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--Hendry, Joy, "Nature Tamed: Gardens as a Microcosm of Japan's View of the World"

--Knight, John, "Soil as Teacher: Natural Farming in a Mountain Village," and many more. (v.13,#4)

Association for the Study of Literature and the Environment, Handbook on Graduate Study in Literature and Environment. Cost $5.00, checks payable to ASLE, to Allison B. Wallace, ASLE Treasurer, HC78, Box 200, Unity College of Maine, Unity, ME 04988, USA. (v6,#2)

Association for the Study of Literature and the Environment, Bibliography, 1990-1993. Nearly 700 books, articles, and dissertations on fiction, poetry, and non-fiction literature of the environment, criticism, environmental politics, history, philosophy, ethics, rhetoric, and theology. Cost $6.50, checks payable to ASLE, to Allison B. Wallace, ASLE Treasurer, HC78, Box 200, Unity College of Maine, Unity, ME 04988, USA. (v6,#2)

Aswani, Shankar, "Common Property Models of Sea Tenure: A Case Study from the Roviana and Vonavona Lagoons, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, " Human Ecology 27(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):417- . (v10,#4)

Athanasiou, Tom, Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998. "Divided Planet has a simple premise--environmentalism is only now reaching its political maturity. Past enthusiasms offer little solace, and before the challenges of Asia and Africa, of the oceans and the air, past victories seem only the slightest prelude. Faith in solar democracy, easy reform, deep ecology and simple utopias of all kinds has faded year by year. The greens need enthusiasm, but they need all the powers of adulthood besides, and they know it" (p. 3). Athanasiou is active in environmental and technology politics, an active writer, who also runs an electronic publishing group at Sun Microsystems. (v.11,#3)

Athanasiou, Tom, Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor. New York: Little, Brown and Co., 1996. (v6,#4)

Atkin, Ross. "Golf Course With a Conscience." Christian Science Monitor 89 (16 July 1997): 11. (v8,#3)

Atkinson, G., R. Dubourg, K. Hamilton, M. Munasinghe, D. Pearce, and C. Young. Measuring Sustainable Development: Macroeconomics and the Environment. Review by Amitrajeet A. Batabyal, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14(2001):96-102. (JAEE)

Atkinson, Giles, and Hamilton, Kirk. "Accounting for Progress: Indicators for Sustainable Development." Environment 38, no.7 (1996): 16. Green accounting would greatly benefit from linking physical and economic data in the national income accounts and expressing environmental changes in monetary terms. (v7, #3)

Atkinson, Giles. Review of E. Lutz, ed. Toward Improved Accounting for the Environment: Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1993). (EV)

Atkinson, Richard C. et al (13 others)., "Public Sector Collaboration for Agricultural IP Management," Science 301(11 July 2003):174-175. An appeal by the presidents of universities and directors of public-sector research institutes concerned that the private and commercial patenting of intellectual property rights on agricultural plants is impeding research, particularly that which affects subsistence crops in the developing world. In many cases discoveries and technologies that were originally generated with public funding are no longer accessible as public goods. "Golden rice," for example has more than forty patents associated with it, which constrains further research on rice. These officials are proposing a Public-Sector Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture to help correct these problems. (v 14, #3)

Atkinson, Robert B., James E. Perry, and John Cairns, Jr., "Vegetation Communities of 20-year old Created Depressional Wetlands," Wetlands Ecology and Management 13 (no. 4, 2005):469-478. Most species do not change, but there is some tendency for transition from annuals to perennial grasses. None of the wetlands tended to become shrub-scrub or forested wetlands. Atkinson is at VPI, Blacksburg, VA.

AtKisson, Alan, "Thou Shalt Care for the Earth: Evangelical Christians and Catholics are Beginning to See the Green Light," Utne Reader 68(1995):15-16. (v8,#3)

Attfield, Robin, Environmental Philosophy: Principles and Prospects. Reviewed by Clare Palmer. Environmental Values 6(1997):237-239. (EV)

Attfield, Robin and Katharine Dell, eds., Values, Conflict and the Environment, published by the Ian Ramsey Centre, Oxford, and the Centre for Applied Ethics, Cardiff. 110 pages. 1989. This report of the Environmental Ethics Working Party, Ian Ramsey Center, St. Cross College, Oxford is a timely and stimulating contribution to current discussions about the future of the environment and human interaction with it. In the main report (Part One) a method of comprehensive weighting is introduced, defended, and then applied to public procedures and social practice. In Part Two, there is a criticism of comprehensive weighting and a response. Part Three contains four essays that depict value systems that form the broader sources of values in environmen­tal issues: the Judeo-Christian tradition, and the traditions of secular humanism, Marxism, and environmentalism. First published by Westminster College, Oxford in 1989, and re-issued by Ashgate Publishing Co., in 1996. (v1,#4)

Attfield, Robin, "Ethics and the Environment: A Global Perspective." In Brenda Almond, ed., Introducing Applied Ethics, pp. 331-42. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1995. (v7,#2)

Attfield, Robin, "Sylvan, Fox and Deep Ecology: A View from the Continental Shelf." Environmental Values Vol.2 No.1(1993):21-32. ABSTRACT: Both Richard Sylvan's trenchant critique of Deep Ecology and Warwick Fox's illuminating reinterpretation and defence are presented and appraised. Besides throwing light on the nature and the prospects of the defence of Deep Ecology and of its diverse axiological, epistemological and metaphysical strands, the appraisal discloses the range of normative positions open to those who reject anthropocentrism, of which Deep Ecology is no more than one (and, if Fox's account of its nature is right, may not be one at all). A position intermediate between Deep Ecology and anthropocentrism is advocated, which has been called by Wayne Sumner "middle-depth environmentalism--a kind of continental shelf between the shallow and deep extremes." KEYWORDS: Deep Ecology, impartiality, value-theory, identification, self­-realization, biocentrism. School of English Studies, Journalism and Philosophy University of Wales College of Cardiff, PO Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XB, UK.

Attfield, Robin, "Unto the Third and Fourth Generations," Second Order: An African Journal of Philosophy, VIII.1 and 2 (1979), 55-70.

Attfield, Robin, "Biocentrism, Moral Standing and Moral Significance." Philosophica 39 (1987): 47 58. A defence of the moral standing of all living entities, based on the analogical argument that all living entities have the capacity to realize a good of their own; a rejection of Taylor's biocentric egalitarianism. (Katz, Bibl # 2)

Attfield, Robin and Barry Wilkins, eds., International Justice and the Third World: Essays in the Philosophy of Development. London: Routledge, 1992. This anthology contests the view that there is no such thing as justice between societies of unequal power, and that there is no obligation to assist poor people in distant countries. Third World indebted­ness is profoundly exploitative, and Third World debts should be unconditionally cancelled. This collection includes Robin Attfield, "Development and Environmentalism"; Geoff Hunt, "Is There a Conflict between Environmental Protection and the Development of the Third World?"; Nigel Dower, "Is There a Right to Sustainable Development?"; Barry Wilkins, "Debt and Underdevelopment: The Case for Cancelling Third World Debts." Other contributors are Kai Nelsen and Onora O'Neill. Both editors are at the University College of Wales, Cardiff. (v3,#3)

Attfield, Robin, "Biocentric Consequentialism, Pluralism and `The Minimax Implication': A Reply to Alan Carter," Utilitas 15 (no. 1, March 2003): Alan Carter's recent review in Mind of my Ethics of the Global Environment combines praise of biocentric consequentialism (as presented there and in Value, Obligation and Meta-Ethics) with criticisms that it could advocate both minimal satisfaction of human needs and the extinction of `inessential species' for the sake of generating extra people. Carter also maintains that as a monistic theory it is predictably inadequate to cover the full range of ethical issues, since only a pluralistic theory has this capacity. In this reply, I explain how the counterintuitive implications of biocentric consequentialism suggested by Carter (for population, needs-satisfaction and biodiversity preservation) are not implications, and argue that since pluralistic theories (in Carter's sense) either generate contradictions or collapse into monistic theories, the superiority of pluralistic theories is far from predictable. Thus Carter's criticisms fail to undermine biocentric consequentialism as a normative theory applicable to the generality of ethical issues." Attfield is in philosophy at University of Wales, Cardiff.

Attfield, Robin, The Ethics of the Global Environment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.

