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Appealing to the work of transpersonal theorist Ken Wilber, who maintains that humankind is taking part in a progressive development of consciousness, of which the ecological crisis is a surmountable symptom, Zimmerman tries to mediate the sometimes bitter dispute between deep ecology and social ecology. Though some ecofeminists maintain that "progressive" ideas justify the domination of emotions, the body, woman, and nature, Zimmerman shows the extent to which ecofeminism can and should acknowledge the "emancipatory" dimension of modernity. Finally, recognizing that radical ecology's hope for a low-tech future may well go unfulfilled, Zimmerman explores "critical postmodern" visions of the future high-tech relation between humanity and nature, including the startling vision contained in Donna Haraway's "Cyborg Manifesto." Zimmerman is in philosophy at Tulane University, New Orleans. (v5,#4)

Zimmerman, Michael, Contesting the Earth's Future: Ecology and Postmodernity. Reviewed by Pete A.Y. Gunter. Ethics and the Environment 2(1997):95-98. (E&E)

Zimmerman, Michael, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John P. Clark, eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Anthology for college use, generally with a good balance of positions. (v4,#3)

Zimmerman, Michael E. "Feminism, Deep Ecology, and Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 9(1987):21 44. Deep ecologists have criticized reform environmentalists for not being sufficiently radical in their attempts to curb human exploitation of the nonhuman world. Eco­feminists, however, maintain that deep ecologists, too, are not sufficiently radical, for they have neglected the crucial role played by patriarchalism in shaping the cultural categories responsible for Western humanity's domination of Nature. According to eco-feminists, only by replacing those categories  including atomism, hierarchalism, dualism, and androcentrism  can humanity learn to dwell in harmony with non­human beings. After reviewing the eco-feminist critique both of reform environmen­talism and of deep ecology, I sketch a critical dialogue between eco-feminism and deep ecology. Zimmerman is in the department of philosophy, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA. (EE)

Zimmerman, Michael E., J. Baird Callicott, Karen J. Warren, Irene J. Klaver, and John Clark, eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. Fourth edition of a time-tested and popular anthology. One new section is "Environmental Continental Philosophy," edited by Irene Klaver. Postmodern theory's ... stance of suspicion has turned out to be a mixed blessing for the environmental movement. Just as feminist theory in the 1980s revealed blind spots in positions taken by many feminists, so postmodern theory in the 1990's criticizes the validity of beliefs and concepts held by many environmentalists. According to Klaver, the phenomenological method developed by German philosopher Edmund Husserl offers a helpful ways for exploring and deepening humanity's relation to natural phenomena" (p. 3). Continental philosophy has been included, at the cost of leaving deep ecology out. (v. 15, # 3)

Zimmerman, Michael. Science, Nonscience, and Nonsense. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. pp. $25.95. Zimmerman begins by showing just what science is--how the criteria of skepticism and falsifiability distinguish it from pseudo-science and mysticism. He offers intelligent, entertaining, and sometimes scathing analyses of bad science--from lottery "systems" and creationism to graphologists and homeopaths, from food and product safety scams to outright scientific fraud. In each case he shows exactly what to watch for--how the most outrageously false claims often contain a grain of truth, and how valid scientific findings may be distorted or selectively quoted to serve the ends of government, business, or special interest groups. Zimmerman is the dean of the College of Letters and Science and professor of biology at the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh (and therefore is not the philosopher Michael Zimmerman who writes in environmental ethics). (v8,#1)

Zimmermann, Jörg, ed., Das Naturbild des Menschen [in German: Man's image of nature], München: Wilhelm Fink, 1982.

Ziner, Karen Lee, "Offshore Harvest of Wind is Proposed for Cape Cod," New York Times (4/16/02): D3. Windmills stir controversy. 170 wind turbines, each the height of a 40 story building, are proposed for Nantucket Sound. They would provide half the electricity for Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket (enough power for 500,000 homes and businesses). Advocates argue that harvesting the wind 5 2 miles off the U.S. coast where there is an "awesome, inexhaustible supply of domestic energy" provides a nonpolluting, renewable, environmentally friendly energy source. Although dozens of wind farms exist in the U.S. and off the coast of Europe, none this large has been built in the U.S. or at sea. Concerns include harm to birds that fly into the turbines, possible effects on fisheries, whether vibrations will affect animals that live on or in the seabed floor, influence these towers might have on ocean currents and radio/T.V. frequencies, and negative consequences for tourism. One opponent argues that "if Nantucket Sound becomes an industrial electrical generation area, then it's no longer a national treasure . . . or wilderness." He also predicts that the turbines will kill so many birds that they will litter the beaches with their bodies. Aesthetics figure in the debate as well. Some claim the 5 by 5 mile grid of carbon steal turbines each a half mile apart will be ugly; others claim to enjoy looking at wind turbines and see them as "a study in power and grace and a visual testimony to us working with nature."

Zinn, H. C. and Pierce, C. L., "Values, Gender, and Concern About Potentially Dangerous Wildlife," Environment and Behavior 34(no.2, 2002): 239-56. (v.13,#2)

Zirker, Daniel, and Marvin Henberg, "Amazonia: Democracy, Ecology, and Brazilian Military Prerogatives in the 1990's," Armed Forces and Society 20 (no. 2, Winter 1994):259-281. "As a policy prerogative of the military, a particularly intrusive form of developmentalism is envisaged in Amazonia; civilian allies linked to slash-and-burn cattle ranching, large- and small-scale mining, and massive forestry and agricultural enterprises see themselves, along with the military, as the nationalistic heroes of a nation threatened by ecological imperialism. `National security' is defined in this context as the colonization of the region: populating, but not democratizing, what they regard as a geopolitical buffer zone." "There is great irony, then, in the apparent attempt by the Brazilian military to seek its salvation by rallying against the ecological `internationalization' of the Amazon. Military support for the environmentally (and ethically) destructive practices of the status quo promises only to ensure the short-term emergence of yet another ecological and political monoculture." Zirker is in political science, University of Idaho, Henberg (formerly at Idaho) is now vice-president, Linfield College, McMinnville, Oregon. (v6,#4)

Zito, A., L. Bruckner, A. Jordan and R. Wurzel, "Instrument Innovation in an Environmental Lead State: `New' Environmental Policy Instruments in the Netherlands," Environmental Politics 12(no. 1, 2003): 157-178. (v. 13, # 3)

Zivin, Joshua, Hueth, Brent M., and Zilberman, David, "Managing a Multiple-Use Resource: The Case of Feral Pig Management in California Rangeland," Journal Of Environmental Economics and Management 39 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 189- . (v.11,#2)

Zovanyi, Gabor, Growth Management for a Sustainable Future: Ecological Sustainability as the New Growth Management Focus for the 21st Century. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998. (v.13,#1)

