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--Hare, R.M., "Moral Reasoning About the Environment," pp.9-20.

--Hill, Donald, "On Reasoning Morally About the Environment--Response to R.M. Hare," pp. 21-25.

--Airaksinen, Timo, "Original Populations and Environmental Rights," pp. 26-36.

--Sprigge, T.L.S., "Are There Intrinsic Values in Nature?", pp. 37-44.

--Grey, William, "A Critique of Deep Ecology," pp. 45-50.

--Drengson, Alan R., "A Critique of Deep Ecology? Response to William Grey," pp. 51-55.

Almond, Brenda, "Environmental Values," in her Moral Concerns (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1987). "A language of values may meet environmentalist needs better than a language of narrowly defined morality and, specifically, of duties." But Almond is not sure that we can "formulate the notion of objects of value outside the experience of human beings," although when humans do experience natural things they can value them for what they are in themselves. Almond is reader in philosophy and education, University of Hull. (v1,#4)

Alodos, C. L., Pueyo, Y., Barrantes, O., Escos, J., Giner, L. and Robles, A. B., "Variations in Landscape Patterns and Vegetation Cover between 1957 and 1994 in a Semiarid Mediterranean Ecosystem," Landscape Ecology 19(no. 5, 2004): 545-561(17). (v.14, #4)

Alodos, CL; Pueyo, Y; Barrantes, O; Escos, J; Giner, L; Robles, AB, "Variations in landscape patterns and vegetation cover between 1957 and 1994 in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem", Landscape Ecology 19(no.5, 2004):545-561(17).

Alpert, Peter, "Stewardship, Concept Of," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 481 494. Stewardship is taking care of something for someone else. Originally, a steward was a person who managed household affairs for a landowner. In natural resource management, stewardship often refers to voluntary actions taken by private landowners to promote ecological goals on their own lands. Stewardship may have an instrumental rationale, such as the human need for natural resources; or an intrinsic rationale, such as the moral rights of species to exist. (v.11,#4)

Alpert, Peter. "Integrated Conservation and Development Projects," Bioscience 46(no.11, 1996):845. Examples from Africa. (v8,#1)

Alpert, Peter. "The Boulder and the Sphere: Subjectivity and Implicit Values in Biology." Environmental Values 4(1995):3-15. Science is inherently subjective. The experience of dissertation research in ecology showed how intuitively derived hypotheses and assumptions define the questions one asks and the variables one measures, and how idealised forms and generalised types facilitate analysis but distort interpretation. Because these conceptual tools are indispensable to science, subjectivity is ineluctable. This has moral implications. Scientists are responsible for the particular abstractions they select and must therefore accept some moral responsibility for the way their results are used. Those who use scientific results have an equal responsibility to acknowledge the significance of the methods and not just of the conclusions. In biology, subjectivity may also have a positive side. A wide consensus of ecological biologists accept, on the apparently neutral grounds of accumulated study, a set of generalisations that society at large treats more as philosophical beliefs. This category of implicit values in biology holds much promise for improving our relations with nature and each other. KEYWORDS: biology, values, subjectivity Alpert is in the department of biology, University of Massachusetts. (EV)

Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted and Erik Steen Kristensen. "Toward a Systemic Ethic: In Search of an Ethical Basis for Sustainability and Precaution." Environmental Ethics 25(2003):59 78. There are many different meanings of sustainability and precaution and no evident connection between the new normative concepts and the traditional moral theories. We seek an ethical basis for sustainability and precautionCa common framework that can serve as a means of resolving the conceptual ambiguities of the new normative concepts and the conflicts between new and traditional moral concepts and theories. We employ a systemic approach to analyze the past and possible future extension of ethics and establish an inclusive framework of ethical extension. This framework forms the basis for what we call a systemic ethic.(EE)

Alroje, Hugo Fjelsted, Mette Vaarst, and Erik Steen Kristensen. "Does Organic Farming Face Distinctive Livestock Welfare Issues? - A Conceptual Analysis." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(2001):

