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а) Инфинитивный комплекс с предлогом "for" (т. н. оборот "for - phrase")

Действие, выраженное инфинитивом, может относиться к лицу или предмету, который не обозначается ни подлежащим, ни дополнением предложения. В этом случае лицо или предмет, к которому относится действие, выраженное инфинитивом, обозначается существительным в общем падеже или местоимением в объектном падеже с предшествующим предлогом "for". Оборот, состоящий из for + существительное/местоимение + инфинитив выполняет функцию одного члена предложения, а именно: сложного подлежащего (обычно с вводящим it), сложного дополнения, сложного определения, сложного обстоятельства. Инфинитив может при этом употребляться как в действительном так и в страдательном залоге.

Такие обороты очень распространены как в художественной речи, так и в газетно-публицистическом стиле. Они переводятся на русский язык при помощи инфинитива или придаточного предложения.

e.g. It is easy for you to say that. – Вам легко это говорить.

It is necessary for the goods to be packed in strong cases. – Необходимо, чтобы товары были упакованы в крепкие ящики.

The 1st thing for me to do is to find out when the steamer arrives. – Первое, что я должен сделать, это выяснить, когда прибывает пароход.

The water was too cold for the children to bathe. – Вода была слишком холодна, чтобы дети могли купаться.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

1). For you to go there just now would be to walk into a trap with your eyes open. (Voynich)

2). It’s all very well for you to laugh, but I tell you I was so startled. (Wells)

3). The only thing to do is for you to whip him ,Edward.( Mansfield)

4). I would like for you to know her. (O.Henry)

5). There was need for him to be economical. (London)

6). The boy stood aside for me to go by. (Galsworthy)

7). Her tight-fitting dress didn’t make it easy for her to bend down. (Lindsay)

8). His words had expressed a truth too deep for him to admit. (Galsworthy)

9). But I hate for you to be giving lessons. (O.Henry)

10). “John”, she said, “I don’t like for Lizzie to play in the street”. (O.Henry)

11). I have written down my father’s memoirs from tapes which describe his life, but for this to be enough for a book, I need to visit the Moscow streets where he spent his childhood, follow his path during the Revolution, and see where he lived in Paris and New York. (The Daily Mail)

12). Investors will be interested in convertible bonds if they expect a company’s share price to rise sufficiently for them to make a profit by converting the bond into shares. (The Financial Times)

13). Apart from the sheer beauty and excitement of EuroDisney, nothing was too trivial for Bob Fitzpatrick to deal with in his quest for perfection.(The Guardian)

14). The police have appealed for witnesses to help them with their inquiries. (The Guardian)

15). It was clear that for the US to survive there would have to be changes in the Articles of Confederation. (The Herald Tribune)

16). The custom is to hang mistletoe from the ceiling, for people to kiss under. (British Airways Highlife)

17). This may not be much for a battery to generate, but it’s a serious effort if you’re human.

(The Guardian)

18). Poor Fred! I dare say it was a comfort for him to write it, even though he couldn’t have known how to send it, poor fellow! (Gaskell)

19). At the time, it was very easy for criminals to give the police false names in order to avoid heavier sentences. (The Sunday Times)

20). Last year travel companies had to turn down up to 50% of requests from foreigners since they had nowhere for them to live. (The Moscow Times)

21). In the past, the captain usually had to anchor his ship at such times and wait for conditions to improve. (The National Geographic)

22). Elsewhere in the 18th century it was normal for opera to be directed from the harpsichord, which was in any case necessary for playing the recitative, and for symphonies to be directed by the principal first violin, still known in Britain as “leader” of the orchestra. (Collins Encyclopaedia of Music)

23).There are at least some indications that France might be willing for the EU to enter into a special relationship with Britain.(The Guardian)

б) Оборот «Именительныйпадежсинфинитивом» (Nominative with the Infinitive) или «сложноеподлежащее» (complex subject)

При сказуемом, выраженном глаголом в страдательном залоге.

Оборот «именительный падеж с инфинитивом» употребляется, когда сказуемое выражено следующими глаголами в страдательном залоге: to say, to state, to report, to announce, to believe, to think, to suppose, to consider и т.п.

e.g. The delegation is reported to have left Moscow. – Сообщают, что делегация уехала из Москвы.