Zucker, Arthur, "Ferré: Organicistic Connectedness--but Still Speciesistic," Ethics and the Environment 1(no.2, 1996):185-190. An environmental ethics open to the charge of speciesism would be a weak environmental ethics at best. Ferré criticizes the environmental ethics of Callicott and Rolston, presenting his version of an environmental ethics; one he refers to as organicistic. His version does indeed avoid the pitfalls of the environmental ethics of Callicott and Rolston. But, as I show, the charge of speciesism can be leveled against Ferré (and many others). I suggest that properly understood speciesism is so deeply rooted in our concepts that the only hope lies in what I term a thoughtful speciesism. Zucker teaches philosophy at Ohio University. (E&E)

Zuckerman, Ben, and David Jefferson, eds. Human Population and the Environmental Crisis. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 1996. Jean-Michael Cousteau: "Population: Challenge to Biosphere and Behavior"; Stephen H. Schneider, "The Global Warming Debate: Are There Public Policy Implications?"; John Harte, "On the Sustainability of Resource Use: Population as a Dynamic Factor"; Mildred E. Mathias, "Biodiversity: Where Have All the Species Gone?"; Jodi L. Jacobson, "Gender Bias and the Search for a Sustainable Future"; Anthony C. Beilenson, "Politics and Society: Political Challenges of Confronting Population Growth"; Richard P. Turco, "Global Environmental Engineering: Prospects and Pitfalls." Zuckerman is in astronomy, Jefferson in computer science at UCLA. (v7,#1)

Zuckerman, Den and David Jefferson, eds. Human Population and the Environmental Crisis. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1996. 136 pages. $ 26.25. From a public symposium at UCLA in October 1993. The editors are on the faculty there. (v6,#4)

Zuidema, Pieter A., Sayer, Jeffrey A., Dijkman, Wim. "Forest Fragmentation and Biodiversity: The Case for Intermediate-sized Conservation Areas," Environmental Conservation 23(no.4 1996):290. (v8,#3)

Zundel, Alan F. Review of Who Owns America? Social Conflict over Property Rights. Edited by Harvey M. Jacobs. Environmental Ethics 22(2000):423 424.

Zunino, Franco, "The Wilderness Movement in Italy: A Wilderness Model for Europe," International Journal of Wilderness 1(no. 2, December):41-42. There is an Italian Wilderness Society and seven wilderness areas are established, with various degrees of municipal and regional authority. Franco directs the Associazione Italiana per la Wilderness. (v7,#1)

Zurlo, J., Rudacille, D., and Goldberg, A. M., Animals and alternatives testing: History, science, and ethics. New York: Mary Ann Liebert Inc., Publishers, 1994.

Zwart, H.A.E. "The Birth of a Research Animal: Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the Origin of a New Animal Science." Environmental Values 9(2000):91-108.

Abstract: What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological and ethical dimensions of the new scientific animal practice (systematic observation of animal behaviour under artificial conditions) emerging precesely at that time. Ibsen's play stages the clash between a scientific and a romantic understanding of animals that still constitutes the backdrop of most contemporary debates over animals in research. Whereas the scientific understanding reduces the animal's behaviour, as well as its environment, to discrete and modifiable elements, the romantic view regards animals as being at one with (or violently disconnected from) their natural surroundings. Keywords: History of animal research, Ibsen (The Wild Duck), animal ethics. H.A.E. Zwart is in the Center for Ethics, University of Nijmegen, PO Box 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (EV)

Zwart, Hub, "What is an Animal? A Philosophical Reflection on the Possibility of a Moral Relationship with Animals," Environmental Values 6(1997):377-392. ABSTRACT: Contemporary ethical discourse on animals is influenced partly by a scientific and partly by an anthropomorphic understanding of them. Apparently, we have deprived ourselves of the possibility of a more profound acquaintance with them. In this contribution it is claimed that all ethical theories or statements regarding the moral significance of animals are grounded in an ontological assessment of the animals way of being. In the course of history, several answers have been put forward to the question of what animals really and basically are. Three of them (namely the animal as a machine, an organism and a being that dwells in an apparently restricted world) are discussed. It is argued that the latter (Heideggerian) answer contains a valuable starting point for an ethical reflection on recent changes in the moral relationship between humans and animals. Center for Ethics, Catholic University of Nijmegen, 6500 HD Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (EV)

Zwart, Hub, "Environmental Pollution and Professional Responsibility: Ibsen's A Public Enemy as a Seminar on Science Communication and Ethics," Environmental Values 13(2004):349 372. Dr. Stockmann, the principal character in Henrik Ibsen's A Public Enemy, is a classic example of a whistle blower who, upon detecting and disclosing a serious case of environmental pollution, quickly finds himself transformed from a public benefactor into a political outcast by those in power. If we submit the play to a `second reading', however, it becomes clear that the ethical intricacies of whistle blowing are interwoven with epistemological issues. Basically, the play is about the complex task of communicating scientific (notably microbiological) data to lay audiences. This becomes even more apparent when we realise that Stockmann was a contemporary of real `microbe hunters' such as Pasteur and Koch. The play's basic message is that epoch making scientists (such as Pasteur and Koch) not only produced convincing and reliable data from a scientific point of view, but also acquired the skills and insights needed to enter into a dialogue with their cultural and societal environment. Zwart is in philosophy and science studies at the University of Nihmegen, The Netherlands. (EV)

Zwart, I., "A Greener Alternative? Deliberative Democracy Meets Local Government," Environmental Politics 12(no. 2, 2003): 23-48.

Zweers Wim and Jan J. Boersema, eds., Ecology, Technology and Culture. Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press, 1994. 300 pages. , 35.00 hardbound, , 14.94 paper. A collection of twenty articles from the Netherlands, with distinct differences from the Anglo-American tradition and with authors who propose some novel ways of tackling the root causes of environmental degradation. Wim Zweers, "In Search of an Ecological Culture: Environmental Philosophy in the 1990's"; Jan J. Boersema, "First the Jew but also the Greek: In Search of the Roots of the Environmental Problem in Western Civilization"; Paul van Dijk, "Theological-Anthropological Reflections on the Environmental Issue"; Wim Zweers, "Radicalism or Historical Consciousness: On Breaks and Continuity in the Discussion about Basic Attitudes"; Henk Tennekes, "The Limits of Science"; Chung Lin Kwa, "Models and Modernism: Between Anxiety and Hubris"; Pieter J. Schroevers, "Science: A Modest Hope"; Petran Kockelkoren, "The House in the Cat's Claws: A Framework for a Hermeneutics of Nature"; Maarten Coolen, "Toward a Hermeneutics of Nature: On the Necessity of Enduring Distance"; Susanne Lijmbach, "Potter's Bull and Castrated Pigs: Considering the Impossibility of a Hermeneutic Natural Science"; Wouter Achterberg, "Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Environmental Crisis? Sustainability, Liberal Neutrality and Overlapping Consensus"; Frans Jacobs, "Can Liberal Democracy Help us to Survive the Environmental Crisis?"; Bert Musschenga, "Liberal Neutrality and the Justification of Environmental Conservation"; Hans Opschoor, "Market Forces as Causes of Environmental Degradation"; Hans Achterhuis, "The Lie of Sustainability"; Jan van der Straaten, "An Economic Theory of Natural Resources"; Koo van der Wal, "Technology and the Ecological Crisis"; Pieter Tijmes, "The Technological Universe"; Medard Hilhorst, "The Ethical Assessment of New Technologies: Some Methodological Considerations"; Etienne Vermeersch, "The Future of Environmental Philosophy." Zweers is in philosophy at Amsterdam University, Boersema in environmental studies at the State University of Gronigen. (v5,#3)

