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However, CBA serves these useful purposes only under certain conditions. First, CBA must give way to important nonwelfarist concerns, such as deontological rights. Second, CBA must give way when the endowments of affected people vary a great deal. Third, CBA may need to be adjusted to account for uninformed or distorted preferences. Interestingly, agencies already seem to depart from textbook CBA in order to respond to these concerns. Adler is in law, University of Pennsylvania. Posner is in law, University of Chicago.

Adler, Matthew D., "Cost-Benefit Analysis, Static Efficiency, and the Goals of Environmental Law," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 32(2004).

Adler, Robert and Jessica Landman, The Clean Water Act Twenty Years Later. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 350 pages. $ 29.95 paper. The Clean Water Act intended to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters." A detailed examination of the health of the nation's waters, which turns out to be a complex and subtle question to address. With recommendations for reauthorization of the Act. The authors are attorneys at the National Resources Defense Council, Washington. (v4,#2)

Adler, Robert W., "Addressing Barriers to Watershed Protection", Environmental Law, 25(No.4, 1995):973- . A comprehensive review of the history of watershed programs in the United States and discusses the underlying issues preventing those programs from succeeding. Recognizing the need for comprehensive watershed-based protections, Adler concludes with a thorough analysis of recommendations for future watershed programs. (v7,#1)

Adriance, Madeline Cousineau, Base Christian Communities and the Struggle for the Amazon. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995. Six case studies in how religious groups (the comunidades de base) are involved in land reform, advocacy for human rights, and conservation. These political movements are motivated by a deep religious commitment. Adriance is in sociology at Mount Ida College. (v6,#4)

Africa - Environment and Wildlife is the best single source of reflective articles, raising the ethical and philosophical issues in conservation for a literate audience. This is a magazine, not a journal, issued six times a year and is a relative newcomer on the African scene. Several examples are summarized in the bibliography below. (v6,#3)

Africa. A bibliography of environmental ethics and conservation in Africa is in the ISEE Newsletter, vol. 6, no. 3. Fall 1995.

African Journal of Ecology, The, a scientific journal, is also published by the East African Wildlife Society through Blackwells. (Africa) (v6,#3)

African National Congress, Mayibuye iAfrika--An Introduction to ANC Environmental Policy. Johannesburg, African National Congress, 1991. (v6,#3)

African Panorama, a general magazine, issued a Special Environmental Edition, 1995. Twenty authors have brief articles on values and issues in conversation. Ian Player discusses the importance of the environment to the psyche of humankind. Dawie de Villiers presents the position of the new government on environmental strategies, David Varty examines ecotourism, Carrie Curzon the illegal wildlife trade, George Hughes reports on the eighth CITES conference and South Africa's position there, Nolly Zaloumis outlines threats to wetlands, Tony Pooley examines South Coast degradation, Gerhard Verdoom describes the battle to save raptors, Basie Maartens explains how hunting can conserve wildlife, Clive Walker explains the importance of creating awareness in children, Raymond Byrne looks at waste facilities, Kader Asmal describes the water supply limitations, Kraai van Niekerk looks at the uneasy relation between farming and conservation, Jeunesse Searll shows how poverty is depleting Africa's natural forests, John Hanks presents opportunities for private sector ecotourism, and more. (v6,#3)

African Wildlife is the official organ of the Wildlife Society, a conservationist organization with general membership. Articles can be good, though not as explicitly probing as those in Africa - Environment and Wildlife. (v6,#3)

Agar, Nicholas, Life's Intrinsic Value: Science, Ethics, and Nature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Anything living is intrinsically valuable, from the bacteriophage T4 to humans. A biocentric ethic forms the platform for an ethic of the environment. Just as physical science once dislodged humans from the center of the universe, biological science challenges the received wisdom that only humans are valuable in themselves. Analysis of historic and contemporary views from Aristotle and Kant to E. O. Wilson, Peter Singer, Holmes Rolston III, Michael Ruse, and J. Baird Callicott.

Some chapter titles and themes: The psychological view of intrinsic value. Defining intrinsic value. Why are humans morally special? Scientific facts and values. The limits of ethical extensionism and beyond. Two types of natural kinds overlap. Combining the overlap of descriptive and metaphysical kind to unearth environmental value. Recent defenses of biocentrism. A morally specialized account of life. Commonsense and customized accounts of life. A biofunctional explanation of self-movement. Why the representationally alive are morally important. The teleological account of contents in biopreferences. The threat of genic selectionism. Sentience and goals. The shortcomings of individualism. Environmental value holism. Individualistic ethics of species and ecosystems. An impossible ethic? Does life value leave room for human lives? A call for a scientifically informed appreciation of nature. Agar is in philosophy, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand. (v.12,#2)

Agar, Nicholas, "Biocentrism and the Concept of Life," Ethics 108(1997):147-168. "I have sought to show that our entrenched apparently anthropocentric moral views can take us some distance into nature. The representational account of life (developed in this article) acts as a bridge between living things and value-anchoring psychological notions (such as suffering pains and pleasures). It enables value to be spread very broadly throughout nature. Individual things are not all to be valued equally, however. The amount of value we assign to an individual depends on the range and complexity of goals that an organism is capable of. Why does this type of complexity matter? As organisms have more varied and numerous goals they tend to become more folk psychological. Folk psychological notions in turn have the closest association with relevant normative notions. Thus the life-representational ethic both acknowledges the preeminent place of humans on this planet and spreads value broadly enough to provide firm foundations for an environmental ethic." "Consciousness does not occupy such an important place in the life representational ethic. Many nonconscious organisms will be morally valuable. However, ... consciousness will open up novel varieties of goal to an organism" (p. 168). Agar is in philosophy, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. (v9,#1)

