In: Vos, C & Müller, J (eds): Mens en omgewing. Halfway House: Orion, 135 145. (Africa)

Barnard, E., "Perspective: Old-Growth: Some Questions, Truths, and Consequences," Journal of Forestry 102(no.3, April/May 2004):60-60(1). (v. 15, # 3)

Barnato, Teri. "Should Dogs and Cats Be Vegetarian?," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.3,1997):28. Teri Barnato examines the nutritional and ethical factors of meatless diets for companion animals. (v8,#3)

Barnes, Don. "Vivisection: A Window to the Dark Ages of Science." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):20. (v7,#2)

Barnes, Matthew. Review of Wilkinson, Fire on the Plateau: Conflict and Endurance in the American Southwest. Environmental Values 9(2000):403.

Barnes, Michael, ed., An Ecology of the Spirit: Religious Reflection and Environmental Consciousness. Lanham, Md: University Press of America, 1993. The Annual Publication of the College Theological Society, vol. 36. 248 pages. $ 21.50 paper. $ 52.00 cloth. Barnes is professor of religious studies at the University of Dayton, Ohio. (v4,#4)

Barnett, Jonathan, ed. Planning For a New Century. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 218 pages. Paper $29.95. Ways in which public policies have helped create, and can help solve, many of the problems facing our communities, federal, state, and local, including environmental quality. (v.11,#4)

Barnett, Tanya Marcovna, ed., Greening Congregations Handbook: Stories, Ideas, and Resources for Cultivating Awareness and Care in Your Congregation. Seattle, WA: Earth Ministry, 2002. (6512 23rd Ave. N.W., Suite 317, Seattle, WA 98117). (v.13,#4)

Barnhill, David Landis, ed., At Home on the Earth: Becoming Native to our Place. A Multiculltural Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. $ 18.00 (v10,#4)

Barnhill, David Landis and Roger S. Gottlieb, eds. Deep Ecology and World Religions: New Essays on Sacred Ground. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 25(2003):215 219. (EE)

Barnhill, David Landis, and Gottlieb, Roger S., eds., Deep Ecology and World Religions. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001. This book grew out of a session on deep ecology and world religions at the 1997 American Academy of Religion, Annual Meeting. Sample chapters: Mary Evelyn Tucker, "Confucianism and Deep Ecology"; Eric Katz, "Faith, God, and Nature: Judaism and Deep Ecology"; Nawal Ammar, "Islam and Deep Ecology"; John B. Cobb, Jr., "Protestantism and Deep Ecology." And others. (v.12,#3)

Barnosky, AD; Hadly, EA; Maurer, BA; Christie, MI, "Temperate Terrestrial Vertebrate Faunas in North and South America: Interplay of Ecology, Evolution, and Geography with Biodiversity," Conservation Biology 15(no.3, 2001):658-674. (v.12,#4)

Barns, Ian, "Eschatological Hope and Ecological Justice," Ecotheology No 5/6 (Jul 98 / Jan 99):173-184.

Barns, Ian. "Environment, Democracy and Community." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):101. (v7,#2)

Barr, Cameron. "Japan at a Boil Over Nuclear Agency's Coverups." The Christian Science Monitor 89.101 (21 April 1997): 5.

Barr, James, "Was Everything that God Created Really Good? A Question in the First Verse of the Bible." Pages 55-65 in Linadelt, Tod and Beal, Timothy, eds., God in the Fray: A Tribute to Walter Bruggeman. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998. (v.10,#2)

Barr, James. Biblical Faith and Natural Theology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. 244 pages. Writing against the background of the rejection of natural theology by prominent twentieth century theologians (especially Karl Barth), Barr, well-known for his biblical exegesis, argues that natural theology is a legitimate enterprise within biblical thought. Any religious claim, no matter how strongly defended as revealed, includes some element of "anterior knowledge" that arises out of what has traditionally been viewed as natural theology. Natural theology is an essential and lively component of Biblical faith. Unfortunately, Barr chooses not to bring his new regard for natural theology to bear in any substantial way on the new discussions of the world and nature prompted by the ecological crisis. Barr presented these as Gifford lectures in 1991; an earlier Gifford lecturer denying natural theology was Karl Barth in 1938. (v6,#3)

Barreto, Luis S. "On Sayre's Alternative View of Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 14(1992):377. (EE)

Barreto, Luís Soares, Ética Ambiental: Uma Anotaçao Introdutória (Environmental Ethics: An Annotated Introduction). 61 pages. Lisbon: Publicaçoes Ciência Vida, Lda., 1994. ISBN 972-590-055-3. Chapter titles (in Portuguese): Introduction. General Perspective. Moral Extensionism. The Christian Perspective. Biocentrism. Ecocentrism. Radical Environmentalism (Deep Ecology, Ecofeminism, Social Ecology, Bioregionalism). Closing Commentary. Selected Bibliography. A brief introduction to the main schools of thought; the author is quite well read in the literature in English. Barreto is Professor Catedrático (Tenured) at the Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisbon. Address: Instutito Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, P-1399 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. (v5,#4)

Barrett, Alan, Lawlor, John, Scott, Sue, eds. The Fiscal System and the Polluter Pays Principle. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 180pp. $59.95 cloth. The Irish fiscal system is examined to find out if polluters are taxed in a wy that makes them pay for their damage, or if they are being subsidised amd so effectively encouraged to pollute. The book also suggests possible improvements to the system. The authors are at the Economic and Social Research Institute, Ireland. (v8,#1)

Barrett, Alan, Lawlor, John, Scott, Sue. The Fiscal System and the Polluter Pays the Principle: A Study of Ireland. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 240 pp. $63.95. The Irish fiscal system examined to see if the incentives generated by the taxes and subsidies are environmentally positive or negative. Are polluters being taxed in a way that makes them pay for their damage?

Barrett, Alan, Lawlor, John, Scott, Sue. The Fiscal System and the Polluter Pays the Principle: A Study of Ireland. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 240 pp. $63.95. The Irish fiscal system examined to see if the incentives generated by the taxes and subsidies are environmentally positive or negative. Are polluters being taxed in a way that makes them pay for their damage?

Barrett, CB; Brandon, K; Gibson, C; Gjertsen, H, "Conserving Tropical Biodiversity amid Weak Institutions," Bioscience 51(no. 6, 2001):497-502. (v.13,#1)

Barrett, Christopher B., Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. "Modeling Ecological Constraints on Tropical Forest Management: Comment," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 32(1997):271.

Barrett, Christopher B., and Ray Grizzle. "A Holistic Approach to Sustainability Based on Pluralism Stewardship." Environmental Ethics 21(1999):23 42. In this paper, we advance a holistic ecological approach based on a three compartment model. This approach favors policy initiatives that lie at the intersection of the three major areas of concern common to most environmental controversies: environmental protection, provision of basic human needs, and advancing economic welfare. In support of this approach, we propose a "pluralistic stewardship" integrating core elements of anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism. After presenting the basics of our model, we then explain why it is important to identify and promote a holistic ecological approach to sustainability. Here we employ the economic concept of path dependence, emphasizing that there exist multiple paths society can follow in environmental ethics and policy but once one has been chosen, implicitly or explicitly, there may be little opportunity to reverse such choices. (EE)

Barrett, Gary W. and Farina, Almo, "Integrating Ecology and Economics," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 311- . (v.11,#4)

Barrett, Gary W., and Barrett, Terry L. eds., Holistic Science: The Evolution of the Georgia Institute of Ecology (1949-2000). New York: Taylor and Francis, 2001. Contributions by Ronald Pulliam, Eugene P. Odum, Frank B. Golley, Gene E. Likens. Reviewed by Jianguo Liu, Landscape Ecology 18(no. 2, 2003):211-212. (v 14, #3)

Barrett, Greg. "Hawaiians Thundering Protest Shakes Private Property Debate." The Christian Science Monitor 89.107 (29 April 1997): 3.

Barrett, James, Segerson, Kathleen. "Prevention and Treatment in Environmental Policy Design," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 33(no.2, 1997):196. (v8,#3)

Barrett, L, "Great Apes and Humans: the Ethics of Coexistence," Biological Conservation 107(no.3, 2002):375-376.