1. Nature and the Global Environment

2. Global Ethics and Environmental Ethics

3. Trustees of the Planet

4. The Threat of Extinction

5. Global Resources and Climate Change

6. Sustainable Development

7. Population and Poverty

8. Biodiversity and Preservation

9. Environmental Justice and World Order

10. Sustainability: Perspectives and Principles

11. World Citizenship in a Precarious World

Attfield is in philosophy, University of Wales, Cardiff, and known in environmental ethics since the publication of his The Ethics of Environmental Concern, 1983 (2nd ed. 1993). (v.10,#1)

Attfield, Robin and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement: 36 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). 250 pages. Paper. , 13.95. Contributors: Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University), "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value"; Robert Elliot (University of New England, Armidale, Australia), "Ecology and the Ethics of Environmental Restoration"; Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff), "Rehabilitating Nature and Making Nature Habitable"; Frederick Ferré (University of Georgia), "Personalistic Organicism: Paradox or Paradigm?"; Roger Crisp (St. Anne's College, Oxford), "Values, Reasons and the Environment"; Keekok Lee (University of Manchester), "Awe and Humility: Intrinsic Value in Nature. Beyond an Earthbound Environmental Ethics"; Mary Midgley (formerly University of Newcastle upon Tyne), "The End of Anthropocentrism?"; Stephen R. L. Clark (University of Liverpool), "Global Religion"; Tim Hayward (University of Glamorgan), "Kant and the Moral Considerability of Non-Rational Beings"; Nigel Dower (University of Aberdeen), "The Idea of Environment"; Andrew Belsey (University of Wales, Cardiff), "Chaos and Order, Environment and Anarchy"; Alan Holland (University of Lancaster), "Natural Capital"; Peter List (Oregon State University), "Some Philosophical Assessments of Environmental Disobedience"; Dale Jamieson (University of Colorado), "Global Environmental Justice"; and Ruth McNally (University of West England, Bristol) and Peter Wheale (European Business School), "Environmental and Medical Bioethics in Late Modernity: Anthony Giddens, Genetic Engineering and the Post-Modern State." These are papers from the Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference, "Philosophy and the Natural Environment," held at the University of Wales in Cardiff in July 1993. (v5,#3)

Attfield, Robin, "Development: Some Areas of Consensus," Journal of Social Philosophy, XVII, Summer, 1986, 36-44.

Attfield, Robin, "Discounting, Jamieson's Trilemma and Representing the Future." Pages 85-96 in Hayward, Tim, and O'Neill, John, eds., Justice, Property and the Environment: Social and Legal Perspectives. Aldershot (UK): Ashgate, 1997.

Attfield, Robin, "Christian Attitudes to Nature." Journal of the History of Ideas 44 (1983): 369-386. A criticism of three critics of Christian attitudes to Nature: Lynn White, Jr., John Passmore, and William Coleman. Attfield argues that our current ecological problems should not be laid at the feet of Christianity. See also Chapters 2-5 of his book, The Ethics of Environmental Concern (Section II). (Katz, Bibl # 1)

Attfield, Robin and Wilkins, Barry, "Sustainability". Environmental Values 3(1994):155-158. This paper supplies a critique of the view that a practice which ought not to be followed is ipso facto not sustainable, a view recently defended by Nigel Dower. It is argued that there are ethical criteria independent of the criterion of sustainability. The concept of sustainability is thus retrieved for the distinctive role and the important service in which environmental and social theorist (paradoxically including Dower) have hitherto employed it, not least when debating the nature, merits and demerits of sustainable of development. KEYWORDS:Sustainability, arguments, development, beneficiality, justice. Attfield and Wilkins are

in the philosophy section at the University of Wales College of Cardiff, U.K. (EV)

Attfield, Robin, "Deep Ecology and Intrinsic Value: A Reply to Andrew Dobson," Cogito 4(Spring 90):61-66. A discussion of whether intrinsic value is relevant to the Green Movement politically, replying to Andrew Dobson, "Deep Ecology," Cogito, 3/1 (1989):41-46. Dobson claims, "There may be no doubt that Deep Ecology is indeed the Green Movement's philosophical basis," but Attfield replies that various philosophical posi­tions can support the Green Movement. A theory of intrinsic value in some nonhuman living things, both those with and without subjective experience, is intelligible and important in supplying a philosophical basis for the Green Movement. Att­field is at the University of Wales, College of Cardiff. (v1,#3)

Attfield, Robin, Environmental Philosophy: Principles and Prospects. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Avebury Series in Philosophy, 1994. 256 pages. Hardback. , 35.00. Sixteen essays. See Newsletter 4, 3. Representative essays: "Christianity and the Ecological Crisis," "Attitudes to Wildlife in the History of Ideas," "Has the History of Philosophy Ruined the Environment?", "Methods of Ecological Ethics," "Sylvan, Fox and Deep Ecology: A View from the Continental Shelf," "Biocentrism, Moral Standing and Moral Significance," "Preservation, Art and Natural Beauty," and "Development and Environmentalism." Attfield is professor of philosophy at the University of Wales, College of Cardiff. (v4,#4) (v4,#3)

Attfield, Robin, "Environmental Ethics and Intergenerational Equity," Inquiry 41(no. 2, 1998):207-222).

Attfield, Robin, "Methods of Ecological Ethics." Metaphilosophy 14, nos. 3 & 4 (July/October 1983): 195-208. Attfield criticizes the arguments of John Rodman and J. Baird Callicott for justifying value-ascriptions to nonhuman natural entities. Rodman's criticism of moral extensionism is not specific enough, and Callicott's holism is incoherent unless based on the value of individuals. An important paper for all holistic environmental philosophers to consider. (Katz, Bibl # 1)

Attfield, Robin, "Attitudes to Wildlife in the History of Ideas," special issue: The Moral Sense of Nature, Environmental History Review, vol. 15, no. 2, Summer 1991. (v2,#3)

Attfield, Robin, "Preferences, Health, Interests and Value," EJAP, The Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy, Issue on Justifying Value in Nature, 3 (Spring 1995). ISSN: 1071  5800. Unlike artefacts, living creatures have a good of their own and are morally considerable. The capacity for preferences is sufficient but not necessary for having interests and moral considerability. The capacity for health is also sufficient. This also has the important implication that there is more to human good than mental states and their objects. To subscribe to EJAP (at no cost): Send a message to: <listserv@diana.edu> with "subscribe ejap [Firstname] [Lastname]" in the body. Subscribers receive instructions for retrieving EJAP files from the listserver. Anonymous FTP: diana.edu/ejap/ Gopher: diana.edu World Wide Web: diana.edu/ejap/ EJAP is produced at the Department of Philosophy, Indiana University: ejap@diana.edu. (v6,#4)

Attfield, Robin, "The Precautionary Principle and Moral Values." Pages 152-164 in O'Riordan, Tim, and Cameron, James, eds., Interpreting the Precautionary Principle. London: Cameron and May, 1994.

Attfield, Robin, The Ethics of Environmental Concern. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983. Pp. xi, 220. Second edition: Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1993. Hardback and paper. First edition: This is a major work of scholarship and argument that attempts, perhaps, to cover too much ground. Attfield has patterned his book after Passmore's Man's Responsibility for Nature (1974), the first important philosophical work in environmental ethics. Like Passmore, Attfield first canvasses the religious and philosophical traditions of Western culture to show that "Stewardship" of nature does not imply "Domination"; thus, no new ethic of environmental concern is needed. This journey into the history of ideas is then followed by an argument designed to show that one old ethical theory, classical utilitarianism, is more than adequate to justify moral treatment of the environment. But Attfield's utilitarianism is nonanthropocentric: the intrinsic value to be maximized is not happiness or rational experience but the satisfaction of interests. Whatever has interests is valuable, and for Attfield, all living individuals have interests.

He thus arrives at a position that is "not as deep as `deep ecology' " and yet deeper than the "shallow" kind of human-interest environmentalism. But the sticking point for any classical or total-view utilitarianism is the weighting of the values to be maximized. Attfield adopts Donald VanDeVeer's "Two Factor Egalitarian­ism" ["Interspecific Justice," Inquiry 22 (1979):55-79], the balancing of basic, serious, and peripheral interests in beings that lack or have self-consciousness. This view needs a very precise casuistry if it is to be at all successful, but I think it will always lead to a hopeless muddle: we are back with Mill's contrast of the dissatisfied Socrates and the satisfied pig. Is the gourmet's interest in milk-fed veal a basic interest or a peripheral one? Attfield is ultimately unable to overcome an anthropocentric bias, because of his rejection of environmental holism. Chapters on obligations to the future and the existence of possible people also reveal the unintelligibility of utilitarian thinking. Contains an extensive and valuable bibliography. (Katz, Bibl # 1) Attfield, Robin. The Ethics of Environmental Concern. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 8(1986):77 82.