Agar, Nicholas. "Valuing Species and Valuing Individuals." Environmental Ethics 17(1995):397-415. My goal in this paper is to account for the value of species in terms of the value of individual organisms that make them up. Many authors have pointed to an apparent conflict between a species preservationist ethic and moral theories that place value on individuals. I argue for an account of the worth of individual organisms grounded in the representational goals of those organisms. I claim that this account leads to an acceptably extensive species preservationist ethic. Agar is in the department of philosophy, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. (EE)

Agar, Nicholas. Life's Intrinsic Value. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 25(2003):413 416. (EE)

Agarwal, Anil, Narain, Sunita. "Dying Wisdom: The Decline and Revival of Traditional Water Harvesting System in India," The Ecologist (1979) 27(no.3 1997):112. Over the centuries, villagers in India have developed a wide range of techniques to collect rainwater, groundwater, stream water, river water, and flood water. Since the colonial era, however, such water harvesting systems have been declining. Reviving them offers a realistic alternative to the large dams and water development projects promoted by the state authorities as a "solution:" to India's water crisis. (v8,#3)

Agee, James K., Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 490 pages. $ 50.00 hardcover. (v4,#3)

Agee, James K., and Johnson, Daryl R., eds., Ecosystem Management for Parks and Wilderness. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.

Agenda 21, produced at the Rio Earth Summit, is a long and rather unwieldy document (700-900 pages, depending on the printing format), 40 chapters. The whole thing is has been about $ 75.00, but a version has now been released for $ 25.00, if sold in developed countries (free copies are available in developing countries). There is both an English and a French text. Various introductions and short versions are appearing. It is also available, rather inexpensively or even free, on computer disk (if you supply your own disk). Also, various videos. United Nations Publications, Sales Section, Room DC2-853, United Nations, NY 10017. Phone 212/963-8300. 800/253-9646. (v4,#1)

Agenda 21 and the UNCED Proceedings. 6 volumes. Edited by Nicholas A. Robinson et al. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1992-93. $450 hardbound; $75 per volume. (v5,#2)

Agenda 21 and the Rio Summit are the topics of all the articles in the Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, Volume 4, no. 1 (Winter 1993). In addition to analyzing and interpreting the documents and such key concepts as "biodiversity" and "sustainable development," the articles explain the diplomatic process behind the documents and the status of the documents as "soft-law" treaties. $15.00 for the single issue. University Press of Colorado, P. O. Box 849, Niwot, CO 80544.

Agenda 21: Earth's Action Plan. Edited by Nicholas A. Robinson. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1993. 683 pages. $30 paper. Full text, with annotations tracing its evolution. (v5,#2)

Agius, Emmannuel and Salvino Busuttil, eds. Future Generations & International Law. London: Earthscan, 1998. Reviewed by Simon Sneddon, Environmental Values 10(2001):127. (EV)

Agnew, John, "From The Political Economy Of Regions To Regional Political Economy," Progress In Human Geography 24 (No. 1, 2000): 101- . (v.11,#2)

Agosta, Salvatore J., "Conservation biology: a mediator between Neo-Darwinism and alternative views on the origin and history of life," Biodiversity and Conservation 10(no.5, 2001):833-836. Conservationists and creationists may not agree about the origin of life, long ago. But they can and ought to agree about biodiversity in jeopardy here and now and in the future. Agosta is in biology, Frostburg State University, MD. (v.12,#4)

Agosta, William, Thieves, Deceivers, and Killers: Tales of Chemistry in Nature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. The venom that spiders use to kill their prey, the alarm pheromones that earthworms use to warn other earthworms of danger, and lots of organic chemistry used to deceive, kill, and steal in nature--also with big doses of anthropomorphic moralizing. (v.12,#4)

Agrawal, Arun, "Environmentality: Community, Intimate Government, and the Making of Environmental Subjects in Kumaon, India," Current Anthropology 46(no. 2, April 2005):161 - ). How rural Indian residents come to care about the environment. How regulatory strategies resulting from community decision-making help transform those who participate in government. Agrawal is in natural resources and environment at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Agrawal, Arun. "The Community vs. the Market and the State: Forest Use in Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas", Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9(1996):1-15. Most writers on resource management presume that local populations, if they act in their self-interest, seldom conserve or protect natural resources without external intervention or privatization. Using the example of forest management by villagers in the Indian Himalayas, this paper argues that rural populations can often use resources sustainably and successfully, even under assumptions of self-interested rationality. Under a set of specified social and environmental conditions, conditions that prevail in large areas of the Himalayas and may also exist in other mountain regions, community institutions are more efficient in managing resources than either private individuals or the central government. In advancing this argument, the paper undermines the often dogmatic belief in the universal superiority of private forms of ownership and management. Keywords: common property, resource management, forests, Himalayas, Uttarakhand, collective action, institutions, new institutionalism. Agrawal teaches political science at the University of Florida. (JAEE)

