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3. Самостоятельный (независимый) причастный оборот

(Абсолютная номинативная конструкция)

В английском языке существуют обороты, в которых причастие выражает действие, не относящееся к лицу (или предмету), обозначенному подлежащим предложения. В этом случае действие, выраженное причастием, относится к лицу (или предмету), обозначенному существительным в общем падеже или местоимение в именительном падеже, которое стоит непосредственно перед причастием. В таких оборотах причастие как бы имеет свое собственное подлежащее. Такие причастные обороты называются самостоятельными причастными оборотами (The Nominative Absolute Participle Construction).

Самостоятельные причастные обороты не соответствуют русским деепричастным оборотам, т.к. русское деепричастие всегда выражает действие, относящееся к лицу (или предмету), обозначенному подлежащим предложения. Самостоятельные причастные обороты выполняют в предложениях функцию одного члена предложения – сложного обстоятельства, и соответствуют в русском языке либо придаточным предложениям, либо самостоятельным предложениям.

Значение самостоятельного причастного оборота определяется контекстом. Чаще всего такой оборот выражает:

  1. время, соответствуя придаточному предложению времени.

e.g. The sun having risen, they continued their way. – После того как солнце взошло, они продолжили свой путь.

  1. причину, соответствуя придаточному предложению причины.

e.g. The day being piercing cold, he had no desire to loiter. – Так как день был пронизывающе холодным, он не имел желания медлить.

3) сопутствующие обстоятельства, соответствуя самостоятельному предложению, которое стоит в конце и вводится одним из сочинительных союзов (причем, в то время как, а).

e.g. The wool was placed in the warеhouse, the cotton being forwarded to the factory. – Шерсть была помещена на склад, а хлопок был отправлен на фабрику.

В некоторых случаях такие самостоятельные причастные обороты переводятся на русский язык или самостоятельными предложениями с сочинительным союзом «и», или самостоятельным предложением, не присоединенным ни одним из сочинительных союзов.

e.g. Business on the London Mental Exchange was very brisk that day, over one thousand tons of tin being sold in the afternoon. – В тот день сделки на лондонской бирже металлов были очень оживленные, и во второй половине дня было продано свыше 1000 тонн олова.(или:Во второй половине дня было продано свыше тысячи тонн олова.)

В ряде случаев самостоятельный причастный оборот, выражающий сопутствующие обстоятельства, может переводиться на русский язык деепричастным оборотом со значением образа действия.

e.g. She stood silent, her lips pressed together. – Она стояла молча, плотно сжав губы.

He stood with his arms folded. – Он стоял, скрестив руки на груди.

4) условие, соответствуя придаточному предложению условия.

e.g. Weather permitting, the ship will leave port tomorrow. – Если погода позволит, пароход выйдет из порта завтра.

В самостоятельных причастных оборотах встречаются все формы причастия действительного и страдательного залога. Past Participle встречается реже других форм. Самостоятельный причастный оборот с Past Participle чаще всего выражает время.

e.g. His story told, he leaned back and sighed. – Когда его история была рассказана, он откинулся назад и вздохнул.

Present Participle следует переводить глаголом в настоящем времени, если сказуемое выражено глаголом в настоящем времени, и глаголом в прошедшем времени, если сказуемое выражено глаголом в прошедшем времени, т.к. Present Participle выражает действие одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого.

e.g. That plant produces/produced large quantities of pig-iron, most of the pig-iron being turned into steel. – Этот завод производит/производил большое количество чугуна, причем большая часть этого чугуна перерабатывается/перерабатывалась в сталь.

Present Participle может переводиться глаголом в настоящем времени и в том случае, когда сказуемое выражено глаголом в прошедшем времени, т.к. Present Participle может выражать также действие, совпадающее с моментом речи, независимо от времени глагола-сказуемого.

e.g. The steamer could not enter the dock, its length exceeding 120 metres. – Пароход не мог войти в док, т.к. его длина превышает 120 метров.

Perfect Participle всегда переводится глаголом в прошедшем времени, т.к. Perfect Participle всегда выражает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.

e.g. The goods having been unloaded, the workers left the port. – После того как товары были разгружены, рабочие ушли из порта.