The second edition is updated with a new introduction and a detailed review of recent literature. (v3,#1)

Attfield, Robin, Value, Obligation, and Meta-Ethics. Amsterdam/Atlanta: Editions Rodopi B.V., 1995. 319 pages. $ 31.00 paper. Part I, on Value, defends a biocentric theory of moral standing and the coherence and objectivity of belief in intrinsic value, despite recent objections. Chapter 3 is "What is Intrinsic Value?"; Chapter 4 begins with "The Intrinsic Value of Flourishing"; Chapter 6 is "Priorities Among Values." Intrinsic value is located in the flourishing of living creatures; specifically, a neo-Aristotelian, species-relative account is developed of wellbeing or flourishing, in terms of the essential capacities of species. There follows a theory of priorities, or of relative intrinsic value, in which the satisfaction of basic needs takes priority over other needs and wants, and the interests of complex and sophisticated creatures over those of others, where they are at stake. Parts two and three continue with theories of rightness and obligation and meta-ethics, defending a naturalist meta-ethic. This analysis continues Attfield's earlier work, A Theory of Value and Obligation (1987). Attfield teaches philosophy at the University of Cardiff, Wales. (v7,#1)

Attfield, Robin, Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Polity Press (Blackwell), 2003. Includes: Local and global environmental problems; theories of value; environmental ethics and its neighbors; human stewardship of nature; holism, anthropocentrism and biocentrism compared; biocentric consequentialism (Attfield's preference); critiques of environmental ethics. Can environmental ethics make a difference? Taking the future seriously. Do human interests and environmental responsibilities converge? Sustainable development; population, and precaution; the global community and global citizenship. A most inclusive, global, cosmopolitan, universal ethic. An unexcelled survey and synthesis of the enormous range of challenging issues, and of the literature of their debate. Attfield is in philosophy, University of Wales, Cardiff. (v 14, #3)

Attfield, Robin, "Saving Nature, Feeding People and Ethics," Environmental Values 7(1998): 291 304. Holmes Rolston's case for holding that it is sometimes right to let people starve in order to save nature is argued to be inconclusive at best; some alternative responses to population growth are also presented. The very concept of development implies that authentic development, being socially and ecologically sustainable, will seldom conflict with saving nature (sections 1 and 2). While Rolston's argument about excessive capture of net primary product is fallacious, his view should be endorsed about the wrongness of `development' in areas where sustainable development is impossible, but not unqualifiedly endorsed about those areas where it is feasible (section 3). Important as policies promoting sustainable levels of population are, representing population growth as a cancer is misguided, and could engender indifference to suffering (sections 4 and 5). The neo-Malthusian paradigm (which makes population growth the cause of both poverty and environmental degradation) appears to conflict with a considerable body of empirical evidence; the kind of policies needed in Third World countries are ones which enlist people's energies for producing food and preserving nature alike (section 6). KEYWORDS: nature, development, value, ethics, population. Robin Attfield is at University of Wales Cardiff, UK. (EV)

Attfield, Robin, "Unprojected Value, Unfathomed Caves and Unspent Nature: Reply to an Editorial," Environmental Values 14(2005): 513 518. This article replies to Alan Holland's challenge to reconcile belief in non anthropogenic intrinsic value with the poetry of John Clare and its projection onto nature of human feelings, and thus with projective humanism. However, in literature and broadcasts, feelings are found projected upon buildings and belongings as well as upon natural creatures. This and the fact that many living creatures (such as the Northamptonshire species not remarked by Clare) never become objects of human projections but still remain valuable suggests that the basis of natural value lies elsewhere, at least in part. Such themes, together with that of nature's independent value, are variously illustrated from poems of Gray, Cowper and Marvell, and from expressions of nature's otherness in the Christian verse of Hopkins (who also helps answer Holland's further question concerning `what we have lost'), and in the pantheistic (or pagan) prose of Grahame's Wind in the Willows. In none of these writers does the value of nature depend on the projection of a humanistic sensitivity, but in different ways on the nature (diversely conceptualised) of natural creatures themselves. Attfield is in philosophy, University of Wales, Cardiff. (EV)

Attfield, Robin. "Postmodernism, Value and Objectivity," Environmental Values 10(2001):145-162. The first half of this paper replies to three postmodernist challenges to belief in objective intrinsic value. One lies in the claim that the language of objective value presupposes a flawed, dualistic distinction between subjects and objects. The second lies in the claim that there are no objective values which do not arise within and/or depend upon particular cultures or valuational frameworks. The third comprises the suggestion that belief in objective values embodies the representational theory of perception. In the second half, a defence is offered of belief in objective intrinsic value. Objectivists hold that axiological properties supply interpersonal reasons for action for any relevant moral agent. The intrinsically valuable is understood as what there is reason to desire, cherish or foster in virtue of the nature of the state or object concerned. The concept of intrinsic value is shown to be instantiated, and defended against a range of criticisms. Keywords: Intrinsic value, extrinsic value, postmodernism, objectivity, subjectivism, dualism, representationalism, axiology. Robin Attfield is at the School of English, Communication and Philosophy, University of Wales Cardiff. UK. (EV)

Attfield, Robin. "In Defense of The Ethics of Environmental Concern." 7(1985):377 78. (EE)

Attfield, Robin. Review of Progress and Privilege. By William Tucker. Environmental Ethics 7(1985):181 83.

Attfield, Robin. "Has the History of Philosophy Ruined the Environment?" Environmental Ethics 13(1991):127 37. I review and appraise Eugene C. Hargrove's account of the adverse impacts of Western philosophy on attitudes to the environment. Although significant quali­fications have to be entered, for there are grounds to hold that philosophical traditions which have encouraged taking nature seriously are not always given their due by Hargrove, and that environmental thought can draw upon deeper roots than he allows, his verdict that the history of philosophy has discouraged preservationist attitudes is substantially correct. Environmental philosophy thus has a significant (if not quite an unrivalled) role to play in the reconstruction of many of the traditional branches of philosophy, as well as in the protection of the natural world. Attfield is at the Philosophy Section, University of Wales College of Cardiff, Cardiff, Wales, UK. (EE)

Attfield, Robin. Value, Obligation, and Meta-Ethics. Atlanta & Amsterdam, Editions Rodopi B. V., 1995. Defends a biocentric theory of moral standing and the coherence and objectivity of belief in intrinsic value, despite recent objections. Intrinsic value is located in the flourishing of living creatures. A theory of priorities, or of relative intrinsic value, in which the satisfaction of basic needs takes priority over other needs and wants, and the interests of complex and sophisticated creatures over those of others. A practice-consequentialist theory of rightness and obligation. Meta-ethical theories are sifted and moral relativism rejected, and a cognitivist and naturalist meta-ethic defended. Attfield teaches philosophy at the University of Wales, Cardiff. (v6,#3)

Attfield, Robin. Review of Environmental Ethics. By Holmes Rolston, III. Environmental Ethics 11(1989):363 68.

Attfield, Robin. "In Defense of Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 27 (2005):335-336.

Aubin, D., "Review of: Terry L. Anderson and Peter J. Hill (Eds.), The Technology of Property Rights," Environmental Politics 12(no. 2, 2003): 165.

Aubry, K. B. and Lewis, J. C., "Extirpation and Reintroduction of Fishers (Martes Pennanti) in oregon: Implications for their Conservation in the Pacific States," Biological Conservation 114(no. 1, 2003): 79-90.

Audi, Robert, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 4,000 entries, said to be the most comprehensive and authoritative such dictionary, and yet also on "pure" philosophy, and therefore no entries on environmental philosophy, animal welfare, ecofeminism, and other impure types of philosophy. Hence also perhaps not as comprehensive and authoritative as claimed, not to say provincial or even narrow in its purity. Biographical entries are restricted to dead philosophers. (v6,#4)

Audley, J, "Lemons into Lemonade: Environment's New Role In U.S. Trade Policy", Environment 45(no.2, 2003):29-35.

Auer, Matthew R., Rafael Reuveny, and Lisa Adler, "Environmental Liability and Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe," The Journal of Environment And Development 10(no.1, 2001 Mar 01): 5-. (v.12,#3)

Auer. M., and C. Farley, "Nontimber forest Values: the "Understory" of the International Tropical Timber organization," Journal of forestry 101(no. 5, 2003): 42-45. (v 14, #3)

Augros, Robert, and George Stanciu. The New Biology: Discovering the Wisdom in Nature. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 11(1989):93 94.

Augros, Robert M. "Is Nature Purposeful?", Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 48(no.4,1996):216.

AUMaddox (AU Maddox), Gregory. "Introduction: Africa and Environmental History." Environmental History 4(No. 2, April 1999):162- . (v10,#4)

Austin, April. "Seeds for the Heart in the Inner City." The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 89, 27 Feb. 1997, p. B3.

Austin, April. "Family-Friendly Gardening." The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 89, 27 Feb. 1997, pp. Bl, B2.