(v.13, #3)

Barrett, Suzanne. "Everything is Connected to Everything Else: Toronto and the Waterfronts, Shores and Coasts of the Great Lakes", Environments 24(no. 1, 1996).

Barringer, Felicity, "U.S. Rules Out Dam Removal To Aid Salmon," New York Times, December 1, 2004, p. A1. The Bush administration has ruled out removing any dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers to save endangered salmon species, even as a last resort. Previous Clinton administration policy has stated that dam removal might be an option, as a last resort. Authorities now claim it is unrealistic to consider removing dams and that they can solve the problem with better fish ladders and other solutions. (v.14, #4)

Barringer, Felicity, "Forest Service Seeks Limits on All-Terrain Vehicles," New York Times, July 8, 2004, p. A12. The U.S. Forest Service is proposing that ATV's must stay on established trails, rather than drive anywhere they please, creating "outlaw" trails. Such non-trails now cover five times as many miles as the proper trails. ATV riders particularly like the challenge of steep slopes and this creates much erosion. ATV use has increased sevenfold in the past thirty years. Some of the 155 National Forests already require staying on trails, but many do not. ATV use has increased sevenfold in the past thirty years. One rider, asked about the appeal of riding in the mud, said, "I like getting muddy. If you haven't gotten muddy, you haven't ridden." (v. 15, # 3)

Barringer, Felicity, "Unusual Alliance Is Formed to Clean Up Mine Runoff, New York Times, August 18, 2004, A13. In Utah unexpected alliances (ski resort operators, businesses, the U.S. Forest Service, and environmental groups) are co-operating to clean up the U.S. West, where mining waste has polluted the headwaters of 40 percent of all watersheds. (v. 15, # 3)

Barringer, Felicity, "A Search for Pearls of Wisdom in the Matter of Swine," New York Times, July 7, 2004, p. A4. Pig farms in eastern North Carolina produce massive wastes in land, water, and air and have become one of the most politically divisive issues in the state. During the 1990's the number of hogs grew from three to over nine million. Systems to deal with the waste, using lagoons and spraying treated wastes onto fields--the wastes do contain phosphorus and nitrogen, the main ingredients in fertilizer--has repeatedly failed. The EPA has done little and the State of North Carolina has mandated a study to which industry has contributed $ 18 million. That study, two years overdue, is about to be released, lead by C. M. Williams of North Carolina State University. The better the solutions are, the more expensive they are. (v. 15, # 3)

Barringer, Felicity, "Logging and Politics Collide in Idaho," New York Times, August 9, 2004, A10. Roadless area disputes, resulting from President Bush's plan to withdraw a Clinton ban. (v. 15, # 3)

Barringer, Felicity and Michael Manofsky, "G.O.P. Plans to Give Environmental Rules a Free-Market Tilt," New York Times, November 6, 2004, p. A14. The Bush administration intends to accelerate conservation by distributing billions of dollars to private landowners for the preservation of wetlands and wildlife habitat. Michael O. Leavitt, administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, said: "We will make more progress in less time while maintaining the economic competitiveness for the country. That's my mission." (v.14, #4)

Barringer, Felicity, "New Provision Would Allow Slaughtering of Wild Horses," New York Times, November 25, 2004, p. A20. A provision attached to an Omnibus Spending Bill by Senator Conrad Burns, Republican, Montana, would allow the sale for slaughter of feral horses that have been rounded up and are more than ten years old or have been offered for adoption successfully three times. The bill is awaiting final action. There are about 37,000 feral horses and burros running free in ten U.S. Western states; most are in Nevada. The Bureau of Land Management rounds up some when numbers increase and now has about 30,000 horses in holding areas. The feral horses compete with livestock and elk for grass. In some areas of Nevada wild animals, including horses, had conssumed two-thirds of the available forage before cattle were let onto the land at the end of winter. This time it is the cattlemen, not the ecologists, who want the horses thinned off the landscape. B.L.M. prefers adoption; over 203,000 horses and burros have been adopted in three decades; about 6,600 were adopted last year. But there are many more horses than persons willing to adopt them. (v.14, #4)

Barringer, Felicity, "U.S. Panel Recommends No Protection for Grouse," New York Times, December 3, 2004, p. A 14. Amid an intense lobbying effort by energy and ranching interests in the U.S. West, a team of Interior department biologists has recommended that the sage grouse, a bird whose sagebrush territory has been vastly reduced by farming and development is not threatened with extinction and does not for the moment need to be protected under the Endangered Species Act.

Barro, Susan C.; Manfredo, Michael J.; and Peterson, George L. "Examination of the Predictive Validity of CVM (Contingent Valuation) Using an Attitude-Behavior Framework." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 111. (v7, #3)

Barrows, Paul L., "Wildlife Health: When to Intervene," Transactions of the Fifty-Seventh North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 1992, pages 433-438. When is intervention appropriate and to what degree in the treatment of wildlife diseases? Some advocate a laissez faire attitude, let nature take its course; but others believe we ought to rehabilitate each sick, injured, or dying wild bird or animal encountered. Reason and practicality lie between these extremes. Examples of intervention are discussed, both at the individual and population level, also reports from organizations and study symposia on this issue. Colonel Barrows is commanding officer of the U.S. Army Veterinary Command with a special interest in the welfare of wildlife on military reservations. (v5,#4)

Barry, Brian. Review of John O'Neill. Ecology, Policy, and Politics: Human Well-Being and the Natural World: (London: Routledge, 1993). (EV)

Barry, D., "Toward Reconciling the Cultures of Wilderness and Restoration," Restoration and Management Notes 16(1998):125-127. (v.12,#4)

Barry, Dwight, and Oelschlaeger, Max, "A Science for Survival: Values and Conservation Biology," Conservation Biology 10(no. 3, June 1996):905-911. Practice of conservation biology that does not actively and continuously question the values that shape it is self-defeating. Conservation biology is inescapably normative. Advocacy for the preservation of biodiversity is part of the scientific practice of conservation biology. Conservation biologists should reflect on the constitutive values underlying their research programs and policy recommendations. Such reflection is itself an inherent element of scientific objectivity and takes into account the social nature of scientific knowledge. Without openly acknowledging such a perspective, conservation biology could become merely a subdiscipline of biology, intellectually and functionally sterile and incapable of averting an anthropogenic mass extinction. Barry is in the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University. Oelschlaeger was then in philosophy, University of North Texas, and now is at the University of Northern Arizona. (v.10,#1)

Barry, Dwight, and Oelschlaeger, Max. "A Science for Survival: Values and Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 905. (v7, #3)

Barry, John, Review of: Bluhdorn (Blüdorn), Ingolfur, Post-Ecologist Politics: Social Theory and the Abdication of the Ecologist Paradigm. Environmental Values 13(2004):127-130. (EV)

Barry, John, Environment and Social Theory. New York: Routledge, 2000. The historical relationship between social theory and the environment. Pre-Enlightenment and Enlightenment social theory and the environment. Twentieth century social theory and the environment. Economical theory and the environment. The relationship between ecology, biology, and social theory. Recent theoretical approaches to the environment. The development of a green social theory. Barry is at Keele University. (v.11,#1)

Barry, John, Review of: John Bellamy Foster, Marx's Ecology: Materialism and Nature, Environmental Values 11(2002):103-106.

Barry, John. Review of John O'Neill, R. Kerry Turner & Ian Bateman (Eds.), "Environmental Ethics and Philosophy", Organization and Environment, 15, (No. 3, 2002): 347-9. Barry is a reader in the School of Politics, Queen's University Belfast. (v.13, #3)

Barry, John. Review of Matthew A. Cole, "Trade Liberalisation, Economic Growth and the Environment", Organization and Environment 14 (No. 4, December 2001) pp.477-80. Barry is a reader in politics at Queen's University Belfast, and has published extensively on normative aspects of green politics. (v.13,#2)

Barry, John. Rethinking Green Politics: Nature, Virtue and Progress.

London: Sage Publications, 1998, 304pp. Reviewed by Patrick Curry. Environmental Values 9(2000):119.