В современном английском языке самостоятельные причастные обороты могут начинаться с предлогов «with» и «without». Такие обороты, как правило, выражают сопутствующие обстоятельства или причину.

e.g. With the USA and Great Britain spending large sums on rearmament, it is hard to believe that there can be any serious decline in the demand for metals. – Т.к. США и Великобритания тратят большие суммы на перевооружение, трудно предположить, что может быть серьезное снижение спроса на металл.

He was slowly and carefully spreading the papers on the table, with Tom closely watching. – Он медленно и аккуратно раскладывал бумаги на столе, а Том внимательно наблюдал за ним.

Самостоятельные причастные обороты очень распространены в научно-технической и политико-экономической литературе. Они реже встречаются в художественной литературе и почти не употребляются в разговорной речи.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

1). George yawning, the conversation dropped. (Galsworthy)

2). This being so, I should like you to reconsider your answer. (Galsworthy)

3). But the occasion having seemed to offer itself, he had spoken. (Dreiser)

4). He saw his father, blackcoated, with knees crossed, glasses balanced between thumb and finger. (Galsworthy)

5). He had been lying quietly, since the car started, with his head pillowed on his arms. (Maltz)

6). There had been no rain, and with the hot weather beginning, everybody was anxious about the threatened drought. (Prichard)

7). The purpose of this interrogation was to trap him into saying something that, without he himself being aware of it, could be used against his own people. (Sommerfield)

8). I lay awake thinking and my mind jumping around. (Hemingway)

9). At midnight, no reply having been received, the two countries entered upon a formal state of war. (Morton)

10). No objection arising from any quarter, the resolution was adopted. (The Minutes of the UNO)

11). The mine was dusty and unhealthy, many miners suffering from consumption. (Foster)

12). A Ju 88 was shot down by one of our fighters, the crew being taken prisoner. (The Times)

13). The muddy fall weather having come on, Martin had pledged his wheel some time since. (London)

14). I used to eat a couple of nights a week at the Ausland Club, it being conveniently located for me. (Shirer)

15). The hat sailed far out into space and we could see it smaller and smaller, the patent leather shining in the clear air, sailing down to the river. (Hemingway)

16). Her husband presently followed her, and there being no other company we went to dinner. (James)

17). In the way of society, it must be confessed, her privileges were meagre, Sir Arthur Demesne and his two compatriots being her only visitors. (James)

18). The dance broke up, the couples hurrying to their seats. (Norris)

19). The reins broke in Lord Mohun’s hands, and the furious beasts scampered madly forward, the carriage swaying to and fro. (Thackeray)

20). He moved off to the house the terrier running in front. (Galsworthy)

21). Paintings by old masters realised ₤ 702, 190 at a sale in London, with two Rembrandts accounting for ₤ 278,000 of the total. (The Times)

22). It was pretty depressing out in the street, with a gusty wind throwing handfuls of light drizzle in your face. (Dickens)

23). The room was in partial darkness, Picardo having swung the shutter as he went out of the window. (Conrad)

24). It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs. (Dickens)

25). The English language is spoken all over Scotland with a variety of regional accents, but all of these can be at once recognized as Scottish, with the vowels and consonants pronounced more nearly as written than in standard English or any of the regional accents of England. (British Airways Highlife)

26). Apart from some worrying physical changes, the participants reported major mood and personality problems, the severity increasing with the amount of steroids taken. (Men’s Health)

27). With temperatures reaching 45 C, this dried-up landscape of dwarfed bushes and threatening mountains will always terrify some travellers. (The European)

28). With so many mothers choosing either to work or to follow an active schedule outside the home, the use of childcare facilities is becoming more and more widespread. (British Airways Highlife)

29). That influenced dividing the year into 12 months (in the calendar now in general use), their names being given by the Romans. (The National Geographic)

30). Photos and panoramas reveal that the Moon’s surface is uneven and rugged, with many hills and cavities like volcanic craters, some measuring several kilometers in diameter. (The National Geographic)

31). The Giant’s Causeway is on the north coast of Ireland, its capital being about 100 km to the south. (The National Geographic)

32). In 1980 promotions accounted for about a third of all spending on marketing, with advertising taking up the rest. (The Economist)

33). Testing results show that the difference starts early, with girls doing better by the age of seven. (Focus Magazine)

