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Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997, contained the following articles:

Freya Mathews, "Living with Animals"

Val Plumwood, "Babe: The Tale of the Speaking Meat," Part 1

Lynda Birke, "Science and Animals, or, Why Cyril Won't Win the Nobel Prize" Emma Munro, "Speciesism and Sexism"

plus an interview with Peter Singer.

Vol. 1, No. 2 1997, contained the following articles:

Andrew Brennan, "Ethics, Conflict and Animal Research"

Birgitta Forsman, "Two Different Approaches to Gene Technology in Animals" Val Plumwood, "Babe: The Tale of the Speaking Meat," Part ll

Lynda Birke and Mike Michael, "Hybrids, Rights and Their Proliferation"

plus an interview with Julia Bell.

Subscriptions (1998 99 rates): Australia and New Zealand: A$12 per issue (including postage). Other countries: A$20 per issue (including postage). Send payment with your name and address to: Dr. Denise Russell, The Editor, Animal Issues, address above. (v9,#1)

Animal Law is the only law review exclusively devoted to animals and the law. It is in its second issue, is published by the Northwestern (Oregon) School of Law, and is sponsored by the Animal Legal Defense Fund. Address: Animal Law, 10015 S.W. Terwilliger Blvd., Portland, Oregon 97219 USA. Phone: 503/768 6798. (v7, #3)

Animal Rights Handbook: Everyday Ways to Save Animal Lives (Los Angeles: Living Planet Press, 1990). $4.95. 113 pages. (v2,#1)

Animal Welfare Institute. Animals and their legal rights. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1990.

Anker, Peder, The Political Limits of Deep Ecology, M.A. dissertation (in Norwegian), in the Department of Philosophy, University of Oslo. The argument is that deep ecology provides insufficient guidance for the solution of political problems requiring compromises in setting standards that must do justice to both sides, with particular reference to pollution issues. Other philosophers, such as Habermas and Rawls, although operating from an anthropocentric position, have important insights about justice that deep ecology lacks and needs. Address: Peder Anker, Erling Skjalgssonsgt 1b, 0267 Oslo. (Norway)

Anker, Peder. "Risk Management, Rationality and Deep Ecology." Pages 61-70 in Peder Anker, ed., Environmental Risk and Ethics. Oslo, Norway: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Oslo, 1995. (v6,#4)

Anker, Peder. Imperial Ecology: Environmental Order in the British Empire, 1895B1945. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 25(2003):321 324. (EE)

Annals of Earth is a periodical published by the Center for the Protection and Restoration of Waters at Ocean Arks Interna­tional and the Lindisfarne Association. Ocean Arks was incorpo­rated in 1982 to disseminate the ideas and practice of ecologi­cal sustainability throughout the world. It has recently established a Center for the Protection and Restoration of Waters. Lindisfarne, founded in 1972, is an association of individuals and groups dedicated to fostering the emergence of a new global culture. Their objective is to "restore the land, protect the seas, and inform the Earth's stewards." Annals of Earth can be obtained for a contribution of $ 15.00 annually. Address: One Locust Street, Falmouth, MA 02540. John Todd is president of Ocean Arks International and Nancy Jack Todd is vice-president and editor of Annals. (v1,#3)

Anoliefo, G.O., O.S. Isikhuemhen and E.C. Okolo. "Traditional Coping Mechanism and Environmental Sus­tainability Strategies in Nnewi, Nigeria," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11(1999):101 109. Nnewi is situated some 30 kilometres South East of Onitsha in Anambra State in the southeastern part of Nigeria. This highly commercial town has undergone rapid urbanisation and industrialisation within the past two decades, since the end of the 1967 1970 Nigerian civil war. The Igbo community of the study area had traditionally employed bioconversion methods and other indigenous technology to process or recycle bio and non degradable wastes. Industrialisation has enjoyed priority status in this locality as a requirement for modernisation and economic progress. The rapid urbanisation, aggressive industrialisation, and the attendant uncontrolled population growth have had a deleterious impact on the environment. There is now a wide range of industrial wastes that are released daily into the environment. Effects of these activities on the socio cultural practices of the people, plant genetic resources and the environment are highlighted. In addition to palliative measures suggested here, a call is made to revisit the successful indigenous waste treatment and management technology formerly practised by the Igbo community. The importance of combining modem biotechnological approaches with the indigenous technology, norms and practices of Nwewi people to effect suitable waste treatment and management, as well as improving the living habits and the education of the people about their environment, is recommended. (JAEE)

Anoliefo, G.O., Isikhuemhen, O.S., and Ochije, N.R., "Environmental implications of the erosion of cultural taboo practices in Awka South local

government area of Anambra State, Migeria: 1. Forests, trees, and water resource preservation," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16(2003):281-296. Cultural taboos and their sanctions have helped to check abuse of the environment at least among the local people. The disregard for these traditional checks and balances especially among Christians has adversely affected their enforcement at this time. The "god" of the shrine in Obunagu village was much revered until the advent of Christianity. This religion has had an eroding effect on the taboos, which were put in place to protect their forests and streams. The abandonment of traditional cultural practices is doing harm that goes beyond the abrogation of traditional cultural practices to serious threat to natural environmental structures. KEY WORDS: cultural taboos, forest, shrines, sustainability, traditional practices, trees. (JAEE)

Anthologies, Environmental Ethics: (See separate entries for more detail.)

--Abel, Donald C., ed., Customized environmental ethics anthology. McGraw Hill electronic database with which instructors can customize their own anthology. See bibliographic entry. Website: /primis/philo

--Armstrong and Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Convergence and Divergence. McGraw Hill, 1993. Botzler and Armstrong, eds., Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, 2nd ed., McGraw Hill, 1998. Armstrong and Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, 3rd ed., 2003.

--Attfield and Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Natural Environment. Cambridge, 1994

--Benson, John, author and editor, Environmental Ethics: An Introduction with Readings. Routledge, 2000.

--Bormann and Kellert, eds., Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle. Yale, 1991.

--Boylan, Michael, Environmental Ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

--Chappell, Timothy D. J., ed., Respecting Nature: Environmental Thinking in the Light of Philosophical Theory. University of Edinburgh Press and Columbia University Presss, 1997.

--Cooper and Palmer, eds. The Environment in Question. Routledge, 1992.

--Dallmeyer and Ike, eds., Environmental Ethics and the Global Marketplace. University of Georgia, 1998.

