UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
DEPARTMENT OF SLAVONIC STUDIES
PAPER Ru8: SOCIALIST RUSSIA 1917-91
Dzerzhinskii Lenin and Trotskii in Moscow, December 1918
The course is designed to provide you with a thorough grounding in and advanced understanding of Russia’s social, political and economic history in the period under review and to prepare you for the exam.
before the course starts
You’ll need some knowledge of European and Russian history so read the following before the course starts:
Hobsbawm, E. J. The Age of Empire 1875-1914 (1988)
_____ The Age of Extremes 1914-1991 (1994)
Stone, N. World War One: A Short History (2007)
Westwood, J. Endurance and Endeavour: Russian History 1812-1917 (4th ed., 1993)
Briefing meeting: There’ll be a meeting at 12.00 on the Wedenesday before the first teaching day of Michaelmas. Check with the departmental secretary for the venue. It’s essential that you attend and bring this handbook with you.
The course comprises three elements: lectures, supervisions and reading.
Lectures: you’ll have sixteen lectures, eight in Michaelmas and eight in Lent. The lectures provide an introduction to and overview of the course, but no more. It’s important to understand that the lectures alone won’t enable you to cover the course, nor will they by themselves prepare you for the exam. They’re not a substitute for reading, only a supplement to reading.
Supervisions: you’ll have one semimar in Michaelmas term and ten supervisions, four in Michaelmas, four in Lent and two in Easter.
Reading: to study history is, primarily, to read, so reading is the most important aspect of the course. You must understand from the outset that this is primarily a reading course and that, above all, you’ll need to commit to reading extensively and consistently. That’s why the bulk of the handbook is devoted to providing you with detailed guidance on reading.
using the handbook
The handbook is divided into five sections:
Section 1 the exam
Section 2 lectures
Section 3 supervisions
Section 4 reading
Section 5 primary sources
Check each section carefully so you understand the course structure and timetable and exactly what’s expected of you.
SECTION 1: THE EXAM
The exam paper is divided into three sections and you answer one question from each section. All questions have equal weight.
Section A deals with the course’s four primary sources. There are always four questions, one on each source.
Section B has at least six questions. Most cover the period 1917 to c.1930 but there’ll sometimes be one or two questions of a general nature covering the whole period of the paper.
Section C has at least six questions. Most cover the period c.1930 to 1991 but, as in section B, there’ll sometimes be one or two questions of a general nature covering the whole period of the paper.
preparing for the exam
Section A is predictable because you can choose in advance which primary source you want to concentrate on in the knowledge that it will always come up on the paper. You should study the sources (section 5) as part of your specialist reading (section 4.2) and we’ll look at them in detail in supervisions (section 3).
Sections B&C are periodized (with the occasional general question included in each), but you’ll be asked to respond to problems and issues within periods, not simply to periods. You should note that there’s no guarantee that a particular problem or issue will always come up in sections B&C, or that problems or issues won’t be conflated. This means that you can’t ‘topic spot’ by focussing your work on a narrow aspect of the course – mugging up a couple of problems or issues and hoping they’ll see you through, for instance. You’ll have to do the whole course in order to be prepared for the exam. On the other hand you won’t be asked to respond to anything outside the course aims.
You should look at some past papers to get a feel for the style of questions.
SECTION 2: LECTURES
Unless otherwise indicated all lectures are on Thursdays at 12.00 and last for one hour. Check with the departmental secretary for venues.
1 Introduction to the course
Russia’s Revolutions c.1917-21
2 From autocracy to socialism: The ‘Great October’
3 The end Bolshevism?: The crises of 1918-21
The worlds of Bolshevism c.1921-29
4 The illusions of power: NEP and its discontents
5 World revolution or Soviet power?: Foreign policy and the Comintern
6 The realities of power: The rise of Stalin
The ‘Second Revolution’ c.1929-41
7 Revolution from above I: The пятилетка
8 Revolution from above II: Collectivization
The Stalin epoch c.1929-53
9 Revolution from above III: Culture and society
10 Чистки and Ежовщина:The problem of the ‘purges’
11 Social fascism and after: Foreign policy and the Comintern
12 The crucible: The Great Patriotic War
The burden of the past c.1953-91
13 Behind the iron curtain: Late Stalinism
14 Stalin’s heirs: The limits to reform
15 ‘Developed socialism’: Stability or decay?