34). Densities in the new towns vary – the average being about 15 people to an acre. (Newsweek)

35). The church’s interior is impressive and diverse, with the dominant colour being white, which creates breathtaking contrasts of light and shade. (Exploring Vilnius, 2006, City Guide)

36). Martin Luther King grew up in this atmosphere, with his home being used as a community gathering place, and was no doubt influenced by it. (Newsweek)

37). He was pacing the room swiftly, eagerly, with his head upon his chest and his hands clasped behind him. (Doyle)

38). China is a substantial market for U.S. semiconductor producers, with U.S. exports of integrated circuits to China totalling $2.02 billion last year.(The Financial Management)

39). There were nights in winter when he woke up with porcelain in his bones, with cool chimes blowing in his ears, with frost piercing his nerves in a raw illumination like white-cold fireworks. (Bradbury)

40). With some 5,000 square meters of the 7,500- square-meter building gutted by 11.30 p.m., firefighters said there was no hope of saving the 19th-century structure. (The Moscow Times)

41). With fears about bio-terrorism being exacerbated by the outbreak of anthrax cases in the U.S., it’s likely that pharmaceutical companies will prove to be some of the few direct beneficiaries of the September attacks. (The Financial Management)

42). With a recession looming, hordes of vintage champagne and luxury hampers are gathering dust. (The Financial Management)

43). With a gusty wind wreaking havoc on the field, the battle was decided by one goal. (The Daily Mail)

44). “What a charming piece you are playing!” I ask myself if Chopin did not write it in Majorca with the sea roaring about his house, splashing the window panes with salt water. (Sand)

45). “Now we’re stuck in there with our armed forces very extended.” (British Airways Highlife)

46). Sunday 4th June promises to be an especially exciting day with the final match in each sport taking place. (The Daily Express)

47). Progress was slow, the 80 miles from Plymouth to Penzance taking 2 hours. (The Sunday Times)

  1. Каузативные конструкции

Каузативные глаголы – это глаголы, выражающие ту мысль, что субъект заставляет кого-либо другого выполнить действие, а не действует сам. Они обычно употребляются в трехчленных конструкциях с объектно-предикативным членом, первый компонент этого члена – каузативный глагол в личной форме; второй компонент – существительное или местоимение; третий компонент может быть различным, в зависимости от выраженных в конструкции отношений. Им может быть инфинитив, причастие (I или II), герундий, существительное, прилагательное.

Каузативные глаголы могут выражать побуждение к действию, допущение или запрещение действия, а также преобразование или переход из одного состояния в другое. Каузативность можно рассматривать как лексико-грамматическую категорию.

С одной стороны ее можно считать побудительным залогом и она обычно проявляется в трехчленной грамматической конструкции, с другой стороны, в таких конструкциях решающую роль играет значение этих глаголов. Глаголами каузативного значения являются глаголы:

to make, to get, to cause, to force, to send, to order, to set, to keep, to allow, to let, to permit, to forbid, to have, to render, to turn, to bid и др.

e.g. It was enough to make one weep. (Galsworthy) – Этого было достаточно, чтобы заставить расплакаться кого угодно.

Следует отметить, что к этой группе можно прибавить большую группу глаголов, приобретающих каузативное значение в сочетании с предлогами «into» и «out of». Такая конструкция состоит из четырех элементов:

e.g. Don’t think you can blackmailmeintodoing that. (The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) – Не думай, что шантажом ты сможешь заставить меня сделать это.

Число подобных глаголов с предлогами into, out of очень велико, их употребительность свидетельствует о том, что такие сочетания являются характерным явлением современного английского языка. При переводе каузативных глаголов такого типа обычно приходится вводить дополнительные слова.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

1). “What made you come down on Pit-Pit Lake?” he asked carefully. (Aldridge)

2). The accuracy of the statement caused him to grin. (Wallace)

3). There’s no getting a man to walk when he knows he can fly. (Galsworthy)

4). He also had ordered his luggage to be labelled. (Bennett)

5). The blow sent me staggering. (Sommerfield)

6). I sat in my chair and said: “Yes”, “Go on”, “I follow you” to keep him going. (Wells)

7). Her tone rendered James furious. (Bennett)