275-299. The recent development and growth of organic livestock farming and the related development of national and international regulations has fueled discussions among scientists and philosophers concerning the proper conceptualization of animal welfare. These discussions on livestock welfare in organic farming draw on the conventional discussions and disputes on animal welfare that involve issues such as different definitions of welfare (clinical health, absence of suffering, sum of positive and negative experiences, etc.), the possibility for objective measures of animal welfare, and the acceptable level of welfare. It seems clear that livestock welfare is a value-laden concept and that animal welfare science cannot be made independent of questions of values and ethics. The question investigated here is whether those values that underpin organic farming, in particular, also affect the interpretation of livestock welfare, and, if so, how. While some of the issues raised in connection with organic farming are relatively uncontroversial, others are not. The introduction of organic farming values seems to introduce new criteria for what counts as good animal welfare, as well as a different ethical basis for making moral decisions on welfare. Organic farming embodies distinctive systemic or communitarian ethical ideas and the organic values are connected to a systemic conception of nature, of agriculture, of the farm, and of the animal. The new criteria of welfare are related to concepts such as naturalness, harmony, integrity, and care. While the organic values overlap with those involved in the conventional discussion of animal welfare, some of them suggest a need to set new priorities and to re-conceptualize animal welfare - for example, with respect to "naturalness," in relation to the possibilities for expression of natural behavior and in relation to animal integrity as a concept for organismic harmony. The organic perspective also seems to suggest a wider range of solutions to welfare problems than changes in farm routines or operations on the animals. The systemic solutions include the choice and reproduction of suitable breeds, changes in the farm structure, and changes in the larger production and consumption system - including consumer perceptions and preferences. But the organic values may also call for sacrifices of individual welfare in a conventional sense in order to advance welfare from the perspective of organic farming. Whether this is good or bad cannot be decided without entering into an inquiry and discussion of the values and ethics involved. Keywords: animal welfare, integrity, naturalness, organic farming, systemic perspective. The authors are at the Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, Foulum, Tjele. (JAEE)

Alston, Lee J., Libecap, Gary D. and Mueller, Bernardo, "Land Reform Policies, the Sources of Violent Conflict, and Implications for Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," Journal Of Environmental Economics And Management 39 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 162-. (v.11,#2)

Altherr, Thomas L., and John F. Reiger, "Academic Historians and Hunting: A Call for More and Better Scholarship," Environmental History Review 19(1995):39-56. A call to academic historians to explore the potential hunting history holds for the field, to leave ideological baggage behind, and to study hunters in their own words and in the context of their own time. Areas for research in hunting history are abundant. Altherr is at Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN. Reiger is at Ohio University, Chillicothe. (v6,#4)

Altner, G., Mettler-Meibom, B., Simonis, U.E. and Weizsäcker, E.U. v, eds. Jahrbuch Okologie. Reviewed by Ingolfer Blüdhorn. Environmental Values 5(1996):90-91. (EV)

Altner, Günter, Naturevergessenheit: Grundlagen einer umfassenden Bioethik (Nature Forgotten: Towards a Comprehensive Bioethic). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1991. 319 pages. Hardbound. ISBN 3-534-80043-5. DM 29,80. Altner argues that the prevailing attitude towards nature is disastrously inadequate, resulting in the destruction of nature. We need an all-embracing reverence for life. Altner works through Cartesian subject-object dualism, the bioethics of Singer, Birnbacher, and Schweitzer, bioethics and creation theology, bioethics and evolutionary science, bioethics and technology, and then presents his own comprehensive bioethics. Some of the issues he confronts include domestic animals, meat-eating, animal experimentation, landscapes, energy policy, climate change, gene technology, population control. One touchstone for a bioethic is "the obligation of solidarity with the unborn, the handicapped, and the dying. Whoever is unwilling to protect life of this sort will also be so in areas more remote from humanity. But a bioethic would be falsely and inadequately fulfilled if the all-embracing respect for life did not reach through humans to their deepest level of obligation. How could non-human nature have a value for us, if we are not aware of it in and through our own human selves" (from the Introduction). Altner holds doctorates in both theology and biology and is professor of theology at the University of Koblenz-Landau and a board member of the Ecological Institute of Freiburg. (v5,#2)

Alvard, Michael S., Robinson, John G., Kaplan, Hilliard. "The Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting in the Neotropics," Conservation Biology 11(no.4, 1997):977. (v8,#3)

Alverson, W. S., and Waller, D. M., "Is It Un-Biocentric to Manage?" Wild Earth 2 (no.4, 1992): 9-10. (v.9,#3)

Alverson, William, Kuhlmann, Walter, and Waller, Donald, Wild Forests: Conservation Biology and Public Policy. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1994. (v.9,#3)

Alverson, William S., Donald M. Waller, and Walter Kuhlmann, Wild Forests. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1994. 320 pages. $29.95. A review of the scientific and policy issues surrounding biological diversity in contemporary forest management, evaluating specific approaches proposed to ameliorate diversity losses. One such model is the Dominant Use Zoning Model with an integrated network of Diversity Maintenance Areas, which the authors have urged on the U.S. Forest Service in Wisconsin. The authors argue that wild or unengineered conditions are those that are most likely to foster a return to the species richness that we once enjoyed. Alverson and Waller are at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kuhlmann is an environmental lawyer in Wisconsin. (v5,#1)

Alward, Peter. "The Naive Argument Against Moral Vegetarianism."

Environmental Values 9(2000):81-89. ABSTRACT: The naive argument against moral vegetarianism claims that if it is wrong for us to eat meant then it is wrong for lions and tigers to do so as well. I argue that the fact that such carnivores lack higher order mental states and need meat to survive do suffice to undermine the naive argument. KEYWORDS: Ethics, applied ethics, vegetarianism, animal welfare, naive argument. Peter Alward is in the Department of Philosophy College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, 29424-0001.