16 The crises of the old regime: The unfinished revolution
SECTION 3: SUPERVISIONS
These will take the form of one seminar and ten supervisions. The seminar lasts for between one and a half hours, supervisions for one hour.
Seminar: Researching and writing history (with Ru7, Thursday 7 October 17.30 venue tba)
How to analyse, research and respond to supervision essays and exam questions. No preparation necessary.
1 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topics I-III of the Michaelmas list (p.6). Preparation: you can do any question you like from within a topic but make sure your supervision partners do the same topic as you. Aim at five to six sides of typed A4; research using the general and topic-related reading in the reading lists; cite quotations by footnoting; end with a full bibliography. You must give me your essays at the lecture prior to your supervision. Please note that I won’t be able to read or mark late work.
2 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topics I-III of the Michaelmas list (apart from the topic you’ve covered in 1). Preparation: as for 1.
3 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topics I-III of the Michaelmas list (apart from the topics you’ve covered in 1 & 2). Preparation: as for 1.
4 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topic IV of the Michaelmas list. Preparation: as for 1.
5 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topics V-VII of the Lent list (p.7). Preparation: as for 1.
6 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topics V-VII of the Lent list (apart from the topic you’ve covered in 5). Preparation: as for 1.
7 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topics V-VII of the Lent list (apart from the topics you’ve covered in 5 & 6). Preparation: as for 1.
8 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topic VIII of the Lent list. Preparation: as for 1.
9 Essay supervision
Choose a question from topic IX of the Easter list (p.8). Preparation: as for 1.
10 Essay supervision
Choose a question from any list or from a past paper and write an essay under exam conditions.
1 ‘The October Revolution would have happened with or without the Bolsheviks.’ Discuss.
2 ‘The dispersal of the Constituent Assembly signalled the end of the Revolution’s “alternative future”.’ Discuss.
3 ‘The Reds won the Civil and Imperialist War in spite of, not because of, the Bolsheviks.’ Discuss.
4 ‘The one-party state was an unforeseen and unintended consequence of the October Revolution.’ Discuss.
5 ‘By 1924 Bolshevism was a spent force.’ Discuss.
6 ‘The self-sufficiency of the peasantry doomed the NEP.’ Discuss.
7 ‘Despite all appearances to the contrary Soviet foreign policy remained revolutionary.’ Discuss with reference to the period 1921-33.
8 Account for the rise of Stalin in the period up to c.1929.
9 ‘The пятилетка turned the Soviet Union into a socialist country.’ Discuss.
10 Discuss the interrelationship between collectivization and the пятилетка.
11 ‘Collectivization was inevitable.’ Discuss.
12 ‘The collectivization drive was a failure; politically, socially and economically.’ Discuss.
13 Discuss the usefulness to historians of ONE of the following sources:
(a) В. И. Ленин, Апрельские тезисы.
(b) Заседание ЦК РСДРП(б) января и февраля 1918 г.
14 ‘Socialist construction improved the lives of the masses.’ Discuss.
15 ‘By 1933 the “Great Breakthrough” had ended in disaster.’ Discuss.
16 Examine the social changes of the period 1928-41.
17 Assess the significance of the ‘Cultural Revolution’ and the ‘Great Retreat’.
18 ‘The “purges” of the 1930s have been explained in different ways, but no explanation is entirely satisfactory.’ Discuss.
19 ‘The Ежовщина was the logical outcome of Bolshevism.’ Discuss.
20 ‘By the time of the XVIII Party Congress Stalin had raised himself to a position of absolute power.’ Discuss.
21 Examine the view that the concept of ‘totalitarianism’ is no longer useful when applied to the history of the Stalin period.
22 ‘By 1939 the Soviet regime had no choice but to seek an alliance with Nazi Germany.’ Discuss.
23 ‘Soviet foreign policy in the 1930s was aggressive, not defensive.’ Discuss.
24 ‘The Soviet Union owed its victory over Hitler to Stalin’s industrialization drive.’ Discuss.
25 Discuss the social and political impact of the Great Patriotic War on the Soviet Union.
26 Discuss the usefulness to historians of ONE of the following sources:
(a) И. В. Сталин, О задачах хозяйственников.
(b) Н. С. Хрущев, Доклад на закрытом заседании XX съезда КПСС.
Topic IX Write an essay on one of the following:
27 Assess the significance of ANY TWO of the following: (a) The Leningrad Affair; (b) The Doctors’ Plot; (c) The Mingrelian Case; (d) The Zhdanovshchina.