Предложение с данным оборотом переводится на русский язык сложноподчинённым предложением. Глагол в страдательном залоге переводится на русский язык глаголом в действительном залоге в форме 3-го лица множественного числа с неопределённо- личным значением (говорят, сообщают и т.п.), играющим роль главного предложения, за которым следует придаточное предложение с союзом «что». Существительное или местоимение, стоящее перед глаголом в страдательном залоге, становится в русском предложении подлежащим придаточного предложения.

Предложение с оборотом «именительного падежа с инфинитивом» можно во многих случаях перевести на русский язык и простым предложением, в котором глагол с неопределенным значением играет роль вводного предложения.

e.g. The delegation is reported to have left Moscow. –Делегация, как сообщают, уехала из Москвы.

Определительное придаточное предложение с оборотом «именительный падеж с инфинитивом» (или заменяющий такое определительное придаточное предложение причастный оборот) переводится на русский язык предложением, в котором глагол с неопределённо- личным значением играет роль вводного предложения.

e.g. The motor-vessel «Smolny», (which is) reported to have arrived in Odessa on Monday, brought a large number of passengers. – Теплоход «Смольный», который, как сообщают, прибыл в Одессу в понедельник, привёз большое количество пассажиров.

В предложении с оборотом «именительный падеж с инфинитивом» после сказуемого иногда стоит дополнение с предлогом «bу» и т.o, инфинитив стоит не непосредственно за глаголом в страдательном залоге. При переводе на русский язык дополнение с предлогом «by» становится подлежащим главного предложения, а глагол в страдательном залоге заменяется глаголом в действительном залоге и становится сказуемым главного предложения.

e.g. The price is considered by the buyers to be too high. – Покупатели считают, что цена слишком высокая.

При сказуемом, выраженном глаголом в действительном залоге.

Оборот «именительный падеж с инфинитивом» употребляется, когда сказуемое выражено глаголами: to seem, to appear, to prove, to turn out, to happen, to chanсe, которые употребляются в действительном залоге.

e.g. The weather seems to be improving. – Погода, кажется улучшается.

He proved to be a good engineer. – Он оказался хорошим инженером.

I happened to be there at the time. – Случилось так, что я был там в то время. (Я случайно оказался там в это время).

This house appears to have been built by a good architect. – Этот дом, по-видимому, был построен хорошим архитектором.

При сказуемом, выраженном прилагательным likely, unlikely, certain, sure с глаголом-связкой to be.

В этом случае Indefinite Infinitive очень часто выражает действие, относящееся к будущему.

e.g. The goods are unlikely to be unloaded today. – Маловероятно, что (Вряд ли) товары будут разгружены сегодня.

He is sure to be asked about it. – Его непременно спросят об этом.

С прилагательным «likely» вместо «to be» иногда употребляется «to seem» и «to appear».

e.g. They seem most likely to have received our letter. – Вероятнее всего (кажется весьма вероятным), что они уже получили наше письмо.

The goods appear unlikely to arrive at the end of the week. – Кажется маловероятным, что товары прибудут в конце недели.

There seem likely to be some objections to your proposal. – Кажется вероятным, что будут некоторые возражения против вашего предложения.

Инфинитивные обороты с likely встречаются в определительных придаточных предложениях.

e.g. The delegates who are likely to arrive tomorrow will be lodged at this hotel. – Делегаты, которые, вероятно, прибудут завтра, будут размещены в этой гостинице.

Оборот «именительный падеж с инфинитивом» очень распространён в газетном стиле, с одной стороны, благодаря своей сжатости, а с другой стороны – потому что он даёт возможность избежать ответственности за помещаемую информацию.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

1). Two thousand more were believed injured. (The Times)

2). I thought he might prove useful. (Doyle)

3). He was expected to take the place of other boys. (Dreiser)

4). Is he considered clever? (Christie)

5). And what are they supposed to play here? (Heym)

6). The land was said to be unproductive. (Trollope)

7). Several hundred people were reported killed and wounded. (The Times)

8). No crime of any magnitude was known to have occurred. (Wells)

9). Mr. Howard Raikes was said to be breakfasting. (Christie)