Zweers, Wim, Participating in Nature: Outline for an Ecologization of Our World-View [in Dutch]. Utrecht: Uitgeverij Jan van Arkel, 1995. 528 pp. ISBN 90-6224-342-8. Part I: Basic Attitudes Towards Nature (pp. 7-79): 1. The Relevance of Basic Attitudes (Basic Attitudes and Paradigms; Basic Attitudes and Social Structure), 2. A Closer Look at Six Basic Attitudes (Man as Despot; as Enlightened Ruler; as Steward; as Partner of Nature; as Participant in Nature; 'Unio Mystica'), 3. Evaluation and Definition of Standpoints (Anthropocentrism; Reformism; Radicalism; The Role of Government in the Discussion on Basic Attitudes: Towards a Translation in Policy Terms? (with a digression on the concept of nature in Dutch nature conservation). Part II: Participation and Intrinsic Value (pp. 79-177): 1. The Environmental Crisis and the Opposition Between Man and Nature (From 'Nature' to 'Environment'; The Opposition Between Nature and Culture), 2. 'Ecologism' as the Essential Alternative (Ecological Ethics; Values of Nature: From Instrumental to Intrinsic), 3. The Intrinsic Value of Nature (Basis and Scope of the Concept; Recognition Versus Attribution; Non-differentiality; The Importance of 'Human-ness'), 4. Participating in Nature (Biological; Social-cultural (with a digression on Participating Technology); Psychological). Part III: The Ecological View of Reality (pp. 177-299): 1. 'Deep Ecology' as a Starting Point, 2. Ecological Metaphysics (Totality: Solidarity or Unity?; Dynamics; Meaning and 'Sense'), 3. Epistemology from an Ecological Perspective (Nondualism; Personal Experience; Corporality and Emotionality (with a personal digression on the integration of experiences in piano playing), 4. Experience of Nature and the Concept of Culture (Karl Mannheim's View on Culture; Hermeneutics of Nature), 5. Historical Framework. Appendix: On Ecologism and Feminism (Women 'Closer to Nature'?; Oppression of Women and Exploitation of Nature; The Image of Man (sc.: masc.) from the Perspective of Oppression. Part IV: Varieties of Ecologism (pp. 299-457): 1. The Varieties and the Connections Between Them; 2. The Scientific Variety (Quantum Physics: David Bohm; Biology: Rupert Sheldrake), 3. The Aesthetic Variety (The Aesthetic Attitude: Sensuousness and Contemplativity; Nature as an Aesthetic Object: Art as a Sign of Nature, Nature as a Sign of Art, Towards a Contextual Theory of Natural Beauty), 4. The Spiritual Variety (Introduction: On Spiritual Traditions (with a personal digression on the experience of the starry sky as an amateur astronomer); Ecological Spirituality (Motives, Conceptual Research, Solidarity versus Identification, Self-realization through Solidarity, Solidarity with 'Gaia' (with a personal digression on the experience of mountain climbing and 'trekking'), Christianity and Ecological Spirituality). Part V: Conclusion--Towards a New Alliance: Ecologism as Postmodernism (pp. 457-92): 1. Looking Back, 2. On the Integration of Reflection and Experience, 3. On the Two Cultures, 4. Constructive Postmodernism. Literature, Name Index, Subject Index (pp. 492-528).

Wim Zweers is one of the foremost environmental philosophers in the Netherlands, and has published and edited numerous articles and books in the field. With Wouter Achterberg, during the last decade Zweers has developed this discipline in the Low Countries until it has reached its actual status of being fully recognized by both the academic community and policy-makers alike. This book is his (temporary?) definitive statement on this subject, recapitulating, systematizing, and expanding all he has written before. His position is mostly 'radical' (but not necessarily 'radical ecocentrist') since he stresses the need for a fundamental cultural transformation. In many parts congenial with deep ecological views, Zweers neverthele ss has some serious reservations about some aspects of deep ecology. Although influenced by Anglo-American writers like Rolston and Callicott, he maintains a distinctly European-continental approach. (v6,#4)

Zweers, Wim, Participating with Nature: Outline for an Ecologization of our World View. Utrecht, The Netherlands: International Books, 2000. English edition of a work first published in Dutch in 1995. See that entry with English abstract for more detail. (International Books is the English imprint of the Dutch publisher Jan van Arkel. U.S. Distributor: Paul and Company, Publishers Consortium, Inc., 2 Christie Heights St., Leonia, NJ 07605. U.S. price $ 29.95. UK distributor: Jon Carpenter Publishing, c/o A. Weitzel, 2 Home Farm Cottages, Sandy Lane, St. Paul's Cray, Kent BR5 3HZ.)

Analysis of six basic attitudes to nature: the despot, the enlightened ruler, the steward, the partner, the participant, mystic union. A note on the concept of nature in Dutch nature conservation. Intrinsic value, ecologism, participating with nature. Ecological metaphysics, epistemology in ecological perspective. Ecological aesthetics. Ecological spirituality, including Christianity and ecology. Towards a new connection: ecologism as postmodernism. Zweers was long at the Philosophy Department, Amsterdam University.

Zweers, Wim, Participeren aan de natuur; Ontwerp voor een ecologisering van het wereldbeeld [in Dutch: Participating in nature; a design for an ecologized worldview], Utrecht: Jan van Arkel 1995. Am English translation is forthcoming. A plea for a participatory philosophy of nature. Zweers has been one of the leading forces behind the rise of environmental philosophy in the Netherlands. (v.11,#1)

Zweierta i my (Animals and Us) is published four times a year in Poland. The current issue (number 1[6]) contains an interview with the chair of the Hunting Management Department of Poznan Agricultural Academy, concerned with a new Polish game law, which moves toward privatizing of hunting and the implications of this for animal welfare. Many wish to open Poland up to more tourist hunting with hunters from other nations in Europe. There is also discussion of a new Polish Animal Welfare Act, currently being considered in the Polish Parliament. There is an article by Jan Wawyrzyniak, "Ciemna strona utylitaryzmu (The Dark Side of Utilitarianism)." Utilitarianism is a destructive philosophy treating the environment instrumentally as an object to be used for human whims. (v4,#4)

