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Société nord-américaine de sociologie du sport

North American Society for the Sociology of Sport

Conférence annuelle

2004

Annual Meeting

Dialogues interdisciplinaires

Interdisciplinary Dialogues

Marriott University Park 3 au 6 novembre

Tucson, Arizona, USA November 3-November 6

2004 Program Committee Members

Mary McDonald, Chair, Miami University

Ben Carrington, University of Texas

Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Wib Leonard, Illinois State University

Samantha King, Site Coordinator, Queens University,

Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College

On this occasion of the silver anniversary of NASSS, this year's theme of "Interdisciplinary Dialogues" recognizes the diverse theoretical and methodological movements that scholars have enacted over the past twenty-five years to study sport both within and beyond the boundaries of sociology. "Interdisciplinary Dialogues" also suggests the necessity of continuing conversations among and between sport scholars and those working within other disciplines and interdisciplinary "fields."

Conference Highlights

Pre-Conference Symposium

On Wednesday, November 3, 2004 from 7-9 pm, NASSS will host "Human Rights in the North American Borderlands: A Symposium." In this symposium a panel of local Tucson activists and academics will discuss immigrant, indigenous, and civil rights, environmental justice, and labor and anti-racist organizing in the context of local and global border militarization and "free" trade. Speakers will include Guadalupe Castillo, Pima Community College; Raquel Rubio-Goldsmith, University of Arizona; Jennifer Allen, Border Action Network. Pat António Goldsmith, the University of Wisconsin, Parkside will preside.

Thursday Special Session

Graduate Workshop - Negotiating the Publication Terrain

Alissa Overend and Emma Wensing, NASSS Graduate Student Executive Board Members, have organized a special Thursday session, designed for but not restricted to graduate students that will focus on the publication process. The session will include three panelists in a round table format: Annelies Knoppers, the newly appointed editor of the Sociology of Sport Journal; Peter Donnelly, the editor of the International Review of the Sociology of Sport; and Audrey Giles, an all-but-defended Ph.D. student. Each presenter will speak for about 10-15 minutes, leaving ample time for a question and answer period.

Friday Keynote Address

The Decolonial Queer Body

Emma Pérez is an historian, a creative writer and a feminist critic. Her publications include: Gulf Dreams, Third Woman Press, 1996 and The Decolonial Imaginary: Writing Chicanas into History, Indiana University Press, 1999. She taught in the Department of History at the University of Texas, El Paso for over ten years. She recently joined the Department of Ethnic Studies at the University of Colorado, Boulder as an Associate Professor. Postcolonial critic Homi Bhabha notes that Pérez "has a distinctive and beautiful voice. Her work is written across national/cultural/sexual borders that are difficult to cross." She's recently completed an historical novel titled, Forgetting the Alamo, Or, Blood Memory. Her Friday keynote will feature a journey that summarizes the contributions of a few decolonial queer scholars who theorize the decolonial queer body.

Take a Student to Lunch on Friday

As in the past, Friday will offer the annual "Take A Student to Lunch" opportunity where faculty treat graduate students to lunch.

Friday Silver Anniversary Celebration

The 25th Anniversary of the NASSS Conference

NASSS Dialogues: A Discussion of the Future

Our November meeting in Tucson will mark the 25th annual conference of NASSS. In recognition of this important milestone, all NASSS members are invited to participate in a Friday discussion of the future direction of NASSS at a special session in Tucson. Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton will preside. The session will feature issues that concern NASSS members and direct a particular focus on the following issues:

Membership, retention and outreach efforts, including promotion of diversity,

recruitment of graduate students, and the conference climate.

Communication among the NASSS membership about organizational matters.

Conference structure and content, including interdisciplinarity, accessibility and rigor.

Administrative structure of NASSS, including terms of office and role delineation.

Friday Silver Anniversary Celebration

Honoring the Presidents of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport

In honor of their service to the organization, the Presidents of NASSS will be recognized

at the Friday business meeting and will serve as our guests of honor at the Friday evening reception. Memorabilia from the NASSS archives will be on display throughout the conference.