Barry, John. "The Limits of the Shallow and the Deep: Green Politics, Philosophy, and Praxis." Environmental Politics 3 (no. 3, 1994): 369- . (v6,#1)

Bartas, Jeanne-Marie, "Aquaculture: An Overview," Part I in Vegetarian Journal, May/June 1997, pages 20-26, Part II in Vegetarian Journal July/August 1997, pages 17-22. The environmental and ethical ramifications of the raising of fish and other marine and aquatic animals, including such issues as water usage, genetic engineering, drugs, effluent and wastes control, and global environmental impacts. Bartas is a researcher at The Vegetarian Resource Group, and specializes in environmental chemistry. (v8,#2)

Bartas, Jeanne-Marie, The Tale of the Starry Heavens Above and the Moral Law Within: Kant's Aesthetic Theory. Kant's aesthetic theory as a basis for environmental ethics. Master's thesis at Colorado State University, completed spring 1992. (v3,#4)

Bartholow, John M., Douglas, Aaron J., and Taylor, Jonathan G. "Balancing Hydropower and Environmental Values: The Resource Management Implications of the US Electric Consumers Protection Act and the AWARETM Software." Environmental Values 4(1995):255-270. This paper reviews the AWARETM software distributed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program is designed to facilitate the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) license renewal process for US hydropower installations. The discussion reviews the regulatory, legal, and social contexts that give rise to the creation and distribution of AWARETM. The principal legal impetus for AWARETM is the Electric Consumer Protection Act (ECPA) of 1986 that directs FERC to give equal consideration to power and non-power resources during relicensing. The software is reviewed in this paper from several perspectives including those of natural resource economics, systems modeling, and the social context within which FERC licensing decisions are made. We examine both the software and its underlying methodology and find significant problems with each. Because of its flaws, AWARETM does little to further ECPA's equal consideration requirement. We find that the conservation and restoration impact of ECPA for US fisheries could be seriously hampered by the widespread use of AWARETM. KEYWORDS: AWARETM, Electric Consumer Protection Act, hydropower, water resources, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Bartholow, Douglas, and Taylor are at the Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, Fort Collins, Colorado. (EV)

Bartkowski, John P., and Swearingen, W. Scott, "God Meets Gaia in Austin, Texas: A Case Study in Environmentalism as Implicit Religion," Review of Religious Research 38(1997):308-324. Drawing on insights from Mircea Eliade's theory of sacred space, the authors call attention to a series of striking similarities between classical modes of religious experience on the one hand and the sacralization of a prized natural resource located in Austin, Texas, on the other. Using interview data, they argue that Austin's Barton Springs is construed in terms that provide (1) nodal space to individuals giving access to ultimate reality, (2) integrative space which binds them to the local Austin community, and (3) democratic space that furnishes Austin with a distinctive character in opposition to surrounding locales. The authors are at the University of Texas, Austin.

Bartlein, Patrick J., Whitlock, Cathy, Shafer, Sarah L. "Future Climate in the Yellowstone National Park Region and Its Potential Impact on Vegetation," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):782. The changes that might result from global warming are difficult to predict but models indicate they will be as great or greater than those seen in the paleoecologic record during previous warming intervals, and will likely exceed the capacities of present species to adjust to them, resulting in communities without any analogue in present-day vegetation. The authors are in geography, University of Oregon. (v8,#2)

Bartlett, Robert V. "Ecological Rationality: Reason and Environmental Policy." Environmental Ethics 8(1986):221 39. Ecological rationality is a concept important to most environmental and natural re­sources policy and to much policy-relevant literature and research. Yet ecological rationality as a distinctive form of reason can only be understood and appreciated in the context of a larger body of work on the general concept of ration­ality. In particular, Herbert Simon's differentiation between substantive and pro­cedural rationality and Paul Diesing's specification of forms of practical reason are useful tools in mapping and defining ecological rationality. The significance and characteristics of ecological rationality suggest that it is a fundamental kind of reason, having precedence over others. Bartlett is in the department of Political Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. (EE)

Bartlett, Robert V., "Ecological Rationality: Reason and Environmental Policy," Environmental Ethics 8(1986):221-239. By analyzing the concept of rationality itself, we can see that one form of rationality ecological rationality  is fundamental, a necessary condition for human social life. (Katz, Bibl # 1)

Bartolommei, Sergio, Etica e Ambiente, Guerini e Associati s.r.l., Via A. Sciena 7, 20135 Milano, Italy, sec. ed., 1990. L. 25,000. 187 pages. An Italian work on environmental ethics. (v2,#1)

Bartolommei, Sergio. Etica e Ambiente. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 13(1991):367 69.

Barton, A., "Review of: Daily, Gretchen C., and Katherine Ellison. The New Economy of Nature: the Quest to Make Conservation Profitable," Society and Natural Resources 16(no. 7, 2003): 668-670.

Barton, Harry, "The Isle of Harris Superquarry: Concepts of the Environment and Sustainability," Environmental Values 5(1996):97-122. In 1991 Redland Aggregates Ltd. put forward a proposal to embark upon the largest mining project in Europe, the chosen location being the remote island of Harris and Lewis in the Western Isles of Scotland. The proposal sparked off an impassioned debate between planners, conservationists and developers, while the local residents have attempted to come to terms with an operation on a scale previously inconceivable on the island. This paper attempts to examine the proposed development from a sociological angle. It is less concerned with justifying or condemning the project on economic or political grounds and more with analyzing the roots of the various viewpoints held by those involved, willingly or unwillingly, in the debate. From this analysis arise implications regarding different perspectives on the environment and different interpretations of the term sustainable. It is argued that these diverse perceptions are grounded in different interpretations of the environment, shaped by the cultural and historical context within which the groups or individuals that hold these views exist and interact. Ultimately, the paper makes a plea for a wider recognition of the diversity of meanings and interpretations implied by the term environment, a broader definition of the term development, and an expansion of the concept of sustainability to incorporate the variety of situations and perceived needs of different cultures. KEYWORDS: Cultural theory, empowerment, Isle of Harris, sustainability (EV)

Baskin, Y, "The Greening of Horticulture: New Codes of Conduct Aim to Curb Plant Invasions," Bioscience 52(no.6, 2002):464-471. (v.13, #3)

Baskin, Yvonne, "Ecologists Dare to Ask: How Much Does Diversity Matter?" Science 264(April 8, 1994):202-203. Report from a workshop, sponsored by SCOPE/Global Biodiversity Assessment Synthesis Conference, in California earlier this year, on whether or how much diversity contributes to healthy ecosystem functioning. Mixed opinions, but it seems clear that some species are "rivets" (in Ehrlich's metaphor) in the Earth spaceship system, while others are only "passengers." Biodiversity is valuable up to a certain point (which may differ with different systems), but most ecosystems contain more diversity than is needed to reach peak productivity. See related item in issues section, below. (v5,#1)

Baskin, Yvonne. The Work of Nature. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 288 pp. $25 cloth. Baskin examines the threats posed to humans by the loss of biodiversity, distilling the work of the world's leading ecologists. She explains the practical consequences of declining biodiversity on ecosystem health and function. (v8,#2)

Baskin, Yvonne. "Curbing Undesirable Invaders," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):732. The Norway/United Nations Conference on Alien Species calls for global action to squelch the rising tide of unwanted species. (v7,#4)

Basney, Lionel. An Earth-Careful Way of Life: Christian Stewardship and the Environmental Crisis. Downer's Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994. 168 pages. $9.99 paper. Basney is professor of English at Calvin College. Narrative, story-like style. (v5,#2)

Bassett, Libby, ed., Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action. New York: United Nations Environment Programme, 2000. Produced by the New York office of UNEP, headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. Brings forward the voices of the world's religions as engaged partners in facing the current environmental crisis, resulting from the Forum on Religion and Ecology, Mary Evelyn Tucker, Coordinator. The Germeshausen Foundation has supported the printing of 50,000 copies. Copies available from UNEP: e-mail: uneprona@. (v.12,#2)

Basso, Keith, Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language Among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.

