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Следует отметить, что английские писатели любят зевгму, она часто употребляется для создания юмористического эффекта. Возможно, это объясняется тем, что в английском языке довольно часто употребляются, как указывалось, логически несовместимые однородные члены, что является предпосылкой такого широкого употребления зевгмы.

5) Парцелляция- это экспрессивный синтаксический прием: предложение интонационно делится на самостоятельные отрезки, графически выделенные как самостоятельные предложения. Парцеллируется обычно тоже однородный член.

e.g. “That old man – it’s the only one he’s got.”

“Oh, yes! Of course you’d see it that way. Disloyally. Stupidly.” (Hailey) –

«Ведь у старика этот отель – единственный».

«Ну да, конечно. Ты это так рассматриваешь. Предательски. Глупо.»

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

  1. Great works of art over the last several thousand years have been pillaged, burned, bombed, neglected, discarded, ground up for lime if of marble, melted down if of gold or bronze, used to line shoes if on canvas – this in Germany during the last days of World War II – painted out, broken up, thrown away, and now and then reverently preserved. (The New York Times)

  2. Oh! But he was a tight-fisted hand at the grindstone, Scrooge! A squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous, old sinner. (Dickens)

  3. The fact that the government was finally – and firmly – coming to grips with crime impressed many. (Time)

  4. Remained the bedroom, small as the one occupied by Martin, into which she and her seven little ones crowded and slept. (London)

  5. The waiter came and they ordered spaghetti and half a bottle of Chianti, and watched the restaurant fill up with people and actors, who still had traces of grease-paint around their collars and tall, astonishing-looking girls in mink coats from the musical across the street.(Shaw)

  6. It was a little store on Grove Street in the slums. The people who came to the store were all interesting and poor. (Saroyan)

  7. My lady and Mr. Godfrey (not knowing what Mr. Franklin and I knew) both started and both looked surprised. (Collins)

  8. A few minutes later nurse Davis, starched and curious, arrived. (Christie)

  9. In a few seconds Crumble-Howard came stalking out of the cottage. He was scarlet in the face and alone. (Willock)

  10. He strolled to the window, saw a fine bright New England day and a knot of photographers. (Schlesinger)

  11. She seemed puzzled; not antagonistically puzzled, but puzzled puzzled. (Willingham)

  12. The old, the universal anodyne; the common lot. (Galsworthy)

  13. To think of the years and years and years it is since I did read. (Christie)

  14. “She was eating seed cake one day and one of the seeds got the wrong way and she choked and she choked and she choked and she died of it. Oh dear, that’s very sad, isn’t it?” (Christie)

  15. And wherever you go or turn, on streets or subways or buses or railroad stations or airports or reading the newspaper or the theatre program or getting a cup of coffee at the corner drugstore or looking up at the sky, your friendly advertiser is at you with his product, with his circling words, his jingles, his scareheads, his spiel about hats and toothpastes and night-clubs and smash hits and colossal bargains in laces and linens and buildings coming down and entire stocks that must be sold: everything, everything must go. And why? Why? For that New York look. For that sophistication money can’t buy, but you can. For last year’s Drama Critics’ Circle award winner, for that refurbished splendor, for that special something. You still have time. But hurry, hurry, hurry. Open till nine. (Ausler)

  16. Everyone was complaining that the TV, dominated by the carve-up of the three parties, was serving up dull and boring pap. (The Times)

  17. One of the main purposes of the UNO is adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace. (The UN Charter)

  18. The morning found her out of wool and patience. (Chesterton)

  19. The Dean collected his wits and his hat. (Chesterton)

  20. Colonel Ito (who had thrown himself upon the Russian guns at the siege of Port Arthur) had been blown to pieces and into national immortality. (Michener)

  21. He (Ashenden) was ingratiating, ingenuous, humble, grateful, flattering, simple, and timid. (Maugham)

  22. He took three weeks off and a ticket to Mentona. (Galsworthy)

  23. This conscious, deliberate, calculated Government policy spells ruin for Britain if we meekly accept it. (The Guardian)

  24. Recently, at the opening of this Parliament, we had again the opportunity of witnessing all the splendour, pomp and pageantry which, my honourable Friend will assure me, bespeaks the greatness of our nation. Did any of my honourable Friends contrast it, for one second, with the beggary, poverty, misery and penury which exist within the greatness of that nation. (Cronin)

  25. It was cold, bleak, biting weather. (Dickens)

  26. Her eyes were wide, tranquil and calm. (Manning)

  27. His wife, he thought, would at this moment be doing something silly or foolish or, if not that, she would be doing something which might not be silly or foolish but would be highly dangerous. (Willingham)

  28. London had in the world only one commercial rival, now long outstripped, the mighty and opulent Amsterdam.(Macaulay)

  29. Poets loved to contrast its (Chelsea) silence and repose with the din and turmoil of the monster London. (Macaulay)

  30. The Pacific is inconstant and uncertain like the soul of man. (Maugham)

  31. The billows, magnificently rolling, stretch widely on all sides of you, and you forget your vanished youth, with its memories, cruel and sweet, in a restless, intolerable desire for life. (Maugham)

  32. She (freedom) is a child of people, born in the very height and heat of battle. (Norris)

  33. Captain Trevelyan’s own room was in exquisite and apple-pie order. It was the room of a man almost fanatically tidy and neat in his habits. (Christie)

  34. Parliament (i.e. Government) must give leadership and take decisions. The public’s function is to watch and weigh the Government’s actions with a view to passing judgements at election time. (The Guardian)

