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Exile from Olynthus 126 July 2005

Exile

From

Olynthus

Women in

Mentoring and Networking

Greece, 1927-1928

Raymond Dessy

Virginia Tech

Wilhelmina van Ingen

"Willy"

Ethel Bell van Ingen

Based upon letters to "my little Mother"

from Willy, and her diary entries

Prof. David (Davy) Robinson


PREFACE

Some books are written. Others create themselves. This book grew from a feminine strand of mitochondrial DNA that was stumbled upon in a Classical History course taught by a charismatic Professor, Glen Bugh of Virginia Tech. Dr. Bugh, an Hellenic epigrapher, often lectures aboard the Smithsonian’s sailing ship in the Mediterranean, educating and entertaining its passengers with the world that was around them 2500 years ago. During one lecture at Virginia Tech he mentioned briefly the papers of Wilhelmina van Ingen, a young girl, 22 years of age, who had attended the 1927-1928 American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). She had participated in the first years dig at Olynthus in the Spring of 1928, working with Prof. David Robinson. Those papers were found in 15 boxes, totaling ~ 30 cubic feet of space in the Storage area for the Special Collections Division of Newman Library at Virginia Tech. Her husband Herschel Elarth donated the boxes to the University after Dr. van Ingen’s death in 1969. Only half of the collection was then inventoried, but the Control Folder of that material was intriguing. There were personal five-year diaries covering the period from 1927-1968, some personal letters she wrote to her Mother, shoeboxes full of postcards from travels she and her husband made around the world during their marriage, and a hodge-podge of personal papers and mementoes. Months of reading eventually unfolded the portrait of a young woman with an incisive, logical mind exploring the real world of study-abroad and archeological field-work. She was just beginning studies toward a Ph.D. in art and archeology at Johns Hopkins. Ms van Ingen was, fortunately, a former student and friend of Mrs. (Dr.) and Dr. Bert Hodge Hill. The latter, the pioneer of excavations at Corinth, had been just recently deposed as director of the ASCSA. Mrs. Hill provided introductions to Mrs. (Dr.) and Dr. Carl Blegen. He became the internationally known archeologist of Troy and many other locations. His wife became a professional and social doyenne in Athens. Ms van Ingen, "Willy", soon became a star pupil at ASCSA, and was asked to join with her mentor from Johns Hopkins, Dr. David Robinson, "Davy", who was beginning excavations at Olynthus, a Chalcidic Grecian city ravaged and destroyed in 348 B.C. by Philip II of Macedonia, the father of Alexander.

In the period from January to early May 1928 the student/mentor relationship between Davy and Ms van Ingen eroded, crumbled and exploded. The then bright lights of archeology— Hill, Blegen, Bonner, Carpenter, and the soon-to-be famous Mylonas— were all entangled in the tattered tale. Ms van Ingen left as an Exile from Olynthus, and pursued her Ph.D. degree at Harvard/Radcliffe under continuing Carnegie Corporation support.

It is possible to piece together most of the real story. It is a classic case of an egoistical, domineering and status-seeking mentor developing insensitivity to the needs of the student. Archeology had become , and external image, notoriety, publications and position became a circular set of forces that let the student drop out of the equation. The political and fiscal intrigues within ASCSA that had led to Bert Hodge Hill’s forced removal, Carpenter’s temporary directorship, and the scission from ASCSA of Carl Blegen— Hill’s close professional and personal colleague—added to the flames.

As a chemist who has trained over 100 Ph.D. level students over a 40 year career, and as a scientist who built a career in the halcyon years between the late 1950’s (Sputnik) and the late 1980’s (Relevant Research), the poignant plight of the student in 1928 Athens and Olynthus was familiar. The university has become the , and students’ needs are increasingly forgotten in the “greed for the green”. It was natural to let Ms van Ingen's letters and words flow to paper, trapping the mind of the student, and the mood and mania of the professor as an example of a critical lapsed responsibility. Mentoring was important in 1927-28; it is more important now. Those pre-Depression, pre-WWII students faced a future fraught with uncertainty. Today’s students face a world of globalization, mergers, divestiture of non-core assets, more “creative accounting”, and a lessened emphasis on the importance of basic research. Human nature has not changed, but the above worldly factors create tense surroundings in which a lack of trust and truth in people and governments is even more tragic.

Robinson’s Olynthus dig did enlarge his reputation, but time has increased the professional stains on his work— strains in his performance that originally started the tears in his student/mentor relationship with Ms van Ingen. Ms van Ingen’s 1928 analyses were correct— but she was just a student then, and few listened— then. Perhaps this document will give her mind a new voice.