Agren, Goran I., Bosatta, Ernesto. Theoretical Ecosystem Ecology: Understanding Nutrient Cycles. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. 250pp. $49.95. A mathematical framework to illustrate how nutrient cycles operate and interact in plants and soils, forming the foundations of a new ecosystem theory. (v8,#3)

Agriculture and Spirituality: Inter(agri)cultural Dialogue. Essays from the Crossroads Conference at Wageningen Agricultural University. Utrecht: International Books, 1995. 141 pp. ISBN 90-6224-980-9. Chapters (papers), including author and title, are: Gerrit Huizer, Indigenous Knowledge and Popular Spirituality, A Challenge to Developmentalists; Vandana Shiva, Nature, Creativity and the Arrogance of Patenting Life-forms; Henk Verhoog, The Oppressed Tradition of Caring Objectivity in Western Culture; Rob Witte, Spirituality and Agriculture, What Difference Would it Make?; Frans Verkleij. Spirituality and Ecological Agriculture; Wim Zweers, Ecological Spirituality as Point of Departure for an Intercultural Dialogue; Appendix 1: Petran Kockelkoren, Ethical Aspects of Plant Biotechnology (Report for the Dutch Government Commission on Ethical Aspects of Biotechnology in Plants); Appendix 2: Wim Zweers, Literature on Environmental Philosophy and Some Related Subjects. (v6,#4)

Aguiar, John. "Evanescent Diversity--The Palms of Madagascar," Bioscience 48(no.7, Jul. 1998):499- . The case of the triangle palm exemplifies issues facing threatened palms worldwide. (v9,#2)

Agyeman, J, "Constructing Environmental (in)Justice: Transatlantic Tales," Environmental Politics 11(no.3, 2002): 31-53.

Ahmed, Miyan and Rukunaddin Laarman, Jan G., "Gender Equity in Social Forestry Programs in Bangladesh," Human Ecology 28(no.3, SEP 01 2000):433- . (EE v.12,#1)

Ahrens, W. Ashley, Sharma, Vijaya R. "Trends in Natural Resource Commodity Prices: Deterministic or Stochastic,"Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 33(no.1, 1997):59. (v8,#2)

Aiken, William and Hugh LaFollette, World Hunger and Morality. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996. The first edition was twenty years ago in 1976. Sixteen essays, many new in this edition: lifeboat ethics, responsibility to aid, rights to aid, solidarity among strangers, global justice, development issues. The essay bearing most directly on environmental issues is Holmes Rolston, III, "Feeding People versus Saving Nature?" Another relevant essay is William Aiken, "The `Carrying Capacity" Equivocation'." Aiken teaches philosophy at Chatham College, LaFollette at East Tennessee State University. (v6,#4)

Aiken, William and Lott, Charlotte, Review of An End to Hunger? The Social Origins of Food Strategies, by Solon L. Barraclough, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7(1994):241-244.

Aiken, William, "Human Rights in an Ecological Era." Environmental Values Vol.2 No.3(1992):191-204. ABSTRACT: After presenting a brief history of the idea of a human right to an adequate environment as it has evolved in the United Nations documents, I assess this approach to our moral responsibility with regard to the environment. I argue that although this rights approach has some substantial weaknesses, these are outweighed by such clear advantages as its action-guiding nature and its political potency. KEYWORDS: Ecological era, environmental rights, human rights, politics and the environment. Philosophy Dept., Chatham College, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA.

Aiken, William, "The Goals of Agriculture and Weed Science," Weed Science 46(1998):640-641. Five goals for agriculture are: profitable production, sustainable production, environmentally safe production, satisfaction of human needs, and compatibility with a just social order. Four ways to view the origin of potentially conflicting value expressed in the five goals follow. In view of the five goals and differing value positions, the most pressing question for weed science is to what extent current methods of weed control are compatible with a more sustainable and environmentally sensitive agriculture. Aiken is in philosophy at Chatham College, Pittsburgh. (v.10,#3)

Aiken, William. Review of Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity. By Frances Moore Lappé and Joseph Collins. Environmental Ethics 1(1979):279 82.

Aiken, William. Review of Naked Emperors. By Garrett Hardin. Environmental Ethics 7(1985):75 79.

Ainsworth, Jonathan N., The Ecological Holism of New Science, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1991. (v7,#1)

Ainsworth, Jonathan N., The Ecological Holism of New Science, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1991.

Airaksinen, Timo, "Original Populations and Environmental Rights." Journal of Applied Philosophy 5 (1988): 37 47. Do indigenous populations have the right to maintain destructive environmental practices? The argument here suggests that original populations are part of natural environmental equilibria, and that if nature has intrinsic value, then the original population acquires strong rights to continue its way of life. Implying the necessity for compensation and the sharing of political power, this strong right to use the environment contrasts with policies of preservation. (Katz, Bibl # 2)

Airaksinen, Timo, Review of Oelschlaeger, Max, The Idea of Wilderness. Environmental Values Vol.1 No.1(1992):77.