28 ‘The apotheosis of Stalin masked the diminution of his power.’ Discuss with reference to the period 1941-53.
29 ‘“Late Stalinism” bequeathed insoluble problems to the Soviet Union.’ Discuss.
30 ‘What Khrushchev began, Gorbachev was unable to complete.’ Discuss.
31 Choose a revision question
SECTION 4: READING
Hardcopy Many books and articles are in our MML library. Many, however, aren’t in our library and very few will be in your college libraries, so you must get used to using the Seeley Library (in the History Faculty next to the Law building) and Marshall Library (in the Economics Faculty beside the Buttery) as well as the UL. Note that early volumes of Slavic Review may be catalogued as American Slavic Review.
Online JSTOR (/) is an excellent site for journal articles. For a wonderful site on Marxism, Russian revolutionaries and a host of revolutionary and radical figures in general see (/). If you come across other good sites let me know. Avoid popular sites like Wikipedia – they are full of inaccurate rubbish.
organization of the reading list
4.1 General worksare listed in rough chronological/thematic order. Of course you can’t possible read them all, nor are you expected to. They are for you to consult as necessary throughout the course. An invaluable work, which you should get to know and will often find useful on a given topic before you read anything else, is
Wieczynski, J. L., ed., The Modern Encyclopaedia of Russian and Soviet History (multi-volume 1976 onwards).
It’s commonly known as MERSH and is on reference in our library.
4.2 Specialist reading is listed under each lecture heading. Don’t do any specialist reading until you’ve consulted a few general works. Again, you’re not expected to read everything. The lists are to guide you to a range of texts when you need to deepen your knowledge of a particular topic.
4.1 GENERAL WORKS
Acton, A. Rethinking the Russian Revolution (1991).
Gilbert, M. Routledge Atlas of Russian History (2006).
Hosking, G. A. A History of the Soviet Union (1985).
Schapiro, L. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1908-1953 (1960).
Ward, C. Stalin’s Russia (1993).
_____, ed. The Stalinist Dictatorship (1998).
Axell, A. Marshal Zhukov (2002).
Cohen, S. F. Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography 1888-1938 (1974).
Crouch, M. Revolution and Evolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Politics (1989).
Deutscher, I. Stalin: A Political Biography (1949).
_____ The Prophet Armed: Trotsky 1879-1921 (1954).
_____ The Prophet Unarmed: Trotsky 1921-1929 (1959).
Jansen, M. & Petrov, N. Stalin’s Loyal Executioner: Commissar Nikolai Ezhov 1895-1940 (2002).
Knight, A. Beria: Stalin’s First Lieutenant (1994).
Linden, C. A. Khrushchev and the Soviet Leadership 1957-1964 (1966).
Medvedev, R. Khrushchev: The Years of Power (1976).
Read, C. Lenin: A Revolutionary Life (2005).
Service, R. Lenin: A Political Life (vols.1-3, 1995).
_____ Lenin: A Biography (2000).
Thatcher, I. Trotsky (2002).
Tucker, R. C. Stalin as Revolutionary 1879-1929: A Study in History and Personality (1974).
_____ Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above 1928-41 (1990).
Williams, B. Lenin (2000).
Acton, E., Cherniaev, V.
& Rosenberg, W., eds. Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution 1914-1921 (1997).
Fitzpatrick, S. The Russian Revolution (1982).
Frankel, E., Frankel, J.
& Knie-Paz, B., eds. Revolution in Russia: Reassessments of 1917 (1992).
Koenker, D. &
Rosenberg, W. Strikes and Revolution in Russia 1917 (1989).
Kowalski, R. The Russian Revolution 1917-1921 (1997).
Smith, S. A. The Russian Revolution. A Very Short Introduction (2002).
Stites, R. Revolutionary Dreams: Utopian Visions and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution (1989).
Wade, R. The Russian Revolution 1917 (2000).
Bailes, K. E. Technology and Society Under Lenin and Stalin (1978).
Boym, S. Common Places: Mythologies of Everyday Life in Russia (1994).
Brooks, J. Thank You, Comrade Stalin! Soviet Public Culture from Revolution to Cold War (2000).
Carr, E. H. The Russian Revolution from Lenin to Stalin 1917-1929 (1979).
Carrère d’Encausse, H. A History of the Soviet Union 1917-1953 (vols.1-2, 1981).