Having been involved in many mentor defections in the ‘graves’ of academe, and having to often help extract the students from the Laocoon tangles of ineffective Graduate Committees and Graduate Schools, helped channel the initial quest into avenues that examined the political and fiscal environment within ASCSA in 1922-1928. Using the 1927-1928 ASCSA class cohort one can examine the strength of that well-constructed environment which, despite problems, produced such people as Virginia Grace, Wilhelmina van Ingen, and Herbert Couch, and began the short, but brilliant career of Frederick Grace. It was a strong, select group that helped change their scientific field.

The author finally recognized that during the Olynthus dig Ms van Ingen lived in an area that had become a refugee camp during the mass migration of ~1.5 million people between Turkey and Greece. This migration resulted from a poorly constructed, careless, Western-oriented peace treaty at Lausanne that supposedly ended the Greco-Turkish war— a war that was fanned, if indeed not lit, by Western interests in Near-East Oil. The Western powers did not understand, and did not care, about the ethnic issues that were stirred by their tacit support of a Greek incursion into deep Turkey— an incursion that was cut off bloodily by Kamil Ataturk. The West stood by while Smyrna burned. Greece was badly hurt, in spirit and development, like Willy.

But Olynthus was also besieged and leveled, like Carthage, by Philip II for reasons of political hegemony. He was viewed by Demosthenes, who never met him, as the Axis of Evil. Demosthenes’ speeches, the “Philipics” are eloquent presages of what became disinformation strategies or justified calls-to-arms, depending upon your viewpoint. These paralleled to some extent the propaganda distributed by ASCSA in justifying Bert Hodge Hill’s expulsion.

The similar paths trod by professors, politicians, and inhabitants of professional-ponds suggest a commonality- tanks of fish that are not cleaned out often enough. And that analogy suggests a comparative examination with the habits, hubris, horrors and hostilities of Homer’s heroes in the Iliad and Odyssey. The clan and tribal nature of man may be more generic and general than supposed. It is such an easy path to becoming an Exile from Olynthus.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Research in the humanities is quite different from that in experimental science. In the latter, if the data do not quite agree or fit the hypothesis, experiments can be repeated or new ones devised. In the humanities the experiments, the events, the evidence and the time-line cannot be re-experienced or repeated. The record is what it is— fragmented, incomplete, unreadable, misplaced, or lost. The Internet helps a great deal, but ultimately one requires the assistance of reference librarians, archivists, and living colleagues who will share the needed connecting information and links.

Prof. Glen Bugh of Virginia Tech (VT) deserves special thanks for creating the spark that flamed the van Ingen trail. The gracious and professional assistance of the following individuals was essential to a scientist swimming in the humanities- Gail McMillan, Director of the Digital Library and Archives and Special Collection at Virginia Tech, and D. Jane Wills, John M. Jackson, Tamara Kennelly, and Jennifer Meehan of Special Collections. Jan Carlton and Marney Andrews also provided encouragement and direction in the first month of the year 2000 when this quest began. Heather Ball, Librarian at the Art and Architecture Library at VT, was instrumental in locating the lost text-books used by Ms van Ingen. Archivists were vital to pursuing the career of Frederick R. Grace— at the Fogg Art Museum of Harvard University, Abigail G. Smith; at the American School for Classical Studies at Athens, Natalia Vogeikoff-Brogan. Prof. Brunilde S. Ridgway, Rhys Carpenter Professor at Bryn Mawr, provided valuable insight into Carpenter's unique mind and character, and Eileen Markson, Director of the Rhys Carpenter Library at Bryn Mawr provided the leads to biographical information concerning him. Jeffrey A. Cohen of Bryn Mawr located the trail-heads needed for exploring the American School for Classical Studies at Athens. Ione Mylonas Shear, daughter of Prof. George Mylonas shared some personal remembrances of her Father, who played such an important part in the Olynthus story, and subsequently in American archeology. She also shared warm, intimate revelations that suggest how small and close the archeology community was in the first half of the 20th Century. Her husband served as the third director of the Agora excavations; his father was the first. Ione met her husband at a dig at Eleusis.

Special thanks to those who permitted use of quotations from their Web sites, cited in the text: Nick Cahill, Martha Joukowsky, Alan Kaiser, David Rhees, Susan Rotroff , Stephen Tracy, and Jan Trembly. Maps are by David Greenspan.

John Baird and his Digital Imaging, Learning Technologies Group, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in conjunction with D. Jane Wills, scanned the Van Ingen portrait photographs from the Van Ingen-Elarth collection. These portraits are also available at ImageBase (http://imagebase.lib.vt.edu/), housed and operated by the Digital Library and Archives, VT University Libraries. Other images of the Greek scene were scanned using the services of the New Media Center at VT. The latter photographs, originally taken by Ms van Ingen, are used through the courtesy of Eunice Burr Couch. The portrayed coins came from Dr. van Ingen-Elarth, who left them with the author in 1968 to be cleaned. Her premature death buried them temporarily. Willy's pottery examples are held within VT's Special Collections.