Zwierzeta i my (Animals and Us) continues to be published as the Polish journal for animal welfare issues. Recent issues are No. 3, with articles on animal abuse issues within Poland, an article on vegetarianism, on Albert Schweitzer's reverence for life philosophy, on zoos and hunting in Poland, and No. 4, with articles on the abuse of geese and ducks to produce fat livers for export to Western Europe, with some translations from Konrad Lorenz's works on geese into Polish, and an article about wolf-reintroduction in Poland and its protection as an endangered species. (Thanks to Jan Wawrzyniak.) (v3,#4)

Zwierzeta i my (Animals and Us), a Polish journal devoted to animal welfare, has now published issue no. 2. Articles on protests against "bloodless" bullfights, on cross country racing of horses over obstacle courses, the first installment of a concise history of animal martyrdom, on pitbulls in Poland, on the ethic of reverence for life in the light of ecology (with particular reference to Albert Schweitzer), on cruelty in business, on slaughtering practices, and on hunting. (v3,#2)

Zwierzeta i my [Animals and Us], a Polish journal devoted to animal welfare issues, published its first issue, Number 1, in September 1991. The editor and founder is Alina Kasprowicz, and a supporting group is the Polish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The editorial statement says that the purpose of the journal is to change present social consciousness and attitudes toward nonhumans and to promote a new way of thinking about the nonhuman environment, a new approach called an ecological conscience. Opening articles include one by a Catholic author and one on law and animals. Jan Wawryzyniak has a short article, "Podstawowe informacje dla obroncow nieludzkich istot zywych" [Basic Information for Defenders of Nonhuman Living Beings], directing Polish readers to many sources avail­able in the West. There will be six issues a year, one in English. Editor's address: ul. Dabrowskiego 25 m 3, 60-840 Poznan. Phone 462-85. (v2,#4)

Zwinger, Ann, and Zwinger, Susan, eds., Women in Wilderness. San Antonio, TX: Tehabi Books/Harcourt Brace, 1995. 99 pp. $ 19.95. Vignettes from adventurous women who crave wild places. Susan Zwinger writes: I go into wilderness to bear the burden of too much beauty. ... There is nothing like the exquisiteness and strength of the natural world. ... it demands both attunement and atonement." Ann Zwinger is a Colorado naturalist, artist, and writer. Susan Zwinger is her daughter, an activist, poet, and environmental writer who lives in Washington State, author of Stalking the Ice Dragon, which chronicled her solitary Alaskan odyssey. (v7,#4)

Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science, "Humanity's Encounter with Nature," is a special issue from December 1989. The issue contains papers from a section on this theme during the conference, "The World Community in Post-Industrial Society, August 21-September 8, 1988 in conjunction with the Seoul Olympiad. Many of the papers are international in orientation. (v1,#1)

Talbert, Cheryl; Marshall, David, "Plantation Productivity in the Douglas-Fir Region Under Intensive Silvicultural Practices: Results from Research and Operations," Journal of Forestry 103(no.2, March 2005):65-70(6).

Talbott, Strobe, Engaging India: Diplomacy, Democracy, and the Bomb (Washington, DC, USA. Brookings Institution Press, 2004). Reviewed by Amitrajeet A. Batabyal, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):311-313. (JAEE)

Talhouk, S. et al., "Patterns of floristic diversity in semi-natural coastal vegetation of Lebanon and implications for conservation," Biodiversity and Conservation 14(no.4, April 2005):903-915(13).

Taliaferro, Charles. "Vices and Virtues in Religious Environmental Ethics." In Ronald Sandler and Philip Cafaro (eds.), Environmental Virtue Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005).

Tanner, Adrian, "Book Review of: People and Forests. Communities, Institutions and Governance. Edited by Clark C. Gibson, Margaret A. McKean, and Elinor Ostrom. MIT Press, Cambridge and London, 2000", Human Ecology 32(no.4, August 2004):525-529(5).

Tarrant, Michael A., H. Ken Cordell, and Gary T. Green, "PVF: A Scale to Measure Public Values of Forests," Journal of Forestry 101(no, 6, 2003):24-30. A 12-point scale for measuring the relative importance of national forest resources, both economic and nonecomomic, to the American public. There are three latent factors: protection, amenity, and outputs. In surveys, protection values are significantly higher for women, urban residents, and younger respondents. Decisions that fail to include economic nonuse values in benefit-cost analyses may underestimate the total value of forest protection. Over the past 40 years, there has been a paradigm shift toward a more inclusive orientation that recognizes both economic and noneconomic values. Tarrant is in forest resources, University of Georgia, Athens. Cordell and Green are with the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Athens, GA.

Tauber, Alfred I. Review of Thoreau's Living Ethics: Walden and the Pursuit of Virtue. By Philip Cafaro. Environmental Ethics 27 (2005):441-444.

Taylor, Brad W., and Rebecca E. Irwin, "Linking Economic Activities to the Distribution of Exotic Plants," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 101(no. 51, December 21, 2004):17725-17730. In a study of several hundred exotic plants to try to establish a pattern of their establishment, the strongest predictor for why aliens are where they are is real estate activity. Taylor is in zoology, University of Wyoming, Laramie; Irwin is in ecology, University of Georgia, Athens.

Taylor, Bron, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, 2 vols. Continuum, 2005. The introduction, early reviews, sample entries (including a religion focused "Environmental Ethics" entry by the volume's editor) and other information, are available online. This work is chronologically, geographically, and theoretically comprehensive, with 1000 entries from 520 contributors, including many ISEE members. Extensive information about this and related volumes is available at: . Taylor is in the Graduate Program in Religion and Nature, Department of Religion, University of Florida.

Taylor, Martin F.J.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Rachlinski, Jeffrey J., "The Effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act: A Quantitative Analysis," BioScience 55(no.4, April 2005):360-368(9). Population trends for 1095 species listed as threatened and endangered under the Endangered Species Act were correlated with the length of time the species were listed and the presence or absence of critical habitat and recovery plans. Species with critical habitat for two or more years were more than twice as likely to have an improving population trend in the late 19= 90s, and less than half as likely to be declining in the early 1990s, as species without. Species with dedicated recovery plans for two or more years were significantly more likely to be improving and less likely to be declining than species without. The proportion of species improving increased, and the proportion declining decreased, with increasing time listed throughou= t the 1990s, irrespective of critical habitat and recovery plans. On the basis of these results, we recommend increased funding for earlier listing of imperiled species and prompt provision of critical habitat and recovery plans.

Tear, T. H. E. A., "How Much Is Enough? The Recurrent Problem of Setting Measurable Objectives in Conservation," Bioscience 55(no. 10, October 2005): 835-849. International agreements, environmental laws, resource management agencies, and environmental nongovernmental organizations all establish objectives that define what they hope to accomplish. Unfortunately, quantitative objectives in conservation are typically set without consistency and scientific rigor. As a result, conservationists are failing to provide credible answers to the question "How much is enough?" This is a serious problem because objectives profoundly shape where and how limited conservation resources are spent, and help to create a shared vision for the future.