Chatterjee, C. Celebrating Women: Gender, Festival Culture and Bolshevik Ideology 1910-39 (2002).
Clements, B. E. Bolshevik Women (1997).
Daniels, R. V. The Conscience of the Revolution: Communist Opposition in Soviet Russia (1960).
Davies, R. W. Soviet Economic Development from Lenin to Khrushchev (1998).
Davies, S. Popular Opinion in Stalin’s Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent (1997).
Fueloep-Miller, R. The Mind and Face of Bolshevism (1926).
Hough, J. F. &
Fainsod, M. How the Soviet Union is Governed (1979).
Hutton, M. J. Russian and West European Women 1860-1939: Dreams, Struggles and Nightmares (2001).
Lapidus, G. W. Women in Soviet Society (1978).
Lewin, M. The Making of the Soviet System (1985).
Moon, D. The Russian Peasantry 1600-1930 (1999).
Narkiewicz, O. The Making of the Soviet State Apparatus (1970).
Nove, A. An Economic History of the USSR (1969).
Pethybridge, R. The Social Prelude to Stalinism (1974).
Siegelbaum, L. Soviet State and Society Between Revolutions 1918-1929 (1992).
Smith, M. G. Language and Power in the Creation of the USSR 1917-1953 (1998).
Tucker, R. C. Political Culture and Leadership in Soviet Russia from Lenin to Gorbachev (1987).
Yaney, G. L. The Urge to Mobilize: Agrarian Reform in Russia 1861-1930 (1982).
Andreev-Khomiakov, G. Bitter Waters: Life and Work in Stalin’s Russia (1997).
Boffa, G. The Stalin Phenomenon (1992).
Dunham, V. In Stalin’s Time: Middleclass Values in Soviet Fiction (2nd. ed., 1990).
Fitzpatrick, S. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s (1999).
_____, ed. Stalinism: New Directions (2000).
_____ Stalin’s Peasants (1994).
Kravchenko, V. I Chose Freedom. The Personal and Political Life of a Soviet Official (1947).
Scott. J. Behind the Urals. An American Worker in Russia’s City of Steel (1942).
Siegelbaum, L. &
Rosenberg, W., eds. Social Dimensions of Soviet Industrialization (1993).
Thurston, R. W. Life and Terror in Stalin’s Russia 1934-1941 (1996).
Keep, J. L. H. Last of the Empires: A History of the Soviet Union 1945-91 (1995).
Kelly, D. R. The Politics of Developed Socialism: The Soviet Union as a Post-Industrial State (1986).
Lewin, M. The Gorbachev Phenomenon. An Historical Interpretation (1988).
Merridale, C. &
Ward, C., eds. Perestroika in Historical Perspective (1991).
Narkiewicz, O. Soviet Leaders: From the Cult of Personality to Collective Rule (1986).
Nove, A. Stalinism and After (1975).
4.2 SPECIALIST READING
The questions grouped under each lecture heading relate broadly to the kind of issues historians are interested in, so you should keep them in mind when you’re reading.
Lecture 1: Introduction: February 1917
Was there a ‘revolutionary situation’ before the war? Why did the autocracy collapse in February 1917? What role was played by various social groups and by revolutionary parties and leaders in the city? What popular institutions were created by revolution?
On the Duma Monarchy see:
Byrnes, R. ‘Russian conservative thought before the Revolution’, in Stavrou, T., ed., Russia Under the Last Tsar (1969).
Conolly, V. ‘The “nationalities question” in the last phase of tsardom’, in Katkov, G. & Oberländer, E., eds., Russia Enters the Twentieth Century 1894-1917 (1970).
Emmons, T. ‘The zemstvo in historical perspective’, in Emmons, T. & Vucinich, W. S., eds., The Zemstvo in Russia (1982).
Hunczak, T., ed. Russian Imperialism from Ivan the Great to the Revolution (1974) articles by Sung-Hwan Chang, Wheeler.
Simon, G. ‘Church, state and society’, in Katkov, G. & Oberländer, E., eds., Russia Enters the Twentieth Century 1894-1917 (1970).
Starr, S. F. ‘Tsarist government: the Imperial dimension’, in Azrael, J. R., ed., Soviet Nationality Policies and Practices (1978).
Zenkovsky, S. A. ‘The emancipation of the serfs in retrospect’, Russian Review (4, 1961).