Basso, Keith, and Feld, Steven, eds., Senses of Place. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 1996.

Basso, Keith, and Feld, Steven, eds., Senses of Place. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 1996.

Basso, Keith, Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language Among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.

Bast, Joseph L., Peter J. Hill, and Richard C. Rue, Eco-Sanity: A Common-Sense Guide to Environmentalism. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 1994. $ 22.95. 316 pages. Best is president of The Heartlands Institute, Palatine, Illinois and Detroit Michigan. Hill teaches economics at Wheaton College, Illinois. Rue is vice-president of the Heartlands Institute. (v5,#3)

Bastian, O, "Landscape Ecology : Towards a Unified Discipline?," Landscape Ecology 16(no.8, 2002):757-766. (v.13, #3)

Batabyal, A. A., Kahn, J. R. and Oneill, R. V., "On the Scarcity Value of Ecosystem Services," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 46(no. 2, 2003): 334-352.

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. Review of A. Cornwell, and J. Creedy, Environmental Taxes and Economic Welfare. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14(2001):96-102. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. Review of J.B. Braden and S. Proost, eds., The Economic Theory of Environmental Policy in a Federal System, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14(2001):96-102. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. Review of R. Nau, R., E. Gronn, M. Machina, and O. Bergland, eds., Economic and Environmental Risk and Uncertainty: New Models and Methods, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14(2001):96-102. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. Review of G. Atkinson, G., R. Dubourg, K. Hamilton, M. Munasinghe, D. Pearce, and C. Young, Measuring Sustainable Development: Macroeconomics and the Environment., Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14(2001):96-102. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., and Beladi, Hamid, eds., The Economics of International Trade and Environment. Boca Raton: Lewis, 2001. Reviewed by Ackrill, Rob, Environmental Values 12(2003):537-539. (EV)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. Review of: Feiler, Bruce, Abraham: A Journey to the Heart of Three Faiths. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16(2003):516 518. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., Review of: Roy, Arundhati, Power Politics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16(2003):96 98. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., Review of: Lewis, Bernard, What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16(2003):416 418. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., Book Review of Michael Kremer and Rachel Glennerster, "Strong Medicine: Creating Incentives for Pharmaceutical Research on Neglected Diseases (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):415-417. (JAEE)

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., Book Review of Talbott, Strobe, Engaging India: Diplomacy, Democracy, and the Bomb (Washington, DC, USA. Brookings Institution Press, 2004) Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):311-313. (JAEE)

Batchelor, Martine, and Kerry Brown, ed., Buddhism and Ecology, 114 pages. In a series; the others are: Breuilly, Elizabeth and Martin Palmer, ed., Christianity and Ecology, 118 pages. Ranchor Prime, Hinduism and Ecology, 118 pages. Khalid, Fazlun with Joanne O'Brien, ed., 111 pages. Rose, Aubrey, ed., Judaism and Ecology, 142 pages. The editors in each case include a variety of perspectives from that tradition (Prime is a single author, but interviews various persons). All in paper. London: Cassell Publishers Limited, for the World Wide Fund for Nature, 1992. $ 5.99 each. A review of the series is in CTNS (Center for Theology and Natural Sciences) Bulletin 16 (no. 3, Summer, 1996):18-19.

Bate, Jonathan, Romantic Ecology: Wordsworth and the Environmental Tradition. New York: Routledge, 1991. "Modern ecological politics teaches us that to consider society only in terms of production, income, and ownership is insufficient. What is done to the land is as important as who owns it" (p. 46). "It is profoundly unhelpful to say there is no nature at a time when our most urgent need is to address and readdress the consequences of human civilisation's insatiable desire to consume the products of the earth" (p. 56). "The whole concept of society having an economic base with legal and political superstructure fails to address the fact that the economy of human society may in the end be dependent on something larger, the economy of nature" (p. 57). (v7,#1)

Bate, Jonathan. The Song of the Earth. London: Picador, 2000. Review by John Foster, Environmental Values 10(2001):541. (EV)

Bates, D., "Book Review: Beyond Great Walls: Environment, Identity, and Development On the Chinese Grasslands of Inner Mongolia. By Dee Mack Williams.," Human Ecology 31(no. 2, 2003): 328-330. (v 14, #3)

Bates, Diane and Rudel, Thomas K., "The Political Ecology of Conserving Tropical Rain Forests: A Cross-National Analysis," Society & Natural Resources 13(no.7, OCT 01 2000):619- . (EE v.12,#1)

Bates, Gerry M., Environmental Law in Australia, 4th ed. Sydney: Butterworths, 1995. 405 pages. (v7,#4)

Bates, H.E., Parker, Agnes Miller. Through the Woods: The English Woodland--April to April. London: Frances Lincoln, 1995 (distributed by Trafalgar Square, North Promfet, VT 05053; 800 423 4525. The playwright H.E. Bates took his turn in the 1930's at praising the beauty of the English land in a delightfully observant journal of woodsy rambles. Through the Woods has been reissued with its original woodcuts by Agnes Miller Parker. (v7,#1)

Bates, Jennifer. "An Inquiry into the Nature of Environmentally Sound Thinking." Environmental Ethics 25(2003):183 197. Many philosophers advocate a change in our thinking in order to move beyond an anthropocentric view of the environment. In order to achieve the kind of thinking that makes for sound environmental thinking, we have to look more deeply into the nature of thought and to revise the relation between thought directed outward to the world and thought directed inwardly to thought itself. Only with such insight can we begin to think soundly about the environment. Thought exhibits a characteristic that makes it hard to think environmentally soundly. This characteristic is the inability to think of something without at the same time making it one's property. In other words, if sound environmental thinking means moving beyond anthropocentric attitudes and, for example, extending moral categories to creatures other than humans, then we need to address how our thinking turns everything into "mine" before we go about establishing a theory about how that extension should take shape. Hegel is the philosopher who most deeply analyses the inevitable, yet dangerous role of "mining"Cin the sense of "making mine," in the act of thinking. This potentially problematic character of thought risks making a number of otherwise sound environmental ways of thinking, unsound. However, we can provide a balance for this problematic characteristic in our thinking. (EE)

Bates, Lisa, Review of Three Challenges to Ethics by James Sterba. Oxford University Press, 2000. Ethics and the Environment 8(no. 2, 2003):126-131.

Bates, Sara F., David H. Getches, Lawrence J. MacDonnell, and Charles F. Wilkinson, Searching Out the Headwaters: Change and Rediscovery in Western Water Policy. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 250 pages. Paper, $ 17.95. Western water use and the outmoded rules that govern it. Only by understanding the waters of the West and the people whose lives depend upon then can concerned citizens comprehend the seriousness of the current situation and help take steps toward reform. The authors are at the University of Colorado School of Law. (v4,#2)

Batie, SS, "Managing Pesticide Tradeoffs, " Environment 43(no. 8, 2001):40-44. (v.13,#1)

Batisse, Michel. "New Prospects for Biosphere Reserves." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 367. (v7, #3)

Battersby, John, "A Human Face for South Africa's Park System," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (23 August 1994): 12-13. (v5,#3)

Battisti, C; Gippoliti, S, "Conservation in the Urban-Countryside Interface: a Cautionary Note from Italy", Conservation Biology 18 (no.2, 2004): 581-583.

Baubosa, Joao Lopes, O Homem no Universo. Reflexao sobre possíveis implicaçoes éticas da coincidência antrópica cosmológica (Man and Universe. Study on the possible implications of the cosmological anthropic coincidence), Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, 2000. M.A. thesis on cosmology and environmental ethics. This study is about the ethical implications of the cosmological anthropic principle and of John Gribbin's theory that defends the Universe as alive. These two theories, both based on the cosmological anthropic coincidence, have been put forward during the last four decades and are cosmological conceptions about the place of man and intelligent life in the Universe, having strong ethical implications. However, only the ethical implications of the anthropic principle's weak version are really acceptable because only this version has scientific credibility, being able to play an important role in environmental ethics. (v.12,#4)

Bauckham, Richard, "Joining Creation's Praise of God," Ecotheology 7 (No 1 July 2002):45-59. In the Bible and the Christian tradition an important aspect of the way the relationship of God, humanity and other creatures is understood is the idea that all creatures praise God and humans are to join in the praise offered by the other creatures. This theme has been misunderstood and neglected in the modern period. We should avoid distorting it in an hierarchical and anthropocentric direction, as happens in the idea that humans are the priests of creation. Instead this theme should act as a strong corrective to hierarchical and anthropocentric views of creation, It puts us among, rather than over the creatures, and encourages us to be helped in our own praise of God by appreciating the value other creatures have for God. Francis of Assisi and the eighteenth-century poet Christopher Smart are fine exemplars of the way humans may join creation's praise.