Aitken, Gill, "Conservation and Individual Worth," Environmental Values 6(1997):439-454. ABSTRACT: It is commonly supposed that individual animals are of little relevance to conservation which is concerned, instead, with groups of things or wholes such as species, habitats, and the like. It is further contended by some that by prioritising individuals, two of those values that are held dear by conservation--namely natural selection and fitness--are compromised. Taking wildlife rehabilitation as a paradigm case of concern for the individual, it is argued that the latter claim is based upon mistaken assumptions. Then, using red deer culling as a case study, the discord between conservation's holistic values and a concern for individual worth is explored. It emerges that the conservation value of red deer culling is more apparent than real and thus that there is more room for conservationists acceptance of individual worth than usually supposed. Philosophy Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK (EV)

Aitken, Gill, A New Approach to Conservation: The Importance of the Individual through Wildlife Rehabilitation. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004. Reviewed by Helena Siipi in Environmental Values 14(2005):527-529.

Ajatus 49, Suomen Filosofisen Yhdistyksen vuosikirja (Annual, Finnish Philosophical Society) is a special issue, Luonto (Nature), Matti Häyry, Ilkka Niiniluoto and Thomas Wallgren, editors. Helsinki, 1993. ISSN 0355-1725. ISBN 951-9264-17-5. 222 pages. Twenty articles by Finnish philosophers and scientists. Sample articles are Thomas Wallgren, "Ekologisk kris? (Ecological Crisis?)"; Simo Knuuttila, "Luonto aristoteelisessa luonnontieteessä (Nature in Aristotelian Science)"; Juha Kajander, "Renessanssin luontokäsitys (Nature in the Renaissance)"; Leena Vilkka, "Luonnon itseisarvoista (Intrinsic Values in Nature)"; Markku Oksanen, "Taylorin teoria luonnon kunnioituksesta (Taylor's Theory of Respect for Nature)." (Finland)

Akama, John S., Lant, Christopher L., Burnett, G. Wesley. "A Political-Ecology Approach to Wildlife Conservation in Kenya," Environmental Values 5(1996):335-347. Kenya has one of the highest remaining concentrations of tropical savanna wildlife in the world. It has been recognized by the state and international community as a unique world heritage which should be preserved for posterity. However, the wildlife conservation efforts of the Kenya government confront complex and often persistent social and ecological problems, including land-use conflicts between the local people and wildlife, local peoples' suspicions and hostilities toward state policies of wildlife conservation, and accelerated destruction of wildlife habitats. This essay uses a political-ecological framework in the analysis of the social factors of wildlife conservation in Kenya. It postulates that the overriding socioeconomic issue impacting wildlife conservation in Kenya is underdevelopment. The problem of underdevelopment is manifested in forms of increasing levels of poverty, famine and malnutrition. The long term survival of Kenya's wildlife depends on social and ecological solutions to the problems of underdevelopment. KEYWORDS: Political-ecology, wildlife, underdevelopment, national park, conservation. (EV)

Akama, John S., Lant, Christopher L., and Burnett, G. Wesley. "Conflicting Attitudes Toward State Wildlife Conservation Programs in Kenya," Society and Natural Resources 8(no.2, Mar.1995):133- . (v6,#4)

Akerman, Maria, "What Does `Natural Capital' Do? The Role of Metaphor in Economic Understanding of the Environment," Environmental Values 12(2003): 431 448. At the time of its introduction in the end of the 1980s, the concept of natural capital represented new, more ecologically aware thinking in economics. As a symbol of novel thinking, the metaphor of natural capital stimulated a debate between different disciplinary traditions on the definitions of the concept and research priorities and methods. The concept became a means to control the discourse of sustainable development. In this paper, I focus on the power/knowledge implications of the use of the concept, and I follow the career of the concept of natural capital in ecological economic publications between the years 1988 and 2000. The main interests are(1) in the use of the concept to affect the rules according to which claims concerning sustainable development can be made and (2) in the constitution of objects of environmental knowledge. (EV)

Akerman, Nordal, ed., Maintaining a Satisfactory Environment: At What Price? Six European specialists discuss an agenda for international environmental policy. Published in cooperation with the Swedish Institute for International Affairs. 100 pages, $ 16.50. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. (v1,#2)

Akimoto, Hajime, "Global Air Quality and Pollution," Science 302(5 December 2003):1716-1719. Intercontinental transport and hemispheric air pollution by ozone jeopardize agricultural and natural ecosystems worldwide and have a strong effect on climate. Aerosols are spread globally but have a strong regional imbalance. In the 1990's nitrogen oxide emissions from Asia surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. International initiatives to mitigate global air pollution require participation from both developed and developing countries. Akimoto is a global change researcher, Yokohama, Japan.

Akkerman, Abraham, "Urban planning in the founding of Cartesian thought," Philosophy and Geography 4 (No. 2, 2001): 141-167. It is a matter of tacit consensus that rationalist adeptness in urban planning traces its foundations to the philosophy of the Renaissance thinker and mathematician René Descartes. This study suggests, in turn, that the planned urban environment of the Renaissance may have also led Descartes, and his intellectual peers, to tenets that became the foundations of modern philosophy and science. The geometric street pattern of the late middle ages and the Renaissance, the planned townscapes, street views and the formal garden design, appeared as parables for the perfection of the universe and the supremacy of critical reason. It is within this urban metaphor that Descartes' account betrays perceptual and conceptual impact from the contrast between convoluted medieval townscapes and the emerging harmonious street patterns where defined vistas and predictable clarity of street views were paramount. The geometrically delineated street views of the Renaissance new town became the spark that lit the philosopher's sagacity in reflecting upon the concept of 'clear and distinct ideas'. Past suggestions that Descartes was led to his philosophical breakthroughs through his discovery of co-ordinate geometry reinforce further the stance that Renaissance planning predisposed rationalist thought. Akkerman is Professor of Geography and Director, Regional and Urban Development Program, University of Saskatchewan. (P&G)

