For Public Health Professionals
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Sustainable Management Development Program
Division of Public Health Systems and Workforce Development
Center for Global Health
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Project Management for Public Health Professionals iii
Sustainable Management Development Program vi
Project Management for Public Health Professionals 1
About this Course 1
Target Audience 1
Learning Objectives 1
Icon Glossary 2
Introduction to Project Management 1
What is a Project? 1
What is Project Management? 2
The Project Management Method 2
Initiate and Define 1
Step 1 Select Project and Define Scope 1
Step 2: Define Activities 3
Step 3: Determine Task Dependencies 12
Step 4: Develop Schedule 14
Step 5: Allocate Resources 17
Step 6: Create A Plan to Address Risks 22
Step 7: Develop Communication Plan 28
Implement & Control 32
Step 8: Implement the Project 32
Step 9: Monitor and Take Corrective Actions 34
Step 10: Close Out and Document 39
What’s Next? 45
Wysocki, Robert K. et al., Building Effective Project Teams. New York: Wiley, 2001 52
Appendix A Applied Learning Project 54
Appendix B Glossary of Terms 59
Appendix C Course Evaluation Form 65
SMDP partners with ministries of health, educational institutions, and nongovernmental organizations in developing countries to promote organizational excellence in public health by strengthening leadership and management capacity. SMDP’s goal is to improve the effectiveness of the public health sector in developing countries by
Empowering local officials with better leadership, management, and decision-making skills
Stimulating creativity and innovation among local health personnel to improve public health service delivery
Michael Greer – The Manager’s Pocket Guide to project Management
Gary Heerkens - Project Management
BZ Posner - What it Takes to be a Good Project Manager
Project Management Institute - Project Management Institute Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures
The goal of this course is to enable you to use internationally recognized processes and tools to support high quality management of public health projects.
This course is designed for supervisors in public health services, typically at Ministry of Health district-level. It is expected that you have responsibilities to assemble a project work team, design and implement a project plan, and evaluate project results.
The following are prerequisites to this course:
Basic computer skills
Basic supervisory skills
When you complete this course you will be able to:
Write a project workplan
Generate a work breakdown structure
Develop a network diagram and schedule
Track and manage the project
Close-out and conduct post project reviews to ensure continuous learning
Introduction to Project Management
The Project Management Method
Initiate & Define: step 1
Plan: steps 2-3
Plan: steps 4-7
Implement & Control: step 8-9
Close: step 10
The following icons are used in this workbook:
TIP: SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION TO HELP PERFORM A TASK MORE EASILY
Project Management for Public Health Professionals is a course based on the internationally-recognized standards for project management developed and promoted by the Project Management Institute (PMI). According to the PMI’s standards of practice document, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2004), a project is:
“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a
unique product or service.”
Projects can vary widely in size and scope, from large projects that may take many months to complete (building and equipping a hospital), to smaller projects that require less time to finish (installing the hospital’s computer network). A large project will typically be divided into many smaller sub-projects in order to be managed effectively. What both large and small projects have in common is that they are time limited and create a unique product or service.
In this workshop, we are going to learn ways to organize and manage our public health projects more effectively, regardless of their size.
Characteristics of a Project
Successful projects balance three key factors to meet their objective in a high quality manner.
“Project Management” means using knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.
fACTORS OF SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
Can you think of some characteristics of successful projects?
Skills Needed for Project Management
Three fundamental areas of skill needed by all project managers include:
Planning—the ability to plan the use or organizational resources of time, personnel, budget, facilities, equipment, and supplies to achieve organizational objectives
Technical—the specific professional technical skills needed for a project.
People—the ability to manage and motivate people who will implement the project activities, communicate effectively with stakeholders, and resolve conflicts and interpersonal problems.
Research among skilled project managers in the U.S. identified more specifically the skills that differentiate high performing project managers from their peers.1
These skills are listed in order of importance below.
Communication: listening, persuading, negotiating
Organizational: planning, goal-setting, analyzing
Team building: empathy, motivation, team spirit
Leadership: sets example, energetic, vision, delegates, positive attitude
Coping: flexibility, creativity, patience, persistence
Technical: experience, project knowledge
The project management method consists of ten steps and the use of a series of project management tools that will help you initiate, define, plan, execute, control and close- out your projects. All projects, regardless of their size, should consider these steps, although formal plans may not be required for very small projects.