Austin, April. "Thinking Garden in Midwinter." The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 89, 27 Feb. 1997, p. B2.

Austin, Richard Cartwright. Reclaiming America: Restoring Nature to Culture. Environmental Theology, Book 4. Abingdon, VA: Creekside Press, 1990.

Austin, Richard Cartwright. Review of Of Gods and Pelicans: A Theology of Reverence for Life and Earth, Sky, Gods & Mortals: Developing an Ecological Spirituality. By Jay B. McDaniel. Environmental Ethics 13(1991):361 65.

Austin, Richard Cartwright, Reclaiming America: Restoring Nature to Culture. Creekside Press, P. O. Box 331, Abingdon, VA 24210. Phone 703/628-6416. This is the fourth in a series on environmental theology, all by Austin, who is a Presbyterian minister active in environmental conservation in the Appalachian area. Previous titles, Beauty of the Lord: Awakening the Senses; Hope for the Land: Nature in the Bible, and Baptized into Wilderness: A Christian Perspective on John Muir, were published by John Knox Press, now Westminster/­John Knox, though all may now be ordered from Creekside Press. (v1,#2)

Austin, Richard Cartwright. Beauty of the Lord. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 11(1989):277 80.

Austin, Richard Cartwright. "Beauty: A Foundation for Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 7(1985):197 208. Human awareness of natural beauty stimulates the formation of environmental ethics. I build from the insights of Jonathan Edwards, the American Puritan theologian. The experience of beauty creates and sustains relationships. Natural beauty is an aspect of that which holds things together, supporting life and individuation. Beauty joins experience to ethics. We experience beauty intuitively: it is an affecting experience which motivates thought and action. The experience of beauty gives us a stake in the existence of the beautiful. Ecology can explore the relationships of natural beauty scientifically: it may be a science of the beauty of the Earth. The beauty of the world is necessary to its survival. Beauty is manifest in the interplay of interdependence with individuality, yielding diversity. The most beautiful relationships are those which recognize diversity, support individuality, and empathetically span the distinctions between beings. The sense of beauty is not a luxury, but a distinctive human vocation. Austin is an environmental theologian with Holston Presbytery, Dungannon, VA. (EE)

Austin, Richard Cartwright. Hope for the Land: Nature in the Bible. Environmental Theology, Book 3. Atlanta, GA: John Knox Press, 1988.

Austin, Susan A. "Tradable Emissions Programs: Implications Under the Takings Clause." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 323. Tradable emissions programs are an innovative, market-based alternative to the traditional command-and-control method of air pollution regulation. Austin explores whether tradable emissions programs could render the government vulnerable to a Fifth Amendment takings claim should subsequent government actions decrease or destroy the value of tradable emissions permits. (v7, #3)

Australian Wilderness. French's Forest, NSW 2086: National Book Distributors and Publishers, 1995. 160 pages. ISBN 1 86436 051 8. Coffee table book, the Australian wilderness in all its glory. (v7, #3)

Ausubel, Jesse H., "Can Technology Spare the Earth?" American Scientist 84(1996):166-178. Evolving efficiencies in our use of resources suggest that technology can restore the environment even as population grows. Ausubel directs the Program for Human Environment at Rockefeller University. (v7,#2)

Auxier, Randall E. Review of Ecological Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism. Edited by Bron Raymond Taylor. Environmental Ethics 21(1999):97 100.

Avery, Alex, "Organic and Conventional Agriculture Reconsidered," Bioscience 55(no. 10, October 2005): 820. Response to Pimentel et al, "Environmental, Energetic, and Conventional Farming Systems," BioScience 55:573-582, contesting soil erosion differences in the two systems. With further response by Pimentel et al.

Avery, Stephen, "The Misbegotten Child of Deep Ecology," Environmental Values 13(2004):31 50. This paper offers a critical examination of efforts to use Heidegger's thought to illuminate deep ecology. It argues that deep ecology does not entail a non anthropocentric or ecocentric environmental ethic; rather, it is best understood as offering an ontological critique of the current environmental crisis, from a perspective of deep anthropocentrism. Avery is in philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia. (EV)

Avise, John C., ed., The Hope, Hype, and reality of Genetic Engineering: Remarkable Stories from Agriculture, Industry, Medicine, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Axelrod, Lawrence J., and Suedfeld, Peter. "Technology, Capitalism, and Christianity: Are They Really the Three Horsemen of the Eco-Collapse?" Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 15, no. 3 (September 1995): 183-95. An examination of the evidence for the frequent accusation that technology, capitalism, and Christianity, the three bases of modern Western Society, are root causes of environmental degradation. Although these three are associated with failures to protect the environment, label them as causal factors contradicts known facts. Axelrod and Suedfeld are in psychology at the University of British Columbia. (v7, #3)

Axelsen, Kaarin L., "Problems of Punitive Damages for Political Protest and Civil Disobedience," Environmental Law 25 no. 2 1(995):495- . Axelsen examines Huffman & Wright Logging Co. v. Wade, a recent Oregon case in which members of Earth First! were assessed punitive damages for trespassing on private property to protest a logging operation. She concludes that the freedom of expression provisions of the U.S. and Oregon Constitutions make punitive damages inappropriate in cases of political protest and civil disobedience. (v6,#2)

Axline, Michael, "Federal Lands and Invisible Hands," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):611-. (v.10,#2)

Axline, Michael. "Forest Health and the Politics of Expediency." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 613. In the summer of 1995, Congress attached a now-notorious salvage logging rider to an emergency appropriations bill. Axline criticizes the salvage logging rider as poor policy and a violation of proper Congressional procedure. Recognizing the dual needs for a sound Northwest economy and healthy national forests, Axline concludes that the salvage logging rider fails to achieve either objective and may instead frustrate both of them. (v7, #3)

Ayensu, Edward, et al. (a couple dozen others!), "International Ecosystem Assessment," Science 286(22 October 1999):685-686. Ecosystem management on global scales. The authors argue that an international system of ecosystem modelling and monitoring, integrating the many differing factors--climate change, biodiversity loss, food supply and demand, forest loss, water availability and quality--is urgently needed. The magnitude of human impacts on ecosystems is escalating. One third of global land cover will be transformed in the next hundred years. In twenty years world demand for rice, wheat, and maize will rise by 40%. Demands for water, for wood will double over the next half century. At the turn of the millennium, we need to undertake the first global assessment of the condition and future prospects of global ecosystems. (v10,#4)

Ayers, Harvard; Hager, Jenny; and Little, Charles E., eds., An Appalachian Tragedy. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1998. $ 45.00. The splendor of Appalachia, from forest floor to treetops, is threatened by pollution. Text and 200 photographs reveal the beauty and document the harm. (v9,#2)

Ayres, Robert U., Jeroen C. J. M. van den Bergh, and John M. Gowdy. "Strong versus Weak Sustainability: Economics, Natural Sciences, and "Consilience." Environmental Ethics 23(2001):155 168. The meaning of sustainability is the subject of intense debate among environmental and resource economists. Perhaps no other issue separates more clearly the traditional economic view from the views of most natural scientists. The debate currently focuses on the substitutability between the economy and the environment or between "natural capital" and "manufactured capital" a debate captured in terms of weak versus strong sustainability. In this article, we examine the various interpretations of these concepts. We conclude that natural science and economic perspectives on sustainability are inconsistent. The market based Hartwick Solow "weak sustainability" approach is far removed from both the ecosystem based "Holling sustainability" and the "strong sustainability" approach of Daly and others. Each of these sustainability criteria implies a specific valuation approach, and thus an ethical position, to support monetary indicators of sustainability such as a green or sustainable Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The conflict between "weak sustainability" and "strong sustainability" is more evident in the context of centralized than decentralized decision making. In particular, firms selling "services" instead of material goods and regarding the latter as "capital" leads to decisions more or less consistent with either type of sustainability. Finally, we discuss the implications of global sustainability for such open systems as regions and countries. Open systems have not been dealt with systematically for any of the sustainability criteria. (EE)

Azar, Christian, Review of Nordhaus, William D. Managing the Global Commons. Environmental Values 6(1997):106-108.