Al-Kahem, Hmoud F., "Wildlife Conservation in Saudi Arabia," in Wildlife Conservation and Development in Saudi Arabia, Proceed­ings of the First Symposium, Riyadh, February 1987, edited by Abdulaziz H. Abu-Zinada, Paul D. Goriup, and Iyad A. Nader, National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development, Publication No. 3, Riyadh, 1989. Most people underestimate the merits of wildlife preservation. Often, threats to wildlife are not treated sufficiently seriously. Human encroachment on wildlife habitat can lead to extinction. Threats to Arabian fauna are discussed. Arguments for native species protection are presented. Recommendations for Arabian wildlife preserva­tion are proposed. In English. Al-Kahem is in the Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. (v1,#4)

Alagona, Peter S, "The Ghosts of Endangered Species Past: Recent Lessons at the Intersection of History and Biology", BioScience 54(no.11, November 2004):984-985(2).

Alagona, PS, "Review of: Christian C. Young. In the Absence of Predators: Conservation and Controversy on the Kaibab Plateau". Environmental History 9 (no.1, 2004): 140.

Alaimo, Stacy. "Cyborg and Ecofeminist Interventions: Challenges for an Environmental Feminism." Feminist Studies 20, no.1 1994:133-52. (v7, #3)

Alam, Mohammed K.; Mirza, Muhammad R.; and Maughan, O. Eugene. "Constraints and Opportunities in Planning for the Wise Use of Natural Resources in Developing Countries: Example of a Hydropower Project." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 352. (v7, #3)

Albanese, Catherine L., Nature Religion in America: From the Algonkian Indians to the New Age. University of Chicago Press, 1990. 267 pages, $ 24.95. Five chapters examine nature as symbolic religious center in the views of the aboriginal Ameri­cans and the first Europeans; in the "organic" compact of the Founders; in the Transcendentalists; in the "sectarian healers" of the late 19th century; and finally in several contemporary manifestations. The Amerindians' sense of themselves as a part of nature contrasts with the Puritan's fears of wilderness. These themes were subsumed, to a degree, by the Freemasons of the early republicans. But when Emerson, Thoreau and John Muir attempted to reconcile these disparate legacies, they only succeeded in transforming them into another conundrum: an Aristotelian belief in nature as "really real" versus a Platonic concept of nature as "ideal" or "illusory." In the course of her survey, Albanese examines several kinds of late 19th century mind cures; herbalists, homeopaths, chiropractors and others preached a kind of Christian physiology teaching that harmony with natural forces was a means to ordering and using those forces for one's own good and the good of society. Einstein and Planck upset the belief in such an order, but the new, fluid science of the 20th century has produced today "recapitulated pieties" of the nation's beginnings, as in the writings of Annie Dillard. At issue in this ethereal debate was the tangible question of whether human beings were to harmonize with nature or to have mastery over it. Really a set of far-ranging essays more than a narrative account of nature religion in America. Albanese is professor of religious studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara. (v1,#4)

Alberini, A; Boyle, K; Welsh, M, "Analysis of contingent valuation data with multiple bids and response options allowing respondents to express uncertainty", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(no.1, 2003):40-62.

Albers, Heidi J., Amy W. Ando, and Daniel Kaffine, "Land Trusts in the United States: Analyzing Abundance," Resources (Resources for the Future), Spring 2004, Issue No. 153, pp. 9-13. There are now 1,200 trusts conserving 6 million acres, and trusts are protecting an average of 500,000 additional acres each year. Surprisingly, states where federal, state, and local agencies protect vast areas often have a high concentration of land trusts as well. (v. 15, # 3)

Albrecht, Glenn, "Thinking Like an Ecosystem: The Ethics of the Relocation, Rehabilitation and Release of Wildlife," Animal Issues (University of Sydney, Australia) 2, no. 1, 1998. (v.10,#1)

Albrecht, Stan L. "Equity and Justice in Environment Decision Making: A Proposed Research Agenda." Society and Natural Resources 8 (no. 1, 1995): 67- . (v6,#1)

Albrecht, Virginia S. "District Court Rules that Clean Water Act Does Not Regulate Draining, Landclearing, and Excavation in Wetlands," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 4(no.6, 197):55. (v8,#3)

Albright, KM, "The Extension of Legal Rights to Animals under a Caring Ethic: An Ecofeminist Exploration of Steven Wise's Rattling the Cage", Natural Resources Journal 42(no.4, 2002):915-938.

Albritton, Eric M. "The Endangered Species Act: The Fountain Darter Teaches What The Snail Darter Failed To Teach." Ecology Law Quarterly 21 (no. 4, 1994): 1007-- .

Alcock, F, "Bargaining, Uncertainty, and Property Rights in Fisheries," World Politics 54(no.4, 2002): 437-461.

Alcock, John, The Masked Bobwhite Rides Again. Tucson: Univer­sity of Arizona Press, 1993. An invitation to urbanites in the U. S. Southwest to venture forth and learn more about the Sonoran desert, a dynamic landscape on which the human popula­tion has exploded. (v4,#3)

Alden, Dave M., Review of McNeely, Jeffrey A., Economics and Biological Diversity. Environmental Values Vol.1 No.2(1992):180.