--Derr, Patrick G., and McNamara, Edward M., Case Studies in Environmental Ethics. Lanham. MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

--DesJardins, ed., Environmental Ethics: Concepts, Policy, Theory. Mayfield, 1999.

--Engel and Engel, eds., Ethics of Environment and Development: Global Challenge and International Response. Arizona, 1990.

--Elliot, Robert, Environmental Ethics, Oxford, 1995.

--Ferré and Hartel, eds., Ethics and Environmental Policy: Theory Meets Practice. Georgia, 1994.

--Goldin, Owen and Patricia Kilroe, eds., Human Life and the Natural World: Readings in the History of Western Philosophy. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 1997. Twenty-seven readings all from classical philosophers.

--Gottlieb, Roger S., ed. The Ecological Community. New York: Routledge, 1997.

--Gudorf, Christine E. and Huchingson, James E., Boundaries: A Casebook in Environmental Ethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.

--Gruen and Jamieson, eds., Reflecting on Nature: Readings in Environmental Philosophy. Oxford, 1994.

--Kaufman, Frederik A., Foundations of Environmental Philosophy: A Text with Readings. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

--Light, Andrew, and Rolston, III, Holmes, eds., Environmental Ethics: An Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

--List, Peter, ed., Radical Environmentalism: Philosophy and Tactics. Wadsworth, 1993.

--List, Peter, ed., Environmental Ethics and Forestry. Philadelphaia: Temple University Press, 2000.

--Newton and Dillingham, Watersheds: Classic Cases in Environmental Ethics. Wadsworth, 1993

--Oelschlaeger, ed., Postmodern Environmental Ethics. State University of New York Press, 1995.

--Pojman, Louis P., ed., Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application. Jones and Bartlett, 1994.

--Pojman, Louis, P., ed., Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, third editiion. Wadsworth, 2001.

--Pojman, Louis P., Global Environmental Ethics. Mayfield, 2000.

--Scherer, ed., Upstream/Downstream: Issues in Environmental Ethics. Temple, 1990.

--Schmidtz, David, and Willott, Elizabeth, eds., Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, What Really Works. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

--Smith, Mark J., ed., Thinking through the Environment: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1999.

--Sterba, ed., Earth Ethics: Environmental Ethics, Animal Rights, and Practical Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1995.

--VanDeVeer and Pierce, eds., People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees, 2nd ed. Wadsworth, 1995.

--VanDeVeer and Pierce, eds., The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy, Ecology, Economics. Wadsworth, 1994. Second edition, 1997. Third edition, 2003.

--Westphal and Westpahl, eds., Planet in Peril: Essays in Environmental Ethics. Harcourt Brace, 1994.

--Weston, Anthony, ed., An Invitation to Environmental Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999,

--Zimmerman et al., eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Prentice-Hall, 1993. 3rd edition, 2001.


--Scherer and Attig, eds., Ethics and the Environment. Prentice-Hall, 1983.

--Regan, ed., Earthbound: New Introductory Essays in Environ­mental Ethics. Reprinted in 1990 by Waveland Press (Prospect Heights, IL; $ 19.95; 708/634-0081), first published by Random House, 1984.

Anthony, Brian Patrick, "Nature's Cathedral: The Union of Theology and Ecology in the Writings of John Muir," Ecotheology 7 (1, July 2002):74-80. John Muir has strongly impacted the environmental movement since he penned his works during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. While the Scottish-born naturalist is well-known for his rugged individualism, the driving force behind his thought and effort was his connection with the Divine. Muir inherited a seeking soul from his devoutly Reformist father, Daniel. The younger Muir, however, would find his principal inspiration in the gospel of nature. A foray into industry convinced Muir that the stain of civilisation blinds us to this original scripture. Muir spoke of a distinct correlation between humanity's spiritual ills and the destruction of the natural world, and suggested an extension of the Christian ethic to all creatures. In his various travelogues, he offers an illuminating vision of the God of nature, and humanity's position in relation to both Creator and creation.

Anthony, R., and Paul B. Thompson, "Biosafety, Ethics and Regulation of Transgenic Animals," in The GMO Handbook: Genetically Modified Animals, Microbes and Plants in Biotechnology. S.R. Barekh, Ed. Totoway, NJ: 2004, Humana Press, pp. 183 206.

Anthony, Raymond, "Risk Communication, Value Judgments, and the Public Policy Maker Relationship in a Climate of Public Sensitivity toward Animals: Revisiting Britain's Foot and Mouth Crisis," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17(2004):363-383. This paper offers some suggestions on, and encouragement for, how to be better at risk communication in times of agricultural crisis. During the foot and mouth epizootic, the BritIsh public, having no precedent to deal with such a rapid and widespread epizootic, no existing rules or conventions, and no social or political consensus, was forced to confront the facts of a perceived "economic disease." Foot and mouth appeared as an economic disease because the major push to eradicate it was motivated exclusivbly by trade and economic reasons and not because of threats it posed to the lives of human beings and livestock. The British public deferred responsibility to their elected officials for a speedy end to this non life threatening viral epizootic. The latter, however, did not have a contingency plan in place to tackle such an extensive outbreak. The appeal to an existing policy, i.e., mass eradication, as the exclusive strategy of containment was a difficult pill for the public to swallow well before the end of the 226 day ordeal.

Public moral uneasiness during the crisis, while perhaps symbolic of growing discontent with an already fractured relationship with farmed animals and the state of animal farming today, arguably, also reflected deep disappointment in government agents to recognize inherently and conditionally normative assumptions in their argument as well as recognize their narrow conception of risk. Furthermore, broader stakeholder participation was clearly missing from the outset, especially with respect to the issue of vaccination. A greater appreciation for two way risk communication is suggested for science based public policy in agriculture, followed by suggestions on how to be more vigilant in the future. Keywords: agricultural ethics, animal agriculture, foot and mouth disease, risk. The author is in the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. (JAEE)

Antrop, M., "Changing Patterns In The Urbanized Countryside Of Western Europe," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 257- . (v.11,#2)

Anzovin, Steven, The Green PC: Making Choices that Make a Difference. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. Explores advances toward environmentally friendly computing, from paper use to energy efficiency. (v6,#4)

Apel, K.O, et al, Het discursieve tegengif. De sociale en ethische aspecten van de ecologische crisis (The discursive antidote. The social and ethical aspects of the ecological crisis). Kampen, Netherlands: Kok Agora, 1996, ISBN 90 391 0652 5. In Dutch. A collection of essays by prominent authors in the field of political-ethical aspects of the environmental crisis and the risk society. Contents: Introduction: The role of the public debate, etc. K. O. Apel (Frankfurt am Main), "The ecological crisis in the perspective of discourse ethics"; Ph. Visser 't Hooft (Utrecht), "The ecological crisis and the duty to survive"; I. Fetscher (Frankfurt am Main, "Ecology and Democracy: a politico-cultural problem"; V. Hoesle (Essen), "Economy and Ecology"; Rene von Schomberg (Tilburg), "Discourse and context. The unavoidable social contexts of discourse"; A van Dommelen (Amsterdam), "Environmental crisis and methodology. On the quality of science." (Thanks to Johan Hattingh.)