Bauer, DM; Cyr, NE; Swallow, SK, "Public Preferences for Compensatory Mitigation of Salt Marsh Losses: a Contingent Choice of Alternatives", Conservation Biology 18 (no.2, 2004): 401-411.

Baulch, Helen, "Fish Fight, " Alternatives 25(no. 4, Fall 1999):4- . Alien salmon in Lake Huron keep anglers happy, but threaten native lake trout. (v10,#4)

Baulch, Helen. "Clear cutting the Ocean Floor." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):7- . Trawling gear devastates the world's continental shelves. (v10,#4)

Baumgartner, Johann and Josef Hartmann. "The Design and Implementation of Sustainable Plant Diversity Conserva-tion Program for Alpine Meadows and Pastures." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14(2001):67-83. Dr. Baumgartnere is at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. (JAEE)

Baumslag, David, "Choosing Scientific Goals: The Need for a Normative Approach," Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 29(no. 1, 1998):81-96. One needed normative goal is that appreciation of nature should be a goal of science equally with understanding of nature. Environmental philosophy has helped to shift the goals of science in this direction. Baumslag is in philosophy, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Bauston, Lorri. "Seven Billion Reasons to Go Vegetarian." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):35. (v7,#2)

Bautista, LM; Garcia, JT; Calmaestra, RG; Palacin, C; Martin, CA; Morales, MB; Bonal, R; Vinuela, J, "Effect of Weekend Road Traffic on the Use of Space by Raptors," Conservation Biology 18(no.3, 2004):726-732. (v. 15, # 3)

Bavidge, Michael, and Ground, Ian. Can We Understand Animal Minds? New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. 192pp. $29.95 cloth. Analyzes the assumptions that underlie our thoughts about animals. Bavidge and Ground examine reasons for reluctance to attribute psychological states and capacities to animals, and focus on the expressive life of animals. This approach allows for the removal of obstacles that stand in the way of a proper sensitivity to the world as shared. (v8,#1)

Bavington, D, "Managerial Ecology and its Discontents: Exploring the Complexities of Control, Careful Use and Coping in Resource and Environmental Management", Environments 30(no.3, 2002):3-22.

Bavington, D., "Review of: Earth, Air, Fire, Water: Humanistic Studies of the Environment, Jill Ker Conway, Kenneth Keniston, and Leo Marx, editors," Environments 29(no.1, 2001): 143-45. (v.13,#2)

Bavington, D; Slocombe, S, "Moving Beyond Managerial Ecology: Contestation and Critique", Environments 30(no.3, 2002):1-2.

Bavington, D; Slocombe, S, "Moving Beyond Managerial Ecology: Counterproposals," Environments 31(no.1, 2003):1-4. (v.14, #4)

Bavington, Dean, "The Iatronic Effects of Environmental Management: Servicing a Needy Nature?" Faculty of Environmental Studies Occasional Papers, York University, Ontario, Canada, vol. 4, no. 1, September 1998. An "iatrogenic" effect in medicine is when an intended cure makes things worse. Environmental management can intend to fix, but in fact make things worse. Bavington is at York University. (v.13,#1)

Bawa, Kamaljit S., Menon, Shaily, Gorman, Leah R. "Cloning and Conservation of Biological Diversity: Paradox, Panacea, or Pandora's Box," Conservation Biology 11(no.4, 1997):829. (v8,#3)

Bawden, Richard. Review of T.B. Mepham, G.A. Tucker, J. Wiseman Issues in Agricultural Bioethics, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11(1999):145-150. (JAEE)

Bawe, Laurens. "Private Profit at Public Expense: The Bakun Hydroelectric Project", The Ecologist 26(no.5, 1996):229. In 1993, the Malaysian government revived its plans for a huge hydroelectric project in Sarawak, Malaysia--the Bakun dam--and announced that it would be built with private (rather than public) money. Private finance has not been forthcoming, however. Direct and indirect government subsidies are now bailing the project out. Many Malaysians have expressed concern at the consequences of "privatization" in the country and the ways in which Bakun has entrenched unaccountable political-corporate networks.

Baxter, Brian, Ecologism: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, and Washington: Georgetown University Press, 2000. Articulates and defends "ecologism"--an ideology that has grown from the developing interest in the moral, political, economic, and scientific issues centering on human relationships with the environment. Ecologism starts from the position that the non-human world is worthy of moral consideration and that this should be taken into account in the ordering of social, economic and political systems. Ecologism is a major development in environmental politics and, increasingly, a significant alternative to existing political philosophies. A comprehensive and systematic survey of the main components ecologism, examining elements which have been neglected in the existing literature. (v.11,#2)

Baxter, Brian H., "Ecocentrism and Persons," Environmental Values 5(1996):205-219. Ecocentrism has to establish an intrinsic connection between its basic value postulate of the non-instrumental value of the nonhuman world and a conception of human flourishing, on pain of failure to motivate acceptance of its social and political prescriptions. This paper explores some ideas recently canvassed by ecocentrists such as Robyn Eckersley, designed to establish this connection--transpersonal ecology, autopoietic value theory and ecofeminism--and finds them open to objection. An alternative approach is developed which concentrates on the connection between non-human nature and personhood, via the phenomenon of culture. Persons are conceived of as essentially culture-creators, and the fact of their embodiment in ecosystems is argued to be essential to their activities as culture creators. The variety and integrity of such systems thus turns out to be essential for the flourishing of what is essential to personhood. This means that ecocentrism has to be abandoned in its pure form, and replaced with person-centrism, but this conclusion is argued for on the basis of the extension of the concept of the self--a strategy often endorsed by ecocentrists themselves. KEYWORDS: Ecocentrism, environmental ethics, intrinsic value theory, persons (EV)

Baxter, Brian. "Environmental Ethics   Values or Obligations? A Reply to O'Neill." Environmental Values 8(1999):107-112. ABSTRACT: Onora O'Neill recently argued that environmental ethics could and should be reformulated in terms of a search for the obligations held by moral agents towards each other, with respect to the non human world. The more popular alternative, which seeks to establish the intrinsic value of the non human, is plagued with various theoretical difficulties attaching to the concept of value. It is here argued that O'Neill's attempt to determine fundamental obligations of moral agents on the basis of a non universalisability criterion does not succeed. It is further claimed that such an approach, in spite of the advantages which O'Neill sees it as having, is itself open to serious objection from the viewpoint of environmental ethics, especially as human beings are able in principle to release each other from mutual obligations. It is concluded that, in spite of the difficulties involved, postulations of (intrinsic) value to non human nature do seem to be indispensable to environmental ethics. KEYWORDS: Environmental ethics, obligations, values, universalisability. Brian Baxter Political Science and Social Policy University of Dundee Dundee DD1 4HN, UK. (EV)

Baxter, G. S., M. Hockings, and Beeton, R. J. S. "Trends in Wildlife Management and the Appropriateness of Australian University Training." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999):842- . (v10,#4)

Bay, Ian S. "A Response to Seven Vogel's `The End of Nature.'" Environmmental Ethics 24(2002):335 336. (EE)

Baydack, Richard K., Campa, Henry III, Haufler, Jonathan B., eds. Practical Approaches to the Conservation of Biological Diversity. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1999. 320 pp. $65 cloth, $35 paper. Typical real-world constraints, criticisms, and related management problems; alternative solutions and options for managers. Future directions and innovations in biodiversity conservation. (v.10,#1)

Bayet, Fabienne, "Overturning the Doctrine: Indigenous People and Wilderness--Being Aboriginal in the Environmental Movement." Social Alternatives 13(no. 2, July, 1994):27-32. There is no such thing as wilderness in Australia and has not been for millennia. "The whole of Australia is an Aboriginal artefact" (p. 28). "`Wilderness', in this [European] perspective, denotes land which is wild, uninhabited, or inhabited only by wild animals. Such conceptions of wilderness and conservation are yet another form of paternalism and dispossession if they continue conceptually to remove Aboriginal people from the Australian landscape" (p. 27). Bayet is an Australian Aboriginal and in research at the Aboriginal Research Institute, University of South Australia. (v.9,#3)

Bayles, Michael D. and Kenneth Henley, Right Conduct: Theories and Applications. First published by Random House, now bought by McGraw Hill. The first edition, 1983, had a section, "Popu­lation, Hunger, and the Environment," but the second and current edition, 1989, has dropped that, substituting a section on "Future Generations." (v2,#3)

Bayon, R, "More Than Hot Air: Market Solutions to Global Warming," World Policy Journal 19(no.3, 2002): 60-68.