Theodori, G., "Community and Community Development in Resource Based Areas: Operational Definitions Rooted in an Interactional Perspective," Society and Natural Resources 18(no. 7, August 2005): 671-672.

Thiollay, Jean-Marc, "Effects of hunting on guianan forest game birds," Biodiversity and Conservation 14(no.5, May 2005):1121-1135(15).

Thomas, Christopher Jon, A Philosophical Justification for the Legal Rights of Animals, M.A. thesis, Colorado State University, 2005. Previous attitudes and reasoning about human duties to domestic animals, which are largely based on duties to owners of the animals, are inadequate. This is partly because of our increased capacities to exploit animals and partly because of increasing ethical sensitivities. Domestic animals need now to be given rights, and such rights ought to be increasingly adopted into law. An examination of theory and practice in law and its application to extending legal rights to animals.

Thomas, Frank, "Book Review of: Human Ecology and Community. Edited by Robert J. Gregory. (2003). Kamla Raj Enterprises, Delhi, India, 2003", Human Ecology 32(no.5, October 2004):647-648 (2).

Thompson, JR; Elmendorf, WF; McDonough, MH; Burban, LL, "Participation and Conflict: Lessons Learned From Community Forestry," Journal of Forestry 103 (no. 4, June 2005): 174-178.

Thompson, Paul B., "Animal Rights, Animal Wefare and Animal Well being: How to Communicate with the Outside World," in Local and Global Considerations in Animal Agriculture: The Big Picture, R. Reynnells, Ed. Washington, DC: 2004, USDA/CSREES/PAS, pp. 22 31.

Thompson, Paul D., Book Review: Scott L. Pratt, Native Pragmatism: Rethinking the Roots of American Philosophy (2002), Newsletter of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy #98, June 2004, pp. 73 76.

Thompson, Paul B., "Sustainable Agriculture: Philosophical Framework," in Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science. R. M. Goodman, Ed. New York: 2004, Marcel Dekker, pp. 1198 2000. Online at . Thompson is in philosophy, Michigan State University.

Tiegs, Scott; O'leary, John; Pohl, Molly; Munill, Carrie, "Flood disturbance and riparian species diversity on the Colorado River Delta," Biodiversity and Conservation 14(no.5, May 2005):1175-1194(20).

Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo, "The publics knowledge of and support for conservation of Australias tree kangaroos and other animals", Biodiversity and Conservation 13(no.12,November 2004):2339-2359(21).

Toadvine, Ted. "Limits of the Flesh: The Role of Reflection in David Abram's Ecophenomenology." Environmental Ethics 27 (2005):155-170. David Abram's The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human-World convincingly demonstrates the contribution that phenomenology, especially the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, can make to environmental theory. But Abram's account suffers from several limitations that are explored here. First, although Abram intends to develop an "organic" account of thinking as grounded in the sensible world, his descriptions castigate reflection and reverse, rather than rethinking, the traditional hierarchy between mind and body. Second, Abram's emphasis on perceptual reciprocity as the basis for an environmental ethic underplays the importance of the symbolic level of our interaction with others. Merleau-Ponty's later work, in particular his account of the reversibility of flesh, offers a fruitful alternative to Abram's methodology. (EE)

Todd, Helen and Christos Zografos, "Justice for the Environment: Developing a Set of Indicators of Environmental Justice for Scotland," Environmental Values 14(2005):483 501. This paper explores the context of environmental justice (EJ) in Scotland, and presents a case study whereby the main attributes for an indicator of EJ were identified, encompassing procedural and distributive aspects of justice. Through a participatory process, weights were assigned using a Multi Criteria Analysis tool, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Results show that overall, environmental injustices are mostly associated by respondents to unequal distribution of health burdens due to pollution, yet greater weight is attached to procedural justice by community environmental activists. The paper suggests that AHP may be applied to many situations and could form a basis for the development of tools to address and deliver EJ in Scotland. Todd is based in Edinburgh and Zographos is with the Land Economy Research Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh. (EV)

Tovey, Hilary, "Theorising Nature and Society in Sociology: The Invisibility of Animals," Sociologia Ruralis (European Society for Rural Sociology) 43(no. 3, 2003):196-215. Despite an increasing intellectual and social interest in the animals question in recent decades, animal remain largely invisible in social science texts. Even in environmental sociology texts, animals figure largely as biodiversity or wild species. Sociology tends to absorb animals into wild nature with virtually nothing to say about the huge numbers of domestic, service, or function animals; and it tends to recognize animals only in the form of generic types, without individual character or experience. In rural life, animals, especially domestic animals, are central to human society in a range of ways. Relations between farms and their animals are important for the formation of farmer identity and local farming culture. Animals are a key element in rural-urban relationships. Rural sociology needs to start developing its own approach to including animals in theorising society. Tovey is in sociology, Trinity College, Dublin.

Trumbo, C; O=Keefe, G, "Intention to Conserve Water: Environmental Values, Reasoned Action, and Information Effects Across Time," Society and Natural Resources 18 (no. 6, July 2005): 573-585.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn and John Grim, series editors, Religions of the World and Ecology, General Editor, Lawrence Sullivan. Published by the Center for the Study of World Religions at Harvard University and distributed by Harvard University Press. The series volumes are:

-Tucker, Mary Evelyn and Duncan Ryuken Williams, eds., Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. 1997.

-Tucker, Mary Evelyn and John Berthrong, eds., Confucianism and Ecology: The Interrelation of Heaven, Earth and Humans. 1998.

-Hessel, Dieter T., and Rosemary Radford Ruether, eds., Christianity and Ecology: Seeking the Well-Being of Earth and Humans. 2000.

-Girardot, N. J., James Miller, and Liu Xiaogan, Daoism and Ecology: Ways Within a Cosmic Landscape. 2001.

-Chapple, Christopher Key and Mary Evelyn Tucker, eds., Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky and Water. 2000.

-Foltz, Richard C., Frederick M. Denny and Azizan Baharuddin, eds. Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust. 2003.

-Grim, John A., ed., Indigenous Traditions and Ecology: The Interbeing of Cosmology and Community. 2001.

-Chapple, Christopher Key, ed., Jainism and Ecology: Non-violence in the Web of Life. 2001.

-Tirosh-Samuelson, Hava, ed., Judaism and Ecology: Created World and Revealed Word. 2002.

Turner, Derek D., "Are We at War with Nature?" Environmental Values 14(2005): 21 36. A number of people, from William James to Dave Foreman and Vandana Shiva, have suggested that humans are at war with nature. Moreover, the analogy with warfare figures in at least one important argument for strategic monkeywrenching. In general, an analogy can be used for purposes of (1) justification; (2) persuasion; or (3) as a tool for generating novel hypotheses and recommendations. This paper argues that the analogy with warfare should not be used for justificatory or rhetorical purposes, but that it may nevertheless have a legitimate heuristic role to play in environmental philosophy. Turner is in philosophy, Connecticut College, New London, CT. (EV)

Urban, Michael, "Values and Ethical Beliefs Regarding Agricultural Drainage in Central Illinois, USA," Society and Natural Resources 18(no.2, February):173-189(17).