Apffel Marglin, Frederique, "From Fieldwork to Mutual Learning: Working with PRATEC," Environmental Values 11(2002):345 367. This paper places the work of a Peruvian NGO (PRATEC), with which the author collaborates, within a broad context of the theory of knowledge. The three members of PRATEC were engaged in different aspects of the development enterprise. Out of their perceived failure of that enterprise, they deprofessionalised themselves and founded this NGO. The author argues that within the professional academic disciplines it is impossible to produce a knowledge that can contribute to the procreative concerns of communities, that is, their concerns about their continuity and well being. She does a brief historical review of the emergence of the modern university in the nineteenth century and the hidden political agenda of the new so called value free knowledge it institutionalised. She ends up advocating a rejection of the double participation necessitated by professional academic disciplines. (EV)

Aplet, Greg, Nels Johnson, Jeffrey T. Olson, and V. Alaric Sample, eds., Defining Sustainable Forestry. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 320 pages. $ 24.95 paper. $ 49.95 hardcover. The conclusions from a national conference convened by The Wilderness Society, American Forests, and the World Resources Institute. (v4,#3)

Aplet, Gregory H., "On the Nature of Wilderness: Exploring what Wilderness Really Protects," Denver University Law Review 76(1999):347-367. Wilderness is neither simply an idea nor a place. It is a place where an idea is clearly expressed. ... In an effort to bridge the chasm that has developed between the critics and the defenders of wilderness, this Essay examines the qualities of a place that confer wildness and explores some of the implications of treating wildness as a quality best expressed in the places we call wilderness, but also infused in special places closer to home" (p. 349). "Wilderness is criticized for separating people from nature, for ignoring aboriginal people, and for holding nature static, even as it is revered as a place. The representation of wilderness described here as the end of two-dimensional continuum of wildness defined by naturalness and freedom from human control offers a way out of this dilemma. By describing wildness as a continuum, we acknowledge the wildness that is all around us even as we celebrate the places at the end of the continuum" (p. 366). Aplet is a forest ecologist with The Wilderness Society. (v.12,#4)

Aplin, Graeme, Mitchell, Peter, Cleugh, Helen, Pitman, Andrew, Rich, David. Global Environmental Crises: An Australian Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 344pp. $26.95. A disinctively Australian perspective on environmental priorities. In Australia, these are in many ways different from those in other parts of the world. (v8,#1)

Aplin, Graeme, Australians and their Environment. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Aplin is at Macquarie University, Australia.

Appleby, Michael C. et al (six others), "What price cheap food?" Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16(2003):395-408. Report of a meeting that gathered many of UK senior animal scientists with representatives of the farming industry, consumer groups, animal welfare groups, and environmentalists. There was strong consensus that the current economic structure of agriculture cannot adequately address major issues of concern to society: farm incomes, food security and safety, the needs of developing countries, animal welfare, and the environment. These issues must be addressed by a combination of legislation, restructuring of the market, and use of public funds. KEY WORDS: agriculture, animal welfare, development, economics, environment, food, sustainability. (JAEE)

Appleby, Michael C., "Sustainable Agriculture is Humane, Humane Agriculture is Sustainable," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):293-303. Procedures that increase the sustainability of agriculture often result in animals being treated more humanely: both livestock in animal and mixed farming and wildlife in arable farming. Equally, procedures ensuring humane treatment of farm animals often increase sustainability, for example in disease control and manure management. This overlap between sustainability and humaneness is not coincidental. Both approaches can be said to be animal centered, to be based on the fact that animal production is primarily a biological process. Proponents of both will gain from recognition of commonality and development of cooperation. A collaborative approach to humane sustainable agriculture will benefit animals, people, and the environment. Keywords agriculture   animal production   animal welfare   humaneness   livestock   sustainability. Appleby is with the Humane Society of the United States, Washington, DC. (JAEE)

Appleby, Mike. What Should We Do About Animal Welfare? Review by Lantz Miller, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(2001):457-459.

Miller, Lantz. Review of Mike Appleby, What Should We Do About Animal Welfare?, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(2001):457-459. (JAEE)

Appleton, Arthur E., "The Labeling of GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) Products Pursuant to International Trade Rules," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):566- . (EE v.12,#1)

Appleton, Jay, "Nature as Honorary Art," Environmental Values 7(1998): 255 266. This paper addresses the apparent difficulty experienced by philosophers in applying the methodology of art criticism to the aesthetics of nature and uses the idea of `narrative' to explore it. A short poem is chosen which recounts the `narrative' of a simple natural process - the passage of day into night - and this is followed by a simplified critique illustrating how the poem invites questions relating to style, technique, subject, etc., leading to the query whether the art form (poem) can be dispensed with and the subject (nature) be left to tell its own story, using the `language' of symbolism. The interface between art and science is reviewed particularly in the light of the ideas of John Dewey and what has happened since. The `symbolism of environmental opportunity' is proposed as the key to crossing the arts/science boundary, and the question is raised whether the distinctiveness of nature is of paramount importance in this context. Various grounds for scepticism are examined, e.g. the danger of drawing inferences about human interaction with nature from the behaviour of other species. KEYWORDS: Nature, art, aesthetics, symbolism, prospect/refuge theory. Jay Appleton is at Cottingham, East Yorkshire, UK. (EV)

Appleton, Jay. The Experience of Landscape, Review by John Stuart-Murray Environmental Values 7(1998):359.