1. Select project & define scope
2. Define project activities
3. Determine task dependencies
4. Develop schedule
5. Allocate resources
6, Create a plan to address risks
7. Create a communication plan with stakeholders
8. Implement the project
9. Monitor & take corrective action
Initiate and Define Checklist
Define project goals and objectives
Meet with stakeholders
Agree on project deliverables
Complete project agreement
Public Health professionals are frequently assigned a project to manage. They may not have a say in which project they work on, but based on their experience and skills, they may contribute a great deal to defining the scope and quality of the project. There may be many organizations interested in the outcome of the project. These stakeholders’ interests and expectations must also be taken into account.
The Initiate and Define stage enables you to define the project and gain agreement on the project’s goals and objectives.
The Project Workplan
A written description that clearly communicates what the project is (and is not).
Ideally, at the beginning of a project. Also useful to develop one for a project already started. Update it as needed.
The beneficiary of the project: the population who will be served by the project.
The project workplan is based on the project goal, objectives, and deliverables. In addition to these elements, it includes all project stakeholders and project assumptions.
A goal is the overall purpose of the project.
An objective is the specific measurable achievements expected at the end of the project.
Deliverables are the tangible outputs or products that are delivered as a result of the project.
It may also include a preliminary budget and project team. These will be developed in more detail during the planning phase.
Example AIDS Prevention background study
Imagine you are managing a project to implement a health education background study in Gabarone Botswana. The goal of this project is to systematically identify locations where people meet new sexual partners and/or needle-sharing partners and describe the social and sexual characteristics of the areas identified for the purpose of AIDS prevention. It uses a rapid assessment tool to monitor and improve AIDS prevention program coverage in areas where HIV transmission is most likely to occur.
The objectives of the study are to:
Assess and identify priority prevention areas (PPAs)
Determine where people meet new sexual and needle-sharing partners in the PPAs through community informant interviews
Characterize people who socialize at the venues reported
Use the results to inform key stakeholders
Based on the goal and project objectives, you can identify stakeholders and collaborate to develop a project workplan that will guide your planning.
We will use this example throughout the course to help illustrate the key points in project management.
Put a star (*) by the goal of the project
Put an exclamation point (!) by the objectives of the project
Put a check mark (√) by the deliverables of the project
Who are the Stakeholders?
The project manager is not the only person involved in initiating the project. There are many other stakeholders. A stakeholder is anyone who has an interest in the project. This includes the categories listed below, as well as persons from other organizations or work units that might be interested in or affected by the project.
A customer is anyone who will use the product or service created by the project. Customers can be internal or external and play an important role in determining the requirements for product or service.
A sponsor is the person who requires the project to be done. Sponsors are responsible for ensuring that the project team has the proper budget and staff resources to achieve the project objectives. The project sponsors should review and approve in writing the specific guidelines of the Project Workplan.
Team members are those persons who participate in planning and implementing the tasks necessary to achieve the project objectives.
What Can we assume?
Successful projects are the result of effective partnerships among stakeholders. Quite often, a project’s success is dependent upon certain key factors. If these factors are outside the direct control of the project manager, it is helpful to list these as assumptions. For example, if the project is depending on an outside organization’s promise to lend delivery vehicles, listing this as an assumption will clearly communicate the project’s risk to all stakeholders. You need not list every assumption, just the ones that you want to bring to stakeholders’ attention.
Exercise 1 Project Workplan
In your groups use the case study or the project you have agreed to work on to begin to write your Project Workplan.
Complete the Project Workplan:
What people skills did your team use to help you reach consensus? Discuss with your team.
Describe the background of this project. What is the problem that this project will address? Is it related to other projects? Is it a subproject of another project?
Write a project description statement here. Describe the goal, scope, or ‘boundaries’ of the project in terms of what is included and what is excluded from this specific project.
List project objectives
List project stakeholders (those interested in or affected by the project) who are not on the team.
List specific deliverables of the project (specific products the project will deliver, e.g. a product, delivery of a service)
Have the team brainstorm at least three assumptions made about the project that identify elements necessary for the project to succeed. For example, availability of special human or technical resources, needed equipment, budget support or any other issues that could affect the success of the project.
Use this section to summarize expected resources requirements or limitations, such as a fixed budget amount. You will develop detailed resource requirements in the planning phase of the project.
List project team members, if they’ve already been identified and their primary area of responsibility. If not yet identified, you may want to list general job titles. (ex health economist, HIV epidemiologist)
Identify the budget and procurement estimates for the project.
Signature Page Granting Authority to Proceed
Obtain signatures of project sponsor and project manager.
Project Manager Signature:______________________________________________
Project Sponsor Signature: ______________________________________________
Use transparent processes and explicit criteria when making project decisions.
Collaborate with the project team to create a project agreement to clearly describe the project.
Support the project’s success by deciding the priorities for time, quality and cost of the project.
Circle the attributes of a good project manager that are important during the Initiate and Define stage.