  35. Fair Words but Ugly Facts Remain. (The Guardian)

  36. The purposes of the Western Powers in pouring arms into Israel have been open and unconcealed. (The Moscow Times)

  37. The wiles and cunning which had enabled the Tories to dominate one-quarter of the world were brought into play to rob the working class of the fruits of their struggle for democratic advance. (The Daily Mirror)

  38. The Government plans consist of a wide-ranging attack on democratic rights and liberties of Britain’s working people. It is the most serious attempt to shackle and muzzle the working class in living memory. (The Daily Mirror)

  39. Beyond the closed window the moon rose up, a full and brilliant moon. (Galsworthy)

  40. The Treaty was declared null and void. (The Times)

  41. This was a hearty, healthy, dapper, red-faced gentleman, with a shock of hair prematurely white, and a boisterous and decided manner. (Stevenson)

  42. Mr. Crisparkle was a minor canon and an early riser, musical, classical, cheerful, kind, good-natured, social, contented and boy-like. (Dickens)

  43. The long-term effect may, in fact, be utterly and totally different. (The Times)

  44. There was the blue sky and the bright morning sun and a cool breeze.(Abrahams)

  45. It lightened, too, for three whole hours; each flash being bright, and blue, and long. (Dickens)

  46. These visions come out of things and events and books of yesterday and last week.(London)

  1. Вводные слова, словосочетания, предложения

Вводные слова, словосочетания и предложения обычно даются в скобках, в тире или в запятых. Включенные в другое предложение, они грамматически с ним не связаны и могут быть изъяты без нарушения грамматической цельности этого предложения. В основном, вводные предложения выполняют функцию оговорки и являются как бы комментарием к высказыванию, несут в себе дополнительную информацию или уточнение, могут служить пояснением, иллюстрацией к сказанному. Являясь вводными, такие структуры сохраняют смысловую самостоятельность (по отношению ко всему предложению) и в какой-то степени нарушают логический ход мысли предложения, в которое они включены, разрывают его. Такой разрыв, очевидно, более допустим в английском языке, чем в русском, поэтому при переводе далеко не всегда можно сохранить вводное предложение на том же месте, на котором оно стоит в английском предложении.

Более того, далеко не всегда возможно сохранить в переводе вводное предложение как таковое, так как подобное сохранение нарушило бы логическую последовательность мысли.

Хотя вводное предложение, как уже было сказано, несет в себе дополнительную информацию и может быть безболезненно изъято из предложения, оно логически связано с каким-либо из членов предложения, чем и обуславливается его перевод и место в русском предложении: вводное предложение может быть переведено как сочинительным, так и подчинительным предложением, а также самостоятельным сложносочиненным или сложноподчиненным предложением, оно может быть вынесено и в конец (чаще), и в начало (реже) фразы.

e.g. Exactly 280 hours spent in outer space – such was the working record of the Luna 16, the Soviet Lunar automatic station – was the triumph of the world science and engineering, of Soviet automatics and means of control. (The Moscow News) – Ровно 280 часов, проведенных в открытом космосе, – а именно таким был рекордный период работы Луны-16, советской лунной автоматической станции, – это была победа мировой науки и техники, а также советской автоматики и систем управления полетом.

Sometimes, when she saw him, she felt – there was no repressing it – plain irritated. (Gardner) – Иногда, когда она видела его, она испытывала откровенное отвращение и никак не могла справиться с этим.

The average annual death toll from shootings is 6,500 with an additional 44,000 woundings p.a. Between the killing of one Kennedy and the killing of another about 32,000 Americans were murdered with guns. In his message on Thursday – the most recent of many unheeded urgings for stricter gun laws – the President pointed out that in England there are only 30 gun murders a year, in Canada 99, in Germany 68, and in Japan 37. (The Guardian) – Среднегодовое количество погибших от огнестрельного оружия составляет 6500 человек, кроме того, 44000 человек в год получают огнестрельные ранения. В период между убийствами братьев Кеннеди, около 32000 американцев было убито из огнестрельного оружия. В сделанном в четверг докладе, который является последним из многочисленных оставленных без внимания призывов к ужесточению действия закона об огнестрельном оружии, президент отметил, что в Англии в год совершается всего 30 убийств с применением огнестрельного оружия, в Канаде – 99, в Германии – 68, в Японии – 37.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

  1. Within a few weeks Tom Wintringham – who had been in charge of the technical preparations – announced that editorial premises had been found. We were overjoyed – there was about a week to go – until we saw the premises. Our faces fell, our hearts sank. (The Daily Mirror)

  2. In three months – he was a bank employer – she had married him. (Du Maurier)

  3. She had broken a precious china and, to make the things still worse, she never told anyone about it. (Hilton)

  4. To put it plainly, these men were plotting, openly and without any disguise. (Wells)

  5. The promotion, so long denied him, came at last. (Cronin)

  6. The sky, of a clear bright blue, with white promising clouds, began to have the evening look. (Galsworthy)

  7. Others, afraid of the Party bloodhounds who assembled outside, looked the other way and moved out even more hastily. (Maltz)

  8. Soames Forsyte, flat-shouldered, clean-shaven, flat-cheeked, flat-waisted, looked downwards and aslant at Aunt Ann. (Galswarthy)

  9. From Mrs Bern, a woman of some diplomatic talent, he learned nothing. (Galsworthy)

  10. It flashed upon her that he was the pedestrian who had joined in the club -dance at Marlett – the passing stranger who had danced with others but not with her. (Hardy)

  11. The Justice Party in Turkey has taken part in a coalition, and on another occasion its leader has been asked – but failed – to form a government. (The Times)

  12. Then, more significant than mere vociferation, Presley’s listeners, as he began to speak again, grew suddenly silent. (Norris)