Beacham's Guide to Environmental Issues and Sources. 5 volumes; 3,350 pages; 40,000 citations. 39 chapters in entries varying from 35 to 150 pages. $ 240. Claims to be the only comprehensive bibliography related to environmental issues worldwide, organized by topic and by type of source for useful access. Beacham Publishing, Inc., 2100 S Street, N. W., Wash­ington, DC 2008. 800/466-9644. Fax 202/234-1402. (v4,#3)

Beachy, Roger N., "The Very Structure of Scientific Research Does Not Mitigate Against Developing Products to Help the Environment, The Poor, and the Hungry", Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4(1991):159ff. In a debate: Does the very structure of scientific research mitigate against developing products to help the hungry, the poor, and the environment?

Beamish, Richard. Getting the Word Out in the Fight to Save the Earth. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1995. An instruction manual on how environmental and not-for-profit organizations can use existing avenues of mass communication to maximum effect. How any non-profit citizens group can expand and activate its membership, pressure government officials, use the news media, and shape public policy in the fight to save the earth. Beamish is a communications consultant. (v7,#1)

Bean, Michael J., Wilcove, David S. "The Private-Land Problem," Conservation Biology 11 (no.1, 1997):1. (v8,#2)

Bean, Michael J. The Evolution of National Wildlife Law. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 1(1979):189 92.

Bean, Michael J., Rowland, Melanie. The Evolution of National Wildlife Law, 3rd ed. Westport, Ct.: Praeger Publishers, 1997. $75 cloth, $28 paper. Since the second edition of 1983, intense interest in wildlife law has been matched only by a greatly increased level of litigation within the field and by the amount of new legislation enacted. This third edition thoroughly re-examines the field and provides a comprehensive review. (v8,#3)

Beaney, Peter. "China's Superdam: The Three Gorges Project," Environmental Politics 4, no.2 (Summer 1995):333- . (v6,#4)

Beans, Bruce E., Eagle's Plume: Preserving the Life and Habitat of America's Bald Eagle. New York: Scribner, 1996. $ 25. Even among the millions of Americans who seem to care that the eagle survives, there is an almost total lack of information about its natural history and present status. (v7,#4)

Bear, D, "Some Modest Suggestions for Improving Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act," Natural Resources Journal 43(no.4, 2003):931-960. (v. 15, # 3)

Beard, Daniel P., "Dams Aren't Forever," New York Times (10/6/97): A17. Draining Lake Powell. See write up under the entry for: Brooke, James, "In the Balance, the Future of a Lake," New York Times (9/22/97): A10. (v8,#3)

Beardsley, Tim, "Where Science and Religion Meet" Profile of Francis S. Collins, Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute. Scientific American 278 (no. 2, February 1998):28-29. The head of the U.S. human genome project is a conservative Christian who worries that the resutling genetics will be used for unjustified abortions, of fetuses who have what prospective parents judge to be undesirable traits, such as a genetic disposition to obesity. Humans have an innate sense of right and wrong that "doesn't arise particularly well" from evolutionary theory, but has religious origins. One needs much ethical sensitivity facing the possibilities in human genetics. (v.9,#3)

Bearnet is (was) edited by Margaret Pettis, issued periodically as an update on bear welfare throughout the United States and Canada, sometimes elsewhere, with particular attention to bear hunting, to Animal Damage Control measures, and on bear recovery plans. The current issue contains news from Washington, Oregon, Alaska, B.C., California, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Texas, Florida, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York, New Hampshire, Michigan, and Ontario. Bearnet, Box 72, Hyrum, UT 84319. (v5,#1) Now discontinued.

Beatley, Timothy, Manning, Kristy. The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 225 pp. $25. Policy and development issues that affect a community--from its economic base to its transit options, to the ways in which its streets and public spaces are managed--and examine the wide range of programs, policies, and creative ideas that can be used to turn the vision of sustainable places. (v9,#2)

Beatley, Timothy. Ethical Land Use: Principles of Policy and Use. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. 352 pages, $55.00; $17.95 paper. All land-use decisions--from interstate highways to lawn chemicals--involve ethical choices. Analyzes and describes issues faced by individuals and policy makers. Sections include: ethical framework; market perspectives, harm, rights, distributive obligations, duties, future generations; individual liberties; community and politics; concluding principles. (v5,#2)

Beauchamp, André, Pour une sagesse d'environnement (Ottowa: Novalis, 1991). Beauchamp is president of Enviro-Sage, Inc., Montreal. (v5,#1)

Beauchamp, E. G., "Animals and Soil Sustainability", Journal of Agricultural Ethics 3(1990):89ff. Domestic livestock animals and soils must be considered together as part of an agroecosystem which includes plants. Soil sustainability may be simply defined as the maintenance of soil productivity for future generations. There are both positive and negative aspects concerning the role of animals in soil sustainability. The key component for a fully compatible and acceptable association between domestic animals and soil productivity is proper management. Careful management of the components of an animal-based agroecosystem is required if soil productivity and environmental quality are to be maintained. Beauchamp is in land resource science at the University of Guelph, Ontario.

Beauchamp, E.G., Review of Solbrig, Otto T., Solbrig, Dorothy J., So Shall You Reap: Farming and Crops in Human Affairs. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9(1996):86-87. (JAEE)

Beauchamp, Tom L., Case Studies in Business, Society, and Ethics, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Includes a section on cases involving business and the environment. (v3,#4)

Beaud, Michel, Calliope Beaud, and Mohamed Larbi Bouguerra, eds., L'état de l'environnement dans le monde. Paris: La Librairie La Decouverte, 1993. (v5,#1)

Beaumont, T. The End of the Yellowbrick Road. Review by Roger Levett, Environmental Values 7(1998):496.

Bebbington, Anthony, "NGOs and uneven development: geographies of development intervention", Progress in Human Geography 28(no.6, December 2004): 725-745(21).

Becher, Anne, ed., American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present, 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2000. 921 pages in the two volumes. $ 175.00. Almost 350 American environmental leaders, typically with a two-page introductory and summary article. Many historical figures, although most of the leaders portrayed are alive today. Includes the most visible movers and shakers but also those who importantly collaborate on conservation efforts from behind the scenes. Scientists, activists, government personnel, business leaders, lawyers, poets, farmers, economists. Among the philosophers and theologians (and cousins): Wendell Berry, J. Baird Callicott, John B Cobb, Bill Devall, Wes Jackson, Bryan Norton, Holmes Rolston, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Theodore Roszak, George Sessions, Donald Worster. Each entry has a springboard bibliography. This is a good one to encourage your library to buy. (EE v.12,#1)

Beck, A. and Katcher, A. 1996. Between pets and people: The importance of animal companionship, rev. ed., West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1996. Contains list of world-wide-web sites as of 1996.