Arai, A. Bruce "Science and Culture in the Environmental State: The Case of Reactor Layups at Ontario Hydro", Organization and Environment 14 (No. 4, December 2001) pp.409-24. The widespread concern about the declining state of our physical environment is often accompanied by frustration about what to do to prevent or even reverse such deterioration. In the past, policy makers, legislators, and the general public have usually turned to scientists and scientific knowledge for answers. But recently, theorists and others have re-emphasized the importance of culture in understanding the environment. In this article, this culturalist critique of scientific knowledge is discussed and is then related to the decision by Ontario Hydro to lay up seven of its nuclear reactors. This situation is used to illustrate the continuing relevance of scientific knowledge for addressing environmental concerns. Arai is associate professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Wilfred Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. (v.13,#2)

Araujo, MB, "Biodiversity Hotspots and Zones of Ecological Transition," Conservation Biology 16(no.6, 2002): 1662-1663.

Arbor, J.L., "Animal Chauvinism, Plant-Regarding Ethics and the Torture of Trees", Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 64, (1986): 335-39. The extension of moral considerability to "higher" animals on the basis of properties possessed by both animals and humans excludes many species of animals and non-animate beings. The author claims that the exclusion of "lower" animals from the class marked out for privileged treatment by Western ethics together with the assumption that living inanimate beings can safely be excluded deserves to be queried. It is not suggested that the value of human and animal states of consciousness be denied, however, a plant-regarding ethic would reject the claim that in all cases of conflict between the interests of animals and plants the former always prevails. According to the author "[a] plant-regarding ethic requires the rooting out of all ... forms of animal chauvinism and a branching forth of new sentiments and new systems of thought."

Archhibugi, Franco. The Ecological City and City Effect. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998. 252 pp. $63.95. A critique of the current approaches to conventional urban policies which, the author claims, lack long-term vision and are limited to technological interventions for short-term improvements, without taking into consideration the conditions and constraints of town planning.

Archhibugi, Franco. The Ecological City and City Effect. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998. 252 pp. $63.95. A critique of the current approaches to conventional urban policies which, the author claims, lack long-term vision and are limited to technological interventions for short-term improvements, without taking into consideration the conditions and constraints of town planning.

Argow, Keith A. "This Land Is Their Land: The Potential and Diversity of Nonindustrial Private Forests." Journal of Forestry 94(no.2, Feb.1996):30

Ariansen, Per, "Anthropocentrism with a Human Face" draft article, in English. Ariansen proposes an anthropocentric environmental ethic that gives due room for the moral intuitions that it is blameworthy to mistreat animals and even, in some cases, to destroy inanimate objects, though direct moral obligations are toward humans and human projects only. Ariansen holds that we could not act morally directly toward plants or animals, even if we very strongly wanted to. Still, a deep respect for the suffering of others imposes upon humans a limited prime facie commitment also to animal welfare, and even to the wanton destruction of the environment. Copies on request from the author: Filosofisk institutt, P. A. Munchs hus, Postboks 1020, Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway. (v5,#2) (Finland)

Ariansen, Per and Jon Wetlesen, "Miljofilosofi (Environmental Philosophy)," in K. E. Johansen, ed., Allmen inforing i etikk (Oslo: Cappelen, 1994). The authors are in philosophy at the University of Oslo. (Finland)

Ariansen, Per, "Anthropocentrism with a Human Face," Opuscula (published by the Examen Philosophicum Section of the Department of Philosophy, University of Oslo), Fall 1994. In English. Ariansen argues for an anthropocentric environmental ethic that finds it morally blameworthy to mistreat animals, although direct moral obligations are towards humans. We could not act morally directly towards plants or animals even if we very strongly wanted to. Sentient animals are, as far as we know, in a position where they are unable to see wilfully inflicted pain as different from any other occurrence of pain. It is therefore simply impossible to offer ethics to animals. They will not be able to understand what they are being offered. It is impossible to morally offend an animal, though clearly it is possible to inflict pain on them and in manners that morally offend humans.

Duties toward animals are in reality duties towards ourselves, though the way this is so is often misunderstood. We ought to have respect for the pain of others even if it is clear that the patient will never discover that the pain or loss inflict had a human origin. The morally relevant relationship between humans and non-humans is essentially dependent upon the scheme of morality as it unfolds in inter-human society. Although this scheme centers around the autonomy of the moral agent, it nevertheless presupposes a respect for the suffering of others, since in a world without suffering, lying and cheating would have no moral significance. A deep respect for the suffering of others imposes on humans a limited prima facie commitment also to animal welfare. Some case can also be made that the destruction of non-sentient and non-animate nature, such as a crystal, can be analogously treated. Ariansen teaches philosophy at the University of Oslo and is the author of Miljofilosofi: En Innforing (Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction).

Ariansen also has two forthcoming papers: (1) "Sustainability, Morality and Future Generations," given at a conference in Kyoto, Japan, sponsored by the Future Generation Alliance Foundation and the Kyoto Forum. (2) "Beyond Parfit's Paradox," prepared for the October 1994 conference, "Our Responsibilities toward Future Generations," held in Malta. Copies on request: Per Ariansen, Filosofisk Institutt, Universitetet i Oslo, Boks 1020, 0315 Blindern, Oslo, Norway. FAX: (+47) 22 85 75 51 (v5,#4)

Ariansen, Per, Miljofilosofi: En Innforing (Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction). Oslo: Universitetforlaget, 1992. ISBN 82-00-21659-4. 248 pages. Paper. The first general text in environmental ethics in Norwegian. Per Ariansen is on the philosophy faculty at Oslo in the examen philosophicum program. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of Oslo, Boks 1020, 0315 Oslo 3. Phone 47 22 855938. Fax 857551. E-mail: per.ariens­en@filosofi.uio.no. From the analytical table of contents: Chapter 1. Introduction. A philosophical searchlight on environmental problemstopics of the book. Attitudes, choices of action, and the concept of nature. Chapter 2. Attitudes toward Nature: A Historical Sketch. The intellectual tradition as a source of renewed attitudes to nature. The idea of the conquest of nature in biblical texts. Where is the root of the crisis? Other hypotheses about the origin of an attitude of conquest toward nature. The technological optimism of our times. The development of ecology. Chapter 3. Environmental Problems: Topics for Science and Philosophy. Analyzing environmen­tal problems. What does it mean that something is a problem.