  13. Few Northerners could stomach any strengthening of the Fugitive Slave Act, the most bitterly hated measure – and until Prohibition, the most flagrantly disobeyed – ever passed by Congress. (The Guardian)

  14. The real question is whether, as languages become fewer and more similar and our own language begins to take on words and phrases from other types of “speech-feeling”, our understanding of other cultures will become deeper and we will be able to understand other people and ourselves better. (Focus Magazine)

  15. Overwhelmingly – and surprisingly, since culture is the sort of “soft” information that analysts are thought to ignore – they said that a strong culture had helped the high performers. (The Economist)

  16. The room’s function – for it was beneath all, a bedroom – was all but concealed. (Drabble)

  17. The combination of these two ideas – a strong belief that individuals had to help themselves and a need for them to cooperate with one another – strengthened the feeling that people were equal and that nobody should have special rights and privileges. (The Herald Tribune)

  18. Even with the basic root crops, carrots being the prime example, this may now be observed. (British Airways Highlife)

  19. This means that men are bearing the brunt of the 1990s recession, since traditionally “male” jobs – especially in areas such as mining and production – have been the hardest hit. (Focus Magazine)

  20. The British police officer – sometimes called the “bobby” after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force – is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen the British films. Policemen – and women – are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in the streets (“pounding the beat”) or driving in cars (known as “panda cars” because of their distinctive markings). (Laird)

  21. But, even though the firm is confident – perhaps overly so – that Europe is unlikely to follow America’s courtroom assault on the cigarette business, demographics, health concerns and politics (such as proposed bans on smoking in public) make Western European countries, such as Britain and Germany, look potentially as unexciting as Japan. (The Economist)

  22. “You know, we have very little society here, mamma. The Gormans, who are our nearest neighbours (to call society – and we hardly ever see them), have been in trade just as much as these Milton-Northern people”. (Gaskell)

  23. If people choose not to work and can support themselves, what business is it of the state – however cash-strapped – to try to push them into work? (The Economist)

  24. Just as Margaret had exhausted her last subject of conversation – and yet conversation that could hardly be called which consisted of so few and such short speeches – her father came in, and, with his pleasant gentlemanly courteousness of apology, reinstated his name and family in Mr. Thornton’s good opinion. (Gaskell)

  25. Mr. Bell said they absolutely lived upon water - porridge for years – how, he did not know; but, long after the creditors had given up hope of any payment of old Mr. Thornton’s debts (if, indeed, they ever had hoped at all about it, after his suicide), this young man returned to Milton, and went quietly round to each creditor, paying him the first installment of the money owing to him. (Gaskell)

  26. “And the poor men around him – they were poor because they were vicious – out of the pale of his sympathies because they had not his iron nature, and the capabilities that it gives him for being rich”. (Gaskell)

  27. And then we saw a report in the papers – that’s to say, long before Fred’s letter reached us – of an atrocious mutiny having broken out on board the Russell. (Gaskell)

  28. They came from hundreds of miles away – he normally made sure of this before beginning to trick them – so even when they discovered they had been swindled they were unlikely to return. (Rushdie)

  29. So, of course, ten years older than Ramani, five children alive and two dead, she would be interested in him. (Rushdie)

  30. It bowed again and ushered them in, and somehow or other – neither Dan nor Lucy nor Nettie could later explain why – they all three found themselves climbing the steps into the elevator. (Jones, Adams)

  31. The use of a baton, though at least as old as the 15th century, did not become the almost universal method of directing a performance until the 2nd half of the 19th century. (Collins Encyclopaedia of Music)

  32. He came out, looked up at them – the pale cluster of faces – and smiled good courage to them, before he locked the factory door. (Gaskell)

  33. The organizational change at Ilford—involving the move away from a lot of different jobs to a number of core jobs—is a third complete, says the company’s head of human resources, Frank Sharp.(The Financial Times)

  34. In reality, to use a racing analogy, it was a 10-furlong race and the finishing point was to get everybody on board, understanding what the reward process was about.(The Financial Times)

  35. Each employee’s job will be put into one of the new grades using a method of job evaluation—almost certainly the work profiling system of consultants Savile & Holdsworth—involving the employee.(Ibid.)

  36. And the company’s aim—that none of Ilford Ltd’s 1,400 employees should be left in the dark about the programme—has meant an exhaustive series of consultative meetings.(Ibid.)

3. Предложения, содержащие оговорки (так называемые modifiedstatements)

Близко к вводным предложениям стоят так называемые оговорки. Предложения с такими оговорками называют modified statements, поскольку включенные в них оговорки изменяют смысл всего высказывания, а иногда фактически сводят его на нет. Эти оговорки носят условный характер. Такими оговорками могут быть эллиптические конструкции, отдельные слова, словосочетания или целые вводные предложения.

Предложения с оговорками нередко требуют перестановки слов при переводе, так как они часто разрывают логическую последовательность мысли. Эллиптические конструкции типа if addressed, обычно переводятся целым условным предложением. Следует отметить, что оговорки, имеющие условные значения – if any, if anything, if at all, given (something) и др., часто сводят на нет высказывание всего предложения. В других случаях они имеют усилительное значение. Эти сочетания часто переводятся какими-либо словами с ограничительным или уточняющим значением: только, фактически, едва ли и т.п. Место оговорки в переводе может быть изменено (часто она выносится в конец). Предложения с оговорками часто носят эмфатический характер.

e.g. There are the politicians of various parties and merits and a host of civil servants, professional men, trade-unionists and so on, who, given the opportunity, might serve their country well. (The Times) – В стране много политических деятелей, принадлежащих к различным партиям и обладающих различными достоинствами, много государственных служащих, профессионалов-специалистов, профсоюзных деятелей и так далее, которые, если им предоставить возможность, могут хорошо послужить своей стране.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