Alyanak, Leyla. "Restoring an African Park--One Elephant at Time." The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 89, 9 Jan. 1997, p. 7.

Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment is published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, with an international focus. Articles in English. Contact: Royal Swedish Academy of Scienc­es, Box 50005, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden. (v2,#3)

Ambler, Rex, Global Theology: The Meaning of Faith in the Present World Crisis (Philadelphia: Trinity, 1990). 90 pp. paper. Pollution, depletion of natural resources, and the continuing threat of nuclear war illustrate the fragility of our planet. They also fuel a spiritual crisis. Ambler points the way toward a responsible faith that does not take tragedy as the last word. (v1,#3)

American Behavioral Scientist 43(No. 4, 2000) is a theme issue on environmental justice. Entries have been separately listed. (v.11,#1)

American Forests. Vol 101, nos. 7 and 8. July/August 1995. Theme issue on wildlife, prescribed fire. (v6,#4)

American Journal of Theology and Philosophy Vol. l8, no. l (January l997). A special issue on Eco-justice and the Environment. Jerome A. Stone, guest editor. Articles include: "Ecojustice and the Environment" by Jerome A. Stone; "The Post-World War II Eco-justice Movement in Christian Theology" by J. Ronald Engel; "Ecology, Justice and Christian Faith" by Joan Gibb Engel; "Ecofeminism: First and Third World Women" by Rosemary Radford Ruether; "Sense of Place: What Does it Mean to be Human?" by Yi-fu Tuan; "Ecological Spirituality" by Holmes Rolston III; "The Challenge of a World Environmental Ethic" by J. Baird Callicott; and "Baird Callicott's Ethical Vision: Response to Baird Callicott" by Cristina L. H. Traina. Copies are available for $l5.00 from Tyron Inbody, Editor, UTS, l8l0 Harvard Blvd., Dayton, OH 45406. (v8,#1)

American News Service. "Farmers and Their Neighbors Link Up to Save Small Farms." The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 88, 4 Oct. 1996, p. 15.

American Plastics Council. The American Plastics Council is promoting their policy of community-based decision-making; namely, "there is no nationwide, `one-size-fits-all' solution" to solid waste and recycling. Two articles are being distributed: Poore, Patricia. "Is Garbage an Environmental Problem?" From Garbage magazine, December 1993. Challenges the view that there is a garbage crisis. (v5,#2) Boemer, Christopher and Kenneth Chilton. "False Economy: The Folly of Demand-Side Recycling." From Environment, January/February 1994. Examines the economics of recycling and what makes good public policy. (v5,#2) For copies of the articles, which are available free while quantities last, contact: American Plastics Council; 1275 K Street NW, Suite 400; Washington, DC 20005; FAX 202-371-5679. (v5,#2)

Ames, Roger T. "Taoism and the Nature of Nature." Environmental Ethics 8(1986):317 50. The problems of environmental ethics are so basic that the exploration of an alterna­tive metaphysics or attendant ethical theory is not a sufficiently radical solution. In fact, the assumptions entailed in a definition of systematic philosophy that gives us a tradition of metaphysics might themselves be the source of the current crisis. We might need to revision the responsibilities of the philosopher and think in terms of the artist rather than the "scientific of first principles." Taoism proceeds from art rather than science, and produces an ars contextualis: generalizations drawn from human experience in the most basic processes of making a person, making a community and making a world. This idea of an "aesthetic cosmology" is one basis for redefining the nature of the relatedness that obtains between particular and world  between tao and te. Ames is in the department of philosophy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI. (EE)

Amilien, Caroline. "Conflicting International Policies in Tropical Timber Trade." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 29. (v7, #3)

Amilien, Caroline. "Are Countries Liable for Their Forestry Practices?" Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):6. (v8,#1)

Amos, Bruce. "The International Context for Heritage Conservation in Canada", Environments 24(no. 1, 1996):13.

Amphibian and Reptile Conservation is a new journal. Contact Craig Hassapakis, 2255 North University Parkway, Suite 15, Provo, UT 84604-7506. Email: ARC@byu.edu (v8,#1)

Anand, Paul. "Decisions vs. Willingness-to-Pay in Social Choice."

Environmental Values 9(2000):419-430. Abstract: The paper compares use of willingness to pay values with multi-attribute utility as ways of modelling social choice problems in the environment. A number of reasons for moving away from willingness to pay are reviewed. The view proposed is that social choice is about the integration of competing claim types (utilities, rights, social contracts and beliefs about due process). However, willingness to pay is only indirectly related to the first of these and assumes an Arrovian approach, namely one in which social choice is regarded as the aggregation of people's preferences. Keywords: Willingness to pay, applied social choice, multi-attribute utility theory, environmental decision making, capability rights. Paul Anand is at The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK. (EV)

Anastas, P. T., and Warner, J. C., Green Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Anazagasty Rodriguez, J., "A Review of: Zimmerer, Karl S. and Thomas J. Basset. Political Ecology: An Integrative Approach to Geography and Environment Development Studies," Society and Natural Resources 18(no. 7, August 2005): 674-675.