TEXT CONTENTSSection I

PRELUDE

THE PLAYERS

Students and Affiliates

ASCSA Staff

THE STAGE

THE PLAY

EXILE FROM OLYNTHUS— Fay ce que voudras

Prologue

Letter Extracts

Diary Extracts

Section II

THE CRITICS

A Psychologist

A Sociologist

A Liberal

A Defender

The Reactionary

An Archeologist

A Cynic

A Defense of four players

Wilhelmina van Ingen (1905-1969)

Frederick Grace (1909-1942)

Eunice Stebbins

Herbert Couch (1899-1959)

MYSTERIOUS POETRY

ANNOTATED Guide du Musee

GREEK POTTERY- Rouge et Noire

Section III

A DIG” AT ASCSA, 1927-1928

The Capps’ Years

Edward Capps

David Robinson

Bert Hodge Hill

Ida Carleton Thallon-Hill

Carl W. Blegen

Elizabeth Pierce-Blegen

George Mylonas

The Roaring Twenties

Excavations of Acrocappseion

Section IV

A CARPENTER BUILDS

Rhys Carpenter

Brunilde Ridgway

Lucy Shoe Merrit

MENTOR-4

CODA

PHOTOGRAPHIC CONTENTS

The van Ingens' Portraits

Letters & Diary Photos

ASCSA Athens Scenes

School Trips' Transport

ASCSA Trips_1

ASCSA Trips_2

ASCSA Trips_3

Myriopyto Village Scenes

Olynthus Sketch Map

Olynthus Dig Site

Olynthus Dig Site Scenes

Tip-In Notes to Guide du Musee

Tip-In Notes- Figures from Guide du Musee

Foundry Painter Vessels

Coins

Pottery Photos_1

Pottery Photos_2

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NOTES FOR THE DOWNLOADER

The text is divided into four sections:

Orientation and excerpts from the letters and diaries ~40%

Criticisms and defenses of Willy's actions and abilities ~20%

A political analysis of ASCSA and archeology in the 1920's ~20%

Mentorship and networking in and ~20%

_____

Total 1 Mbyte

The photographs are contained in seventeen sections of ~ 1 Mbyte each.

All but one of the sections present previously unpublished materials.

PRELUDE

The American School for Classical Studies at Athens has provided the mentoring and maturing environment for young archeologists for over a Century. It has provided Summer Programs and Academic Year Programs for a carefully selected group of men and women who are poised to become the future professionals in archeology, classical art and architecture, Hellenic and Hellenistic history, epigraphy, evolution and revolution in ancient religions, and the translators of a cultural inheritance that has cyclically built and rebuilt the politics, societies, and physical shapes in most Western countries.

(with permission, from the ASCSA Web site, by Stephen Tracy, http://www.ascsa.edu.gr/)

Under the leadership of Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard University , scholars from nine American colleges assisted by a small group of influential business men established the American School in 1881. Their intention was to create a school [in Norton’s words] “where young scholars might carry on the study of Greek thought and life to the best advantage, and where those who were proposing to become teachers of Greek might gain such acquaintance with the land and such knowledge of its ancient monuments as should give a quality to their teaching unattainable without this experience.” They formed a Managing Committee to provide academic leadership; it decided to open the School at once and, while endowment was being raised, to solicit contributions from the cooperating colleges to operate. The ASCSA remains, as its founders envisioned, a privately funded, non-profit educational institution.

From humble and uncertain beginnings, the ASCSA has grown into one of the leading research centers in Greece. It serves the students and faculty of 155 affiliated colleges and universities in North America. Guided in academic matters by a Managing Committee composed of faculty representatives from these member institutions, the School continues true to its original mission: to teach the archaeology, art, history, language and literature of Greece from earliest times to the present, to survey and excavate archaeological sites in Greek lands, and to publish the results of its excavations and research. Some 350 students and scholars from North America avail themselves of the School’s facilities each year.

The School’s main building was constructed in 1887 on land donated by the Greek government on the southern slope of Mount Lycabettus , in an area that was then outside of the city. This is now the district known as Kolonaki, one of the most fashionable areas in the center of the modern city. The original building was enlarged in 1913 to 1916 by the addition of a wing to the east. In 1958 to 1959, the Arthur Vining Davis Wing, named for the donor, was built to the north and a further extension was added to the south in 1992. The main building and its extensions house the Blegen Library, the Wiener Laboratory, administrative offices, archives, computing facilities, and the Director’s residence.