Azariah, Jayapaul, Azariah, Hilda, and Macer, Darryl R. J., eds., Bioethics in India. Christchurch, New Zealand: Eubios Ethics Institute, 1998. Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras (India): Bioethical Managment of Biogeoresources, 16-19 January 1997, University of Madras. ISBN 0-908897-10-3. Contains 115 papers, mostly short, on diverse bioethical topics. Biotechnology and the genome. Philosophy of life and death. Reverence for Life. Biodiversity. Medical ethics. Animal rights. Environmental ethics. Ethics of large-scale systems. Philosophy and environmental science. Costs and benefits in environmental ethics. Land ethics and ecoethical management. Excellent for an introduction to Indian concerns and perspectives in bioethics and environmental ethics. These seminars have been taking place for several years, at various location in India. A key figure is Jayapaul Azariah, who teaches zoology at the University of Madras. An e-mail contact is Darryl Macer: macer@.tsukuba.ac.jp. (v10,#4)

Azizan Haji Baharuddin, ed. Environment and Development: Ethical and Educational Considerations. Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia: Institute for Policy Research (Insistut Kajian Dasar), 1995. (ISBN 983-884-035-1). Includes papers by Alastair S. Gunn, Padmasiri de Silva and Robin Attfield. Dr. Azizan is at the University of Malaya and Institute for Policy Research. (v6,#1)

B'TSELM, "Lifestyle: Water Shortage in the West Bank: Update Summer 1999," Ecotheology No 9 (July 2000):107-110.

Babbitt, Bruce, "Another Attack on the Arctic," New York Times, July 8, 2004. This time a proposal to lease rights for gas and oil development on Teshekpuk Lake in Alaska, a shallow lake 30 miles across, the summer breeding ground for hundreds of thousands of waterfowl, as well as important to indigenous Inupiat communities. Babbitt was U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1993-2001. (v. 15, # 3)

Babbitt, Bruce, "Kudzu, Kudzu, Kill! Kill! Kill!" Harper's Magazine (July 1998): 17-18. Secretary of Interior Bruce Babbitt believes fighting "invasive alien species" can bring people together. According to Babbitt, weeds cause environmental havoc on a scale only matched by floods, earthquakes, mud slides, hurricanes, and fire. They infest 100 million acres in the U.S. (an area equivalent in size to a square with 400-mile sides) and are spreading at a rate of 14 percent per year. Weeds "homogenize the diversity of creation," threaten native plants and animals with extinction, erode soil, spread wildfire, ignore borders and property lines, and damage property values. Speaking before the Science in Wildland Weed Management Symposium, Babbitt said, "Weeds slowly, silently, almost invisibly, but steadily, spread all around us until, literally encircled, we can no longer turn our backs. The invasion is now our problem. Our battle. Our enemy. ... The invasion and spread of noxious alien weeds unites us. It unites across political, economic and property boundaries. It brings solidarity among opposing groups. It compels us to share strategic responses. It calls on us to rise above our sometimes petty day-to-day concerns." Babbitt urges everyone to "act now and act as one" in order to "beat this silent enemy." (v9,#2)

Baber, Walter F., and Robert V. Bartlett, Deliberative Environmental Politics: Democracy and Ecological Rationality. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2005.

Babu, Suresh Chandra and Reidhead, William, "Monitoring Natural Resources For Policy Interventions: A Conceptual Framework, Issues, and Challenges," Land Use Policy 17 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 1- . (v.11,#2)

Bacevich, AJ, "Culture, Globalization, and U.S. Foreign Policy," World Policy Journal 19(no.3, 2002): 77-82.

Backes, David, Canoe Country: An Embattled Wilderness. Minocqua, WI: NorthWord Press, 1991. (P. O. Box 1360, Minocqua, WI 54548) 207 pages, paper. This history and current status of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota. Roads, motors, timber harvest, mining, fishing, resorts, outfitters, local versus national interests, motorized portages, wilderness as sacred place, relations with the Canadian Quetico Provincial Park. Backes is in mass communications at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. (v7,#1)

Backes, David, A Wilderness Within: The Life of Sigurd F. Olsen. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. 387 pages. $ 25.00. Also there is a new release of four volumes of Olsen work from the University of Minnesota Press: The Singing Wilderness, 1997; The Lonely Land, 1997; Listening Point, 1997; and Runes of the North, 1997. (v9,#2)

Backes, David, A Wilderness Within: The Life of Sigurd F. Olson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. 376 pages. $ 24.95. Olson as the conservationist responsible for ensuring the protection of the Boundary Waters Canoe area from logging and fly-in fishing. (v8,#3)

Backhaus, Gary and Murungi, John, eds., Transformations of Urban and Suburban Landscapes: Perspectives from Philosophy, Geography, and Architecture. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. Place and space in contemporary landscapes, both natural and urban.

Backhaus, Gary, "The Creative Imagination and the Study Of Place," Philosophy and Geography 4 (No. 2, 2001): 239-243. Book review of Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Ed.) Analecta Husserliana Volumes XLIV and LI, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995 and 1997, respectively. (P&G)

Backhaus, Gary and Murungi, John, eds., Earth Ways: Framing Geographical Meanings. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, Rowman and Littlefield, 2004. The organizing component, or "framings," that bridge philosophy and geography. Backhaus teaches philosophy at Morgan State University. Murungi is in philosophy, Towson University.

Backhaus, Gary. Review of Safeguarding Our Common Future: Rethinking Sustainable Development. By Ingrid Leman Stefanovic. Environmmental Ethics 24(2002):437 440. (EE)

Backstrand, Karin, Kronsell, Annica, Soderholm, Peter. "Organisational Challenges to Sustainable Development", Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):209. (v7,#4)

Backus, G.B.C., Den Hartigm, L.A., Verstegen, M.W.A., "Implications of Animal Production Technology for the Environment", Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6(1993). Intensive agricultural production has adverse effects on the quality of the environment. The pollution of air, water and soil has become a serious problem in the Netherlands due to the failure of the market to convey to the individual farmer the social cost associated with agricultural production. Environmental policies that take into account environmental costs and benefits as well as income consequences must be further developed. Backus and Den Hartigm are in the Research Institute for Pig Husbandry, P.O. Box 83, 5240 AB Rosmalen, The Netherlands. M.W.A. Verstegen is in the Department of Animal Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Bada, Cheryl. "Federal Agency Management Plans Are `Ongoing' Actions under Endangered Species Act's Section 7: Pacific Rivers Council v. Thomas and Northwest Forest Resources Council." Natural Resources Journal 35, no.4 (1995): 981. (v7, #3)

Badalamenti, F., Ramos, A. A., and Riggio, S., "Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):110- . (EE v.12,#1)

Baden, John A. and Donald Leal, eds., The Yellowstone Primer: Land and Resource Management in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosys­tem. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1989. 220 pages, cloth $ 29.95, paper $ 12.95. Claims an alternative means of ecosystem land management based on secure property rights and principles of free-market environmen­talism known as the New Resource Economics. (v1,#4)

Baden, John, "Spare that Tree!" Forbes, December 9, 1991. Under the U. S. Forest Service, Washington is managing the national forests in ways that are both economically and environ­mentally unsound. (v3,#1)

Baden, John A., and Noonan, Douglas, eds., Managing the Commons, 2nd ed. Bloomington, ID: Indiana University Press, 1998. The first edition was twenty years ago. Much attention to Garrett Hardin and the problems he raises, and various efforts in economics and politics to manage the commons. (v9,#2)

Baden, John A., ed, Environmental Gore: A Constructive Response to Earth in the Balance. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1994. Articles on the environmental policy of Vice-President Al Gore. (v6,#4)

Baden, John A., Snow, Donald, eds. The Next West: Public Lands, Community, and Economy in the American West. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 272 pp. $45 cloth, $22.95 paper. The writers reflect on what has gone wrong in the region, and point the way to a Next West based on the renewal of Jeffersonian democracy, experiments in local and supra-local control of public lands, and the use of markets to replace the political allocation of natural resources. (v8,#2)

Bader, Harry R. "Not So Helpless: Application of the U.S. Constitution Property Clause to Protect Federal Parklands from External Threats." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):193- . (v10,#4)

Bader, HR; Finstad, G, "Conflicts Between Livestock and Wildlife: An Analysis of Legal Liabilities Arising from Reindeer and Caribou Competition on the Seward Peninsula of Western Alaska," Environmental Law 31(no. 3, 2001):549-580. (v.13,#1)

Badiner, Allan Hunt, ed. Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 14(1992):279 82.