NASSS Presidents

2005-2006 Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton

2004-2005 Mary G. McDonald, Miami University

2003-2004 Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College

2002-2003 Wib Leonard, Illinois State University

2001-2002  Earl Smith, Wake Forest University

2000-2001  Michael Malec, Boston College

1999-2000 Peter Donnelly, University of Toronto

1998-1999  Alan Klein, Northeastern University

1997-1998  Mary McElroy, Kansas State University

1996-1997  Margaret Carlisle Duncan, University of Wisconsin,

Milwaukee

1995-1996  Tim Curry, Ohio State University

1994-1995  Michael A. Messner, University of Southern

California

1993-1994  Don Sabo, D'Youville College

1992-1993  Mary E. Duquin, University of Pittsburgh

1991-1992  John Loy, University of Illinois

1990-1991  Barbara Brown, University of Western Ontario

                    Jay Coakley, University of Colorado - Colorado

Springs

1989-1990  Howard Nixon It Appalachian State University

1988-1989   James H. Frey, University of Nevada-Las Vegas

1987-1988   Janet C. Harris, University of North Carolina,

Greensboro

1986-1987   D. Stanley Eitzen, Colorado State University

1985-1986   Susan Greendorfer, University of Illinois

1983-1985   George H. Sage, University of Northern Colorado

1981-1983   Barry D. McPherson University of Waterloo

1980-1981   Andrew Yiannakis, University of Connecticut

Saturday Keynote Panel

Interdisciplinary Dialogues: (Post)Identity and Sport

Ben Carrington, University of Texas

Richard Gruneau, Simon Fraser University

Othello Harris, Miami University

Margaret MacNeill, University of Toronto

Each panelist was asked to respond to the following prompt:

The past twenty-five years and beyond have witnessed various responses to "identity" and inequality both within and outside the realm of sport. These range from identity-based social movements (i.e. women's movements, indigenous rights movements) designed to challenge inequality to nonidentarian critiques that posit identity as the very mode enabling the reproduction of inequality. Moreover, debates about the usefulness of identity as a basis for scholarly analysis and political action have led many scholars to revise fundamental assumptions about the nature of subjectivity, agency, and the intersection of axes of difference. Where do you position your work among these various responses? What theorists or theoretical movements have been influential in your thinking? What insights does your position offer for scholars of sport and the future direction of the field?

Saturday Spotlight Session

Spotlight Session: Interdisciplinary Dialogues: Thinking Through Race, Nation and Sport

This panel features young scholars whose work engages the latest thinking in critical race theory and who have not previously attended NASSS:

Kathleen S. Yep, Claremont Colleges

Brett St. Louis, University of California, San Diego

Gregory S. Rodriguez, University of Arizona

North American Society for the Sociology of Sport

Société nord-américaine de sociologie du sport

Wednesday, November 3, 2004

1:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. NASSS Board Meeting Canyon B

5:00 p.m. – 9:00 p.m. Registration Foyer

7:00 p.m. – 9:00 p.m. Human Rights in the North American Borderlands: A Symposium Maderia

9:00 p.m. – 12:00 p.m. Welcoming Reception Pima

Thursday, November 4, 2004

7:00 a.m. – 8:15 a.m. Board of Directors Meeting Board Room

8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Registration Foyer

10:00 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. NASSS Presidential Address Sabino

Ellen J. Staurowsky

1:15 p.m. – 2:30 p.m. Lunch

2:30 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Graduate Workshop: Canyon A

Negotiating the Publication Terrain

8:15 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. Sessions

Thursday Sessions

Session 1

8:15 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.

Session 1A Sabino

Spaces for Racism: Sport, Race, and Nation I

Session Organizers and Presiders: Rod S. Murray and Lainie Mandlis, University of Alberta

Wide Open Spaces: Canadian Identity via Multiculturalism and Sport Policy,

Rod S. Murray and Debra Shogan, University of Alberta

Where You From?: Canadian National Identity and High-Performance Sport,

Michael Cantelon, University of Alberta

From Immigrant to Overstayer: Nationalism, Rugby, and Pacific Island Identity,

Andrew Grainger, University of Maryland and Joshua I. Newman, The University of Memphis

Session 1B Pima

Pain, Violence and Sport

Session Organizer and Presider: Kevin Young, University of Calgary

Mepham Messages: Hazing and Sports Related Pain Across the Community,

C. Roger Rees, Adelphi University

The Body’s Role in Socialization of Pain in Men’s Rugby,

Robert Pitter and Lindsay Fenton, Acadia University

Mediated 'Sports Crime': Professional Ice Hockey as a Discursive Battleground,

Michael Atkinson, McMaster University and Kevin Young, University of Calgary

Session IC Canyon B

Comparative Perspectives on Sport Policy I

Session Organizers and Presiders: Barrie Houlihan, Loughborough and Hilmar Rommetvedt, Rogaland Research