Valentine, G, "Geography and ethics: moral geographies? Ethical commitment in research and teaching," Progress in Human Geography 29 (no. 4, August 2005): 483-487.

van Bogaert, Louis-Jacques, "Sentience and Moral Standing," South African Journal of Philosophy 23(no. 3, 2004):292-301. Sentience is often used in the advocacy of animal rights and welfare, but sentience is not a simple but a complex phenomenon and requires closer analysis. Sentience is more than feeling pleasure and pain and pain is an inborn protection required to fit into the world rather than the substance of evil. Various accounts of the nature of sentience. Sentience is often altered or reduced by advocates to fit the argument. Sentience comes across a spectrum and in degrees. The emphasis on pain in sentience leads to misunderstanding. The paper also addresses issues in abortion. van Bogaert is in philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Van Putten, M., "Toward a New Environmental Insurgency," Bioscience 55(no.9, September 2005): 789-794.

Van Putten, M, "Rebuilding a Mainstream Consensus for Environmentalism," BioScience 55 (no. 6, June 2005): 468-269.

VanBueren (Van Bueren), Edith T. Lammerts and Paul C. Struik, "Integrity and Rights of Plants: Ethical Notions in Organic Plant Breeding and Propagation," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):479-493. Organic farming acknowledges the integrity of plants as an essential element of its natural approaches to crop production. For cultivated plants, integrity refers to their inherent nature, wholeness, completeness, species specific characteristics, and their being in balance with their (organically farmed) environment, while accomplishing their natural aim. We argue that this integrity of plants has ethical value, distinguishing integrity of life, plant typic integrity, genotypic integrity, and phenotypic integrity. We have developed qualitative criteria to ethically evaluate existing practices and have applied these criteria to assess whether current plant breeding and propagation techniques violate the integrity of crop plants. This process has resulted in a design of a holistic, scientific approach of organic plant breeding and seed production.

Our evaluation has met considerable criticism from mainstream crop scientists. We respond to the following questions: (1). Can ethics be incorporated into objective crop sciences? (2). What is the nature of the intrinsic value of plants in organic farming? We argue that criteria to take integrity into account can only be assessed from a holistic perspective and we show that a holistic approach is needed to design such ethical notions in a consistent way. Key words: integrity   intrinsic value   natural aim   naturalness   organic breeding   organic plant propagation   plant rights   respect. Van Bueren is at the Louis Bolk Institute, Driebergen, LA, The Netherlands. Struik is with the Plant Sciences Group, Crop and Weed Ecology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. (JAEE)

Vanclay, JK; Nichols, JD, "What Would a Global Forest Convention Mean for Tropical Forests and for Timber Consumers?" Journal of Forestry 103 (no. 3, April/May 2005): 120-125.

vanderHeijden (van der Heijden), Hein Anton, "Ecological Restoration, Environmentalism and the Dutch Politics of `New Nature'," Environmental Values 14(2005):427 446. `New nature' refers to the current practice in which ten thousands of hectares of superfluous agricultural lands are `given back to nature', compensating for the loss of `old nature' in other parts of the Netherlands. Around the issue of `new nature' two discourses have emerged. In each discourse different environmental values are emphasised: about what nature is or could be; about the relationship between nature, agriculture and development; about ecological mitigation, and so on. Whereas the Dutch branch of WWF is the most active promoter of the sectorial nature development discourse, environmental groups like Friends of the Earth try to weigh these sectorial interests against the background of increasing environmental degradation. van der Heijden is in political science, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (EV)

VanDyke (Van Dyke), Fred, "Between Heaven and Earth Evangelical Engagement in Conservation." Conservation Biology 19 (no. 6, 2005), 1693 1696.

Volpe, John P., "Dollars without Sense: The Bait for Big-Money Tuna Ranching around the World," BioScience 55(no.4, April 2005):301-302(2).

Walck, Christa, "Healing the Divided Mind: Land as an Integrating Concept for Organizations and the Natural Environment", Organization and Environment 17 (no. 2, June 2004)

Walker, Peter A., "Political ecology: where is the ecology?," Progress in Human Geography 29(no.1, February 2005):73-82(10).

Wallington, Tabatha J. and Susan A. Moore, "Ecology, Values, and Objectivity: Advancing the Debate," BioScience 55(2005):873-878. The authors used a Delphi-based study of the role of values and their interpretations of ecological science in eight well-known ecologists. This involves several rounds of anonymous exchange of views looking at how empirical data is viewed differently depending on larger scientific and social contexts. Wellington is in social science, University of Queensland, Moore in environmental science, Murdoch University, Australia.

Walton, Bryan; Bailey, Conner, "Framing Wilderness: Populism and Cultural Heritage as Organizing Principles," Society and Natural Resources 18(no.2, February):119-134(16).

Wang, Seng, "One Hundred Faces of Sustainable Forest Management," Forest Policy and Economics 6(2004):205-213. Sustainable forest management is complex and includes much more than economics; different accounts are underlain by important philosophical differences on human relationships to nature. An adaptive, contextualized knowledge approach is desirable for operationalizing sustainable forest management. Wang is at the Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, National Resources Canada, Victoria, BC.

Ward, K, "Geography and public policy: a recent history of 'policy relevance'," Progress in Human Geography 29 (no. 3, June 2005): 310-319.

Warner, Melanie, "California Wants to Serve a Warning With Fries," New York Times, Sept. 21, 2005.

/2005/09/21/business/21chips.html?pagewanted=print

The California attorney general filed suit against McDonalds, Burger King, and Frito-Lay, saying that they should be forced to put labels on all fries and chips warning of danger to health. French fries are the most consumed food in restaurants, soaked with trans fats, loaded with sodium and full of simple carbs, the bad kind. They are also full of a chemical called acrylamide, known to cause cancer in rats and mice--but not known to cause cancer in humans at the levels in French Fries. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.) opposes the labelling on grounds that its investigation of the issue is incomplete.

Warner, Sara, Down to the Waterline: Boundaries, Nature, and the Law in Florida. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005. Do our rights end--or begin--at the water's edge? Analysis of the boundary separating public waters from private uplands. How advances in science and environmental attitudes have led to a more complex encounter with this ancient boundary. Public access and private ownership limits on some of Florida's most valuable land in economic terms, waterfront real estate, and, in ecological terms, marshes and wetlands.

Watanabe, Myrna E., "Origins of HIV: The Interrelationship between Nonhuman Primates and the Virus", BioScience 54(no.9, 1 September 2004):810-814(5).

Watts, D.C.H.; Ilbery, B.; Maye, D., "Making reconnections in agro-food geography: alternative systems of food provision," Progress in Human Geography 29(no.1, February 2005):22-40(19).