Alden, David. Review of Kenneth E. Boulding. Towards A New Economics: Critical Essays on Ecology, Distribution and Other Themes: (Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1992). (EV)

Alder, J; Ward, T, "Australia's Oceans Policy: Sink or Swim?" Journal of Environment and Development, 10(no. 3, 2001):266-289. (v.13,#1)

Aldred, Jonathan, "Existence Value, Welfare and Altruism." Environmental Values 3(1994):381-402. Existence Value has become an increasingly important concept as the use of cost benefit analysis has spread from traditional applications to attempts to place monetary value on, for instance, a rare wetland habitat. Environmental economists have generally accepted the tensions arising in existence value concept from the range of recent applications, but it is argued here that their various attempts to resolve the difficulties have largely failed. Critics from outside economics, on the other hand, typically claim that the very notion of existence value as understood in economics is flawed, and urge its abandonment altogether. This paper suggests, instead, a fundamental redefinition of existence value, which, it is argued, (i)explains a number of diverse problems posed by the usual meaning of the term in economics; (ii)does not strain the intentions of respondents to `willingness-to-pay' surveys; (iii)is consistent with a more realistic model of rational choice in environmental decision-making; and (iv)is sensitive to criticisms from environmental ethics. KEYWORDS: Existence value, contingent valuation method, welfare, commitment, altruism, incommensurable choices. Aldred is at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, U.K. (EV)

Aldred, Jonathan, "Cost Benefit Analysis, Incommensurability and Rough Equality," Environmental Values 11(2002):27 47. A recurring question about cost benefit analysis (CBA) concerns its scope. CBA is a decision making method frequently employed in environmental policy making, in which things which have no market price are treated as if they were commodities. They are given a monetary value, a form of price. But it is widely held that some things cannot be meaningfully priced, thus substantially limiting the scope of CBA. The aim of this paper is to test some aspects of this broad claim, focusing on problems of incomparability and incommensurability. In particular, the role of rough equality as a putative form of comparison is investigated. I argue that while an assessment of the full significance of rough equality for practical decision making awaits resolution of a number of important technical questions, it does not provide a strong enough form of comparison to support CBA. (EV)

Alexander, Anthony Edward. Review of Alex Begg, "Empowering the Earth: Strategies for Social Change", Organization and Environment, 15, (No. 2, 2002): 217-20. Alexander holds an MA in communication studies from Leeds University, England, and is currently a freelance working on the communication of ecological ideas through television and the Internet. (v.13, #3)

Alexander, Anthony Edward. Review of Fikret Berkes, "Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management", Organization and Environment 14 (No. 3, September 2001) pp.377-80. Alexander holds an MA in communication studies from Leeds University, England, and is currently a freelance working on the communication of ecological ideas through television and the Internet. (v.13,#2)

Alexander, Charles P., "For the Birds," Time 157 (no. 2, June 4, 2001):66-67. Bird watching is hotter than ever, though 15% of 800 species that reside in or migrate through the U.S. are in serious decline. Main trouble: sprawl. Can fifty million birdwatchers turned conservationists save the environment? David Allen Sibley's The Sibley Guide to Birds has sold half a million copies in the first six months, the fastest selling bird book in history. (v. 12, #3)

Alexander, David E., and Fairbridge, Rhodes W., eds., Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. 768 pages. $ 480. Contains:

--Lemons, John, "Environmental Ethics." Lemons is in the Department of Life Sciences, University of New England.

--Perkins, Nathan H., and Brown, Robert D., "Environmental Aesthetics." Perkins and Brown are in Landscape Architecture, University of Guelph, Canada. (v.10,#3)

Alexander, Donald, "Planning as Learning: Sustainability and the Education of Citizen Activists," Environments 27 (No. 2, 1999): 79- . (v.11,#2)

Alexander, Donald, "Bioregionalism: Science or Sensibility," Environmental Ethics 12(1990):161 173. A criticism of the bioregional movement in environmental philosophy for its unclear and incorrect philosophical and scientific concepts: e.g., definition of bioregion, boundaries of bioregion, and reverence for natural law. Bioregionalism should not be a scientific concept but a cultural sensibility, a social value. Region is a dialectical concept integrating both human and natural parameters. (Katz, Bibl # 2)

Alexander, Donald. "Bioregionalism: Science or Sensibility?" Environmental Ethics 12(1990):161 73. The current interest in bioregionalism, stimulated in part by Kirkpatrick Sale's Dwellers in the Land, shows that people are looking for a form of political praxis which addresses the importance of region. In this paper, I argue that much of the bioregional literature written to date mystifies the concept of region, discounting the role of subjectivity and culture in shaping regional boundaries and veers toward a simplistic view of "nature knows best." Bioregionalism can be rehabilitated, provided we treat it not as a "revealed wisdom" for the reconstruction of human society, but as a sensibility and environmental ethic that can infuse our work even as we make use of the functional regionalisms that increasingly shape people's consciousness. I conclude by citing Lewis Mumford's concept of a region as capturing the dialectical interplay of natural and cultural elements. Alexander is at the School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Waterloo, Ontario. (EE)