Andelman, SJ; Bowles, CM; Willig, MR; Waide, RB, "Understanding Environmental Complexity through a Distributed Knowledge Network", BioScience 54 (no.3, 2004): 240-246(7). Understanding environmental complexity and other dimensions of ecological systems necessitates a holistic approach that can be achieved only by identifying, retrieving, and synthesizing diverse data from distributed sources; by collaborating with other scientists from a broad range of disciplines; and by investigating many different systems. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity (KNB) is developing new software tools to advance ecological understanding through discovery, access, retrieval, and management of distributed and heterogeneous ecological and environmental data. To address the need for cultural change in ecologists and other environmental scientists and to promote collaborative and synthetic approaches, KNB and the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis are training a cadre of young investigators in techniques for the management and analysis of ecological data, with emphasis on multiscale integration and synthesis.

Anderberg, Thomas. Den Mänskliga Naturen: En Essa om Miljo och Moral (The Humane Nature: An Essay on Environment and Morals). Stockholm: Norstedts Forlag, 1994. 308 pages. ISBN 91 1 932031 0. Chapter themes: Overpopulation, depletion and environmental degradation--biological impoverishment, economic flourishing, common morality: a sketch. Nature as complementary or as fundamental? The two directions in environmental ethics--anthropocentrism and non-anthropocentrism. The widening circle, a global ethics--nature and culture. A model of moral politics. The tamed animal--human nature in a biological perspective. Environment, gene technology and the problem of democracy--the struggle of the majority and the faceless collectives. The nature of morality and the moral of nature--collective guilt and the responsibility of the individual: a compass direction. Anderberg is at the University of Lund, Sweden.

Andersen, Carl Christian, Okofilosofisk Perspectiv pa skjonnlitteraturen (An Ecophilosophical Perspective on Literature). M.A. thesis in the Department of the History of Ideas, University of Oslo. Examines some representative selections from literature, West and East, for their ecological view of the world, for example Ernest Hemingway's Old Man and the Sea, and some Japanese haiku. Andersen is now teaching at Nansenskolen in Lillehammer, Norway, a humanistic academy of higher education. (Norway)

Andersen, Mikael Skou. Review of Lowe, Ward, eds., British Environmental Policy and Europe: Politics and Policy in Transition. Environmental Values 9(2000):258.

Andersen, Mikael Skou. "Assessing the Effectiveness of Denmark's Waste Tax," Environment 40(no. 4, May 1998):10- . The waste tax that Denmark introduced in 1987 has contributed to an increase in the country's recycling rate, but further changes will be needed for it to realize its full potential. (v9,#2)

Andersen, Milael Skou. "The Impact of New Member States on EU Environmental Policy", Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):339. (v7,#4)

Andersen, Svend, "Global Ethics and Salvation," in Brümmer, Vincent and Marcel Sarot, eds., A Dialogue of Social Science and Religion (Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok Pharos Publishing House), pp. 133-143. "It is not legitimate to make direct links between the global problems and Biblical concepts like salvation" (p. 138). "The concept of salvation is not a part of global ethics: salvation is not a state on this earth which human beings can bring about. But the language of salvation is connected with Christian ethics and accordingly can have bearings on the efforts of solving the global problems. ... It is part of Christian ethics that all human beings should be treated as equals, so that justice is a universal idea. ... It is part of Christian ethics that we are responsible for nonhuman nature which is delivered into our hands" (pp. 142-143). Andersen teaches in the theology faculty at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. (v7,#2)

Anderson, Anthony B., Peter H. May, and Michael J. Balick, The Subsidy from Nature: Palm Forests, Peasantry, and Development on an Amazon Frontier. Columbia University Press, 1991. 256 pages. $ 35.00. The natural history, management, and economics of the babassu palm in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon. (v2,#3)

Anderson, Anthony B., Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain Forest. Columbia University Press, 1990. $ 65.00. 281 pages. (v2,#3)

Anderson, Bob, Beartooth Country: Montana's Absaroka and Beartooth Mountains. Helena, MT: Montana Geographic Series # 7, rev. ed., American and World Geographic Publishing Co., (P. O. Box 5630, Helena, MT 59604), 1994. Anderson was the first executive director of the Greater Yellowstone Coalition and influential in forming the Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness east of Yellowstone National Park. (v.10,#1)

Anderson, Brent C., "Valuation of Environmentally Impaired Properties," Natural Resources & Environment 15(no.2, Fall 2000):100- . (EE v.12,#1)

Anderson, Bruce N., ed,, Ecologue: The Environmental Catalogue and Consumer's Guide for a Safe Earth (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990). $18.95. 256 pages. (v2,#1)