  1. Very few people, if any, still support this idea. (Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture)

  2. Over a period I have asked bronchial friends who smoke, what advice, if any, their doctor has given them in this matter. (The Daily Mirror)

  3. In the morning, if anything, it was colder. (Tanzing)

  4. A top-level group of American scientists yesterday stated that in the past 20 years the study of flying saucers had little added to scientific knowledge, if at all. (Newsweek)

  5. There has been little, if any, improvement. (The Guardian)

  6. Too sweet? – I thought it was a little dry, if anything. (Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture)

  7. Is the ship as bad as the newspapers say? Worse, if anything . (Hailey)

  8. If anything, the membership in Congress ought to be reduced to 400 or less. (The New York Times)

  9. It appears that the total activity in the economy of Britain may not have increased very much, if at all. (The Times)

  10. It was a situation of a delicacy to be tactfully approached – if at all. (The Daily Mail)

  11. Few, if any, political events of recent times have kindled the imagination of free men so strongly or been so widely acclaimed and celebrated. (The Guardian)

  12. “I’m going out. I’ve got to be free of this house for a while. I don’t know when I’ll come back. Don’t expect me till tomorrow – if then. (Whitney)

  13. Given the scope and complexity of the work in hand, it will be hardly surprising that the reconstruction will take long. (The Daily Mail)

  14. I don’t know if I’ll ever finish this opera, let alone if it will ever be performed. (La Mure)

  15. At this special meeting they hope to announce recommendations which, if accepted by the government, would help to arrest economic decline. (The Guardian)

  16. Given his failings, Galsworthy’s work still supplies material for the understanding of a section of the social scene in which he grew up. (The Moscow Times).

  17. The 18th century English explorer Captain James Cook discovered the Great Barrier Reef by the simple, if dangerous, method of sailing straight into it. (The National Geographic)

  18. As recession looms, managers should be questioning the policies they pursued while the good times rolled – and asking to which, if any, they should be preparing to return when the good times come back. (The Economist)

  19. At the start of every month I have to send him an account of my earnings, if any. (Paran)

  20. Once or twice, on Sundays, she saw him walking with a girl, evidently his daughter, and, if possible, still more unhealthy than he was himself. (Gaskell)

  21. If anything, a school uniform encourages you to develop your own character more. Because you all have to wear the same clothes, you have to try harder to make your individual character stand out. (School Leaver Magazine)

  22. No doubt many people found marriage a tender, hand-in-hand journey through life… He hadn’t. Instead he had found that marriage did not create companionship. If anything, marriage induced the kind of thoughts it was wise to keep to yourself. (La Mure)

  23. In 1917 Congress passed an act permitting the President to determine, when, if at all, the National Government should take over and operate the railroads. (Newsweek)

  24. Rhyme is a repetition of final stressed vowels and final consonants and consonants clusters, if any, but not of initial consonants in the syllable. (Sebeok)

  25. Few, if any, attempts have been made to study this phenomenon. (The Daily Mail)

  26. The lower storey was, besides, naked of windows so that the building, if garrisoned, could not be carried without artillery. (Stevenson)

  27. Evidence collected by the spacecraft shows some present volcanic action, though the volcanoes are believed to be dormant, if not extinct. (The National Geographic)

  28. “Gold and World Power” is a clear, if somewhat repetitive, tract on the problems of the two reserve currencies.(The Moscow News)

  29. If you know the other side must reach agreement on a deal by a certain date for financial reasons, your willingness to comply with that date could be worth a great deal of money to them, without costing you much, if anything at all.(The Economist)

  30. If anything, Britain’s attitude on territories for which it has its direct responsibility is even worse than that of other colonial powers.(The Daily Mirror)

  31. “Don’t waste any time pitying me”, he said. “I’m not easy on those who victimize others. Nor am I patient with willing victims—if that’s what you are.” (Whitney)

  1. Особенности выражения подлежащего в английском языке

Некоторые особенности выражения подлежащего в английском языке могут вызвать ошибки в переводе. Эти ошибки бывают двоякого характера: они связаны либо с непониманием текста, либо с нарушением норм русского языка.

Прежде всего следует отметить типичное для английского языка выражение подлежащего, общего для главного и придаточного предложения. В соответствии с синтаксической иерархией (придаточное предложение стоит как бы ступенью ниже по отношению к главному) если в обоих предложениях речь идет об одном и том же лице или предмете, то подлежащим придаточного предложения в английском языке часто является личное местоимение, независимо от места придаточного предложения, а подлежащим главного – существительное или имя собственное, независимо от места главного предложения.

e.g. Even now, many years after it happened, the assassination of Abraham Lincoln may be called America’s most deplored and deplorable crime. (Newsweek) – Даже сейчас, много лет спустя, убийство Авраама Линкольна можно назвать наиболее горьким и печальным преступлением в США.

Таким образом, чтобы избежать ошибки при переводе необходимо понять, что в подобных случаях речь идет не о разных лицах, и предметах, а об одних и тех же, то есть надо видеть, что местоимение-подлежащее соотносится с подлежащим главного предложения. Иерархическое выражение подлежащего обычно не сохраняется в переводе, так как это противоречит логическому началу, доминирующему в русском языке, где в первую очередь сообщается, о ком или о чем идет речь. (То есть в русском языке в таких случаях подлежащее придаточного предложения выражается существительным во избежание неясности.)

e.g. He crossed Tottenham Court Road and Gower Street, walking without any particular object, except to take the air. It was not until he was under its shadow and saw the vast bulk of London University insulting the autumnal sky that he remembered that here was the Ministry of Information. (Waugh) – Он пересек Тоттенхем Корт Роуд и Говер Стрит, идя без какой-либо определенной цели, желая лишь подышать свежим воздухом. И только тогда, когда на него упала тень от огромного здания Лондонского университета, уродливо вырисовывающегося на фоне осеннего неба, он вспомнил, что здесь было министерство информации.