Chapter 4. Analyzing lines of action: a decision theoretical approach. Decision theory and analysis of action. Models for the dynamics of complex systems: an example. Complex situations of cooperation: the game-theoretical situation. Chapter 5. What Is It That Has Value? Description and evaluation. Science and valuelessness. Concepts of value. Chapter 6. Ethical Theories. Consequentialist ethics. Non-consequentialist ethics. Moral disagreement. Chapter 7. Anthropocentric Environmental Ethics. The various schools of environmental ethics. Anthropocentric consequentialism: ideal types of attitudes and perspectives. Anthropocentric deontological ethics, rights and duties for humans only. Unspoiled nature as a transcendental condition for morality.

Chapter 8. Non-anthropo­centric Environmental Ethics. Animal rights and animal welfare. Rights based on subjective interests. Rights stemming from objective interests (biocentrism). Rights for non-living objects and superindividual entities. Deep ecology. Chapter 9. Future Generations as Morally Concerned Parties. The welfare of future generations. Rights for future generations. Chapter 10. Responsibility and the Placing of Responsibility. Refining concepts of responsibility. Are there degrees of responsibility? To place responsibility. Epilogue: A Common future. References and a detailed table of contents. This book has been used at the University of Oslo, at the Universi­ty of Trondheim, at the Telemark Distriktshogskole, at Bo (a district college), and at the Landbunkshogskolen pa As, at As (the Agricultural University). This book has also been translated into Swedish. Per Ariansen, Miljöfilosofi: En Introduktion. Nora: Bokförlaget Nya Doxa, 1993. ISBN 91-88248-33-X. Translated by Per Lennart Mansson. (Norway)

Ariansen, Per, "Heggelianismen i norsk mijodebatt," Tidsskrift for Alternativ Framtid(The Norwegian) Journal for an Alternative Future), no. 3, 1994. An analysis of Hjalmar Hegge's environmental philosophy. Hegge is a Norwegian influential for two decades in the public debate on environmental issues, drawing on Rudolf Steiner and Johann V. von Goethe, and offering a critique of industrial society. (v5,#4)

Ariansen, Per. "Sustainability, Morality and Future Generations." Future Generations Journal, No. 17 (1995/3) Valletta, Malta. A revision in Norwegian is Ariansen, Per, "Barekraftighet, moral og fremtidige generasjoner." Printed in W. Lafferty & O. Langhelle (red.), Berekraftig utvikling. Oslo: AdNotam, Gyldendal, 1995. An English translation of the revision will appear in 1997. In addition to bringing forward some aspects of Ariansen's brand of anthropocentrism, the article also adresses briefly the "Parfit paradox", suggesting that the hypothetical question posed to future generations, whether they would rather exchange their plight for never having been born, rests on the mistaken understanding that this question is analogous to other questions about the preference of one state over another. The question breaks an "existential syntax". The state of never having been born cannot be evaluated by those who actually were born. Ariansen is in philosophy at the University of Oslo. (v7,#4)

Ariansen, Per. "Spirituality in a Secular World." In Masahiku Yazaki, ed. Beyond Egoism. Kyoto: Future Generations Alliance, 1996. A discussion about the possibility of giving meaning to a concept of spirituality. (v7,#4)

Ariansen, Per. "Platforms, Nature and Obligational Values" in Nina Witoszek and Harold Glasser, eds., Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Ecophilosophy, Berkeley: University of California Press, forthcoming. An interpretation of the function of the deep ecology platform with an attempt to explain why the "doctrines" of deep ecology appear evasive. In the discussion about the concept of intrinsic value, a sketch of Ariansen's own brand of anthropocentrism is presented. (v7,#4)

Ariansen, Per. "The Non-utility Value of Nature. A contribution to

understanding the value of biological diversity." Research paper by grant from The Norwegian Research Council. Norwegian Forestry Institute, 1995. Published in August 1996 as Working Paper No. 99, Centre for Technology and Culture, Oslo, 1996. In addition to all possible instrumental value, biological diversity also holds a constitutional value, in that it marks the constitutional framework for forming human identity, a framework which is prima facie protected against human destruction. (v7,#4)

Arias, Hector M., "International Groundwaters: The Upper San Pedro River Basin Case," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):199- . (v.12,#2)

Arita, Hector T., Figueroa, Fernanda, Santos-Del-Prado, Karina. "Geographical Range Size and the Conservation of Mexican Mammals,"

Arkow, Phil, "Application of Ethics to Animal Welfare," Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59(1998):193-200. Veterinarians face ethical dilemmas for which there are few analogs in human medicine. In a theme issue on Ethics, Ethology, and Animal Welfare, resulting from sessions at the 25th World Veterinary Congress. Arkow is a veterinarian, Stratford, NJ. (v.13,#2)

Arler, Finn, "Energy Policy, Greenhouse-effect and Global Justice." Surveys the position of Denmark on CO2 emissions, compares this with that of the United States and other countries, considers the rights of developing countries to energy use, recalls statements from the UNCED Rio de Janeiro conference, and asks what principles of justice might be used to set policy for energy in view of the greenhouse effect. Copies from Finn Arler, Department of Philosophy, University of Aarhus, Ndr. Ringgade Buildn. 327, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. (v5,#2)

Arler, Finn, "Aspects Of Landscape Or Nature Quality," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 291- . (v.11,#2)

Arler, Finn, "Aspects of Landscape or Nature Quality," Landscape Ecology 15(2000):291-302. Landscape or nature quality has become a key concept in relation to nature policy and landscape planning. In the first part of the article it is argued that these qualities should not be conceived as mere expressions of private or subjective preferences. Even though there may not be any "objective" or "scientific" method dealing with them, they are still values which can be shared, reflected on, and discussed in a reasonable way. The connoisseurs are introduced as experienced persons, who are particularly capable of identifying different kinds of qualities, bridge builders between cognition and evaluation. The second part of the article deals with four central sets of landscape or nature qualities: qualities related to species diversity, qualities related to "the atmospheres" and characters of places, pictorial qualities, and qualities related to narrativity. It is argued that experience of these and similar qualities are an important part of human flourishing, and that they should therefore all have a prominent place in landscape planning. Arler is in philosophy, Arhus University, Denmark.