Alexander, Stephanie. "Air Power." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):6- . Despite government inaction, more Canadians are turning to green energy from windmills. (v10,#4)

Alexander, T. G., "Review of: Norris Hundley, Jr., The Great Thirst: Californians and Water: A History, Revised Edition," Environmental History 7(no.3, 2002): 515. (v.13,#4)

Alexander, William M., "A Sustainable Human Ecology: Kerala." Kerala, a state in India, is a sustainable human ecology. Paper presented at the Conference on Human Responsibility and Global Change, Gothenberg, Sweden, June 9-14, 1991. Copies available from the author, 30 El Mirador Ct., San Luis Obispo, CA 93401. (v2,#2)

Alexandre, J; Dinizfilho, F, "Phylogenetic Diversity and Conservation Priorities under Distinct Models of Phenotypic Evolution," Conservation Biology 18(no.3, 2004):698-704. (v. 15, # 3)

Alexiades, M. N., Sheldon, J. Wood, eds. Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden, 1996. 306 pp. $22.95. A guide addressing the biological, ecological, and anthropological aspects of ethnobotanical research. Includes sections on development and implementation of ethnobotanical research, the collection of plant specimens and the methodologies for observing and recording interaction between people and plants, and examples of quantitative methods in ethnobotanical fieldwork. (v.7,#4)

Alford, C. Fred. Science and the Revenge of Nature. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 9(1987):185 87.

Alig, Ralph J; Plantinga, Andrew J, "Future Forestland Area: Impacts from Population Growth and Other Factors that Affect Land Values", Journal of Forestry 102(no.8, December 2004):19-24(6).

Alive Now!, January/February 1991, is a special issue, "The Earth." 64 pages. This is an inspirational guide for high school youth published by the Methodist Church. Various short quotations from Robinson Jeffers, Joseph Meeker, Holmes Rolston, Jay McDaniel, Thomas Berry, Gary Snyder, Wendell Berry, native Americans, African, Australian and other indigenous peoples, Jewish liturgies, as well as from the Bible. Some of the materials are composed by youth. Contact: The Upper Room, 1908 Grand Avenue, P. O. Box 189, Nashville, TN 37202-0189. (v1,#4)

Alkon, Alison Hope, "Place, Stories and Consequences: Heritage Narratives and the Control of Erosion on Lake County, California Vineyards", Organization and Environment 17 (no. 2, June 2004).

Alkorta, I; Albizu, I; Garbisu, C, "Biodiversity and agroecosystems," Biodiversity and Conservation 12(no.12, 2003):2521-2522. (v.14, #4)

Allaby, Michael. Basics of Environmental Science. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. 297 pp. Hard cover, $65.00 U.S. Soft cover, $17.95 U.S.

Reviewed by Peter Kervan, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(1997/1998):199-200.

Allan, D.G., Harrison, J.A., Thompson, M.W. "The Impact of Commercial Afforestation on Bird Populations in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa--Insights from Bird Atlas Data," Biological Conservation 79(no.2/3 1997):173.

Allan, Tony and Andrew Warren, eds., Deserts: The Encroaching Wilderness. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 200 pages. 180 photos, 30 maps. $ 35.00. Both are companion volumes to Mark Collins, The Last Rainforests: A World Conservation Atlas, issued in 1990. (v4,#4)

Allem, Antonio, Review of Goodman, David and Michael Redclift, eds., Environment and Development in Latin America. Environmental Values Vol.1 No.4(1992):367.

Allen, C. 1997. Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (v9,#2)

Allen, Colin, and Bekoff, Marc, Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1997. 209 pages. (v.8,#4)

Allen, Colin, "The Discovery of Animal Consciousness: An Optimistic Assessment," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(1997/1998):217-225.

Allen, Colin and Marc D. Hauser, "Concept Attribution in Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Methodological Problems in Ascribing Complex Mental Processes," Philosophy of Science 58(1991):221-240. The demise of behaviorism has made ethologists more willing to ascribe mental states to animals. However, a methodology that can avoid the charge of excessive anthropomorphism is needed. Allen and Hauser describe a series of experiments that could help determine whether the behavior of nonhuman animals towards dead conspecifics is concept mediated. The behavior of some animals is clearly guided by complex mental processes. The techniques developed by comparative psychologists and behavioral ecologists are able to provide us with the tools critically to evaluate hypotheses concerning the continuity between human minds and animal minds. Allen is in the Department of Philosophy at Texas A& M University. Hauser is in the Department of Zoology at the University of California, Davis. (v2,#2)

Allen, Colin; Bekoff, Marc; and Lauder, George, eds. Nature's Purposes: Analyses of Function and Design in Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. 603 pages. 22 papers, mostly from philosophy journals. The dogma is that teleology is unscientific, and in some contexts it is, but in other contexts biologists can avoid it only with implausible circumlocution. Long hair on dogs has the purpose (function) of keeping them warm; it does not have the purpose of harboring fleas, though it does both these things well. Some scientists consider teleology a shorthand for phenomena that could be expressed more accurately eliminating it, but others find it the best way to express what they need to say about what is going on in the world. The editors are a philosopher, a student of animal behavior, and a functional morphologist. (v.9,#3)