Большая группа подлежащего, как правило, требует перестройки всего предложения при переводе: короткое сказуемое в конце предложения как бы ритмически не выдерживает такой нагрузки. Разновидностью большой группы подлежащего является придаточное предложение подлежащее (subject clause), которое не всегда содержит в себе эмфазу.

e.g. The spectacle of the PM addressing the portly, cigar-smoking, brandy-swilling guests at the Lord Mayor’s banquet as “merchant venturers” was certainly one of the most ludicrous sights we are likely to witness this year. (The Daily Mail) – Момент, когда премьер-министр обратился на банкете у лорда-мэра к дородным, курящим сигары и жадно пьющим бренди гостям как к отважным коммерсантам, был, вероятно, самым смешным зрелищем, свидетелями которого мы стали в этом году.

How this death would affect Fleur had begun to trouble Soames. (Galsworthy) – То, как эта смерть повлияет на Флёр, начало беспокоить Сомса.

That he has made a mistake is strange. – Странно, что он сделал ошибку.

Грамматическая трансформация также вызывается столь частым в английском языке употреблением существительных, обозначающих неодушевленные предметы или понятия, в роли агента действия (то есть подлежащего). Это явление языка, а не стилистический прием, оно ни в коей мере не носит индивидуальный характер. Его можно объяснить твердым порядком слов в английском предложении. При переводе предложений с таким неодушевленным подлежащим, выступающим в роли агента действия, обычно приходится прибегать к синтаксическим, морфологическим, лексическим заменам. В качестве подлежащего-агента действия часто выступают такие существительные, как report, article, newspaper, rumour, tradition, legend, etc.

e.g. The article says that the Japanese formula requires an island nation to industrialize, maximize exports, minimize imports, expand productive growth and compete abroad by extreme austerity at home. (The New York Herald Tribune) – В статье говорится, что японская формула успеха заключается в следующем: держать курс на индустриализацию, максимально увеличить экспорт, сократить до минимума импорт, стремиться к росту промышленного производства и добиться повышения конкурентоспособности за рубежом путем внутренней политики крайней экономии (путем крайнего ограничения внутреннего рынка).

This comparatively short span of about 150 years has seen a fantastic change in the lives of women. Nowhere in the world, in 1850, did a woman have any freedom. (The Moscow Times) – За 150 лет – сравнительно короткий промежуток времени – жизнь женщин изменилась коренным образом. В 1850 году во всем мире не было женщины, которую можно было бы назвать свободной.

This week-end will see the culmination of a four-week campaign conducted by the Liberal Party among old-age pensioners here and aimed at stopping the rise in electricity charges. (The Daily Mail) – Предстоящий уик-энд станет кульминацией (в предстоящие выходные завершится) четырехнедельной кампании, проводимой либеральной партией среди пенсионеров (преклонного возраста) и направленной на приостановку увеличения платы за электричество (тарифов на электроэнергию).

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

  1. As they crawled the men picked the grapes and ate them. (Steinbeck)

  2. When she arrived, the governess went into her room. (Collins)

  3. While they talk about peace, the Americans continue to practice the vilest barbarities of modern war in Iraq. (The Moscow Times)

  4. Although he clearly intends to keep a firm rein on foreign affairs the president does not consider them – or national defense – domains reserved for the presidency.(The Herald Tribune)

  5. An important landmark in the creation of fraternal unity between the youth of Britain and of her former colonies in Asia, Africa and America has been reached. (The Daily Mirror)

  6. That the economic crisis in all the main developed countries of the world, and most conspicuously in the US, the dominant leader and pacemaker, is deepening is now recognized by all their spokesmen. (The Guardian)

  7. Legend (never a good historian!) has it that it was from here that one September day in 1645 Charles I watched the final stages of the Battle of Rowton Heath in which his forces were defeated by Cromwellian troops. (Ogden)

  8. The 5th century saw the end of the Roman Empire in the West. (Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture)

  9. This year has seen a big increase in road accidents. (The Daily Mail)

  10. Tradition has it that this house was visited by Henry VIII. (Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture)

  11. While it lasted the storm was terrible. (The Daily Mail)

  12. A big wave of actions by all sections of workers – skilled and unskilled, men and women, manual and non-manual – for higher wages and equal pay, for shorter hours and a greater say in shaping the environment at work was rising. (Gaskell)

  13. How to earn daily bread by my pen was then the problem. (Shaw)

  14. Rumour has it that the prince and the dancer are going to get married soon. (The Daily Mail)

  15. Tradition has it that this lime tree standing in front of the City Hall sprang from a twig planted after the battle of Morat in which in 1476 the little Swiss army defeated the immense forces of Charles the Bold from Burgundy. (The Times)

  16. More pessimistic estimates state that only about 200 languages will survive until the year 2100 A.D. (Focus Magazine)

  17. Another popular commercial is a Spanish ad which shows a dog called Pippin packing her bags because she feels neglected by her television addict of a master. (Le Monde)

  18. This is largely because of country-specific factors, like political risk and Russia’s sovereign debt default in 1998, which also saw some corporate borrowers fail to service their debts. (The Financial Times)