Arler, Finn, "Justice in the Air: Energy Policy, Greenhouse Effect, and the Question of Global Justice," Human Ecology Review 2 (no. 1, winter/spring 1995):40- . The central ethical issues in reacting to the problem of an increasing greenhouse effect. Energy policy, dilemmas of justice, impartiality versus mutual advantage, ideal versus conditional justice, monological (ideal observer) versus procedural (participant parties) justice, membership and the concentric circle theory (increased obligations toward those nearest us), global partnership, criteria of justice (need, desert, entitlement, luck, means, abilities), principles versus judgment. The principles of equality, precaution, prevention, cost-effectiveness, responsibility, care, solidarity, self-determination, sovereignty, justice between generations. Cost-benefit analyses, the relevance of previous actions, justice across borders. Arler is with the Man and Nature, Humanities Research Center, Odense University, and was until recently in philosophy and human ecology, Aarhus University, Denmark. (v6,#4)

Arler, Finn, and Svennevig, Ingeborg, eds. Cross-Cultural Protection of Nature and the Environment. Odense, Denmark: Odense University Press, 1997. 248 pp. Contents include the following:

--Norton, Bryan, "A Community-based Approach to Multi-generational Environmental Valuation," pp.17-28.

--Deshalit (de-Shalit), Avner, "Sustainability and the Liberal-communitarian Debate," pp. 29-41.

--ONeill (O'Neill), John, "The Good Life Below the Snow-line: Pluralism, Community and Narrative," pp. 42-60.

--Agger, Peder, and Sandoe, Peter, "The Use of `Red Lists' as an Indicator of Biodiversity," pp. 61-70.

--Milton, Kay, "Nature, Culture and Biodiversity," pp. 711-83.

--Sorensen, Merete, "Increase of Biodiversity Through Biotechnology: Genetic Pollution or Second Order Evolution," pp. 84-92.

--Anker, Helle Tegner, "Biodiversity and the Importance of the Legal Framework," 93-106.

--Richards, Paul, "Common Knowledge and Resource Conservation, Globally and Locally," pp. 107-118.

--Posey, Darrell, "Utilizing Amazonian Indigenous Knowledge in the Conservation of Biodiversity: Can Kayapo Management Strategies Be Equitable Utilized and Applied?" pp. 119-133.

--Foller, Maj-Lis, "Protecting Nature in Amazonia: Local Knowledge as a Counterpoint to Globalization," pp. 134-147.

--Svennevig, Ingeborg, "Local Peoples of the Western World: The Introduction of Local Cultures in the Wadden Sea Area," pp. 148-160.

--Pedersen, Poul, "Modernity, Nature and Ethics," pp. 161-175.

--Arler, Finn, "Global Partnership: A Matter of Friendship, Reciprocity or Mutual Advantage?" pp. 176-191.

--Jensen, Tim, "Religions and Conservation: A Survey," pp. 192-205.

--Kaarhus, Randi, "Policy Discourses on Environmental Problems in Ecuador and Norway: A Comparative Perspective," pp. 206-217.

--Lindegaard, Klaus, Segura, Olman, "Trade Offs in Joint Implementation Strategies: The Central American Forestry Case," pp. 218-231.

--Zeitler, Ulli, "Global Solutions and Local Understanding: Conceptual and Perceptual Obstacles to Global Ethics and International Environmental Law," pp. 232-244. (v.9,#4)

Arler, Finn. "Global Partnership, Climate Change and Complex Equality," Environmental Values:Environmental Values 10(2001):301-330. The prospect of climate change due to human activities has put the question of inter  and intragenerational justice or equity in matters of common concern on the global agenda. This article will focus on the question of intragenerational justice in relation to these issues. This involves three basic questions. Firstly, the question of which distributive criteria may be relevant in the distribution of the goods and bads related to the increasing greenhouse effect. A series of criteria are discussed in relation to different understandings of the problem. The second question is which kind of relationship the global partnership is or should be considered to be in issues of common concern. It is argued that various understandings of the global partnership can be expected to result in the use of different criteria. This diversity leads us to the third question concerning the possibility of identifying an overall social ideal which can be used in cases where several different criteria may be useful. I shall discuss one such ideal in particular, namely the ideal of complex equality. In the concluding remarks it is argued that a distribution of emission quotas to countries in accordance with population size is a reasonable starting point for an equitable solution, although it involves various problems of application. Keywords: Climate change, greenhouse effect, equity, justice, global partnership, common concerns, distributive criteria, social ideals, complex equality. Finn Arler is at the Department of Development and Planning, Division of Technology, Environment and Society, Aalborg University, Aalborg O, Denmark. (EV)

Arluke, A., and Sanders, C. R. 1996. Regarding animals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

Armitage, D., "Community Based Narwhal Management in Nunavut, Canada: Change, Uncertainty, and Adaptation," Society and Natural Resources 18(no. 8, September 2005): 715-731.

Armstrong, Adrian, "Is God Green? Christian Contributions to the Environmental Debate," Bulletin of the Society of Ordained Scientists, no. 13, 1995, p. 2. (v7,#4)

Armstrong, Bob. "Our Federal Public Lands," Natural Resources & Environment 12(no.1,1997):3

Armstrong Buck, Susan. "Whitehead's Metaphysical System as a Foundation for Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 8(1986):241 59. Environmental ethics would greatly benefit from an adequate metaphysical founda­tion. In an attempt to demonstrate the value of Whitehead's metaphysical system as such a foundation, I first discuss five central tenets of his thought. I then compare aspects of his philosophy with Peter Singer's utilitarianism, Tom Regan's rights theory, Aldo Leopold's land ethic, and Spinoza's system in order to indicate how a Whiteheadian approach can solve the difficulties of the other views as currently developed, and provide the basis for an environmental ethics which values individual entities in themselves and in their connectedness in a purposive natural order. Armstrong-Buck is in the department of philosophy, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. (EE)

Armstrong, Scott, "Deep Dilemma in Grand Canyon: Improve Access or Retain Natural Beauty," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 August 1994): 1, 4. (v5,#3)

Armstrong, Susan J. Review of Being and Value: Toward a Constructive Postmodern Metaphysics. By Frederick Ferré. Environmental Ethics 21(1999):425 428.

Armstrong, Susan and Botzler, Richard, eds., The Animal Ethics Reader. New York: Routledge 2003. A comprehensive, state-of-the-art reader.