Anderson, Chris, and Lex Runciman, A Forest of Voices: Reading and Writing the Environment. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 1994. 775 pages. $ 24.95. (v6,#4)

Anderson, David and Grove, Richard, eds. Conservation in Africa: People, Policies and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Anderson, David S. and David R. Bridge, Focus on Africa: Wildlife, Conservation, and Man. Santa Barbara, CA: Bridgewood Productions, 1994. ISBN 0-9639261-0-1. Mostly pictures. (v6,#3)

Anderson, E. N. Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 272pp. $25. A new way of thinking about humans and our place in the universe. Why do we treat our environment and its resources the way we do? (v8,#1)

Anderson, E. N., Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 256 pages. $ 25.00. Diverse but in many ways analogous approaches of a wide range of traditionally based societies in their approaches to their home environments. (v7,#2)

Anderson, EN, "Tropical Forest Game Conservation," Conservation Biology 15(no.3, 2001):791-792. (v.12,#4)

Anderson, J. W., "U. S. Has No Role in U. N. Treaty Process; Senate Reluctant to Ratify," Resources (Resources for the Future), Issue 148, Summer 2002, pp. 12-16. Thirteen global environmental treaties have gone into force in the last three decades, but the United States is party to only half of them. The Senate's great reluctance to ratify loosely worded treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol, has meant the United States has no role in their implementation. One reason the Senate is reluctant to ratify is that the United States takes these treaties more seriously than do other nations. Elsewhere the treaties, vaguely worded, are loosely enforced. In the United States treaties become U.S. law, and the nature of the legal system, including lawsuits by environmentalists, would force the U.S. government to live up to its treaty commitments more rigorously than other countries might. Elsewhere, especially in developing countries, these treaties mostly gather dust on the desks of government officials. Thoughtful article. Anderson is a journalist in residence at Resources for the Future, Washington. (v.13,#4)

Anderson, James C. "Moral Planes and Intrinsic Values." Environmental Ethics 13(1991):49 58. In his book, Earth and Other Ethics, Christopher Stone attempts to account for the moral dimension of our lives insofar as it extends to nonhuman animals, plants, species, ecosystems, and even inanimate objects. In his effort to do this, he introduces a technical notion, the moral plane. Moral planes are defined both by the ontological commitments they make and by the governance rules (moral maxims) that pertain to the sorts of entities included in the plane. By introducing these planes, Stone is left with a set of problems. (1) Do the planes provide anything more objective than a set of alternative ways of looking at moral problems? (2) How can one resolve apparent conflicts between the recommendations forthcoming from distinct planes? (3) Why do certain entities constitute moral planes; and how do we decide which planes to "buy into?" Stone's answers to these questions endorse a series of concessions to moral relativism. In this paper I outline an alternative to Stone's moral planes which, while sympathetic to his ethical concerns, comes down squarely on the side of moral realism. Anderson is in the department of philosophy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. (EE)

Anderson, James C., "Species Equality and the Foundations of Moral Theory." Environmental Values Vol.2 No.4(1993):347-366. ABSTRACT: The paper discusses various concepts of `species equality' and `species superiority' and the assumptions concerning intrinsic value on which they depend. I investigate what philosophers from the traditional deontological (Taylor and Lombardi) and utilitarian (Singer and Attfield) perspectives have meant by their claims for species equality. I attempt to provide a framework of intrinsic values that justifies one sense in which members of a species can be said to be superior to members of another species. KEYWORDS: Equality, superiority, intrinsic values. Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Anderson, Jay A., "A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating and Quantifying Naturalness," Conservation Biology, vol. 5, no. 3, September 1991. "Naturalness is a scientific concept that can be evaluated and quantified. Intactness or integrity of ecosystems can be defined and assessed in similar ways. Three indices of naturalness are proposed: 1) the degree to which the system would change if humans were removed, 2) the amount of cultural energy required to maintain the functioning of the system as it currently exists, and 3) the complement of native species currently in an area compared to the suite of species in the area prior to settlement. These indices are complementary and provide a conceptual framework for evaluating naturalness. The latter two can be quantified. Anderson is in the Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello. (v2,#2) With reply, Götmark, Frank, "Naturalness as an Evaluation Criterion in Nature Conservation: A Response to Anderson," Conservation Biology 6 (1992):455-458. And further reply, Anderson, Jay E., "Reply to Götmark," Conservation Biology 6(1992):459-460.

Anderson, Jerry L., "Takings and Expectations: Toward a `Broader Vision' of Property Rights," Kansas Law Review 37(1989):529- . (v7,#2)

Anderson, Johan, Vadnjal, Dan, and Uhlin, Hanz-Erik, "Moral Dimensions of the WTA-WTP Disparity: An Experimental Examination," Ecological Economics 32(2000):153-162. Economists puzzle over the fact that in willingness-to-pay (WTP) versus willingness-to-accept payment (WTA) surveys regarding environmental goods, in theory there should be no difference between WTP and WTA. But in empirical studies WTA exceeds WTP; these authors conduct surveys that lead them to conclude that the valuation disparity increases with a corresponding increase in the sense of moral responsibility at stake. The authors are in the Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.