  19. History shows that having fewer languages doesn’t necessarily mean more cooperation or fewer wars. (Focus Magazine)

  20. Its spring 1991 advertising campaign showed a group of tombstones, one sporting the Jewish star of David, just as the 1st Iraqi Scud missiles hit Tel Aviv. (The Economist)

  21. Two more hours found him dozing. (Lorac)

  22. His being against this proposal doesn’t mean that I must decline it. (The Moscow Times)

  23. While he was walking in the mountains, Henry saw a bear. (The Daily Mail)

  24. On coming home from the college, after he had passed his exams, Robert felt very happy. (The Daily Mail)

  25. A couple of months ago a newspaper reported that 5 British banks’ computers were broken into by a gang of hackers. (The Independent)

  26. Tradition says that Easter eggs are delivered by Easter Bunny and it is a popular game for the children to hunt for small eggs concealed around the house or garden. (Longman)

  27. The coal industry, the worst hit area, has seen employment fall by as much as three quarters. (Focus Magazine)

  28. The article is questioning the theory that strong corporate culture always helps firms succeed. (The Economist)

  29. A recent report suggests that companies are often at risk from security breaches by their own employees. (Newsweek)

  30. This type of fraud is responsible for up to one million dollars per year in illegal phone calls. (Newsweek)

  31. There are 11 million cell phones in America alone, and each has its own serial number and identification number. These numbers are highly prized by thieves. The reason is that the numbers validate phone calls and charge the customer. (Newsweek)

  32. 1984 saw a slight increase, and 1985 a slight fall. 1983 brought a slight improvement. In 1984 there was no great change, but 1985 saw another increase to about 13.5. (The Financial Times)

  33. They shook hands when Erica and John were introduced to each other. (Paran)

  34. Official figures suggest workers in Britain send around £1 billion abroad every year. (The Economist)

  35. These natural forces are still at work – scientific estimates put the upward progress of the Himalayas at around 5 centimetres a year. (The National Geographic)

  36. A native of New York finds that her home city sets very high standards for other cities to reach. However, Sarah Lyall of the New York Times finds London matches up to it. (British Airways Highlife)

  37. The statistics present a rather different picture however. (The Financial Times)

  38. Recent years have seen attempts to create some form of unity between the Catholic Church and the Church of England. (The Guardian)

  39. A recent unofficial survey indicated that approximately two-thirds of the population profess a belief in God (although not necessarily a Christian one). ( The Guardian)

  40. Now I live in London and lie to myself that I don’t need to drive, forgetting that my inability has lost me several jobs. (School Leaver Magazine)

  41. Surveys reveal that the message is getting across: 40% of those questioned have changed to a healthier diet and 12.5% of smokers have given up. (Men’s Health)

  42. The past few years have seen quite an increased interest by women in off-road riding. (Cycling, Touring and Campaigning Magazine)

  43. On the night before he left Ashley walked through the lanes of the village. (Wilder)

  44. As they leave Washington, the four foreign ministers will be travelling together by plane. (Newsweek)

  45. The quality of its leisure activity sets the tone of any society, defines its version of the Good Life and measures the level of its civilization. (Men’s Health)

  46. When he telephoned from the airport, Mr. Jones was told that the hotel was full. (British Airways Highlife)

IV. Трансформации, вызываемые некоторыми особенностями словообразования в английском языке

Словообразовательные суффиксы –er, -able, -ed

Словообразовательные суффиксы в каждом языке носят национальный характер. Это проявляется не только в различном «наборе» суффиксов, но и в разной степени продуктивности соответствующих суффиксов в каждом языке. Многие английские суффиксы не имеют своих полных эквивалентов в русском языке, что заставляет переводчика, изыскивая разные возможности передачи слов, образованных при помощи таких суффиксов, прибегать к различным лексическим и грамматическим трансформациям.

Из всего богатства словообразовательных суффиксов английского языка в данном пособии рассматриваются три исключительно продуктивных и поэтому трудных для перевода суффикса: -er, able, -ed. По своему характеру и значению эти суффиксы сильно отличаются друг от друга.

Суффикс –er образует существительное-агент действия фактически от любого глагола. (e.g. He is a muster. – Он требовательный человек. He is an oughter. – Он всем говорит, что им следует делать.)

Именно такая универсальность этого суффикса сделала его значение предельно абстрактным, как бы полностью его грамматикализировала, и он стал признаком существительного-деятеля. С другой стороны, безграничная широта его применения открывает возможность использования слов, образованных при помощи этого суффикса, в экспрессивных целях. Суффикс –er получил настолько широкое распространение, что с его помощью образуются существительные и не от глаголов (а, например, от так называемых фразовых глаголов и даже от существительных) и которые не являются, собственно говоря, агентами действия (в язык уже вошли такие существительные, как например forty-niner – золотоискатель, захваченный золотой лихорадкой в Калифорнии в 1849г., или state-righter – сторонник расширения прав штата).

e.g. According to a report circulating among UN agencies what Western Europe was draining from its former colonies was only about equal to what Europe was losing to the US, which was the net gainer from the brain drain. (The New York Times) – Согласно докладу, разосланному всем агентствам ООН, количество рабочих, которых Западная Европа получила из своих бывших колоний, приблизительно равнялось тому количеству специалистов, которые уезжали из Европы в США. Таким образом, США были единственной страной, которая полностью выигрывала от этой утечки мозгов.

Суффикс –able образует прилагательные от глаголов. Он не абстрактен и семантически полноценен. Во всех образованных с его помощью прилагательных присутствует его модальное значение («способный быть каким-либо, который может обладать каким-либо качеством»). Отсутствие в русском языке соответствующего суффикса, а так же его модальность, которая должна быть отражена в переводе, заставляют переводчика прибегать к трансформациям, обычно к декомпенсации, то есть описательному переводу, и переводить прилагательные с суффиксом –able целыми придаточными определительными предложениями с модальными глаголами или модальными словами. Этот суффикс нередко употребляется в стилистических целях для создания новых слов, обладающих большей или меньшей долей экспрессивности.