Armstrong, Susan J. Review of Arran Gare. Incorporated: European Civilization and Environmental Destruction: (Bungendore, Australia, Eco-logical Press, 1993). (EV)

Armstrong, Susan J. and Richard G. Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Convergence and Divergence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. Soft cover, under $ 25. Principally for the college text market. The biggest anthology in the field, 70 articles, quite comprehensive, and shows McGraw-Hill's intention to enter this market. Likely to be one of the dominant introductory antholo­gies. Section 1 is "The Role of Science" in environmental ethics and policy. Section 2 is "The Role of Moral Philosophy." Section 3: "The Aesthetic Value of Nature." Section 4: "Histori­cal Context" (environmental history). Section 5: "Eco­nomic/Political/Legal Issues." Section 6: "Anthropocentrism" (mostly those defending it). Section 7: "Individualism" (animal rights, biocentrism for individual organisms). Section 8: "Ecocentrism" (the land ethic). Section 9: "The Challenge of Ecofeminism." Section 10: "Judeo-Christian Perspectives." Section 11: "Multicultural Perspectives" (Native Americans, Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, Buddhism). Armstrong is professor of philosophy at Humboldt State University, Botzler is professor of wildlife there. (v3,#4)

Armstrong, Susan, and Richard G. Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, Reviewed by David Rothenberg in Environmental Ethics 16(1994):215

Armstrong, Susan, and Botzler, Richard, eds., Animal Ethics Reader. New York: Routledge, 2003. Over fifty selections. Theories of animal ethics. Animal capacities: pain, emotion, consciousness. Primates and cetaceans. Animals for food. Animal experimentation. Animals and biotechnology. Ethics and wildlife. Zoos, aquaria, and animals in entertainment. Animal companions. Animal law/animal activism. Armstrong is in philosophy, Botzler in wildlife at Humboldt State University, California. (v 14, #3)

Armstrong, Susan J. and Botzler, Richard G. (eds.), Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, Third Edition. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2003). This anthology is designed to help students develop their own environmental ethic, based on a sympathetic but critical look at all of the major contemporary approaches, including ecofeminism and multicultural perspectives. The anthology encourages students to incorporate moral, aesthetic, scientific, historical, political and economic perspectives in developing their environmental ethic. This third edition is 60% new, with expanded attention to application of theories, including biotechnology, and includes case studies.

Armstrong, Susan J., and Botzler, Richard G., eds., Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence. Third ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2003. Third edition of one of the most popular texts in environmental ethics. Over sixty percent of the readings are new, including land rights, biodiversity, environmental justice, and genetic engineering. Multidisciplinary. Includes non-Western perspectives. Ecofeminist perspectives. Cutting-edge articles in environmental theory. Includes a structure and standardized terminology for this developing field. Instructional aids for each chapter. Armstrong is in philosophy, Botzler in biology at Humboldt State University, California. (v.14, #4)

Armstrong-Buck, Susan, "Whitehead's Metaphysical System as a Foundation for Environmental Ethics," Environmental Ethics 8(1986):241-259. Intuitions about the intrinsic value of nature require a metaphysical basis, and here it is argued that Whitehead's metaphysic provides that basis. Without this metaphysical grounding of value, Leopold's land ethic commits the Naturalistic Fallacy (p. 258). (Katz, Bibl # 1)

Armstrong-Buck, Susan, "What Process Philosophy Can Contribute to the Land Ethic and Deep Ecology," Trumpeter 8(1991):29-34. An analysis of intrinsic and inherent value, with attention to Callicott, Rolston, Regan, and others, also analysis of the sense of self-identification in deep ecology in Naess, Fox, Fox, and others. Armstrong-Buck claims that process metaphysics can complement these attempts at forming an environmental ethic, although process metaphysics is not without its own difficul­ties. Armstrong-Buck is professor of philosophy at Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. (v2,#1)

Arnhart, Larry, Natural Right: The Biological Ethics of Human Nature. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998. 331 pages. How Darwinian biology supports an Aristotelian view of ethics as rooted in human nature. Defending a conception of "Darwinian natural right" based on the claim that the good is desirable, Arnhart argues that there are at least twenty natural desires that are universal to all human societies because they are based in human biology. The satisfaction of these natural desires constitutes a universal standard for judging social practice as either fulfilling or frustrating human nature, although prudence is required in judging what is best for particular circumstances. The familial bonding of parents and children and the conjugal bonding of men and women illustrates social behavior that conforms to Darwinian natural right. Slavery and psychopathy illustrate social behavior that contradict Darwinian natural right. The natural moral sense does not require religious belief, although such belief can sometimes reinforce the dictates of nature. Arnhart is in political science at Northern Illinois University. (v.9,#3)

Arnhart, Larry., "Thomistic Natural Law as Darwinian Natural Right", Social Philosophy and Policy (Winter 2001), Social Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. Reviewed recently in the Wilson Quarterly. (v.12,#2)

Arnold, Craig Anthony, "Working Out an Environmental Ethic: Anniversary Lessons from Mono Lake," Wyoming Law Review 4(no. 1, 2004):1-55. Does environmental law reflect or encourage an environmental ethic? The Mono Lake (California) conflict, now twenty-five years old, offers an ideal case study of the role of environmental law and litigation in achieving environmental conservation and implementing an environmental ethic. The California Supreme Court's Mono Lake opinion is regarded as one of the ten most important environmental law cases of the twentieth century. It has been cited in over 100 judicial or administrative opinions. Environmental law matters but only as a component of a broader social and natural whole. Anthony is in law, Chapman University School of Law, Orange, CA. (v. 15, # 3)

Arnold, Craig Anthony, "The Reconstitution of Property: Property as a Web of Interests," The Harvard Environmental Law Review 26(no. 2, 2002):281-364. Theoretical critiques of the bundle of rights metaphor (e.g. its alienating effects, its preoccupation with the margins of property law, its abstraction, and its excessive rights focus). How courts persist in defining property rights according to the nature of the object of those rights. Three different theoretical perspectives that emphasize the importance of the object and person-object relationships in understanding property: environmental theories, personhood theories, and expectations theories. A web of interests is a superior metaphor, because the web of interests represents not only a set of interconnected relationships among persons who share interests (more than rights) in an object, whether tangible or intangible, but also a set of particular relationships persons have with objects that have particular characteristics relevant to property law. Ways in which the web of interests metaphor helps us see certain property issues differently than the bundle of rights metaphor--regulatory takings, ownership of ecologically valuable resources like land, water, and wildlife, and property issues in corporations or intellectual property. Arnold is in law, Chapman University, Orange, CA. (v.13, #3)

Arnold, D., and Guha, R., Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 1995. (v.12,#4)

Arnot, C; Fisher, PF; Wadsworth, R; Wellens, J, "Landscape metrics with ecotones: pattern under uncertainty", Landscape Ecology 19 (no.2, 2004): 181-195(15).