Across the street from the main building stands the Gennadius Library. Built in 1926 and completely renovated in 1999, this historic neoclassical structure is flanked by staff residences. A long needed School auditorium, Cotsen Hall, named for the donor and Board President (1996-1999) Lloyd Cotsen, is now under construction as an extension of the east wing of the Gennadeion and should be completed in 2004. Nearby Loring Hall dates from 1930; with its annex and attached house, it provides living quarters, common rooms, and dining hall for some thirty students, visiting scholars, and staff.

Offices, library, research facilities, and living quarters are also located in ancient Corinth, site of the School’s longest continuing excavation which began in 1896. The main house, named for Bert Hodge Hill, Director of the School (1906-1926), stands adjacent to student and staff bungalows. In addition, offices, library and research facilities are to be found in the School’s excavation in the ancient agora in Athens at the Stoa of Attalos.

The School has a long and distinguished history of scholarly work in Greece and Crete . Among many outstanding field archaeologists, one may cite, for example, Carl Blegen, Oscar Broneer, John Caskey, Harriet Boyd-Hawes, Bert Hodge Hill, Richard Seager, Homer Thompson, and Eugene Vanderpool to name just a few.

The resident staff at ASCSA provides a continuing support infrastructure to the libraries, teaching units, historical and active archeological-site visitations, and liaison with other classical study organizations from various countries. ASCSA has a complex bureaucratic governance body derived from academic institution personnel that has evolved through the growth of ASCSA and the temporal pressures of the 20th Century.

In the late 1920’s this governance structure consisted of the Chairman of the Managing Committee, the Managing Committee itself, an Executive Committee of the Managing Committee, and the Director and Assistant Director of The School. The teaching staff often consisted of luminaries in the various areas, and was usually constituted by quite competent individuals. Visiting lecturers invited for their renown or for their political connections augmented the courses the students were offered.

The 1920’s were a period of growth, strife, tension and both revolution and resolution for ASCSA. The vicissitudes of WWI that resulted in the death of millions, and the diphtheria pandemic that caused even a higher death toll, gave way to an effervescent period in the United States and much of Western Europe termed the “Roaring Twenties”. Bubbles of euphoria tingled the thoughts and mores of society— and the celebrations of the new economy that ballooned after the calamity and contagion of the previous years changed the nature of life, night-life, music, dance, art, and even science. Automobiles made people more mobile, education and an ascending wave of modest affluence molded new minds, and a swinging society of young men and women sang out for new freedoms and for change.

These militant melodies often collided in dissonant counter-point with the traditional chorus. Neither side envisaged the coming financial Depression that would muffle the new sounds, nor the related rise of Fascisms and Imperial mandates that excoriatingly and excruciatingly marred the ‘30s with repression, occupations, capitulations, and concessions. This tinder then lit the flames of WWII. Students who attended ASCSA in 1927-1928 were to become the leading edge of what has been termed “The Greatest Generation”.

The professional arena that was their coliseum also faced changes from a demanding society and exploding economy in the 1920’s. Something happened to archeology in that period that had its roots one-hundred years earlier, as the famous Hellenic statue of Venus from the island of Melos was first unearthed, then dragged through the labyrinth of politics, ego, and Nationalism to the Louvre in Paris. When the mental dust, repair plaster, and squeaks of rubbing ballooned-egos settled, the Venus de Milo finally rested in conjoined pieces, but in peace. Archeology, in contrast, was changed from the province of the aristocratic wealthy and impecunious academics to a brutal contact sport. Nationalism demanded that France have a symbol of Hellenic majesty that supported the supremacy of a country that aspired to return to its preeminence in culture and learning after demeaning defeats to England, Germany and Russia. After Napoleon's escape from Elba and his subsequent defeat at Waterloo, an armed squadron from the victor nations descended on the Louvre and seized the Apollo Belvedere that the French had previously plundered from Italy. The Apollo migrated to the Vatican. This humiliating loss, and the residence of the "Elgin" Marbles in London, ripped bloodily from the Athena Parthenon by the interests of Lord Elgin and his wife's drive and competence, was to be balanced by the Venus, slyly slipped away from the wily Turks who then ruled Melos. France needed such a classical "momento” to rebalance national pride and provide inspiration to France's future artists. The tortuous trip of the Venus de Milo from the hands of Greek peasants and patriarchs, Turkish pashas, and all sorts of pirates to its home in the Louvre is almost unbelievable. Even more tortuous are the political intrigues among art and archeology pundits and curators on matter of the dating of the statue—was it Hellenic or Hellenistic. What were her missing arms doing or holding— embracing Poseidon, Mars, or a warrior, resting on a pedestal, or holding an apple (melos = apple, and the symbol of Venus' victory over Juno and Minerva with respect to Paris). How were the hermes originally found nearby (Hermes or Hercules) related? Pessimistic forensic archeologists sometimes hint that pieces of the ensemble were deliberately lost or altered to support one interpretation or another. A lucid account of the Holmesian affair may be enjoyed in Disarmed- The Story of the Venus de Milo (Gregory Curtis, Alfred Knopf, 2003). Various curators of the Louvre, with a thirst for power, and dusty archeologists with aspirations of fame, argued and pondered and published. Archeologists lit a flame with their hype that attracted the interest, zeal, fantasy and fanaticism of the public. That flame burnt, with varying intensity, through the following decades. It leaped across the firebreaks of common sense in a crown-fire that spread from the Valley of the Kings in Egypt to Anatolia and Troy and on to Greece. The fuels of Nationalism, ego, fame, and academic laurels were thrown onto the roaring flames. Archeology had morphed into . Money spawned digs, and digs led to publications, and papers led to some type of eminence, and that attracted money.