Перевод прилагательных, образованных с помощью суффикса –able и существительных, образованных с помощью суффикса –er отнюдь не прост. В русском языке нет суффиксов, при помощи которых с такой же легкостью и свободой можно было бы создавать новые прилагательные и существительные чуть ли не от любого глагола. Например, a quotable book – книга, которую можно цитировать на каждом шагу (во всех случаях жизни) или a non-smoker – некурящий (человек, вагон или купе).

Многие существительные с суффиксом –er и некоторые прилагательные с суффиксом –able имеют постоянные эквиваленты в русском языке (например, writer – писатель, speaker – оратор, etc.; washable – моющийся, disposable – одноразовый), но не всегда эти постоянные эквиваленты могут быть использованы для перевода в конкретном контексте.

Например, unspeakable. Обычное соответствие этому прилагательному – «невыразимый». Но оно едва ли приемлемо для перевода названия романа Памелы Джонсон “The Unspeakable Skipton” – «Невероятный (невозможный) Скиптон». Как всегда препятствием служат различия в привычной или возможной сочетаемости: прилагательное «невыразимый» несовместимо со словом «человек» или фамилией человека.

e.g. “Have you ever seen mother cry, Tom?” “No, not that I can remember. No, She is not a crier.” (Steinbeck) – «Том! Ты когда-нибудь видел, чтобы мать плакала?» «Нет, не могу припомнить. Нет, она не из тех, кто плачет

В данном контексте едва ли приемлемы такие значения слова crier как «плакса» или «крикун».

Следует отметить, что вышеизложенное не относится к заимствованным французским прилагательным, образованным при помощи суффикса –able, например admirable, remarkable, irreparable и т.п.

В современном английском языке при помощи суффикса –able прилагательные могут образовываться и от существительных, например knowlegeable – знающий, хорошо информированный.

e.g. The continued rise in living costs means that the average worker is gaining no ground in his race against higher prices, the magazine Business Week comments. Real, spendable earnings are not only slightly lower than a year ago; they are actually no higher than they were 5 years ago. (The Daily Mail) – Согласно данным журнала «Бизнес Уик», постоянный рост стоимости жизни означает, что среднестатистический рабочий не продвинулся ни на шаг в своей борьбе с постоянно растущими ценами. И действительно, покупательная способность не только несколько ниже, чем в прошлом году, она не выше, чем 5 лет назад.

Суффикс –ed, образующий прилагательное от существительного, имеет грамматическое значение: «обладающий чем-то (предметом, свойством, отличительным признаком)». Прилагательные с суффиксом –ed представляют собой очень разнообразную группу как в структурном, так и в семантическом отношении, и часто употребляются в экспрессивных целях.

e.g. He was elegant, bowler-hatted and umbrellaed. (Willock) – Он был элегантен: в котелке и с зонтиком.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

  1. He is an accomplished TV performer. (The Times)

  2. That branch of the family had been reckless marriers. (Porter)

  3. The sea was rough and unswimmable. (The Times)

  4. Questioners at the P.M.’s press conference wanted to pin him down. (The Guardian)

  5. Biggest foreign exhibitor at Expo 70, the world fair in Osaka, was the Soviet Union. (The Guardian)

  6. The U.S. is the net gainer from the brain drain. (The New York Times)

  7. On the two previous mornings Newman had come to breakfast late; and I didn’t fancy that at any time he was an early riser. (Christie)

  8. Mahler’s symphonies are now guaranteed hall-fillers. (The Daily Mail)

  9. American military draft evaders were given asylum by Sweden defying the U.S. Government displeasure. (Newsweek)

  10. A proposal made by a Tory ought to make it a non-runner for Labour. (The Daily Mirror)

  11. Various schemes have been put forward to outlaw taxi gratuities. The taxi drivers themselves respond to the non-tipper with a selection of crisp, four-letter, Anglo-Saxon words. (“The London News” )

  12. The “Lost Sierre” is an isolated corner of north-eastern California that the forty-niners penetrated for gold. (The National Geographic)

  13. He also resented – as one of the hotel’s most consistent nine-to-fivers – the idea of working all night. (Hailey)

  14. “My electric razor created a sensation; so did the decorative and washable wallpaper in our bathrooms.” (Chasins)

  15. They (the starlings) peel off the National Gallery and fly to the trees, to the Nelson Column, to St. Martin’s, apparently without any discoverable purpose. (Morton)

  16. He had a town house then. His place is in the next county, a drivable distance. (Dane)

  17. Through the glasses it was possible to see series of ridges running across the faces of others; they were quite climbable. (Davidson)

  18. If cannabis had been absolutely prohibited 30 or 35 years ago in North Africa, the drug problem would now be manageable. (The Daily Mirror)

  19. But the Government are doing nothing to prevent avoidable tragedies – deaths due to inadequate heating and food – happening this winter (The Daily Mirror)

  20. Passers-by could see a small red car with a sturdy ruffle-haired, polo-sweatered young man opening the door for a pale pretty cripple. Her thin leg stuck out like a stick, unhidable, unavoidable, incurable, ridiculous. (Graham)