10). At the present moment he is supposed to be in Paris. (Wilde)

11). Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune. (Galsworthy)

12). Never once had she been seen to cry. (Mansfield)

13). “I don’t know what things are coming to,” he was heard to say. (Galsworthy)

14). He didn’t seem to know anything about you. (Aldridge)

15). Somenoe else seemed to have invented the same machine years ago. (Wilson)

16). “Mrs. Dombey doesn’t appear to understand,” said Mr. Dombey. (Dickens)

17). I didn’t happen to see her. (Maugham)

18). It was one afternoon, when he chanced to meet me and Adele in the grounds.(Brontё)

19). Weathermen said here today that typhoon June, earlier thought to be heading toward Japan, would probably miss these already battered islands. (The Guardian)

20). In real emergencies the Sea King is expected to be in the air within 15 minutes, but seven is the average. (Focus Magazine)

21). He had shown himself, very publicly, to be a coward. (Hemingway)

22). His Arab campaign showed him to have a true insight into the character of modern warfare. (Fox)

23). Small feet were considered to be a sign of great beauty. (British Airways Highlife)

24). Long ago throwing an old shoe at someone was considered to be an ancient way of bringing someone good luck .(British Airways Highlife)

25). The lunar ground is assumed to be firm enough, though rocks from the Moon show that they were once melted. As to the Moon’s origin, none of existing theories has been proved to be either right or wrong, the truth remains to be investigated. (The National Geographic)

26). A famous English statesman was reported to be catching butterflies in the interval between giving up two European states to the Germans. (British Airways Highlife)

27). And after the 2nd lesson I wanted to quit, because I didn’t know you were supposed to come home every day and practise. (The Daily Mail)

28). Taking the ferret’s weight and size into consideration, the minks appeared to be more dangerous than tigers. (The National Geographic)

29). While seeking the great Unknown Southern Land rumoured to exist in the Pacific Ocean ,Cook inadvertently stumbled upon one of the Earth’s greatest and most fascinating underwater treasures. (The National Geographic)

30). “Roid rages” (or violent behaviour) were previously thought to be an outward sign of the extreme joy associated with dynamic muscle growth. (Men's Health)

31). Cats seem to have come amongst us much later than dogs, but when they did, they made a great impact. (The National Geographic)

32). These little almond cakes are said to have been first made at Richmond Palace when Henry VIII was king. (British Airways Highlife)

33). There are many problems, not least of which is that whereas the Church of England appears to be gradually accepting the idea of admitting women to the priesthood, this is totally unacceptable to the Roman Catholic Church. (The Guardian)

34). The next development is likely to be the four-string kite, which is said to be twice as much fun. (The Sunday Times)

35). The system reached Britain in 1901 and immediately proved to be useful.( The Sunday Times)

36). Not only are you likely to increase you self-confidence by living in another country, you’ll add valuable work experience to your CV. (School Leaver Magazine)

37). Travelling or working abroad for voluntary organizations may prove to be expensive if you lack sufficient funds. (School Leaver Magazine)

38). Applicants are expected to be numerate and highly computer literate; to have worked as economists for at least five years and to have strong experience in the economic analysis of markets. (The Economist)

39). Due to injury, Jose Martinez of the Paris Opera and Ballet House, announced to dance as Lopatkina’s co-star, was replaced by the Mariinsky’s own Danila Korsuntsev, who proved to be reliable enough in partnering Lopatkina, but thoroughly uninteresting on his own .(The Moscow Times)

40). One of Britain’s most notorious double-agents, George Blake, escaped from prison in a daring break-out believed to have been masterminded by the Soviet Union. (The Times)

41). Ralph Bader told reporters that the bomb appeared to have been made from ₤ 1,000 of plastic explosive, with artillery shells mixed in to maximize its destructive power. (The Guardian)

42). So Ickes travelled the country in search of money from rich Democrats. Billionaire George Soros was happy to help with a reported $5mln. Other wealthy Bush foes are said to have given almost as much. (Newsweek)

42). Until the stunning announcement was made, the conference had been supposed to be making good progress (Rowling).