On the war see:
Discussion On peasant responses to war: Slavic Review (2, 2000).
Ferro, M. The Great War 1914-1918 (1973).
Hamm, M. F. ‘Liberal politics in wartime Russia: an analysis of the Progressive Bloc’, Slavic Review (3, 1974).
Jahn, H. F. ‘For Tsar and Fatherland? Russian popular culture and the First World War’, in Frank, S. & Steinberg, d. eds., Cultures in Flux: Lower-Class Values, Practices, and Resistance in Late Imperial Russia (1994).
Pearson, R. The Russian Moderates and the Crisis of Tsarism 1914-1917 (1977).
Stone, N. The Eastern Front 1914-1917 (1975).
Strachan, H. The First World War. Vol.1: To Arms (2001) ch.1.
On February see:
Bonnell, V. E. Roots of Rebellion: Workers' Politics and Organizations in St Petersburg and Moscow 1900-1914 (1983) part 4, conclusion.
Burdzhalov, E. N. Russia's Second Revolution: The February 1917 Uprising in Petrograd (1987).
Carr, E. H. 1917: Before and After (1969).
Hasegawa, T. ‘The Bolsheviks and the formation of the Petrograd Soviet in the February Revolution’, Soviet Studies (29, 1977).
_____ ‘The formation of the militia in the February Revolution: an aspect of the origins of dual power’, Slavic Review (2, 1973).
_____ The February Revolution: Petrograd, 1917 (1981) .
Katkov, G. Russia 1917: The February Revolution (1967).
Koenker, D &
Rosenberg, W. G. Strikes and Revolution in Russia, 1917 (1989) chs.1,3,10.
Mandel, D. The Petrograd Workers and the Fall of the Old Regime (1983).
Rodzianko, M. The Reign of Rasputin: An Empire's Collapse (1973) chs.15-17.
Wildman, A. ‘The February Revolution in the Russian Army’, Soviet Studies (1, 1970-1).
_____ The End of the Russian Imperial Army (vol.1, 1980).
Russia’s revolutions c.1917-21
Lecture 2: From autocracy to socialism: The ‘Great October’
What popular institutions were created by revolution and what role did they play? What role was played by revolutionary leaders? Was the ‘Great October’ a popular soviet rising, a Bolshevik revolution or a coup initiated by the Leninist faction of the party?
On the Provisional Government see:
Gill, G. S. ‘The failure of rural policy in Russia, February-October 1917’, Slavic Review (2, 1978).
Orlovsky, D. T. ‘Reform during the Revolution: governing the provinces in 1917’, in Crummey, R. O., ed., Reform in Russia and the USSR (1989).
Riha, T. ‘1917 — a year of illusions’, Soviet Studies (1, 1967-8).
von Laue, T. H. ‘Westernization, revolution and the search for a basis of authority’, Soviet Studies (2, 1967-8).
On the approach to October see:
Ferro, M. ‘The Russian soldier in 1917: undisciplined, patriotic and revolutionary’, Slavic Review (3, 1971).
Figes, O. ‘The Russian Revolution and its language in the village’, Russian Review (3, 1997).
Gill, G. ‘The mainsprings of peasant action in 1917’, Soviet Studies (1, 1978).
Heenan, L. E. The Russian Democracy’s Fatal Blunder: the Summer Offensive of 1917 (1987).
Kaiser, D. H., ed. The Workers’ Revolution in Russia 1917: The View from Below (1987) articles by Koenker, Smith.
Pethybridge, R. The Spread of the Russian Revolution: Essays on 1917 (1972) ch.6.
Raleigh, D. ‘Revolutionary politics in provincial Russia: the Tsaritsyn “Republic” in 1917’, Slavic Review (2, 1981).
Rosenberg, W. G. ‘The democratization of Russia’s railroads in 1917’, American Historical Review (5, 1981).
Rosenberg, W. G. & ‘The limits of formal protest: worker activism and social polarization in Koenker, D. P. Petrograd and Moscow, March to October 1917’, American Historical Review
Wade, R. ‘Why October? The search for peace in 1917’, Soviet Studies (2, 1968-9).
Steinberg, M. D. Voices of Revolution 1917 (2002).
On the Bolsheviks see:
Barfield, R. ‘Lenin’s utopianism: State and Revolution’, Slavic Review (1, 1971).
Frankel, J. ‘Lenin’s doctrinal revolution of April 1917’, Journal of Contemporary History (2, 1969).