Anderson, Lykke E. "The Causes of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):309. (v8,#2)

Alampay, Jose Gerardo A. "Revisiting Environmental Security in the Philippines," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):329. (v8,#2)

Anderson, Michael, ed., Human Rights Approaches to Environmental Protection. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 336 pages. $ 65.00. Linkages between the environment and human rights. The legal status of environmental rights in both international and domestic law. (v.7,#4)

Anderson, Nick. "A Whale of a Debate Over Salt Stirs Debate in a Baja California Lagoon." The Christian Science Monitor, July 10, 1995, pp. 1, 18. (v6,#2)

Anderson, Sarah, ed., Views from the South: The Effects of Globalization and the WTO on the Third World. Oakland, CA: Foodfirst Books, Institute for Food and Development Policy, 2002. . Phone 510-654-4400. Essays by Third World activists and scholars. (v.13,#4)

Anderson, Stephen R., Doctor Dolittle's Delusion: Animals and the Uniqueness of Human Language. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. Animals communicate and have many remarkable skills, memory, and can learn somewhat complicated procedures. They can link symbols to objects, as a red button to a banana. But they do not have language. The have no syntax; they have no reflective ideas communicated in language. So if kindly John Doolittle of Puddleby-on-the-Marsh was hearing voices, they weren't coming from Jip the dog or Gub-Gub the pig. Anderson is in linguistics and psychology at Yale University. (v.14, #4)

Anderson, T. L. and Leal, R. R., Review of Proops, John, Free Market Environmentalism. Environmental Values 3(1994):185. (EV)

Anderson, Terry L., Leal, Donald R., Enviro-Capitalists: Doing Good While Doing Well. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997. 200 pp. $16.95 paper, $52.50 cloth. Demonstrating why Americans should turn to private entrepreneurs rather than the federal government to guarantee the protection and improvement of environmental quality, the authors document numerous examples of how entrepreneurs have satisfied the growing demand for environmental quality. (v8,#2)

Anderson, Terry, and Leal, Donald, Enviro-Capitalists: Doing Good While Doing Well. Review by Andrew Dobson, Environmental Values 7:(1998):488.

Anderson, Terry L., Hill, Peter, J., eds. Environmental Federalism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997. 225 pp. $22.95 paper, $57.50 cloth. The contributors provide a wide variety of strategies to challenge what they view as Washington's unsophisticated, ineffective, and harmful approaches. They provide a general framework for how states can regain control of their environmental destiny. (v8,#2)

Anderson, Terry L., Hill, Peter J., eds. Wildlife in the Marketplace. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1995. 208 pp. $22.95 paper, $57.50 cloth. Economists and wildlife experts challenge the prevailing idea that wildlife and markets are inimical to one another, arguing that markets can play an important role in preserving animal species and their habitat. (v8,#2)

Anderson, Warwick, "A New Approach to Regulating the Use of Animals in Science", Bioethics 4(1990):45-54. There is now a growing acceptance amongst scientists world-wide that rational and effective guidelines are needed for experimental work involving animals. Ideally, these rules in each country should be based on a set of internationally accepted general principles but at the same time reflect local cultural, scientific and legal conditions. In Australia, the national Code of Practice for the scientific use of animals has just been revised. The development of the Australian Code has been driven largely by the research community itself, and partly because of this the Code has unique features. Amongst the most important features is the requirement that an animal experimentation ethics committee should approve experiments only if the worth of the experiment outweighs the adverse effects on the animals. The paper discusses animal experimental ethics committees and other features of the Code.

Anderson, William, Green Man: The Archtype of our Oneness with the Earth (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1990). A search for "green" in architecture and art of the past. Harper is selling this book with a wraparound that says: "To keep our Earth green, Harper, San Francisco, will plant two trees in the Rainforest for every one used in the publication of this book." (v2,#1)

Andersson, Meike; Gradstein, S., "Impact of management intensity on non-vascular epiphyte diversity in cacao plantations in western Ecuador," Biodiversity and Conservation 14(no.5, May 2005):1101-1120(20).