43). We also seemed to have passed between seasons: in Scotland the spring flowers were just blooming, in Cornwall they had already faded. (The Sunday Times)

44). The boy, believed to be kidnapped, came home after missing for two days. (The Daily Mail)

45). But he is sure to marry her. (Hardy)

46). Later they had thought he was certain to die. (Abrahams)

47). “I’m not likely to see you again”, he said slowly. (Galsworthy)

48). Do you happen to remember what you did with the match? (Shaw)

49). The note proved to be a formal invitation from Mrs. Thornton. (Gaskell)

50). “A child who is energetic and outgoing is unlikely to become a computer addict, although any kind of child can enjoy the computer”, says Mrs. Noel Janis-Norton. (The Daily Express)

51). Tunneling, in its true technological sense, was believed to have been started about 3,500 B.C. during the Bronze Age in pursuit of copper ore through adits of the mountain slopes of the Sinai Peninsula. These deposits were worked by driving tunnels as far as 160 feet into the rock slopes. (The National Geographic)

52). Over a hundred people are believed to have been drowned during the recent floods in Pakistan.(The Times)

в) Инфинитив последующего действия (the Continuative Infinitive)

Среди многих функций инфинитива следует выделить инфинитив в функции обстоятельства последующего действия, который представляет определённую трудность при переводе, так как формально нет различия между инфинитивом цели и инфинитивом последующего действия (в редких случаях на него указывает запятая).

Инфинитив в этой функции выражает действие, следующее за действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым, является как бы его логическим развитием. Наглядным примером инфинитива в этой функции могут служить известные слова Байрона:

I woke one morning to find myself famous. – Я проснулся в одно прекрасное утро и обнаружил, что я знаменит.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

1). The success of the poem gave Byron every right to write in his diary: “I woke one morning to find myself famous.”(The Guardian)

2). He looked round to see Harry coming up from behind. (Lindsay)

3). Two young men were arrested only to be released. (Leacock)

4). He had picked up a Kansas City paper – the Star – only to realize that his worst fear in regard to all that had occurred had come true. (Dreiser)

5). I have spent many weary hours in hunting up words and forms given in Matzner’s grammar, merely to find that they have no existence. (Sweet)

6). He had had a tremendous quarrel with her in her flat and she had walked out and left him there, only to discover, when she returned 3 hours later, that he had shot himself. (Priestly)

7). Mrs. June Makin woke early to find two burglars carrying her TV set from her home. (The Daily Mail)

8). Although the mill, a former military factory, filters the tons of waste water it pours into Baikal every day, enough toxic chemicals reach the lake to kill creatures in a contaminated zone of about a square kilometer and a half. (The Moscow Times)

9). I woke up to find the room full of smoke. (The Daily Mirror)

10). Both fervently hope that Jeffrey’s two toddlers will grow up to be Timberland bosses. (The Economist)

11). A small number of people live to be 80 in Russia. (The Moscow Times)

12). The company itself has had a complicated history, passing out of the hands of chemists Lea and Perrins in the 1930’s to join HP sauces. (The Independent)

13). They made their way to the hotel only to find it dark and deserted. (Dreiser)

14). You shouldn’t give the child everything he wants. You shouldn’t satisfy his every craving for food, drink and comfort. Otherwise, he will grow up to believe the world owes him a living. (Focus Magazine)

15). Then in 1984 we saw a drop of 2% to return to the 1980 figure. (The Financial Times)

16). We talked for a while and then I looked round to find that he had gone. (Gaskell)

17). “One of my pupils cancelled our appointment and I came back looking forward to Mr. Thornton’s lesson, only to discover that he also fears he might find himself too busy to read this evening. (Gaskell)

18). The most magnificent date from the 10th and 11th centuries when wealthy noblemen competed with each other to establish the best churches and monasteries. (The National Geographic)

19). When the lava cooled quickly, it solidified to form quite hard, monolithic rocks. (The National Geographic)

20). For example, in Shakespeare’s days very few people lived to be 40. Even as late as 1900, most people could expect to live to be 50 or so. But a boy born today will probably reach the age of 75. Women generally live longer than men, so a girl born today will probably live to the age of 80. In the future, people will probably live much longer than that. So maybe one of us will live long enough to hear an orchestra whose members are all over 100. (Men’s Health)