Beck MW; Heck, KL; Able, KW; Childers, DL; Eggleston, DB; Gillanders, BM; Halpern, B; Hays, CG; Hoshino, K; Minello, TJ, "The Identification, Conservation, and Management of Estuarine and Marine Nurseries for Fish and Invertebrates," Bioscience 51(no. 8, 2001):633-642. (v.13,#1)

Beck, Roy, and Kolankiewicz, Leon, "The Environmental Movement: Retreat from Advocating U.S. Population Stabilization (1970-1998): A First Draft of History", Journal of Policy History 12, No 1, 2000. "The years surrounding 1970 marked the coming of age of the modern environmental movement. As that movement approaches its fourth decade, perhaps the most striking change is the virtual abandonment by national environmental groups of U.S. population stabilization as an actively-pursued goal. To begin to understand why that shift has occurred and the significance of that shift, it will be important to review the 1970-era movement and its population roots." The article then examines in detail the events leading to abandonment of domestic population stabilization efforts by major environmental organizations. ZPG and Sierra Club are used as case studies. Important for analyzing immigration policy. The published (short) version can be ordered from: NumbersUSA, 1601 N. Kent St., #1100, Arlington, VA 22209. (703) 816-8820. E-mail: info@. In addition, the entire article is on the web at /cgi/text.cgi?Jph. (v.11,#2)

Beck, Roy, The Case Against Immigration. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996. The moral, economic, social, and environmental reason for reducing U.S. immigration back to traditional levels. (v8,#1)

Beck, Ulrich, Ecological Politics in an Age of Risk (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995). Reviewed by Jo Smith. Environmental Values 6(1997):239-241. (EV)

Beck, Ulrich and Mark A. Ritter translator. Ecological Enlightenment: Essays on the Politics of the Risk Society. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1994. In the sequel to Risk Society Beck now examines the politics of that risk society. He starts from the assumption that the ecological issue, considered politically and sociologically, is a systematic, legalized violation of fundamental civil rights and, from this position, adduces that the ecological conflict is the successor to the industrial conflict. Beck is at the Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich. (v7,#1)

Becker, Christian and Reiner Manstetten, "Nature as a You: Novalis' Philosophical Thought and the Modern Ecological Crisis," Environmental Values 13(2004):101 118. This paper aims to introduce the German Romantic poet Novalis into the discussion of the modern ecological crisis. In particular we examine Novalis' unique philosophy of nature as a You in which he deals with both of the two aspects of the relationship between humans and nature: their original identity as well as the distinction between them. We analyse the way in which Novalis understood the relationship between nature and humankind dynamically, and show the significance of his concept of poetry for this question. This concept is analysed and described in respect to its principal features: creativity and love. The former is regarded by Novalis as a general capacity of humans as well as an expression of nature itself. Together with love it forms the base for a possible harmonious relationship between humans and nature. We furthermore interpret Novalis' economic thought against the general background of his philosophy of nature and his understanding of humankind. Novalis recognises the crucial role economic action plays in the relationship between nature and humankind and he offers some important insights into this issue. Finally, we discuss the relevance of Novalis' concept of nature as a You for environmental philosophy. By comparison with other concepts of nature in the modern environmental debate, we show how Novalis' thought offers a new perspective on the human nature relationship and thus fruitful stimulation for today's environmental philosophy.Becker is in the Interdisciplinary Institute for Environmental Economics, University of Heidelberg. Manstetten is at the Alfred-Weber-Institute, University of Heidelberg. (EV)

Becker, Gerhold K., and James P. Buchanan, eds., Changing Nature's Course: The Ethical Challenge of Biotechnology. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1996. 220 pages. Paper, US $ 19.00 ISBN 962-209-403-1. Hong Kong University Press, 139 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Phone 852 2550 2703 Fax 852 2875 0734. Biotechnology marks a new scientific revolution. It holds the promise of generating resources to meet human needs in the fight against hunger, disease and environmental disasters. However, critics argue that biotechnology will jeopardize evolution and add incalculable, self-made risks to the fragile conditions of life on this plant. (v7,#4)

Beckerman, Wilfred, and Joanna Pasek, Review of Broom, John, Counting the Cost of Global Warming. Environmental Values Vol.1 No.4(1992):363.

Beckerman, Wilfred, "`Sustainable Development': Is it a Useful Concept?" Environmental Values 3(1994):191-209. It is argued that `sustainable development' has been defined in such a way as to be either morally repugnant or logically redundant. `String sustainability, overriding all other considerations, is morally unacceptable as well as totally impractical and `weak' sustainability, in which compensation is made for resources consumed, offers nothing beyond traditional economic welfare maximization. Apart from a few small developing countries heavily dependent on minerals or other finite primary products, the measurement of some wider concept of `sustainable' GNP is a waste of time and such estimates as have been made are virtually worthless. KEYWORDS: Environmental policy, intergenerational justice, measurement of GNP, optimality, social discount rate, sustainability constraints, sustainable development, welfare maximization. Beckerman is at Balliol College, Oxford, U.K. (EV)

Beckerman, Wilfred, Pasek, Joanna, "Plural Values and Environmental Valuation," Environmental Values 6(1997):65-86. ABSTRACT: The paper discusses some of the criticisms of contingent valuation (CV) and allied techniques for estimating the intensity of peoples preferences for the environment. The weakness of orthodox utilitarian assumptions in economics concerning the commensurability of all items entering into peoples choices is discussed. The concept of commensurability is explored as is the problem of rational choice between incommensurate alternatives. While the frequent claim that the environment has some unique moral intrinsic value is unsustainable, its preservation often raises ethical and other motivations that are not commensurate with the values that people place on ordinary marketable goods. Nevertheless, CV is also claimed to have some advantages and it is concluded that little progress will be made in this area until both sides in the debate recognise what is valid in their opponents arguments. (EV)

Beckerman, Wilfred. Review of Foster, Valuing Nature? Ethics, Economics and the Environment. Environmental Values 9(2000):122.

Beckerman, Wilfred. "How Would You Like Your `Sustainability', Sir? Weak or Strong? A Reply to my Critics." Environmental Values 4(1995):169-179. This article concentrates on the Jacobs and Daly criticisms (Environmental Values, Spring 1994) of my earlier article in the same journal (Autumn 1994) criticising the concept of `sustainable development.' Daly and Jacobs agreed with my criticisms of `weak' sustainability, but defended `strong' sustainability on the grounds that natural and manmade capital were `complements' in the productive process and that economists are wrong, therefore, in assuming that they are infinitely substitutable. This article maintains that they are confusing different concepts of `complementarity' and `substitutability.' It is also argued that, in fact, they do both sell crucial passes in their defence of strong sustainability without providing any clear criteria for their abandonment of it in certain cases. It is also denied that the fact that environmental services may provide different satisfactions from those obtained from other goods and services elevates it to the status of some over-riding moral value, or that discounting future costs and benefits is `unfair' to future generations. KEYWORDS: discounting, economic welfare, environmental values, inter-generational justice, natural capital, scarce resources, sustainability. Beckerman is at Balliol College, Oxford. (EV)

Beckert, Cristina, ed., Natureza e Ambiente: Representaçoes na Cultura Portuguesa (Nature and Environment: Representations in Portuguese Culture). Lisboa: Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa, 2001. Introduction by Viriato Soromenho-Marques. Papers from a symposium held in 1998 at the University of Lisbon. The papers in this anthology show different features of nature and environment in Portuguese culture and were put together in three main groups. The first group regards the way popular Portuguese tradition and contemporary literature conceive the relation between man and nature and how some Portuguese writers and poets predict the environmental crisis we are living now. The second group consists of political and sociological analysis concerning the history of the Portuguese environmental associations and the image of environmental issues released by the media. Finally, the third group concerns nature and environment as philosophical categories and includes papers about the relation between nature and technique, the notion of a "natural community" inherited from Aldo Leopold, along with studies on Kant's aesthetic concept of nature and Portuguese philosophical views on this category. Beckert and Soromenho-Marques are in philosophy at the University of Lisbon. (v.12,#4)

Beder, S., "Neoliberal Think Tanks and Free Market Environmentalism," Environmental Politics 10(no. 2, 2001):128-133. (v.13,#1)

Beder, Sharon, Global Spin: Corporate Assault on Environmentalism. White River Junction, Vermont: Green Books, Chelsea Green Publishing Co., 1997, 1998. Large corporations are using sophisticated techniques to change the way the public and politicians think about the environment and to weaken gains made by environmentalists, turning politicians against increased environmental regulation. Among their techniques: employing PR firms to set up front groups that promote the corporate agenda while posing as public interest groups; creating "astroturf"--artificially created grassroots support groups for corporate causes; strategic lawsuits against public participation (SLAPPS); getting corporate-based environmental educational materials into public schools; and funding conservative think tanks. Beder is a lecturer in science and technology studies, University of Wollongong, Australia.