8). The cold wind turned the leaves yellow. (Salten)

9). He held the door open and they passed out into the hall. (Wilde)

10). That sets us both equal. (Hilton)

11). I have his name written down because I know you find it difficult to remember Chinese names. (Greene)

12). Have your secretary type it at once. (Hammett)

13). I won’t have her insulted. You’ve no right. (Greene)

14). I made him feel uneasy. (Galsworthy)

15). He had little hope of making them understand it. (Aldridge)

16). They were not respectable folk but they could cause things to be accomplished. (Kipling)

17). Senior managers’ attitudes to women’s employment are changing more slowly than corporate image-makers would make you believe.(The Economist)

18). Aunt Alexandra stared him to silence. (Dane)

19). She had tended them, mothered them into life. (Dane)

20). The strikers can’t be bluffed and bullied into submission. (The Guardian)

21). He tried to bounce me into a rash decision by concealing half the facts. (The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

22). “Using your hands and exploring with your hands and exploring with your senses is a way to get people to think”, says Ms. Thomas.(The Guardian)

23). The 1st explosions cause a building to start falling and the process gets faster as the explosions move upwards. (Focus Magazine)

24). Each language has its own personality, or “speech-feeling”, which limits its speakers to a certain way of thinking .( Focus Magazine)

25). The Biblical story of the Tower of Babel says that God forced people to speak many languages in order to reduce their power. (Focus Magazine)

26). During centuries of colonialism, European missionaries and administrators forced Third World people into giving up their own languages. (Focus Magazine)

27). It is no coincidence that the crater (which was caused by a kilometre-wide meteor crashing into the earth at 86,000 km/h) contains diamonds. (The National Geographic)

28). Intensifying international competition and high domestic costs are forcing German business – among others – into radical restructuring and a much greater reliance on global securities markets. (The Financial Times)

29). He stopped terrified by the glance that bid him be silent. (Steinbeck)

30). You ought to keep him looked up. (Galsworthy)

31). The exertion of making themselves heard was too great. (Galsworthy)

32). Why did you start me talking before I finished my work? (Shaw)

33). The thought sent him cold with panic. (Carter)

34). The shock sent him spinning. (Conrad)

35). He gave a short laugh that left his lips fixed in a queer fierce smile. (Galsworthy)

36). The night left him a wreck. (Wallace)

37). This concrete tenacity renders a family so formidable a unit of society. (Galsworthy)

38). What he has done names him the master realist of English drama. (Quincey)

39). Probably other readers have had this trick tried on them. (The Daily Mirror)

40). “We’ve just had our house painted. Why don’t you?” “I’m going to do it myself.” “We had men in white overalls do ours”. (Newsweek)

41). This, combined with the one million barrels of leaded petrol used per day, has caused pollution levels to sky-rocket. (The Guardian)

42). She governed the house cunningly and firmly, knew when to give credit, when to be stern and when to let things pass. (Joyce)

43). An acute heart attack is believed to happen when a tear in plaque inside a narrowed coronary artery causes platelets to aggregate, forming a clot that blocks the flow of blood .(Men’s Health)

44). She wanted to be a surgeon, but a serious eye infection forced her to abandon the idea. (Newsweek)

45). Sequoyah’s desire to preserve words and events to later generations has caused him to be remembered among the important inventors. (The National Geographic)

46). Watched by colleagues, George Mallory and Andrew Irving set out to get to the final peak. The pair had almost reached it when they were enveloped by cloud and never seen again. No one knows whether or not they conquered Everest, but new evidence discovered in the 1980s has led many people to believe they did. (The National Geographic)

  1. Слова-заместители

В английском языке наблюдается очень интересное явление – наличие большого количества разнообразных слов-заместителей (prop words or structure filling words). Ими бывают, в основном, местоимения и глаголы.

Местоимения: one, ones, this, that, these, those.

Глаголы: to be, to do, to have, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought, need, dare.

Широкое употребление слов-заместителей вызвано структурными особенностями английского языка, а именно его аналитическим характером, который требует структурной завершенности предложения и строгого порядка слов. Опущение значимого компонента невозможно без подстановки заместителя.