Johnson, M. P. The Paradise of Associations: Political Culture and Popular Organizations in the Paris Commune of 1871 (1996).
Koenker, D. P. ‘The evolution of party consciousness in 1917: the case of Moscow workers’, Soviet Studies (1, 1978).
Lenin, V. I. Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916).
Longley, D. A. ‘The divisions in the Bolshevik party in March 1917’, Soviet Studies (1, 1972-3).
Melancon, M. ‘The Left Socialist Revolutionaries and the Bolshevik uprising’ in Brovkin, V. N. ed., The Bolsheviks in Russian Society: The Revolution and the Civil Wars (1997).
Rabinowitch, A. The Bolsheviks Come to Power (1976) chs.5,8,11.
Saul, N. E. ‘Lenin's decision to seize power: the influence of events in Finland’, Soviet Studies (4, 1972-3).
Thatcher, I. Leon Trotsky and World War One (2000).
Tombs, R. The Paris Commune, 1871 (1999).
White, J. Lenin: The Practice and Theory of Revolution (2000).
Associated primary source:
В. И. Ленин, Апрельские тезисы.
Lecture 3: The end of Bolshevism?: The crises of 1918-21
What crises faced the Soviet regime in the period 1918-21 and how did it overcome them? Had Bolshevism disintegrated by 1921?
On the Civil and Imperialist wars see:
Bradley, J. Civil War in Russia 1917-1920 (1975) ch.7.
Davies, N. ‘The missing revolutionary war’, Soviet Studies (1, 1975).
Figes, O. Peasant Russia, Civil War: The Volga Countryside in Revolution 1917-1921 (1989) chs.5-6, conclusion.
Footman, D. Civil War in Russia (1961) introduction, conclusion.
Kenez, P. ‘The ideology of the White movement’, Soviet Studies (1, 1980).
Koenker, D., et al., eds. Party, State and Society in the Russian Civil War: Explorations in Social
History (1989) articles by Fitzpatrick, Haimson, Lewin.
Swain, G. The Origins of the Russian Civil War (1995).
On political & social opposition see:
Aves, J. Workers Against Lenin (1996).
Avrich, P. Kronstadt, 1921 (1970).
_____ The Russian Anarchists (1967) chs.7-8.
Clements, B. E. ‘Working-class and peasant women in the Russian Revolution, 1917-1923’, Signs (8, 2, 1982).
Getzler, I. Kronstadt 1917-1921 (1983) chs.6-7.
Hatch, J. ‘Working-class politics in Moscow during the early NEP: Mensheviks and workers’ organizations 1921-22’, Soviet Studies (4, 1987).
Mawdsley, E. ‘The Baltic Fleet and the Kronstadt mutiny’, Soviet Studies (4, 1972-3).
Radkey, O. The Election to the Russian Constituent Assembly of 1917 (1950).
Singleton, S. ‘The Tambov Revolt (1920-21)’, Slavic Review (3, 1966).
Voline The Unknown Revolution (1955) part 1.
On the Bolsheviks see:
Avrich, P. H. ‘The Bolshevik Revolution and workers’ control in Russian industry’, Slavic Review (1, 1963).
Benvenuti, F. The Bolsheviks and the Red Army 1918-1922 (1988) chs.4-5.
Duval, C. ‘Yakov M. Sverdlov and the All-Russian Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK): a study in Bolshevik consolidation of power, October 1917 - July 1918’, Soviet Studies (1, 1979).
Fitzpatrick, S. ‘The civil war as a formative experience’, in Gleason, A., et al., eds., Bolshevik Culture (1985).
Koenker, D., et al., eds. Party, State and Society in the Russian Civil War: Explorations in Social
History (1989) articles by Bonnell, McAuley, Orlovsky.
Kowalski, R. I. The Bolshevik Party in Conflict: The Left Communist Opposition in 1918 (1991).
Liebman, M. The Russian Revolution: The Origins, Phases and Meanings of the Bolshevik Victory (1970) chs.10-11.
Lih, L. T. ‘Bolshevik razverstka and War Communism’, Slavic Review (4, 1986).
Rigby, T. H. Lenin’s Government: Sovnarkom 1917-1922 (1979) part 3.
Rosenberg, W. G., et al. ‘Russian labor and Bolshevik power after October’, Slavic Review (2, 1985).
Associated primary source:
Заседание ЦК РСДРП(б) января и февраля 1918 г.