  21. Strange Nicholas! So quiet, friendly, composed, and underneath so tormented and ungraspable a spirit. (Dane)

  22. He is one of my most amusing and knowledgeable clients. (Johnson)

  23. “It’s the friendliness of the village I like,”said Eager Wright as the three paying guests of the Mill walked across the heath that evening after dinner. “That’s right,” said Guffy expansively. “You don’t get this curious clubbable atmosphere in many country places.” (Allingham)

  24. I had sized up the Taylor woman as a package-leaver as soon as she joined us. (du Maurier)

  25. The German ambassador in charge of negotiations is a determined non-signer.(The Guardian)

  26. Did it matter that an opponent had once dubbed him the smiler with the knife. (Sinclair)

  27. The immediate bottle-orderer was often starting on a drink, and might not intend to pay, or couldn’t. (Hailey)

  28. “Marta said that you wanted something looked up.” “And are you a looker-upper?” “I am doing research, here in London. Historical research, I mean…” (Tey)

  29. It was a crowded corridor of up-since-dawners. (Tey)

  30. It (dawn) was a low point in the life of any hotel – the night staff still on duty were less alert as the end of their shift approached. Day workers had not yet come on. Guests – even party-ers and stay-out-lates – were back in their rooms and most likely to be sleeping. (Hailey)

  31. The war had become simply the war and battles were no more than a part of a slow progression to an untimable end. (Aldridge)

  32. He was waiting for the last batch of the purified uranium with unfillable time on his hands. (Snow)

  33. The lanes were not passable, complained a villager, not even jackassaable. (The National Geographic)

  34. All through their visit (in consequence of Mr. Fairlie’s invalid condition) we produced no such convenience in the house as a flirtable, dansable, small-talkable creature of the male sex. (Collins)

  35. London Conversation is an interesting and listenable record. (The Daily Mirror)

  36. The songs of the film, old and new, are hummable and the setting is colorful enough. (The Daily Mirror)

  37. After a great weight of put-downable books by generals on how they won the war, here is an un-put-downable one about some of the men who helped them to do it. (The Spectator)

  38. Mr. Thornhill’s command of “same again” was so sharp and loud that a wire-haired terrier belonging to a tweeded gentleman at the far end of the bar yapped out a series of loud and agitated barks. (Bates)

  39. His son Ted aspired to a Packard and an established position in the motored gentry. (Lewis)

  40. He looked at his bank and considered how clever and solid he was to bank with so marbled an establishment. (Lewis)

  41. The love-story, so multi-heroed, which is the life story of the Hon. Jane Digby El Mezral, begins in Norfolk and ends in Damascus. (Blanch)

  42. People who think gangsters are only to be found in gambling dens and houses of prostitution are old-timers. (Newsweek)

  43. Chicago.A proposal that the problem of out-of-this world meat prices be put on the conference table for a working-over by packers, farmers, organized workers and consumers was made here by the President of the United Packinghouse Workers (AFL-CIO). (Newsweek)

  44. Similarly most parents do not let non-swimmers near water alone or without protection. (Cornell)

  45. We do not disparage any nonjailable definition of happiness, nor question any man’s right to define the great quarry for himself. (Men’s Health)

  46. In 1664, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrended without resistance. (Time)

  47. The symptoms of the want-disease are easily discernible, and often show that sufferers must have what they don’t really want, let alone need. (Newsweek)

  48. Harry Potter’s appearance did not endear him to the neighbours, who were the sort of people who thought scruffiness ought to be punishable by law, but as he had hidden himself behind a large hydrangea bush this evening he was quite invisible to passers-by. (Rowling)

  49. To be a good comedian you have to be a friend to the audience as well as an entertainer.(The Daily Mail)

  50. It was not until he encountered an Arab villager who told him of a large mound near a remote village that Botta hired two diggers and sent them to the spot with instructions to see what they could uncover.(Elder)

  51. The boys ate quickly and quietly, wolfed their food. Aron said, “Will you excuse us, Father?” Adam nodded, and the two boys went quickly out. Samuel looked after them: “They seem older than eleven,” he said. “I seem to remember that at 11 my brood were howlers and screamers and runners in circles. These seem like grown men.”(Steinbeck)

  52. “What are you in for?” he asked in a low voice. “Murder,” said John Lexman laconically. He had answered the question before and had noticed with a little amusement the look of respect which came into the eyes of the questioner. (Wallace)

  53. I managed to smile at him. How had I ever thought Wayne Martin a harsh, unreachable man? There was nothing but kindness in him now.(Whitney)

  54. “War bread”—Pain de guerre…Oh, the delicious rolls of the garret days! As for tobacco, it was all but unfindable.(La Mure)

  55. But I am afraid we should all be mildly surprised if your ingenious friend can really persuade us that we can afford the unaffordable. (Snow)

  56. Attractive plastics pottery is now available, while disposable paper plates are becoming the thing at many parties. This may be paralleled by development of paper clothes, attractive but disposable and cheap.( The Daily Mail)

1 Конверсия – способ словообразования без использования специальных словообразовательных аффиксов, при котором переход слова из одной части речи в другую происходит без его изменения.

1 Атрибутивные группы могут быть наполнены самым разнообразным грамматическим содержанием, они очень ёмкие по смыслу и выражают различные отношения между определением и определяемым: отношения принадлежности, времени, места, причины, следствия.

2 Heath, Sir Edward (род. 1916г.) – государственный деятель Великобритании, лидер Консервативной партии (1965-1975гг.), премьер-министр (1970-1974гг.)

1 Can (can’t) употребляется при выражении отказа поверить чему-либо («не может быть!», «неужели?»).

21 Глагол would в этом значении приближается по значению к used (to), который чаще употребляется в разговорной речи.

1 О.С. Ахманова.Словарь лингвистических терминов.Издательство «Советская энциклопедия». Москва, 1966г.

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