21). Then she told Pongo her story. She had eight puppies, but one afternoon she woke up to find not one puppy in bed with her. (Smith)

22). And here he comes if I am not mistaken to resolve all our doubts. (Doyle)

23). Health experts worry the virus could combine with human flu to create a drug-resistant bug that could cause the world’s next pandemic. (The Moscow Times)

24). He turned halfway along the 3rd floor corridor, to see Fred and George peering out at him behind a statue of a humpbacked one-eyed witch. (Rowling)

25). The lucky residents woke up to find biscuits with heart stickers stuck to their doors, gates and cars. (The Daily Mail)

26). He went out to find himself surrounded by the enemies. (The Daily Mail)

27). As the most passionate worshipper of every word he was saying and every gesture he was making I came here only to realize all my expectancies were ruined. (Sheldon)

28). It is often said that any child born in the US can grow up to become president, because one doesn’t need to come from the upper class or have an important family to become president, although these things sometimes help. (Newsweek)

29). As our country received its birthright from the peoples of many lands who were gathered on these shores to found a new nation, so did the pattern of the Stars and Stripes rise from several origins back in the mists of antiquity to become emblazoned on the standards of our infant republic. (Time)

30).Sally looked up to see Dinny Quin coming towards her. But a Dinny she had never met before.(Prichard)

31).In the early 1960s, Levi Strauss was sky-rocketing. American films and music had spread to Europe and jeans had come to symbolize a new, youth culture.(The Economist)

г) Инфинитив в адъективных сочетаниях (в функции определения)

В функции определения инфинитив в английском языке может соответствовать и в русском языке инфинитиву в той же функции.

e.g. There is every reason to suppose that the cargo will arrive in time – Есть все основания полагать, что груз прибудет вовремя.

Однако в английском языке инфинитив в функции определения используется гораздо шире, чем в русском.

Инфинитив, определяющий существительное, во многих случаях равен по значению определительному придаточному предложению.

Сказуемое такого придаточного предложения выражает действие, которое должно произойти в будущем. На русский язык такой инфинитив переводится определительным придаточным предложением с глаголом- сказуемым, выражающем необходимость или долженствование, а также с глаголом-сказуемым в форме будущего времени.

e.g. The question will be discussed at the conference shortly to open in Moscow. – Вопрос будет обсужден на конференции, которая должна вскоре открыться (которая скоро откроется) в Москве.

В адъективных словосочетаниях инфинитив может быть в форме как действительного, так и страдательного залога, если определяемое обозначает предмет, подвергающийся действию, выраженному инфинитивом. В данном случае Indefinite Infinitive Passive может быть равен по значению определительному придаточному предложению, сказуемое которого выражает возможность.

e.g. Most of the beautiful buildings to be seen in this street were built in the 19th century. – Большинство красивых зданий, которые можно увидеть на этой улице, были построены в 19-ом веке.

Инфинитив в функции определения часто встречается после слов the first, the last и т.д. В этом случае инфинитив равен по значению определительному придаточному предложению со сказуемым в том же времени, в котором стоит сказуемое в главном предложении. Такие придаточные предложения, однако, очень редко употребляются вместо инфинитива. Инфинитив в этом случае переводится на русский язык глаголом в личной форме.

e.g. I am sure he will be the first to come to the meeting. – Я уверен, что он первым придет на собрание.

Инфинитив в функции определения может также указывать на назначение предмета, обозначенного существительным или местоимением. В данном случае при переводе следует обратить внимание на порядок слов.

e.g. He brought me a book to read. – Он принес мне почитать книгу.

She gave him some water to drink. – Она дала ему попить воды.

Перед инфинитивом, указывающим на назначение предмета, может стоять относительное местоимение which или whom с предшествующим предлогом. Это относительное местоимение может быть опущено, причем предлог тогда будет ставится после инфинитива, а при наличии прямого дополнения – после него.

Такие обороты переводятся на русский язык инфинитивом или придаточным предложением со сказуемым, выражающим возможность.

e.g. The children have a good garden in which to play. = The children have a good garden to play in. – У детей есть хороший сад, в котором они могут играть.