Badiner, Allan Hunt, Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology. Essays by over thirty Buddhist thinkers and ecologists. Parallax Press, P. O. Box 7355, Berkeley, CA 94707. 1990. $ 15.00. (v1,#2)

Baer, M., "Review of: Canan, Penelope, and Nancy Reichman. Ozone Connections: Expert Networks in Global Environmental Governance," Society and Natural Resources 16(no. 5, 2003): 465-467. (v 14, #3)

Baer, Paul, et al., "Equity and Greenhouse Gas Responsibility," Science 289(2000):2287. Developed countries have agreed to base emissions goals on 1990 levels, and the U.S. insists on "meaningful participation" by the developing countries. But this just grandfathers in existing disproportions. Global carbon emissions average one metric ton per year per person; developed nations emit three to five, the U.S. five. Developing nations emit about .6, though many of them only .2. When the global population reaches ten billion as currently estimated, per capita emissions must be stabilized at .3 per person per year. A more just principle would be to base emissions on a per capita basis. This is simple and it gives each person equal access to and responsibility for the atmosphere. The authors are (mostly) with the Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley. But, replies Arthur Westing, this proposal just grandfathers in existing population excesses, no better than grandfathering in existing development excesses. A more equitable proposal is to allocate a country's emissions total on the basis of the airspace over that country. See Arthur H. Westing, "Atmospheric Ethics," Science 291(2001):827. (EE v.12,#1)

Baer-Brown, Leslie, Rhein, Bob. Earth Keepers: A Sourcebook for Environmental Issues and Action. San Francisco: Mercury House, 1995. (v8,#2)

Bagachwa, M.S.D., and Limbu, Festus, Policy Reform and the Environment in Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: Dar-es-Salaam University press, 1995. ISBN 9976-60-276-6. (v.10,#2)

Bagdikian, Ben H., The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992, 4th edition. One cannot understand environmental politics without understanding the role of the mass media in American politics.

Bagla, Pallava, "50 Monkeys Taken from Indian Lab," Science 285(1999):997. India and experiments on monkeys. Armed with a government order and escorted by police, animal activists took 50 rhesus monkeys from India's National Center for Laboratory Animal Sciences in Hyderabad and released them into the wild. The monkeys were to have been used in testing a potential drug against immune disorders. India has new regulations on the care of animals used in research, and the laboratory was not meeting those standards. Researchers protest that half of India's research of this kind could be shut down. (v. 10, # 3)

Bagla, Pallava, "Indian Activists Release Disputed Report," Science 309(30 September 2005):2146. A report commissioned by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests has prepared a 1,300 page report on biodiversity in India, but the government does not want the report released. The group plans to defy the order not to release it and to release it anyway. The report was prepared with funds from the Global Environment Facility and with the co-operation of the India office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNEP). The report concludes that "India's model of development is inherently unsustainable and destructive to biodiversity." Government officials consider the report inaccurate in part and also an embarassment.

Bahm, Archie J. Review of Marx and Engels on Ecology. By Howard Parsons. Environmental Ethics 1(1979):283 85.

Bahre, Conrad Joseph, A Legacy of Change: Historic Human Impact on Vegetation in the Arizona Borderlands (Tempe: University of Arizona Press, 1991). 250 pages. $ 29.95. Most of the degra­dation of southeastern Arizona lands has occurred since the Anglo settlers began to arrive in the 1870's. Bahre is a geographer at the University of California, Davis. (v2,#1)

Bahro, Rudolf, Avoiding Social and Ecological Disaster. Bath, U.K.: Gateway Books, 1994. Social and ecological disaster is imminent. Bahro calls for abolition of the existing economic orders, a world transformation, a new collective psyche, a spiritual renaissance, the rise of a new consciousness. There is a need to change the basic psychological structure of Western humanity. We do not wish to ecologize the boat in which we presently live but to build new lifeboats. Bahro teaches philosophy at Humbolt University, Berlin. (v6,#4)

Bai, X, "Industrial Relocation in Asia: A Sound Environmental Management Strategy?," Environment 44(no.5, 2002):8-21. (v.13, #3)

Bailey, Britt, and Lappe, Marc, (eds.), Engineering the Farm: Ethical and Social Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnology. Reviewed by Lehman, Hugh. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16(2003):513 516. (JAEE)

Bailey, Britt and Lappé, Marc., eds., Engineering the Farm: Ethical and Social Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnology. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2002. Bailey and Lappé are at the Center for Ethics and Toxics in Gualala, CA. (v.14, #4)

Bailey, Cathryn, "On the Back of Animals: The Valorization of Reason in Contemporary Animal Ethics," Ethics and the Environment 10(no. 1, 2005):1-18. Despite the fact that feminists have compellingly drawn connections between traditional notions of reason and the oppression of women and nature, many animal ethicists fail to deeply incorporate these insights. After detailing the links between reason and the oppression of women and animals, I argue that the work of philosophers such as Tom Regan and Peter Singer fails to reflect that what feminists have called is not the mere inclusion of emotion, but a recognition of the inherent continuity between the two. To ignore this continuity, I conclude, risks reinscribing the very suffering we seek to eliminate. Bailey is in philosophy, Minnesota State University, Mankato. (Eth&Env)

Bailey, Conner, and Pomeroy, Caroline. "Resource Dependency and Development Options in Coastal Southeast Asia." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 191

Bailey, Ronald, ed., The True State of the Planet. New York: Free Press, 1995. Paper, $15. The perils of deforestation and global warming are exaggerated, but the oceans are in trouble. (v6,#2)

Bailey, Ronald, Eco-Scam: The False Prophets of Ecological Apocalypse. St. Martin's. 228 pages. $ 19.95. Bailey skewers false prophets and their failed forecasts. Paul Ehrlich won a MacArthur Foundation "genius" grant and the Swedish Academy's Crafoord price. He also predicted in 1969 that hundreds of millions would soon perish in smog disasters in New York and Los Angeles, that the oceans would die of DDT poisoning by 1979, and that the U. S. life expectancy would drop to 42 years by 1980 due to cancer epidemics. Lester Brown, another MacArthur genius and Worldwatch Institute president, predicted that global oil production would peak in 1990. Carl Sagan predicted that the Kuwaiti oil fires would lead to a global freeze. The global warming issue, "the mother of all environ­mental scares" is a another eco-scam. All the risks associated with the ozone layer do not amount to moving more than 100 miles south, from Washington, DC to Richmond, Virginia. Only fifteen years ago, Stephen Schneider, now fearing global warming, was then fearing global cooling. Nor does it make any difference what the eco-catastrophe faced is, the problem is always indus­trial capitalism. Bailey was formerly a writer with Forbes and is now a producer for the PBS series, "Technopolitics." (v4,#2)

Bailey, S. A., Haines Young, R. H., and Watkins, C., "Species Presence in Fragmented Landscapes: Modelling of Species Requirements at the National Level," Biological Conservation 108(no.3, 2002): 307-16. (v.13,#4)

Baillie, Harold W., "Genetic Engineering and our Human Nature," Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 23(nos. 1-2, 2003):28-31. "Understanding the sacred helps us identify elements in nature and human nature that ought to be preserved...." "There is a richness of content derived from the rootedness of the sacred in a larger reality, a reality that transcends the human, and to which humans need access." Baillie is in philosophy, University of Scranton.

Baillie, J., and Groombridge, B., eds. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1996. (v.10,#1)

Baird, Davis. Review of Eric Higgs, Andrew Light, and David Strong, eds. Technology and the Good Life?Environmental Ethics 25(2003):325 328. (EE)

Baird, Nicola, "Danger islands," The Ecologist 31(no.2, MAR 01 2001):58-. The Solomon Islands are no paradise. Rising sea levels and political turmoil threaten this south sea island group as never before. (v.12,#4)

Baird, R. M., and Rosenbaum, S.E.. eds., Animal Experimentation: The Moral Issues. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1991.

Baird, Robert M., and Rosenbaum, Stuart E., eds. Animal Experimentation: The Moral Issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1997. 182pp. $16.95 paper. A collection of 16 essays provides an introduction to the major normative, political, and cultural issues involved in the animal rights controversy. Contributors include: Carl Choen, Alan Freeman, J.A. Gray, Peter Harrison, Edwin Converse Hettinger, Betty Mensch, Tom Regan, Bernard E. Rollin, Richard Ryder, Richard Schwarz, Peter Singer, William Timberlake, Mary Anne Warren, Robert White, Robert Wright, and Steven Zak. (v8,#1)

Baish, SK; David, SD; Graf, WL, "The Complex Decisionmaking Process for Removing Dams," Environment 44(no.4, 2002):20-31. (v.13, #3)

Baker, Beth, "Farm Bill Environmental Program May Threaten Native Prairie Habitat.," Bioscience. 50 (No. 5, 2000 May 01): 400- . (v.11,#4)

Baker, Beth, "Government Regulation of Wetlands Is Under Siege from All Sides" Bioscience 49(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):869- . (v10,#4)

Baker, Beth, "Environmentalists Sue Small Business Administration over Urban Sprawl," Bioscience 51(no.1, 2001 Jan 01): 14-. (v.12,#3)

Baker, Beth, "Washington Watch: Nations Coming to Agreement That Polluted Oceans Need a Cleanup", Bioscience, 46(No.3, 1996):183- . (v7,#1)