Это опущение чаще всего диктуется стилистическими соображениями, а именно стремлением избежать повторения одного и того же слова1 или желанием сделать высказывание более эмфатичным. Поэтому эмфатическое употребление слов-заместителей особенно характерно.

Все слова-заместители не имеют предметно-логического значения, а только контекстуальное. Их необходимо соотносить с соответствующими глагольными формами или существительными, которые они замещают, и только тогда они получают лексическую осмысленность.

e.g. The only imaginable settlement in Vietnam was one that would lead to a return to the 1954 Geneva agreements. (The Moscow News) – Единственно возможным решением вьетнамского вопроса было то, которое привело бы к возвращению к женевским соглашениям 1954 года.

Глаголы-заместители обычно делятся на полные и частичные заместители. К первым относится глагол to do в Present и Past Indefinite, который выступает как заместитель целого. Он может замещать глаголы любого значения. Во вторую группу входят все остальные глаголы-заместители. Они выступают только как часть вместо целого, являясь как бы представителем (репрезентантом) сложной глагольной формы. Такие конструкции можно рассматривать как своеобразный тип эллиптических конструкций, перевод которых всегда зависит от контекста.

e.g. “When I came here,” she explained to Mary, “nobody took any notice of me, so I thought, ‘Well, I will jolly well make them notice me: I’ll be mad.’ So I was, and they did.” (Dickens) – «Когда я приехала сюда, - объяснила она Мэри, - никто не обращал на меня внимания, и я подумала: ну, я уж их заставлю обратить на меня внимание; я прикинусь сумасшедшей! Я так и поступила и добилась своего».

Слова-заместители часто представляют трудность при переводе, т.к. бывает сложно разобраться в структуре предложения и правильно соотнести их с соответствующими словами. При переводе слов-заместителей приходится употреблять полнозначные слова (иногда и местоимения) или прибегать к различным функциональным заменам.

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1 Повтор очень распространен в английском языке, но его употребление всегда должно быть логически и стилистически оправдано, иначе он воспринимается как нечто ненужное, как стилистическое нарушение. Этим отчасти объясняется такое широкое употребление слов-заместителей.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

1). The table was a round one. (Dickens)

2). The workers are the ones who count in elections, in peaceful production and in war. (Johnstone)

3). What is peculiar about the fur of moles compared with that of most other furry animals? (The Daily Mirror)

4). A direct object is that upon which the action described by the verb is performed. (Pence)

5). When our children can read and write their names, then they will no longer live in poor houses like the ones here.(Abrahams)

6). He had seen no daily paper all week, and strangely to him, felt no desire to see one. (London)

7). Gitano’s body was as straight as that of a young man. (Steinbeck)

8). But it (bicycle) was then solid-tired and grotesquely composed of one five-foot wheel and one tiny one. (Furnace)

9). One of the great periods of social and political change in the ancient world was that which saw the final breakdown of the Roman Republic and the creation of the Empire. (The Guardian)

10). The thought had been mingled in my nightmares with that of the one-legged seafaring man. (Stevenson)

11).If you think this sounds very complicated, you are correct.It is.(Yates)

12). An ugly pair of 1960’s concrete blocks of flats, situated in one of the poorest areas of the East End of London, was an unlikely location for a party. But recently Hackney Council held one for local residents that quite literally went off with a bang .(Focus Magazine)

13). When I was a kid, my family could only afford to send one child to private piano lessons – it was expensive – and my older sister got to be the one to go. (British Airways Highlife)

14). Of course, I wanted to act, but many other people also did .(British Airways Highlife)

15). Once a producer didn’t like my name, I tried a new one but it wasn’t a success either so I went back to the old one. (British Airways Highlife)

16). His incredible career, and the legend which developed around his impressive personality, was that of a man of action, a devil-may-care adventurer, a brave war correspondent, an amateur boxer, a big-game hunter and deep-sea fisherman, the victim of 3 car accidents and 2 plane crashes, a man of 4 wives and many loves, but above all a brilliant writer of stories and novels. (Focus Magazine)

17). Indeed, the tourists speaking French might have been Belgians or Canadians; those speaking Russian could have been Lithuanians; and the ones speaking Japanese might have been doing so for the benefit of a distant relative from Tokyo. (Focus Magazine)