What results when science and their University become and will be the subject of a subsequent section. The changes are traumatic to the discipline and sometimes fatal to students and young faculty, as the following play-in-reality reveals.

In Greece, at ASCSA, in the 1922-26 period, the close personal and professional coupling of the well recognized archeologists, Carl Blegen and Burt Hodge Hill, was tested by a Managing Committee that had been stirred, like hornets on a chilly morning, by accusations that Hill’s long term digs at Corinth needed to be published immediately to attract more financial support for further archeological digs in Greece. Hill, a careful cautious archeologist, resisted the pressures. As Director of the School he posed to many of the Managing Committee, and particularly its Executive Committee, an obstacle to the progress that was demanded by archeology, its American societal support, political relationships with the Greek Government that controlled digging rights, and as defense against competition from other Country’s archeological teams. Hill must go! His friend, Carl Blegen, was the archeologist who corrected Schliemann’s mistaken identity of the site of Troy, where Helen’s abduction or acquiescence launched a thousand ships, led to the mythical or real deaths of hordes of heroes whose blood became the ink of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Blegen, then Assistant Director of the School, assumed a temporary Directorship for the School for one year, 1926-1927. At the end of that time he chose his own path. Rhys Carpenter, a shy, but academically formidable member of the Executive Committee of the Managing Committee, formally became Director of The School in 1927. George Mylonas, Bursar at The School and a Greek citizen who grew to become a respected archeologist in America, resigned in 1928. The eminence gris of the affair was undoubtedly Edward Capps, Chairman of the Managing Committee from 1918-1939.

Fidgeting in the wings was David Moore Robinson, of Johns Hopkins University.

Although well-published and -reputed, he was not entangled in the incestuous relationships of the Managing Committee and its Executive Committee. He had served briefly on both prior to WWI. Robinson was convinced that the site of Olynthus (Olynthos), a city besieged and then annihilated in 348 BC by Philip II of Macedonia, was located on the banks of a Chalcidic river a short walk from the town of Myriophyto. The small town had been enlarged as a consequence of the forced migration in 1923 of hundreds-of-thousands of Anatolian Greeks back to the Greek mainland. His shovel was ready to explore the ridges and ravine defined by two small hills near Saloniki. The refugees could provide a ready source of labor. The British archeological team was familiar with the area, but had their shovels full at other digs.

What Robinson needed was approval from the Greek Government, and that required the approval of the ASCSA. The political environment was turbulent. The Greek Government’s troubles were vexing. Resurrecting the glory of classical Greece was essential to reconstructing the pride of a country that had been tattered by the recent war with Turkey, a war encouraged by the Bismarckian and Machiavellian intrigues of France, Italy and England, with some assistance from the United States. The Western powers, intent on creating some hegemony of influence over the Near Eastern oil fields, had encouraged Greece to thrust its troops from the Western shores of Turkey to the outskirts of Ankara. Foreign diplomats and politicians smoothly transmitted an implied support for their cause. When the Greek supply lines were overextended, Kamil Ataturk struck, and slaughtered the Greek Army as it retreated to Smyrna, which was put to the torch by one side or the other. The Treaty of Lausanne that followed had the same sensitivity as the Treaty of Versailles. Imposed by Western interests, with a lack of knowledge, it led to an enforced exchange of ~ 1.5 million Anatolian “Greeks” and Macedonian “Turks to their supposed “homelands”. In most cases, the refugee’s religion was the deciding factor.