I have no one to whom to speak on this question. = I have no one to speak to on this question. –Мне не с кем поговорить по этому вопросу.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:

1). He was always the first to enter the dining-room and the last to leave. (Mansfield)

2). The next to arrive was Roger. (Galsworthy)

3). It was an old woman, with only a cat to care for in all the world. (Wells)

4). Let’s emigrate to the Yucatán. It’s a wonderful place to die in.(Lindsay)

5). There are always so many more important things to be attended to.(Shaw)

6). The desire to write was stirring in Martin once more. (London)

7). She waited till the persons to be passed stood up. (Lindsay)

8). He looked again at the shelves of books to be read and understood. (Wilson)

9). “Yes”, he thought, “I must have room to hang my pictures”. (Galsworthy)

10). Can’t you see your way to do it for eight thousand after all? (Galsworthy)

11). New steps to fight pollution of rivers have been announced in Wales and Scotland. (The Times)

12). Trained men at the airport watch the aeroplane on their radar screen and tell the pilot by radio the course to follow, they tell him when and by how much to reduce height, and give any other orders that may be necessary. (Focus Magazine)

13). He clips the cable to the person to be rescued, who is then lifted to safety. (Focus Magazine)

14). Moon is still a riddle from the distant past – and will be for a long time to come. (The National Geographic)

15). Yet another says that the first European to reach the New World was Leif Ericson, a Viking sailor from Iceland. (The National Geographic)

16). Monks were the 1st to inhabit the rocks of Meteora during the 9th century. (The National Geographic)

17). The 1st traffic lights of this type to appear in Britain were in London, on the junction between St.James’s Street and Piccadilly, in 1925. (The Guardian)

18). Members don’t really have a say in choosing the films that are brought, that’s one thing to consider, but maybe the main thing is that there are very few advantages in actually being a member. (The Sunday Times)

19). Franklin D.Roosevelt had been elected four times (1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944), the only man to serve so long a term. (Newsweek)

20). Presidents cannot serve more than 2 terms, which means that no president can remain in power for longer than 8 years. This rule only started in the 1940s, but President Franklin Roosevelt is the only president to have served more than 2 terms. (Newsweek)

21). The South American experts were the 1st to use finger prints to catch criminals. (The Sunday Times)

22). There is a wide range of programmes to choose from. (School Leaver Magazine)

23). Should the 1st man to contact aliens be a specialist in British industry, he will easily explain to them the ABC and the fundamentals of the world economy with all its tendencies, contradictions and prospects. (The Financial Times)

24). In January this year Lord Browne, BP’s general manager, said in an interview: “In Russia we have accumulated many business contacts and a substantial knowledge about how to do business there”. (The Financial Times)

25). By the end of the year such kiosks will be available at 150 locations in England and Wales, at places as diverse as the Albert Docks in Liverpool and Dover ferry terminal. The first to be opened by Health Minister Gisela Stuart is at a pharmacy in Essex on Wednesday. (The Times)

26). Llay Main Colliery was the last major mine to be opened on the North East Wales Coalfield and began production in the early 1920s. (The Guardian)

27). Harry looked right and received a surprise to shake him out of his torpor. (Rowling)

28). If one expects to get fun out of sailing with children, on is likely to find it fun. Still, there are many things to be considered before the fun starts. (Cornell).

29). Matthew Brady, one of the first people to take actual war photographs, was there with all his equipment.(Newsweek)

30). Glenn Hammond Curtiss built a series of flying boats for the navy and the 1st airplane to cross the Atlantic. (Times)

31).The first flag of the colonists to have any resemblance to the present Stars and Stripes was the Grand Union flag, sometimes referred to as the “Congress Colors”.(Time)

32).Timberland sponsors competitive yachtsmen and the annual Iditarod winter dog-sled race across the Alaskan tundra, where it equips competitors with snow boots that cost about $500 a pair to make.(The Economist)

33).The three simple tenses obviously cover all possible time: time now, time gone by, and time to come.(Smart)

34).We have no time to lose. (Voynich)

35).There are a hundred and fifty things to do. (Voynich)

36).There was nothing to see.(Aldridge)

37).There was nothing to be done about it.(Wilson)

38).They entered the station and found that there were nearly five minutes to wait. (Huxley)

39).Suddenly she felt the need to speak. (Wilde)

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