Beebe, JT, "Review of: Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management and Policy by Thomas V. Cech", Environments 31 (no.3, 2003): 85-86.

Beechey, Tom, McLeod, Angus. "Parks and Other Heritage Areas in Ontario's Countryside," Environments 24(no.3, 1997):37. (v8,#3)

Beekman, Volkert, "Sustainable Development and Future Generations," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17(2004):3-22. This paper argues, mainly on the basis of Rawls's savings principle, Wissenburg's restraint principle, Passmore's chains of love, and De Shalit's trans-generational communities, for a double interpretation of sustainable development as a principle of intergenerational justice and a future oriented green ideal. This double interpretation (1) embraces the restraint principle and the argument that no individual can claim an unconditional right to destroy environmental goods as a baseline that could justify directive strategies for government intervention in non sustainable lifestyles, and (2) suggests that people's concerns about the deterioration of nature and the environment articulate future oriented narratives of self identity that could fuel non directive strategies to develop further responsibilities towards nearby future generations. Sustainable development, thus, provides sound arguments to restrict people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles, when these lifestyles transgressed the baseline of the restraint principle. However, the individual freedom of choice should not be restricted for any further environmental considerations. Non directive strategies are thus to stimulate the development of such further responsibilities towards nearby future generations. Keywords: future generations, ideals, justice, sustainable development. Beekman is at the Agricultural Economics Research Institute, The Hague, The Netherlands. (JAEE)

Beekman, Volkert, "Environmental Utilization Space between Science and Politics," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17(2004):293-300. This paper addresses the issue of operationalizing, or quantifying, sustainable development as a practical guideline for day to day environmental policy making. It criticizes attempts at quantifying some environmental utilization space and argues that the uncertainty of scientific knowledge about the unintended environmental repercussions of consumptive choices casts serious doubt about attempts to justify government intervention in non sustainable lifestyles. Keywords: environment, risks, trust, uncertainty. Beekman is at the Agricultural Economics Research Institute, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Beeman, Randal."Friends of the Land and the Rise of Environmentalism, 1940-1954." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8(1995):1-16. The rise of the postwar environmental movement is rooted in the development of ecological consciousness within intellectual circles as well as the general public. Though many commentators cite the 1960s as the focal point of the new environmentalism, the ecological ethic had actually evolved by the 1930s in the writings and speeches of both scientists and public commentators. Agricultural conservationists led the way in broadcasting the message of ecology. Friends of the Land, an agriculturally oriented conservation organization formed in 1940 and active through the 1950s, is an interesting example of how the agricultural community was an integral component in the rise of environmentalism. While Friends of the Land flourished only for a brief period, its goals and the ideas that the group represented illustrate how the ecological ethic was burgeoning by the early 1950s. Furthermore, the history of Friends of the Land is an important chapter in the ongoing quest for ecological agriculture and societal permanence. (JAEE)

Beevers, Paul, Ecocentrism and Misanthropy, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992. (v7,#1)

Beger, M; Jones, GP; Munday, PL, "Conservation of coral reef biodiversity: a comparison of reserve selection procedures for corals and fishes," Biological Conservation 111(no.1, 2003): 53-62.

Behn, Sharon. "A Mighty Sea Slowly Becomes a Mud-Flat Desert." The Christian Science Monitor 89.88 (2 April 1997): 7.

Behro, R., "STS Perspective: Theology Not Ecology," Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, vol 9, no. 5, 1989. (v2,#1)

Beisner, E. Calvin, Where Garden Meets Wilderness: Evangelical Entry into the Environmental Debate. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997. 208 pages. $ 18. (v9,#2)

Beisner, E. Calvin, Prospects for Growth: A Biblical View of Population, Resources, and the Future. Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1990. "Certainly the environment should be protected, but it must be protected for the sake of man, not for its own sake. Anything else is idolatry of nature" (p. 165). "It is man, not the earth or anything else in it, that was created in the image of God. To make man subservient to the earth is to turn the purpose of God in creation on its head" (p. 24). (v5,#1)

Beissinger, Steven R., Steadman, Eric C., Zack, Steve. "Null Models for Assessing Ecosystem Conservation Priorities: Threatened Birds as Titers of Threatened Ecosystems", Conservation Biology 10(no.5,1996):1343. A threatened ecosystem is one in which the likelihood of encountering a species threatened by habitat destruction is greater than would be expected by chance alone. Birds are good indicators of such threatened species.

Bekoff, Marc and Elzanowski, A, "A. Collecting Birds: The Importance of Moral Debate," Bird Conservation International 7(1997):357-361. (v.8,#4)

Bekoff, Marc, "The Evolution of Animal Play, Emotions, and Social Morality: On Science, Theology, Spirituality, Personhood, and Love," Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 36(no. 1, December 2001):615-655. How scientists could well benefit from reciprocal interactions with theologians. The evolution of social morality and the ways in which aspects of social play behavior relate to the notion of "playing fairly". Spiritual and religious perspectives are important in our coming to a fuller understanding of the evolution of morality. Animal emotions, the concept of personhood, and our special relationships with other animals, especially companion animals, help us to define our place in nature, our humanness. The importance of ethological studies, behavioral research in which a serious attempt is made to understand animals in their own worlds. Species other than primates need to be studied. Bekoff advocates a compassionate and holistic science that allows for interdisciplinary talk about respect, grace, spirituality, religion, love, Earth, and God. Bekoff is in biology, University of Colorado, well known for his defense of animal welfare. (v.13,#1)

Bekoff, Marc, "Social Cognition: Exchanging and Sharing Information on the Run," Erkenntnis 51(1999):113-128. This is a theme issue of Erkenntnis on "Animal Minds." (v10,#4)

Bekoff, Marc and Dale Jamieson, eds., Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior. Vol. I: Interpre­tation, Intentionality, and Communication. $ 45.00 Vol. II: Explanation, Evolution, and Adaptation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. $ 45.00. Twenty-one essays in vol. I; 16 essays in vol. II. Softcover. Some sample essays: John Andrew Fisher: "The Myth of Anthropomorphism"; Michael L. Rosenzweig, "Do Animals Choose Habitats?"; Bernard E. Rollin, "How Animals Lost Their Minds: Animal Mentation and Scientific Ideology"; John Dupré, "The Mental Lives of Nonhuman Animals"; and a concluding section in vol. II on Moral Dimensions. Bekoff is professor in the Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology and Jamieson is professor in the Department of Philoso­phy at the University of Colorado. (v1,#4)

Bekoff, Marc, Review of Rachels, James, Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism. Environmental Values Vol.1 No.1(1992):83.

Bekoff, Marc, and Dale Jamieson. "Sport Hunting as an Instinct." Environmental Ethics 13(1991):375 78. (EE)

Bekoff, Marc, "What is a `Scale of Life?'", Environmental Values 1(1992):253-256. Mary Midgley's appeal to a scale of life in making decisions about the culling one species of animal rather than another is troublesome and arbitrary. Sociality and intelligence are not reliable indicates of such scale. Bekoff is a biologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

Bekoff, Marc, "Jinxed Lynx? Some Very Difficult Questions with Few Simple Answers," Boulder (Colorado) Daily Camera, January 24, 1999. The Division of Wildlife released lynx in the Colorado San Juan Mountains in habitat from which they had become extinct, bringing trapped lynx from Canada for release. There is an expected starvation rate of 50% for the released lynx. Bekoff has serious reservations whether the project is well planned, justified in terms of the animal stress and suffering, and involves too much human dominion over nature, and may be "faking nature." Bekoff is a biologist, University of Colorado, Boulder. The article is on website:

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