But, the impact of absorbing the refugees, and the imposed indemnities, had crippled the Greek economy. As foreign powers sought to excavate the Agora of Athens, rebuild Boeotian temples, uncover Corinth, and dig up Delphi, it seemed reasonable for the Greeks to seek a fiscal return. The foreign countries felt differently. The official history of the ASCSA reveals the following:

(with permission, A History of the American School for Classical Studies at Athens, 1882-1942, Louis Lord, Harvard University Press, 1947]

The political conditions (1927-1928) were peculiarly unfavorable, the Ministry of Mr. Kaphandaris, which was then in power, being a coalition government composed of discordant, and, under the surface, hostile political elements. … the entire “archeological area” to the north, east and south of the Acropolis had been thoroughly organized, ostensibly to resist the granting of any concession to excavators, but in reality, as one often had reason to suspect, to extract unreasonable indemnifications from the Americans. At any rate, the group of protestants were numerous enough to exercise strong political pressure, and they were supported by the majority of the press. (pp 200-201)

… It had been the practice hallowed by time that excavations in Greek territory by Americans should be under the auspices of The School. This was a tradition of gradual growth. … It seemed an appropriate time, therefore, to clarify this situation and lay down rules which might apply to enterprises … in the future. The matter was brought to a head by a new decree issued by the Greek Government allowing foreigners who were not connected with any of the archeological schools certain privileges of excavation. The Managing Committee sent to Carpenter for presentation to the Government a request that the operation of this decree be suspended. This protest was at once presented by Carpenter to Mr. Kourouniotis, Chief of the Archeological Division of the Ministry of Education. After an interview in which the Minister radiated a considerable amount of heat (private letter of Carpenter), the School’s protest was successfully sustained by Carpenter, and Mr. Koiurouniotis wrote to Capps a letter … in which he gave assurances “that no permission would be granted to an American Archeologist to excavate in Greece in conjunction with a Greek, independent of the American School at Athens. (pp 204-205)

Whatever went on behind the scenes, the outcome was a rapprochement that allowed Robinson to proceed in the early Spring of 1928 with an exploratory dig at Olynthus, provided he had three students of the ASCSA with him. One of them, Wilhelmina van Ingen, a first-year graduate student then studying with Robinson at Johns Hopkins, wrote a almost one hundred letters to her Mother during the period of September 1927 through July 1928, covering the first several months of the initial digs at Olynthus. Robinson had probed a bit in February 1928, but work proceeded apace in March of that year. Wilhelmina also kept a personal set of 5-year diaries that began in 1927 and cover all of her active years until her death in 1968. Her writings offer an archeologist of history— whether real or fictional— opportunities to sieve through the clay of days-in-the-field, and find some shards-of-the-mind that provoke interpretations of the past and prognostications of the future in science and education.

The ASCSA normally provided an ideal mentoring environment for its students. They were exposed to didactic materials, stimulating courses, astounding seminars, field-trips to the sites that are the laboratory of archeology, and personal and professional mentoring that could allow them to develop into the future of the discipline. Many fulfilled the hopes and efforts of their mentors. Some of the students failed in their quest, but some of the mentors failed in their responsibilities. The hot, wet Summer of 1928 saw a Greek tragedy, and an Academic comedy on the hills of Olynthus that sends lessons to today.

THE PLAYERS

Students and Affiliates, American School for Classical Studies Athens, 1927-28

[last entry, if given, is position reported at time ASCSA History was last compiled, (~1942-1945),

“A History of the American School for Classical Studies at Athens, 1882-1942, Louis Lord, Harvard University Press, 1947]

Couch, Herbert Newell

1928 (not listed in ASCSA History)

A.B. Victoria College, University of Toronto, 1924; A.M. Johns Hopkins, 1927; Ph.D. Johns Hopkins, 1927; A.M. au eundem Brown University, 1945. Immigrated to U.S.A. in 1924, naturalized 1937. Assoc. in Classics and Curator Classical Museum, Univ. of Illinois, 1928-1930; Asst. Prof. Classics Brown Univ., 1930-1938; Assoc. Prof., 1938-1945; Prof., 1945- . (see Stebbins, Eunice Burr, married May 1928)

Grace, Frederick R.

1928 (not listed in ASCSA History)

B.A. Harvard University, 1930; Ph.D. Harvard University, 1938. Assistant to the Directors of The Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University.

Grace, Virginia Fitz Randolph

    1. 1930-1931 (periods of attendance)

Agora Fellow, 1936. A.B. Bryn Mawr College, 1922; A.M. Bryn Mawr College 1929; Ph.D. Bryn Mawr College, 1934. Member, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ

Hansen, Hazel Dorothy

    1. 1936-1937

Fellow of the Archeological Institute of America, 1923-1924. A.B. Stanford University, 1920; A.M. Stanford University, 1921; Ph.D. Stanford University, 1926; Professor of Classics, Stanford University.

Hopkins, Clark (and Mrs. Hopkins)

1927-1928

A.B. Yale University, 1917; A.B. and A.M. Balliol College, Oxford University, 1921; Ph.D. University of Wisconsin, 1924. Prof. Of Latin and Greek, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Sullivan-Hopkins, Susan Mary

1927-1928

A.B. University of Wisconsin, 1923; A.M. University of Wisconsin, 1925.