Arnow, Pat, "Dead Coyote Walking," Philosophy and Geography 4 (No. 1, 2001): 129-132. Book review of Barbara Kingsolver's "Prodigal Summer", New York: HarperCollins, 2000. (P&G)

Arntzen, Sven, "Natural Beauty, Ethics and Conceptions of Nature", in Ales Erjavec, Lev Kreft and Marija Bergamo (utg.), Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Aesthetics Pt. II, Acta philosophica XX (Ljubljana: Filozofski institut ZRC SAZU, 1999), pp. 291 301. (v.12,#3)

Aron, Joan L., and Patz, Jonathan A., eds. Ecosystem Change and Public Health: A Global Perspective. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. (v 14, #3)

Aron, W; Burke, W; Freeman, M, "Scientists versus Whaling: Science, Advocacy, and Errors of Judgment," Bioscience 52(no.12, 2002): 1137-1140.

Aronow, Mary Ellen; Binkley, Clark S; Washburn, Courtland L, "Explaining Timberland Values in the United States", Journal of Forestry 102(no.8, December 2004):14-18(5).

Arp, William, III; and Kenny, Christopher. "Black Environmentalism in the Local Community Context." Environment and Behavior 28, no.3 (1996): 267. (v7, #3)

Arredondo, Edgar., On the Defence of the Human Individual and Non Human Nature, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995. (v7,#1)

Arredondo, Edgar., On the Defence of the Human Individual and Non Human Nature, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Arrow, Kenneth, et al., "Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment," Science 268 (April 28, 1995): 520-521. Eleven authors, reporting from a Swedish conference; other authors include Robert Costanza, C. S. Holling, and David Pimentel. Economic policy typically ignores environmental concerns, or considers them tangential. But economic liberalization and other policies that promote gross national product are not substitutes for environmental policy. It is typically thought that in developing nations, environmental quality first degenerates and, with further development, later improves, a U-shaped curve. This is true for selected pollutants but not true for environmental quality as a whole. Economic policy needs to recognize carrying capacity and ecosystem resilience, though these are complex and dynamic, not simple and fixed relations. Economic liberation may require more, not less regulation, because the signals of ecosystem stress are frequently received after irreversible changes have already occurred, or are misinterpreted, or relocated to other nations, and there is little incentive under present policy for a more ecologically sustainable economics. Arrow is in economics at Stanford University; Costanza in ecological economics at the University of Maryland; Holling in zoology at the University of Florida; Pimentel in entomology, ecology, and systematics at Cornell University. (v6,#2)

Arthur, John, ed., Morality and Moral Controversies, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. 480 pages. 4th ed., 1996. An introductory text with a section on environment: "The Value of Life: People, Animals, and the Environment." There are three readings: William F. Baxter, "People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution"; Peter Singer, "All Animals Are Equal"; and J. Baird Callicott: "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair." The 4th edition adds Bonnie Steinbock, "Speciesism and the Ideal of Equality." Arthur is at the State University of New York, Binghamton. (v3,#4)

Arthur, Wallace, The Green Machine: Ecology and the Balance of Nature. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990. All life is part of the Green Machine, that subtle and complex balance of nature which is the ecosystem which is now threatened by so many human activities. An introduction to the science of ecology, a bottom-up approach building to a holistic view of ecosystems. The evolution of ecosystems. Ecosystems in the human-nature interface. Arthur is lecturer in ecology at Sunderland Polytechnic, U.K.

Arts, Bas, Rudig, Wolfgang. "Negotiating the `Berlin Mandate': Reflecting on the First `Conference of the Parties' to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change," Environmental Politics 4(no.3, Fall 1995):481- . (v6,#4)

Asato, Cathy, "Beneath the Surface," Blue Planet 2 (no. 2, Fall 2002):30-33. Thirty years after the Clean Water Act mandated healthy water for America, American oceans are still in peril. This whole issue of Blue Planet is a thirty-year retrospective on progress and the lack of it in conserving oceans. (v.13,#4)

Ascher, William, "Understanding Why Governments in Developing Countries Waste Natural Resources," Environment 42 (No. 2, 2000): 8- . Although ignorance and corruption play some role in the waste of natural resources, the principle cause often lies elsewhere. (v.11,#2)

Ashby, Eric. Reconciling Man with the Environment. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 3(1981):187 88.

Asheim, GB; Buchholz, W; Tungodden, B, "Justifying Sustainability," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 41(no.3, 2001):252-268. (v.12,#4)

Ashenafi, Z. and Leader-Williams, N., "Indigenous Common Property Resource Management in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia," Human Ecology 33(no. 4, August 2005): 539-563.

Ashford, Nicholas, Caldart, Charles. Technology, Law, and the Working Environment, rev. ed. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 650 pp. $39.95 paper. Discussion of the legal issues relevant to technology-related workplace problems. There are detailed chapters that examine occupational health and safety, toxic substance regulations, technology bargaining, and the law as it applies to the work environment.

Ashley, MV; Willson, MF; Pergams, OR; Odowd, DJ; Gende, SM; Brown, JS; "Evolutionarily enlightened management", Biological Conservation 111(no.2, 2003):115-123.

Asimov, Isaac and Pohl Frederik, Our Angry Earth. New York: Tom Doherty, 1991. 109 pages.

Asmar, BN, "The Science and Politics of the Dead Sea: Red Sea Canal or Pipeline," Journal of Environment and Development 12(no.3, 2003):325-339. (v.14, #4)

Asner, Gregory P, et al., "Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon," Science 310(21 October 2005):480-482. Remote sensing by satellite detects lands cleared for agriculture but forests selectively logged have mostly been invisible to satellites. These authors developed a large-scale, high-resolution remote sensing analysis, to discover that "selective logging doubles previous estimates of the total amount of forest degraded by human activities, a result with potentially far-reaching implications for the ecology of the Amazon forest and the sustainability of the human enterprise in the region." A considerable amount of this logging is on supposed forest reserves. Asner is in global ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA.

Asquith, Nigel M., "Misdirections in Conservation Biology," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, 2001): 345-. (v.12,#3)

Asquith, Pamela J., and Kalland, Arne, eds., Japanese Images of Nature: Cultural Perspectives. Richmond, Surry, UK: Curzon Press, 1997. Sample contributions;:

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