Weaver, Sean A. and Michael C. Morris, "Risks Associated with Genetic Modification: An Annotated Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Natural Science Publications," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):157-189. An annotated bibliography of peer reviewed scientific research. Risks include concerns over resistance and non target effects of crops expressing Bt toxins, consequences of herbicide use associated with genetically modified herbicide tolerant plants, and transfer of gene expression from genetically modified crops through vertical and horizontal gene transfer. These risks are not connected to the technique of genetic modification as such, but would be present for any conventionally produced crops with the same heritable traits. In contrast, other risks are a direct consequence of the method used in gene manipulation. These come about because of the unstable nature of the transgene and vectors used to insert it, and because of unpredictable interactions between the transgene and the host genome. The debate over the release of genetically modified organisms is not merely a scientific one; it encompasses economics, law, ethics, and policy. Keywords: animal welfare   annotated bibliography   biotechnology   Bt   environment   genetic modification   GMOs   human health   risk assessment   transgene. The authors are in geography and earth science, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. (JAEE)

Weber, E., Lovrich, N. and Gaffney, M., "Collaboration, Enforcement, and Endangered Species: A Framework for Assessing Collaborative Problem Solving Capacity," Society and Natural Resources 18(no. 8, September 2005): 677-698.

--Whitfield, John, "Biogeography: Is Everything Everywhere?" Science 310(11 November 2005):960-961. Microbiologists have long thought that the same microbes are everywhere. "There is no biogeography for anything smaller than 1 millimeter" (Bland Finlay), partially because the microbes and spores are blown transcontinentally in the wind, partially because these can long lie dormant. But other microbiologists are now finding that some microbes are locally specific. One problem is that the species question is not well defined at the microbe level. Many assign microbes to different species only if their DNA is less than 97% identical, but the same criteria would put all primates from lemurs to humans in one species.

Webster, Henry H., "Societal Irrationality," Journal of Forestry 103(no.1, January/February 2005):3-3(1).

Weible, Chris; Sabatier, Paul; Nechodom, Mark, "No Sparks Fly: Policy Participants Agree on Thinning Trees in the Lake Tahoe Basin," Journal of Forestry 103(no.1, January/February 2005):5-9(5).

Weidensaul, Scott, photographs by Mark Godfrey, "The Ivory-bill and its Forest Breathe New Life," Audubon 55(no. 2, 2005):20-31. The ivory-bill woodpecker, not seen (reliably) for over sixty years, has again been found in the Arkansas Mississippi delta (area of Cache River National Wildlife Refuge), in a location not precisely revealed to protect the bird.

Wensveen, Louke van. "The Emergence of Ecological Virtue Language." Reprinted in Ronald Sandler and Philip Cafaro (eds.), Environmental Virtue Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005).

Wensveen, Louke van. "Cardinal Environmental Virtues: A Neurobiological Perspective." In Ronald Sandler and Philip Cafaro (eds.), Environmental Virtue Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005).

Wenz, Peter. "Synergistic Environmental Virtues: Consumerism and Human Flourishing." In Ronald Sandler and Philip Cafaro (eds.), Environmental Virtue Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005).

Westra, Laura. "Virtue Ethics as Foundational for a Global Ethic." In Ronald Sandler and Philip Cafaro (eds.), Environmental Virtue Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005).

Whitaker, Julie, Review of: Cahill, Michael and Tony Fitzpatrick, eds., Environmental Issues and Social Welfare. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2002. Environmental Values 14(2005):276-278.

Whiteside, Kerry H., Review of: Bess, Michael, The Light-Green Society: Ecology and Technological Modernity in France, 1960-2000. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Environmental Values 14(2005):138-140.

Whitten, Andrew, "The Second Inheritance System of Chimpanzees and Humans," Nature 437(1 Sept. 2005):52-55. "When we focus our comparative lens on culture, the evidence is all around us that a gulf separates humans from all other animals. Nevertheless, recent studies of great apes suggest that they resemble us culturally to an extent unmatched by other species" (p. 52) Some prefer to use "traditions" for behavior that animals acquire by imitation, present in many vertebrate species, such as birds, maybe even in invertebrates. But chimp groups can have an array of multiple and specific traditions that can be called "culture."

"Ape culture may be particularly complex among non-human animals, yet it clearly falls short of human culture. An influential contemporary view is that the key difference lies in the human capacity for cumulative culture, whereby the achievements of successive generations have built on previous developments to create complex structure such as languages and technologies. Chimpanzees have accumulated many traditions, but each remains sufficiently simple that there is little scope for it to have developed significant complexity compared to its original form. Hints of cumulation exist, such as the refinement of using prop stones to stabilize stone anvils during nut cracking, but these remain primitive and fleeting by human standards" (p. 53). Whitten is in psychology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.

Willer, Chuck, "A Conservation Advocate's Perspective on Intensively Managed Forest Plantations," Journal of Forestry 103(no.2, March 2005):95-96(2).

Willis, K. J., Gillson, L., and Brncic, T. M., "How `Virgin' is Virgin Rainforest?" Science 304(16 April 2004):402-403. "Evidence has started to emerge from archaeological and paleoecological investigations that many of these so called `virgin' rainforest blocks might not be as pristine as originally thought and have in fact undergone substantial prehistoric modification." Examples from the Amazon basin, the Congo basin, and the Indo-Malay region of Southeast Asia. But these forest are also resilient and not as fragile as sometimes portrayed; the extent of their regeneration has obscured their earlier modification. "Left for long enough, forest will almost certainly regenerate." The authors also think little biodiversity was lost. With critical response, Science 305(13 August 2004):943-944, the respondents claiming it is unknown whether biodiversity was lost and that no implications follow from this earlier regeneration about whether presently degraded forests, from contemporary logging and agriculture, can similarly regenerate.

Willott, Elizabeth, "Restoring Nature, Without Mosquitoes?" Restoration Ecology 12(no. 2, 2004):147-153. Wetlands have many benefits, but have often been drained to help control malaria and other diseases. Mosquitoes pose practical and theoretical problems in restoring wetlands. Abundant mosquitoes is a primary and foreseeable effect of creating habitat suitable for them. But restoration biology often fails properly to address this downside. Willott is in Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Wilshusen, P., "A Review of: Ndubisi, Forster. Ecological Planning: A Historical and Comparative Synthesis," Society and Natural Resources 18(no. 10, November/December 2005): 937-939.

Wilson, Michael, Microbial Inhabitants of Humans: Their Ecology and Role in Health and Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. You are a community, an ecosystem from the skin in!! More bacteria inhabit your body than you have cells in your body (1014 versus 1013 respectively), far more than there are people on Earth. And you can't live without them; their symbioses are vital to your health (and your health to theirs). Despite occasional pathogens, the process is most often peaceful and mutually beneficial. Wilson is a microbiologist at the Eastman Dental Institute, University College London. Reviewed by Elaine Tuomanen, "Appreciating Our Unusual Guests," Science 308(29 April 2005):635.