Johnson, Jotham

1926-1928

Fellow of The Archeological Institute of America, 1927-1928; A.B. Princeton University, 1926; Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, 1931; Assistant Professor of Classics, New York University, NY.

Kahn, Margaret Gisela

1927-1928

Charles Elliot Norton Fellow, 1927-1928. A.B. Radcliffe College, 1927; A.M. Columbia University, 1932.

Newhall, Agnes Ellen

1927-1932

Fellow of the School of Archeology, 1928-1929; Special Fellow in Archeology, 1929-1932; A.B. Bryn Mawr College, 1927.

Pease, Mary Zelia

1927-1929 1932-1934 1935-1937

Fellow of the Archeological Institute of America, 1928-1929; Special Fellow in Archeology, 1932-1933. A.B. Bryn Mawr College, 1927; Ph.D. Bryn Mawr College, 1933.

Schaeffer, Frederick William

1927-1928

A.B. Williams College, 1927. (died 1936, London Ontario, Canada)

Stebbins, Eunice Burr

1927-1928

Fellow of The School of Archeology, 1927-1928. A.B. Smith College, 1916; A.M. Johns Hopkins University, 1926; Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University, 1927.

Van Ingen, Wilhelmina

1927-1928

A.B. Vassar College, 1926; A.M. Radcliffe College, 1929; Ph.D. Radcliffe College, 1932. Assistant Professor, Wheaton College., Norton, Massachusetts.

Wallace, Sherman LeRoy

1927-1928

Fellow in the School in the Greek Language, Literature and History, 1927-1928. A.B. University of Wisconsin, 1924; A.M. University of Wisconsin, 1925; A.M. Princeton University, 1926; Ph.D. Princeton University, 1933. U.S. Government.

Westbrook, Howard Theodoric

1927-1928

A.B. Hamilton College, 1922; A.M. Wesleyan University, 1923; Associate Prof. Of History and Literature, Scripps College, Claremont, CA.

ASCSA Staff

Blegen, Carl William (and Mrs. Blegen)

1910-1913

Fellow of The School in Archeology. A.B. University of Minnesota, 1907; A.B. Yale University, 1908; Ph.D. Yale University, 1920. Prof. Of Classical Archeology, University of Cincinnati.

Member of Managing Committee of ASCSA 1920-1927.

Assistant Director of The School, 1920-1926.

Acting Director of The School, 1926-1927.

Pierce-Blegen, Elizabeth Denny

1922-1923

A.B. Vassar College, 1910; A.M. Vassar College, 1912; Ph.D. Columbia University, 1922.

Bonner, Campbell

Visiting Professor ASCSA 1927-1928

University of Michigan

Member of Managing Committee of ASCSA 1913-

Executive Committee of the Managing Committee of The School, 1918-1920; 1928-1931.

Broneer, Oscar Theodore

1924-1928

Fellow of The Archeological Institute of America, 1925-1926; Fellow of The School in Archeology, 1926-1927; Special Fellow in Archeology, 1927-1928. A.B. Augustana College, 1922; A.M. Univ. of California, 1923; Ph.D. University of California, 1931. Prof. Of Archeology, ASCSA, Athens, Greece.

Capps, Edward

1893-1894

A.B. Illinois College, 1887; Ph.D. Yale University, 1891; LL.D. Illinois College, 1911; Litt.D. Oberlin College, 1923; L.H.D. Harvard University, 1924; Litt.D. University of Michigan, 1931; LL.D. University of Athens, 1937; Litt.D. Oxford University, 1946. Prof. Of Classics, Emeritus, Princeton University.

Member of Managing Committee of ASCSA 1908-

Executive Committee of the Managing Committee of The School, 1938-1943

Chairman of The Managing Committee of The School, 1918-1939

Director of The School, 1935-1936

Carpenter, Rhys

1912-1913

A.B. Columbia University, 1908; A.B. Baliol College, Oxford University, 1911; A.M. Oxford University, 1914; Ph.D. Columbia University, 1916; Litt. D. Rutgers University, 1941. Professor of Classical Art and Archeology, Bryn Mawr College.

Member of Managing Committee of ASCSA 1920-

Executive Committee of the Managing Committee of The School, 1925-1926

Director of The School, 1927-1932

Executive Committee of the Managing Committee of The School, 1932-1935

Hill, Burt Hodge (and Mrs. Hill)

1900-1903

Fellow of The Archeological Institute of America, 1901-1903. A.B. University of Vermont, 1895; A.M. Columbia University, 1900; L.H.D. University of Vermont, 1920. Director of the University of Pennsylvania Excavations in Cyprus.

Member of Managing Committee of ASCSA 1906-1926.