Andonova, L., "Openness and the Environment in Central and Eastern Europe: Can Trade and foreign Investment Stimulate Better Environmental Management in Enterprises?," Journal of Environment and Development 12(no. 2, 2003): 177-204. (v 14, #3)

Andow, David A.; Hilbeck, Angelika, "Science-Based Risk Assessment for Nontarget Effects of Transgenic Crops," BioScience 54(no.7, 1 July 2004):637-649(13). (v. 15, # 3)

Andow, David A., David A. Ragsdale, and Robert F. Nyvall, eds. Ecological Theory and Biological Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 350 pages. $69.50. Addresses issues of theory and practice in non-chemical methods of pest control. (v5,#2)

Andreae, Christopher. "A Few Trashy Tales from Scotland." Christian Science Monitor 89 (21 July 1997): 16. (v8,#3)

Andreas, Peter. "Border Troubles: Free Trade, Immigration and Cheap Labour." The Ecologist 24 (no. 4, July 1994): 230- . As millions of people are uprooted by the increasing integration of the global economy, pressure has mounted on governments to impose more restrictive immigration controls. But attempting to stop people moving around while encouraging the mobility of everything else is a recipe for policy frustration. Illegal immigration from Mexico into the US illustrates the problems. (v6,#1)

Andrew, Anne Slaughter. "Brownfield Redevelopment: A State-Led Reform of Superfund Liability." Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):27. (v7,#1)

Andrews, John, "Warren, Plumwood, a Rock and a Snake: Some Doubts About Critical Ecological Feminism," Journal of Applied Philosophy 13(No.2, 1996):141. (v.10,#2)

Andrews, John, Review of: Wim Zweers, Participating with Nature, Environmental Values 11(2002):243-245.

Andrews, John, Review of: Kellert, Stephen R., and Farnham, Timothy J., eds., The Good in Nature and Humanity: Connecting Science, Religion, and Spirituality with the Natural World. Environmental Values 12(2003):539-542. (EV)

Andrews, John, "Weak Panpsychism and Environmental Ethics," Environmental Values 7(1998): 381 396. Weak panpsychism, the view that mindlike qualities are widespread in nature, has recently been argued for by the prominent ecofeminist Val Plumwood and has been used by her to ground an ethic of respect for nature. This ethic advocates a principle of respect for difference, the rejection of moral hierarchy and the inclusion of plants, mountains, rivers and ecosystems within the moral community. I argue that weak panpsychism cannot, convincingly, justify the rejection of moral hierarchy, as it is compatible with it. Also the intentional criterion of mind, employed by weak panpsychism, which includes teleology, has the counter-intuitive implication of giving machines moral status. I cast doubt on the claims that (i) intentionality is a necessary condition for moral status and that (ii) it is sufficient for the ascription of agency. It is suggested that any account of intentionality that allows it to be predicated of mountains, rivers etc. would be widely, and correctly regarded as a reductio of that account. Finally an aesthetic reinterpretation of weak panpsychism is offered. KEYWORDS: weak panpsychism, assimilationism, dualism, intentionality, agency. John Andrews is at the University of Reading, UK. (EV)

Andrews, Richard N. L., Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. 419 pages. $ 30.00 paper. American environmental policy is not just a product of late twentieth concerns, but is rooted in America's nearly four hundred year history of government actions to promote or control human uses of nature. The interplay between environmental policies and broader patterns of economic, social, and political development, showing how present environmental policy emerged from earlier patterns and precedents. Andrews teaches environmental policy at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. (v.9,#4)

Andrews, Richard N. L., Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. $ 30.00. American environmental policy is not just a product of late twentieth-century concerns about the environment. It is also rooted in America's nearly four-hundred-year history of government actions to promote or control human uses of nature. That rich history affects environmental issues today and in the future. Andrews is professor of environmental policy in the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (v.10,#1)

Andrews, Tamra, A Dictionary of Nature Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, 2000. Natural forces, gods or goddesses of natural forces, terms related to the myths of natural forces, geographical regions. Tales of an animated (often enchanted) and meaningful universe. (v.12,#4)

Andruss, Van, Christopher Plant, Judith Plant, and Eleanor Wright, eds., Home! A Bioregional Reader (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1990). $14.95. 181 pages. (v2,#1)

Andrzejewski, Boleslaw, ed. Humanistyka i Ekologia (Humanistics and Ecology). In Polish. Poznan: Fundacja WARTA, 1992. Paper. 190 pages. Seventeen authors who are mostly at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland. With English summaries at the end of each articles. Sample articles (titles translated from Polish): Wlodzimierz Wilowski, "The Ecological Man Ideal of Lao Tsu"; Ryszard Stachowski, "Man and the World in Greek Natural Philosophy"; Boleslaw Andrzejewski, "Philosophy and Ecology"; Andrzej Przylebski, "Heidegger's Critique of Metaphysics as a Possible Foundation of the Ecology Philosophy"; Zbigniew Kuder­owicz, "System of Values and Protection of Environment"; Eugen­iusz Kosmicki, "Basic Problems of Ethics in Ecology"; Jan Wawrzyniak, "The Elements of Neonaturalistic Environmental and Evolutionary Ethics"; Zbigniew Blok, "Ecology as the Main Premise for the Construction of a New Paradigm of Social Devel­opment." Andrzejewski is professor of philosophy, Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland. (v4,#3)