Baker, Beth, "Washington Watch: The Environment as Election Issue." Bioscience 46, no.8 (1996): 574. (v7, #3)

Baker, Beth, "Washington Watch: New Federal Task Force Tackles Amphibian Troubles," Bioscience 49(No.5, 1999):366-. (v.10,#2)

Baker, Beth. "Washington Watch: The Nation's Seed Bank Could Use Some Congressional Cash." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 288. (v7, #3)

Baker, Beth. "Building a Better Oyster." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 240. Scientists use biotechnology to produce a steady supply of a favorite seafood. (v7, #3)

Baker, Beth. "A Reverent Approach to the Natural World", Bioscience 46(no.7, 1996):475. Religious organizations are uniting with each other and with the scientific community to improve environmental protection. (v7,#4)

Baker, Beth. "Washington Watch: Man in the Biosphere Under Bombardment," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):748. (v7,#4)

Baker, Beth. The Greening of Utilities. Bioscience 49(No.8, August 1999):612- . Biologists are making a difference at electric utilities across the United States. (v10,#4)

Baker, D. James, Planet Earth: The View from Space (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990). 192 pages. $25.00 cloth. An introduction to Earth-observing satellite technology and its relevance to understanding global environmental changes. (v2,#2)

Baker, Jennifer. Review of The Environmental Crisis: Understanding the Value of Nature. By Mark Rowlands. Environmmental Ethics 24(2002):321 324. (EE)

Baker, Katharine K., "Consorting with Forests: Rethinking Our Relationship to Natural Resources and How We Should Value Their Loss," Ecology Law Quarterly (Berkeley: School of Law of the University of California) 22 (no. 4, 1995):677-728. "The destruction of natural environments causes harm to people because it weakens their connections to the natural world. The quantification of nonuse value measures the extent of that harm. Contingent valuation (CV) is the only accessible vehicle thought capable of such quantification" (p. 714). Responses to four principal criticisms of contingent valuation. "To properly assess nonuse value, the law must reconceptualize the human loss associated with natural resource damage as an emotional injury to the person, not a deprivation of a property right. The loss associated with environmental degradation is the loss that humans experience when their subjective connection to the environment is damaged. The legitimacy of compensating for this loss requires recognizing that the injury does not involve the loss of any individual resource's intrinsic value, but is instead people's sense of loss associated with the destruction of ecosystems. When irreplaceable natural communities are destroyed, the human connection to nature has been injured. Contingent valuation, the current means of assessing the psychological injury associated with natural resource loss, is a crucial vehicle for measuring damages because it allows people to assess their own subjective sense of loss" (p. 728). Baker is professor of law, Chicago-Kent College of Law. (v.10,#2)

Baker, Katherine K. "Consorting with Forests: Rethinking Our Relationship to Natural Resources and How We Should Value Their Loss." Ecology Law Quarterly 22(no.4, 1995):677. (v7,#1)

Baker, Nathan. "Water, Water, Everywhere, and at Last a Drop for Salmon? NRDC v. Houston Heralds New Prospects Under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act." Environmental Law 29(No. 3, 1999):607- . Mr. Baker discusses Natural Resources Defense Council v. Houston's potential to revolutionize federal water delivery programs in the Pacific Northwest. He concludes that this recent Ninth Circuit decision will lead to greater protection of imperiled salmon and other listed species in the Pacific Northwest, because the Bureau of Reclamation will be required to increase consultation with the fish and wildlife agencies on the effects of its various projects in the region. (v10,#4)

Baker, Ron. The American Hunting Myth. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 9(1987):87 90.

Baker, S, "The Dynamics of European Union Biodiversity Policy: Interactive, Functional and Institutional Logics," Environmental Politics 12(no.3, 2003):23-41. (v.14, #4)

Baker, Steve, The Postmodern Animal. London: Reaktion Books, 2000. Review by Elisa Aaltola, Environmental Values 10(2001):417. (EV)

Baker, Susan and Baumbartl, Bernd. "Bulgaria: Managing the Environment in an Unstable Transition." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):183- . (v10,#4)

Baker, Susan and Jehlicka, Petr. "Dilemmas of Transition: The Environment, Democracy and Economic Reform in East Central Europe   An Introduction." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):1- . (v10,#4)

Bakken, Peter W. "The Eco-Justice Movement in Christian Theology: Patterns and Issues," Theology and Public Policy 7(no. 1, 1995).

Bakken, Peter W., J. Ronald Engel, and Joan Gibb Engel. Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: A Guide to the Literature 1960-1993. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. An annotated bibliography of literature published in English that expresses, analyzes, or critiques Christian perspectives on the relationship between social justice and ecological integrity. There is an introductory review essay followed by over 460 complete annotations by over 250 authors. The annotations focus on works that include each of the following three components: (1) attention to ecological issues such as environmental quality, resource limitations, and biotic diversity; (2) attention to social-ethical values and problems such as distributive justice, community, racism, and sexism; and (3) explicitly theological or religious reflection on ecological and social ethics and their interrelations. (v6,#1)

Bakken, Peter W., J. Ronald Engel, and Joan Gibb Engel, 1993. Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: A Guide to the Litera­ture, 1960-1990. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. In Press. (v4,#1)

Bakken, Peter W., Joan Gibb Engel, and J. Ronald Engel, Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: A Critical Guide to the Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. This book can be obtained at 40% discount = $33 (instead of $55 list price) from Greenwood Press Order Line 1 800 225 5800. Have credit card information ready. Refer to code #F308 to qualify. Part one is "Critical Survey: The Struggle to Integrate Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith," a review essay. Part two is a Bibliography Survey, 1961-1993, arranged in eleven categories with 512 entries, each well annotated. There is an author index, a title index, and a subject index. An extensive work, the labor of many years, and valuable for its critical insights. A related work is Joseph K. Sheldon, Rediscovery of Creation: A Bibliographical Study of the Church's Response to the Environmental Crisis, 1992, which has 1,700 references, also a historical overview, but few critical annotations. Bakken is coordinator of outreach for the Au Sable Institute of Environmental Studies. Joan Engel is a free lance writer and Ronald Engel is professor of social ethics, Meadville/Lombard Theological School. (v7,#1)

Bakken, Peter W., The Ecology of Grace: Ultimacy and Environmental Ethics in Aldo Leopold and Joseph Sittler. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, Divinity School, August 1991. An influential articulation of a secular environmental ethic, Leopold's Sand County Almanac, invests the natural environment with an aura of ultimacy that grounds that ethic and gives it a subtly but genuinely religious character. A contemporary interpretation of the Christian doctrines of creation, Christ, and grace, in the theology of Joseph Sittler, invests the nonhuman world with a similar aura of ultimacy. Leopold's greater attention to "wildness" can critique Sittler's treatment of grace in nature. But Leopold seems unaware of his dependence on religious or quasi-religious factors, and leaves him unable to provide ultimate answers to the place and role of humans in nature. Christian theology can both be corrected by and add deeper dimensions to Leopold's land ethic. The co-advisors were Robin Lovin and J. Ronald Engel.

Bakker, J. I. Hans, "The Gandhian Approach to Swadeshi or Appropriate Technology: A Conceptualization in Terms of Basic Needs and Equity", Journal of Agricultural Ethics 3(1990):50-88. This is an examination of the significance of Gandhi's social philosophy for development. It is argued that, when seen in light of Gandhi's social philosophy, the concepts of appropriate technology and basic needs take on new meaning. Gandhi's social philosophy has been neglected by most development specialists. This analysis attempts to draw out some aspects of M. K. Gandhi's background and his thinking about swadeshi (i.e.local self-reliance and use of local knowledge and abilities) and swaraj (dependent development that leads to equity and justice). Bakker is in sociology and anthropology at the University of Guelph, Ontario.

Balbontin, Javier; Penteriani, Vincenzo; Ferrer, Miguel, "Humans act against the natural process of breeder selection: A modern sickness for animal populations?" Biodiversity and Conservation 14(no.1, January 2005):179-186(8).

Balbus, Isaac. Marxism and Domination. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 6(1984):185 91.