Director of The School, 1906-1926.

Thallon-Hill, Ida Carleton

1899-1901

A.B. Vassar College, 1897; A.M. Vassar College, 1901; Ph.D. Columbia University, 1905.

Mylonas, George E.

B.A. International College, Smyrna, 1918; Ph.D. University of Athens, 1927; Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University, 1929; Immigrated to U.S.A 1928, naturalized 1937. Professor and Department Head, Washington University, St. Louis. (assistant at Olynthus 1928; assistant director Olynthus 1931; field director Olynthus, 1938)

Meritt, Benjamin Dean

1920-1922

Fellow of The Archeological Institute of America, 1921-1922. A.M. Hamilton College, 1923; A.M. Princeton University, 1923; Ph.D. Princeton University, 1924; D. Litt. Oxford University, 1936; LL.D. Hamilton College, 1937. Prof., Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.

Member of Managing Committee of ASCSA 1926-

Assistant Director of The School, 1926-1928.

Robinson, David Moore (and Mrs. Robinson)

1901-1903

Fellow of the School in Archeology, 1902-1903. A.B. University of Chicago, 1898; Ph.D. University of Chicago, 1904; LL.D. Jamestown College, 1915; L.H.D. Trinity College, 1925; Litt.D. Syracuse University, 1933. W.H. Collins Vickers Prof. Of Archeology and Epigraphy; Lecturer on Greek Literature, Johns Hopkins University.

Member of Managing Committee of ASCSA 1908-

Executive Committee of the Managing Committee of The School, 1912-1914

THE STAGE

(from American Journal of Archeology, Vol. 33, No 1, 1929, 53-76)

A Prelimary Report on the Excavation of Olynthos

David M. Robinson

American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Excavations at Olynthos1 were begun on February 17, 1928, and continued with more than 200 workmen, most of whom were refugees, with Decauville track and cars and other proper equipment until June 2. The campaign was under the auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, with a permit granted by the Greek Government on February 9.

The staff consisted of Dr. and Mrs. George Mylonas, Dr. and Mr. Clark Hopkins, Dr. Herbert Couch, Miss Eunice B. Stebbins, Miss Wilhelmina van Ingen, Miss Hazel Hansen, Prof. Charles W. Peppler of Duke University, Miss Lillian Wilson, Miss Jeannie Loomis, Mrs. David Robinson, Prof, Mary McGhee of Vassar College, Mr. R.S. Darbshire, Mr. Euripides Melanides, Mr. Kostas Nicolaides, Mr. Youry de Fomine, and Mr. Alexander Schmidt.

(the professional titles of Dr. Mrs. Clark Hopkins and Dr. Miss Hazel Hansen were omitted)

  1. In 1902 I visited Myriophyto, which belonged to Turkey, and since then I have always had the idea that the two long flat hills on the opposite, east bank of the River Retsinikia, the ancient Sandanos represented the site of Olynthos. But no one had ever tested the hills by systematic excavation … In B.S.A, XXI, 1914-1916, p 11, Mr. Wace said that it was hoped that the British School at Athens would before long be able to begin excavations, but Mr. George Macmillan, Chairman of the British Committee, was kind enough to call a meeting of his committee at which it appeared that no application had been made to the Greek authorities though the question had come up a good many times. Mr. Macmillan wrote “It hardly was a case of withdrawing an actual claim. The British School does not hold any rights in the matter, so that it is quite open to you or any American organization to approach the Greek authorities. … It would be impossible for us, in any case, to tackle the site at the present time.”

THE PLAY

A play in four acts, and an itinerary covering Europe and Greece, 1927-1928

ACT 1

Miss Wilhelmina van Ingen

Left USA (05) August, 1927

London 15 August-25 August

Paris 25 August-03 September

Florence 04 September-10 September

Rome 10 September- 21 September

Naples 22 September- 25 September

Taranto-Brindisi 25 September- 28 September

Athens 30 September-

ACT II

Miss van Ingen, and others

Athens

Northern School Trip

Chalcis, Delphi, Livada 05-14 October

Pelopennesus School Trip 14-22 November

Crete/Knossos School Trip 02- 11 March

Athens

ACT III

Miss van Ingen, Miss Eunice Stebbins, Mr. Herbert Couch and Mr. Ted Grace,

With cameo appearances by Mrs. Carl Blegen, Mrs. Burt Hodge Hill, and Dr. and Mrs. David Robinson

Olynthus Dig and Myriophyto 16 March 1927- 05 May 1928

ACT IV

Miss van Ingen, Mr. Ted Grace, and others

Return to Athens

Two CycladesTrips (personal, with Ted Grace, and various others) June 1928

Return to USA 04-23 July 1928

Exile from Olynthus

Fay ce que voudras



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