Allen, John, ed., Environment 90/91. Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group, 1990. In the annual editions series. Thirty-one reprints of recent magazine feature articles on the environ­ment, for example Time's "What on Earth Are We Doing?" (cover story of their "Planet of the Year" issue), Environment's "The Intertwining of Environmental Problems and Poverty," National Wildlife's "21st Environmental Quality Index: The Planet Strikes Back," Science News', "Where Acids Reign," and "Lessons from the Flames" (Yellowstone fires). Sections on people and hunger; energy; pollution; land, water, and air; and endangered species. Journal articles make easier reading for lower level students in environmental ethics, and they give upper level students oppor­tunity to analyze media coverage of issues. Articles are chosen to be timely, relevant, and provocative. (v1,#2)

Allen, John L., ed., Environment 93/94. 12th ed. Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Co., 1993. 243 pages. 32 articles, all drawn from the popular press, debating environmental issues. I. The Global Environment. II. Population and Hunger. III. Energy. IV. Pollution. V. Resources: Land, Water, and Air. VI. Biosphere: Endangered Species. Articles are easy and short, suitable for freshmen and high school use, but raise issues that are right at the center of the debate. Allen is in geography at the University of Connecticut. (v4,#1)

Allen, Scott Stetson, Crux Reality: A Climber's Guide to Philosophy. Boulder, CO: Climbing Arts Council, 1992 (875 Alpine Ave., Apt. 22, Boulder, CO 80304-3241). 91 pages. Paper. $ 5.00. Short introductions to various philosophers--Heidegger, Marcuse, Foucault, Sartre, Marcel, Unamuno, Orta y Gasset--mixed with some thoughts on rock climbing, why, the mind of a climber, and the ethics of climbing. "Heroic modern thinkers and ideas that can provide enlightenment for even the most ridiculous of vertical pursuits." A sample: Nietzsche: "Philosophy, as I have hitherto understood and lived it, is a voluntary living in ice and high mountains--a seeking after everything strange and questionable in existence" (p. 4). Allen has a degree in philosophy from Colorado College, and is now a public schoolteacher. (v4,#4)

Allen, TFH; Tainter, JA; Pres, JC; Hoekstra, TW, "Dragnet Ecology `Just the Facts, Ma'am': The Privilege of Science in a Postmodern World," Bioscience 51(no. 6, 2001):459-468. (v.13,#1)

Allen, Timothy F. H. and Thomas W. Hoekstra, Toward a Unified Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. An attempt to bring basic ecology to bear on ecological management, with particular attention to differences of scale. Allen is profes­sor botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Hoekstra is at the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado. (v4,#2)

Allen, William, "Restoring Hawaii's Dry Forests," Bioscience 50(no.12, 2000 Dec 01): 1037-. (v.12,#3)

Allen, William, Green Phoenix: Restoring the Tropical Forests of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. A narrative account of the development of Costa Rica's small, under-resourced Santa Rosa National Park into the impressively expanded and managed Guanacaste Conservation Area. Biology is only one piece of the action; the most is political, social, and economic elements--all the way from local farmers to powerful big landowners with vested interests to U.S. involvement and interests in Nicaragua. A key example of where researchers have become involved in these other aspects of conservation with great effectiveness. (v.12,#2)

Allen, William H. "Traveling Across the Treetops," Bioscience 46(no.11, 1996):796. A crane's-eye-view of Panama's forest canopy yields biological surprises. (v8,#1)

Allen, William H. "The Varied Bats of Barro Colorado Island", Bioscience 46(no.9, 1996):639. What roles do tropical bats play in forest regeneration?

Allenby, Braden R., and Deanna J. Richards, eds., The Greening of Industrial Systems. Washington: National Academy Press, 1994. 259 pages. 18 contributors. Promising approaches to environmentally conscious design and manufacturing. The need for greater recognition of environmental dimensions in formulating technology policies and management strategies. A project of the National Academy of Engineering. (v7,#1)

Allendorf, Fred W., Bayles, David, Williams, Thomas H. "Prioritizing Pacific Salmon Stocks for Conservation," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):140. (v8,#2)

Allmendinger, P, "National-level Planning in Democratic Countries: an International Comparison of City and Regional Policy Making," Land Use Policy 19(no.3, 2002): 269.

Alm, Leslie R. "Scientists and the Acid Rain Policy in Canada and the United States," Science, Technology, & Human Values 22(no.3 1997):349. (v8,#3)

Almeida, Michael J., Bernstein, Mark H., "Opportunistic Carnivorism," Journal of Applied Philosophy 17(no. 2, 2000):205- . (v.12,#2)

Almond, Brenda and Donald Hill, eds., Applied Philosophy: Morals and Metaphysics in Contemporary Debate. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. Part I is on "The Environ­ment." Con­tains R. M. Hare (Philosophy, University of Florida), "Moral Reasoning about the Environment," and response by Donald Hill, Polytechnic University of North London; Timo Airaksinen (Philos­ophy, University of Helsinki), "Original Populations and Envi­ronmental Rights"; T. L. S. Sprigge (Philosophy, University of Edinburgh), "Are There Intrinsic Values in Nature?"; William Grey (Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, Austra­lia), "A Critique of Deep Ecology," and response by Alan R. Drengson (Philosophy, University of Victoria). (v4,#3)

Almond, Brenda, Hill, Donald, eds. Applied Philosophy: Morals and Metaphysics in Contemporary Debate. London: Routledge, 1991. 334pp. The following are included in Part I The Environment:

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