Wimberly, Michael C; Ohmann, Janet L, "A multi scale assessment of human and environmental constraints on forest land cover change on the Oregon (USA) coast range", Landscape Ecology 19(no.6, August 2004):631-646(16).

Winter, C, "Preferences and Values for Forests and Wetlands: A Comparison of Farmers, Environmentalists, and the General Public in Australia," Society and Natural Resources 18 (no. 6, July 2005): 541-555.

Winter, Greg; Vogt, Christine A; McCaffrey, Sarah, "Examining Social Trust in Fuels Management Strategies", Journal of Forestry 102(no.6, September 2004):8-15(8).

Winter, M., "Geographies of food: agro food geographies, food, nature, farmers and agency," Progress in Human Geography 29(no. 5, 2005): 618-625.

Winter, Michael, "Geographies of food: agro food geographies   farming, food and politics", Progress in Human Geography 28(no.5, 1 October 2004):664-670(7).

Wissenburg, Marcel, Review of: Hailwood, Simon, How to be a Green Liberal: Nature, Value and Liberal Philosophy. Chesham, UK: Acumen, 2004. Environmental Values 14(2005):140-142.

Wissenburg, Marcel, "Globotopia: The Antiglobalization Movement and Utopianism", Organization and Environment 17 (no.4, December 2004).

Withers, Charles, W.J., "History and philosophy of geography, 2002-2003: geography in its place," Progress in Human Geography 29(no.1, February 2005):64-72(9).

Wohl, Ellen, Disconnected Rivers: Linking Rivers to Landscapes. New Haven, CT: Yale University Pres, 2005. The rivers of the United States as they were and as they have become.

Wolfe, BE; Klironomos, JN, "Breaking New Ground: Soil Communities and Exotic Plant Invasion," BioScience 55 (no. 6, June 2005): 477-488.

As exotic plant species invade ecosystems, ecologists have been attempting to assess the effects of these invasions on native communities and to determine what factors influence invasion processes. Although much of this work has focused on aboveground flora and fauna, structurally and functionally diverse soil communities also can respond to and mediate exotic plant in visions. In numerous ecosystems, the invasion of exotic plant species has caused major shifts in the composition and function of soil communities. Soil organisms, such as pathogenic or mutualistic fungi, have direct effects on the establishment, growth, and biotic interactions of exotic plants. An integrated understanding of how aboveground and belowground biota interact with exotic plants is necessary to manage and restore communities invaded by exotic plant species.

Wrigley, N; Coe, NM; Currah, A, "Globalizing retail: conceptualizing the distribution based transnational corporation (TNC)," Progress in Human Geography 29 (no. 4, August 2005): 437-457.

Xu, H., Zhu, G., Wang, L. and Bao, H., "Design of Nature Reserve System for Red Crowned Crane in China," Biodiversity and Conservation 14(no. 10, October 2005): 2275-2289.

Xu Huiying, "Humankind Takes Up Environmental Ethics," Chinese Education and Society 37(no. 4, 2004):16-23. Translation from Xu Huiying, "Renli zouxiang hyanjing lunli," Huanjing jiaoyu (Environmental Education) no. 6 (2001), pp. 16-18. Introductory article on environmental ethics, and how it differs from classical ethics. Origins of environmental ethics, the call to shed anthropocentrism, and some moral principles and norms of environmental ethics. Xu is at the Environmental Education Center, Beijing Normal University.

Yew Kwang, Ng, "Intergenerational Impartiality: Replacing Discounting by Probability Weighting," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):237-257. Intergenerational impartiality requires putting the welfare of future generations at par with that of our own. However, rational choice requires weighting all welfare values by the respective probabilities of realization. As the risk of non survival of mankind is strictly positive for all time periods and as the probability of non survival is cumulative, the probability weights operate like discount factors, though justified on a morally justifiable and completely different ground. Impartial intertemporal welfare maximization is acceptable, though the welfare of people in the very far future has lower effects as the probabilities of their existence are also lower. However, the effective discount rate on future welfare values (distinct from monetary values) justified on this ground is likely to be less than 0.1 per annum. Such discounting does not compromise environmental protection and sustainability unduly. The finiteness of our universe implies that the sum of our expected welfare to infinity remains finite, solving the paradox of having to compare different infinite values in optimal growth/conservation theories.

Keywords discounting   environmental ethics   impartiality   intergenerational   intertemporal   probability   sustainable development   welfare. Yew-Kwang is in economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. (JAEE)

Yoder, Jonathan; Blatner, Keith, "Incentives and Timing of Prescribed Fire for Wildfire Risk Management", Journal of Forestry 102(no.6, September 2004):38-41(4).

York, Richard, "Humanity and Inhumanity: Towards A Sociology of the Slaughterhouse", Organization and Environment 17 (no. 2, June 2004).

Young, David, Our Islands, Our Selves: A History of Conservation in New Zealand. Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago Press, 2004. From pre-human times, to the Maoris, to the European settlers, with over one-third of the book devoted to the period since World War II. How perceptions and actions have changed, how often New Zealand got it wrong, and what might still be done to protect New Zealand's natural environment. The author is a freelance journalist in New Zealand.

Young, J et al., "Towards sustainable land use: identifying and managing the conflicts between human activities and biodiversity conservation in Europe," Biodiversity and Conservation 14 (no. 7, June 2005): 1641-1661.

Zaikowski, Lori A; Garrett, Jinnie M, "A Three Tiered Approach to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Bioethics", BioScience 54(no.10, 1 October 2004):942-949(8). The systematic integration of ethics into undergraduate programs is a key component to improving the understanding of ethical issues in science for a broad audience. We propose a three tiered approach to integrating ethics and social issues that can be readily adapted to particular curricular needs. A concerted incorporation of ethics strategically targeted to each level of undergraduate education will improve the preparation of prospective research scientists, enhance K 12 teacher training, increase the scientific and ethical literacy of the general public, and improve the awareness of health professionals regarding ethics in medicine. After examining textbooks, programs, and faculty perspectives, we suggest areas in which changes can be made to incorporate ethics into undergraduate education.

Ziegler, Rafael, Review of: Hayward, Tim, Constitutional Environmental Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Environmental Values 14(2005):530-532.

Zimmer, Carl, "In Give and Take of Evolution: A Surprising Contribution from Islands," New York Times, November 22, 2005. Islands have typically been thought to be dead ends in evolution, but studies now suggest they can at other times be sources from which continents are re-stocked. They are also places where rapid speciation occurs, often because of isolation and specialized environments. This makes islands more important to conserve as reservoirs of biodiversity.

Zimmerer, Karl S, "Cultural ecology: placing households in human environment studies   the cases of tropical forest transitions and agrobiodiversity change", Progress in Human Geography 28(no.6, December 2004): 795-806(12).

Zingerli, C., "Colliding Understandings of Biodiversity Conservation in Vietnam: Global Claims, National Interests, and Local Struggles," Society and Natural Resources 18(no. 8, September 2005): 733-747.

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