Andrzejewski, Boleslaw, ed., Ochrona Srodowiska w Refleksji Humanistycznej (Environmental Protection in Humanistic Reflection). Poznan, Poland: Wydawnictwo Poznanskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciol Nauk (Poznan Society of Friends of the Sciences), 1992. Fifteen essays in Polish: Some samples: Boleslaw Andrzejewski, "The Ecological Motif in Romantic Philosophy of Language"; Andrzej Przylebski, "Martin Heidegger and the So-Called Deep Ecology"; Bernard Piotrowski, "The Swedish Ecological Culture in Recent Times"; Eugeniusz Kosmicki, "Basic Problems of Ecological Ethics"; Jan Wawrzyniak, "Man--It Does Not Sound Honorable: A Conception of Neonaturalistic Evolutionary and Environmental Ethics"; Luromira Domka, "Humanistic Faculties at Universities in the Defense of Nature."

Angell, Linda C. Review of Frank G.A. de Bakker, "Product Oriented Environmental Management", Organization and Environment, 15, (No. 4, 2002): 507-510. Angell is a senior lecturer in operations management at Victoria Management School in Wellington, New Zealand.

Angelmyer, Mary Eleanor R. Seagreaves, and Catherine C. Le Maistre, comps. A Search for Environmental Ethics: An Initial Bibliography. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 4(1982):89 91.

Angermeier, Paul L., "Does Biodiversity Include Artificial Diversity?" Conservation Biology 8(1994):600-602. (v7,#2)

Angermeier, Pl L., "The Natural Imperative for Biological Conservation," Conservation Biology 14 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 373- . (v.11,#4)

Angier, Natalie, "In Mandrill Society, Life Is a Girl Thing," New York Times (5/23/00). Mandrills threatened by logging and commercial hunting. A type of monkey called Mandrills form huge societies sometimes numbering over 1000 individuals. These groupings are extremely cohesive and persistent and they consist almost exclusively of females and their young. Males, who are three times larger than females (three feet tall and weighing about 90 pounds versus 25 pounds for females), live alone and only interact with the group when the females are in estrus. The recent rise in the "bush meat trade" the hunting of wild animals in general and primates in particular    is a threat to Mandrills because they travel long distances in huge numbers making them especially vulnerable to commercial hunters who use the expanding network of logging roads to penetrate once inaccessible forests. "Some conservation organizations now rank the bush meat trade as the single greatest threat to primates and other wildlife, outstripping in severity even the familiar ecovillain, habitat loss." Conservationists are trying to add "sensitivity to wildlife" to the criteria logging companies must meet to have their wood certified as sustainable, thus forcing timber companies to keep commercial hunters off their logging roads and away from threatened species. Home Depot, a chain of home improvement stores, has announced it will buy sustainable wood "whenever possible." (v.11,#2)

Anglemyer, Mary and Eleanor R. Seagraves, comps. The Natural Environment. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 8(1986):91 93.

Animal and their Legal Rights. 4th edition, 1990. Washing­ton, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1990. Fifteen articles and an appendix with the principal laws affording animal welfare. (v3,#1)

Animal Conservation: A Journal of Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics, a new journal, calls for papers. The journal is published for the Zoological Society of London. There are several editors: in the U.K.: Dr. Michael W. Bruford, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, UK., In the U.S.: Dr. John L. Gittleman, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996. (v8,#2)

Animal Issues has now published three volumes. Sample articles:

--Brennan, Andrew, "Ethics, Conflict, and Animal Research," vol. 1, No. 2, 1997.

--Mathews, Freya, "Living with Animals," vol. 1, no. 1, 1997.

--Quain, Anne, "Is There a Problem in Attributing Beliefs and Intentionality to Animals," vol. 2, no. 2, 1998.

--Murphy, Elizabeth, "In What Respects, If Any, Should the Primates Be Equal?" vol. 3, no. 1, 1999.

The editor is Denise Russell, Department of General Philosophy, University of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia 2008. E-mail: ssell@yd.edu.au (v.10,#2)

Animal Issues is a new journal, starting spring 1997. Denise Russell, Department of General Philosophy, University of Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W. is the editor. (v8,#1)

Animal Issues is a new journal aimed to investigate philosophical and ethical issues related to human/animal interactions. Papers are invited on any topics within this general area. Word length should be 4,000 10,000 words and papers should preferably be sent on a Mac disc by e-mail to the editor, or if this is not possible, a hard copy should be sent to the editor. The founding editor is Denise Russell, Department of General Philosophy, University of Sydney, N.S.W. 2006, Australia, e-mail: ssell@.edu.au. Co-editors: L. Birke, Institute for Women's Studies, University of Lancaster, United Kingdom; B. Forsman, Department of Medical Ethics, University of Lund, Sweden; P. Hallen, Institute of Science and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; F. Mathews, School of Philosophy, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia; V. Plumwood, Department of Philosophy, Montana University, United States.



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