18). More pessimistic estimates state that only about 200 languages, those protected as official languages or spoken by more than a million people, will survive until the year 2,100 A.D. There are hundreds of languages which are spoken by fewer than 1,000 people and these will be the 1st to go. (Focus Magazine)

19). His work took much longer to gain acceptance than that of the Impressionists – an injustice for which Cezanne bitterly resented his former artistic colleagues .(The European)

20). The English language is spoken all over Scotland with a variety of regional accents, but all of these can be at once recognized as Scottish. (British Airways Highlife)

21). Many grown birds eat both seeds and insects and feed these to their babies. (The National Geographic)

22). The dog that does not come home as well as the one that does is a large field of research for the inquisitive mind, and scepticism in such matters is scarcely a method of investigation. (The National Geographic)

23). His own background gave him the basic materials for his best novels, which were realistic comedies of lower-middle-class life. In these he was at his peak as an artist .(Focus Magazine)

24). Progress in art is unthinkable without that in technology; they always go hand in hand. (The Guardian)

25). The films which held their attention were the ones with the simplest situations and the ones which appealed to their emotions or humour .(Le Monde)

26). We looked at a lot of nurseries in the neighbourhood. We wanted a lively and friendly nursery school with plenty of activities. Fortunately, our daughter is very content in the one we found .(British Airways Highlife)

27). He has promised he won’t go there again, but I think he’s too addicted to stop. Even if he wanted to, he couldn’t – and he doesn’t. (The Daily Telegraph)

28). The Parliament has different committees. Briefly, these consist of two main types. (O’Driscoll)

29). We’ve got exams, Mum. How can anyone learn lines when they’ve got those to worry about? (Paran)

30). Two smaller groups of strong-cultured companies were selected for closer study. The 1st one comprised high-performing firms whose net profits had, on average, increased by three times as much over an 11-year period as those in the 2nd one .(The Economist)

31). Clara, uninvited, thought she might as well step in, so she did. (Drabble)

32). In many fields the science of the Mayas surpassed that of the Greeks and the Romans. (The National Geographic)

33). In Chichen Itza they built observatories whose domes were better orientated than the one erected in Paris in the 17th century. (The National Geographic)

34). Soaps are human stories-dealing with the feelings and emotions of their characters. We like looking into soap characters’ lives – especially ordinary ones. If people are talking and thinking about human behaviour, it means they are increasing their understanding of human nature and learning to make their own judgements. Who is to say that these are any less valuable than the ones made about characters in literature – or in real life? (The Daily Mail)

35). The monks decorated the walls and ceilings with simple designs yet ones symbolic of early Christianity, such as crosses, fish, pomegranates and the palm tree of Paradise .(The National Geographic)

36). A long ladder provided the only route to the top and this could be drawn up by the monks in case of danger. (The National Geographic)

37). Many of them don’t last the course, though. Those that do, however, can look forward to a career which can earn them between $800 and $1000 per day, depending on who the client is, of course. (The European)

38). Good news doesn’t usually make headlines. Bad news does. (The Gardian)

39). Many stolen paintings have a strange history. But one of the strangest was that of a painting by the famous 16th century painter Bruegel, stolen from the Courtauld Institute in London in the Eighties.(The Sunday Times)

40). His manner was not effusive. It seldom was; but he was glad, I think, to see me .(Doyle)

41). In this case I found her biography sandwiched in between that of a Hebrew rabbi and that of a staff -commander who had written a monograph upon the deep-sea fishes. (Doyle)

42). In 1930 Scotland Yard set up its first single fingerprint classification system to enable officers to compare fingerprints found on the scene of the crime with those of criminals known to the police. (The Sunday Times)

43). “All we know is that the blackguard’s gone to Paris”. – “I thought they got on so well”. “So they did.” (Maugham)

44). He occupies one of those pleasant detached houses in the mixed style that make the western end of the Upper Sandgate Road so interesting. His is the one with the Flemish gables and the Moorish portico. (Wells)

45). The discovery that there was Celtic blood about this family had excited one who believed that he was Celt himself. (Galsworthy)

46). Many observed that the finds on Easter Island recalled in many ways the relics of the prehistoric civilizations of South America. Perhaps there had once been a bridge of land over the sea, and this had sunk? (Heyerdahl)



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