Balcombe, Jonathan. "Dissection and Dissent." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):23. (v7,#2)

Baldauf, Scott, "Farmers and Scientists Work to Save the Earth, One Acre at a Time," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (10 August 1994): 14. (v5,#3)

Baldwin, A. Dwight, Judith deLuce (de Luce), and Carl Pletsch, eds., Beyond Preservation: Restoring and Inventing Landscapes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Sample articles: Baldwin, de Luce, and Pletsch, "Ecological Preservation versus Restoration"; William R. Jordan, III, "`Sunflower Forest': Ecological Restoration as the Basis for a New Ecological Paradigm"; Frederick Turner, "The Invented Landscape" (we ought, "when the occasion warrants and the knowledge is sufficient, to create new ecosystems, new landscapes, perhaps even new species" (p. 36); G. Stanley Kane, "Restoration or Preservation: Reflections on a Clash of Environmental Philosophies"; Carl Pletsch, "Humans Assert Sovereignty over Nature"; Dora G. Lodwick, "Changing Worldviews and Landscape Restoration." Baldwin is in geography, de Luce teaches classics, and Pletsch history at Miami University. (v5,#4)

Baldwin, Dwight, Jr., Judith de Luce, and Carl Pletsch, eds., Beyond Preservation: Restoring and Inventing Landscapes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. The theory of preservation is predicated on the assumption that as humans we are different from and opposed to the rest of nature, but the contributors here explore the belief that humans are inextrica­bly entangled with nature and therefore have an unavoidable impact upon the entire ecosystem. The contributors explore the possibilities of restoring damaged landscapes and even of inventing new ones. The editors are landscape architects at the University of Miami, Ohio. (v4,#2)

Bale, T., "`As You Sow, So Shall You Reap': The New Zealand Greens and the General Election of 2002," Environmental Politics 12(no. 2, 2003): 140-144.

Balick, Michael J., Elisabetsky, Elaine, Laird, Sarah A., eds. Medical Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health. New York: Columbia University Press 1996. $35 paper. Covers a wide spectrum of subjects in biodiversity, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, and pharmacology. Regional work ranging from Africa to Asia, from the Caribbean to Central and South America. The most comprehensive survey available of the current literature. The authors call attention to the ways in which the natural habitats of these plants can be protected from damage or destruction. Information on drug discovery efforts, laying the groundwork for a basic pool of knowledge for pharmaceutical companies and smaller-scale entrepreneurs. Ethical issues of intellectual property rights pertaining to tropical resources and their medicinal uses.

Balirwa, JS; et al., "Biodiversity and Fishery Sustainability in the Lake Victoria Basin: An Unexpected Marriage?," Bioscience 53(no.8, 2003):703-716. (v.14, #4)

Ball, Ian, Margaret Goodall, Clare Palmer, and John Readers, eds., The Earth Beneath: A Critical Guide to Green Theology. London: SPCK, 1992. 216 pages. Robin Grove-White, "Human Identity and Environmental Crisis"; Margaret Goodall and John Reader, "Environmental­ism as the Question of Human Identity; Clare Palmer, "Stewardship: A Case Study in Environmental Ethics"; Ian Carter, "Teilhard de Chardin: An Ecological Spiri­tuality"; Margaret Goodall and John Reader, "Why Matthew Fox Fails To Change the World"; and others. (v4,#3)

Ball, Ian, Goodall, Margaret, Palmer, Clare, and Reader, John, eds., The Earth Beneath: A Critical Guide to Green Theology. London: SPCK, 1992. Sample articles, Grove White, Robin, "Human Identity and Environmental Crisis"; Palmer, Clare, "Stewardship: A Case Study in Environmental Ethics"; Carter, "Teilhard de Chardin: An Ecological Spirituality"; Goodall, Margaret and Reader, John, "Why Matthew Fox Fails to Change the World." (v.10,#1)

Ball, Jim. "Evangelicals, Population, and the Ecological Crises," Christian Scholars Review 28(No.2. 1998):226-253. The focus of this article is a review and analysis of the population debate in the Evangelical Protestant literature on ecological crises. Six major writings are considered in depth. The conclusion reached is that the literature thus far has provided an excellent introduction, but the ethical consequences of intrinsic value and overconsumption are undeveloped. (v.11,#2)

Ball, Matt. "On Being Vegan," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):19. Matt Ball cautions against vegans becoming joyless fanatics. (v8,#2)

Ball, Terence, "`The Earth Belongs to the Living': Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Intergenerational Relations," Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):61- . (v.12,#2)

Balmford, A., Lyon, A.J.E. and Lang, R.M., "Testing The Higher-Taxon Approach To Conservation Planning In A Megadiverse Group: The Macrofungi," Biological Conservation 93 (No. 2, 2000): 209- . (v.11,#2)

Balmford, Andrew et al (eighteen others), "Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature," Science 297(9 August 2002):950-953. "On the eve of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, it is timely to assess progress over the 10 years since its predecessor in Rio de Janeiro. Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest exceed those obtained from continued habitat conversion. We estimate that the overall benefit/cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1." "Development is clearly essential. However, current development trajectories are self-evidently not delivering human benefits in the way that they should: income disparity world-wide is increasing and most countries are not on track to meet the United Nations' goals for human development and poverty eradication by 2015. ... Retaining as much as possible of what remains of wild nature through a judicious combination of sustainable use, conservation, and, where necessary, compensation for resulting opportunity costs ... makes overwhelming economic as well as moral sense." Balmford is with the Conservation Biology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK. (v.13,#4)

Balmford, Andrew et al (two dozen others), "The Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target," Science 307(14 January 2005):212-213. Short-term, and for people in need or with power, destruction of biological diversity has a beneficial effect on personal well-being. But long-term, conserving biodiversity and the services it provides is essential to human self-interest. How can scientists present information about biodiversity in ways that are useful to making longer-term decisions? Part of the answer is establishing better and more reliable indicators that are rigorous, repeatable, widely accepted, and easily understood. In this respect economists have long had a set of common and clear indicators that track markets. Ecologists need something similar.

Balmford, Andrew; Mace, Georgina M.; and Leader Williams, N. "Designing the Ark: Setting Priorities for Captive Breeding." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 719. (v7, #3)

Balogh, James C. and William J. Walker, Golf Course Management and Construction: Environmental Issues. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1992. The environmental effects of turfgrass in golf courses, lawns, parks, greenways, and similar areas, which are widespread in landscape architecture. Ways that these areas do and do not, can and cannot have environmental benefits, such as recreational, aesthetic, erosion control, green space, and wildlife habitat uses. Balogh is a soil scientist with Spectrum Research, Duluth, MN. Walker is a geochemist at the University of California, Davis. (v7,#1)

Baltensperger, B. H., "Review of: Clinton L. Evans, The War On Weeds in the Prairie West: An Environmental History," Environmental History 8(no. 3, 2003): 489-490.

Balvanera, Patrica et al (eight others), "Conserving Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services," Science 291(2001):2047. A lead editorial in Science. "Above all, we must remember that biodiversity is in serious jeopardy for a reason: namely, that the opportunity costs of conservation are perceived to be too high. The best hope for biodiversity is to create and align diverse incentives for conservation wherever possible and to integrate these into the larger policy-making arena." (v.12,#2)

Bammel, Gene, "Which World? Which Wilderness? or Getting Back to the Right Cronon," International Journal of Wilderness 7 (no. 2, August 2000):16-19. William Cronon is a heretic. But heretics often serve as useful correctives. Heretics serve to bring the orthodox back to their roots. Perhaps Crononism will serve to bring true believers in wilderness back to the bedrock of their belief and practice. Bammel is emeritus professor of philosophy, West Virginia University. (v.12,#4)

Bandara, R; Tisdell, C, "Comparison of rural and urban attitudes to the conservation of Asian elephants in Sri Lanka: Empirical evidence", Biological Conservation 110(no.3, 2003):327-342.

Bandara, R; Tisdell, C, "Asian Elephants as Agricultural Pests: Economics of Control and Compensation in Sri Lanka," Natural Resources Journal 42(no.3, 2002): 491-520.

Bandeira, Fabio; Martorell, Carlos; Meave, Jorge; Caballero, Javier, "The role of rustic coffee plantations in the conservation of wild tree diversity in the Chinantec region of Mexico," Biodiversity and Conservation 14(no.5, May 2005):1225-1240(16).

Bandrapalli, Suman. "Fisherman Aren't Laughing Over Clowns of the Sea." The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 89, 13 Feb. 1997, p. 11.

Bansal, S; Gangopadhyay, S, "Tax/subsidy policies in the presence of environmentally aware consumers", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.2, 2003):333-355.

Banta, Erik Haugland. Review of Ecophilosophy: A Field Guide to the Literature. By Donald Edward Davis. Environmental Ethics 12(1990):369 70.

Bao Qingde, "Replacement and Transformation: Sustainable Development and the Evolution of the Conception of Development." Huanjing yu Shehui, a Quarterly, (Environment and Society), vol. 3, no. 4 (December 30, 2000). Abstract: The idea of sustainable development represents a major shift in people's conception of development. Its essence is a thorough replacement and innovative transformation of peoples' values regarding social development. The focus of this paper is to clarify the origins of the idea of sustainable development and its connotation, and to give an overview of such issues as the evolution of people's conception of development. In Chinese. (EE v.12,#1)

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