A Framework for Comparative Analysis of Sport Policy,

Barrie Houlihan, Loughborough University

Elite Sport Development in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom,

Mick Green, Loughborough University

Sport for All” Policy: A Cross-Country Comparison,

Svein Ingve Nødland, Rogaland Research, Nils Asle Bergsgaard, Rogaland Research and Telemark Research

Section 1D Canyon A

Body Culture I: Children and Youths

Session Organizer and Presider: Margaret Carlisle Duncan, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Girls are Powerful”: Young Women, Meaning Making and Athletic Bodies,

Allison Butler, New York University

Youth with Disabilities: Rethinking Discourses of the “Healthy” Body,

Morgan Seeley and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Lifestyle Choices: Parental Accountability and the Problem of Childhood Obesity,

Gabriela Tymowski, University of New Brunswick

Session 1E Ventana

Bringing Sport Sociology to Life in the Classroom

Session Organizer and Presider: Gary Sailes, Indiana University

Bringing the Sociology of Sport Alive for Summer Bridge Students,

Bruce A. Smith and Jessica Parker, University of California, Berkeley

Bringing Sport Sociology to Life in the Classroom,

Gary Sailes, Indiana University

Session 1F Madera

Indigenous Peoples: Sport, Health and Culture

Session Organizer and Presider: Amy S. Hribar, Montana State University

Redskins: Legal, Financial, and Policy Issues relative to Harjo v. Pro-Football, Inc.,

Mark S. Nagel, Georgia State University, Daniel Rascher, University of San Francisco and Richard M. Southall, University of Memphis

"Whatever Happened to Frank Snake Church": Basketball in the Fiction of ShermanAlexie, John Miles, University of New Mexico

Negotiating Boundaries: Traditional Dene Games in Contemporary Classrooms,

Audrey Giles, University of Alberta

Space, Place and Experience: “Knowing” Oneself through Distinctions,

Victoria Paraschak, University of Windsor and Michael Heine, University of Manitoba

Session 1G Canyon C

Homophobia and Sexual Harassment in the World of Sports

Session Organizer and Presider: Karin Volkwein-Caplan, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Homophobia in Women's Sport,

Karin Volkwein-Caplan, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Harassment, Gender and Power Relations in Canadian University Sport,

Margery Holman, University of Windsor

Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child,

Mike Hartill, Edge Hill College of Higher Education

Session 2

10:00 a.m. – 11:30 a.m.

NASSS Presidential Address Sabino

Sponsored by Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

Presider: Allen Sack, University of New Haven

The “Sport” Sociology Exemption in the U.S. Faculty Bias Discourse

Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College

Session 3

11:45 a.m. – 1:15 p.m.

Session 3A Sabino

Brown vs. Board of Education, Dreams Deferred: From Integration To Commodity

Session Organizers and Presiders: Dana Brooks and Ron Althouse, West Virginia University

The Integration of LSU Athletics,

Louis Harrison, Jr. and Leonard Moore, Louisiana State University

WVU: Local Economy to "Beast of the East",

Dana Brooks, Ronald Althouse, and Damien Clement, West Virginia University

Gone With the Wind: Integration and the Southeastern Conference,

Don Belcher, University of Alabama

Session 3B Canyon B

From the Disciplinary Paradigm to its Everyday Practice: (Re)Conceptualizing Sport From a Communication Perspective

Session Organizer: Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

Presider: Robert S. Brown, Ashland University

Disciplining Sport as a Communication Phenomenon,

Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

Towards a Rhetorical Theory of Sport in Democratic Culture,

Michael L. Butterworth, Indiana University

(Re)Examining the Past, Present, and Future of Sport Promotion Scholarship,

Andrew C. Billings, Clemson University

The Case of Janet Jackson vs. the Super Bowl: An Analysis of Synergy, PromotionalCommunication, Crisis Management, and Ethics

Lawrence A. Wenner, Loyola Marymount University

Session 3C Pima

Critiquing Sport: What is the Relevance of Marxism?

Session Organizer and Presider: Ian McDonald, University of Brighton

Marxism, Hegemony and Sport: Towards a Re-Appropriation of Gramsci,

Alan Bairner, Loughborough University

Sport, Steroids and Alienated Labour: A Marxist Analysis,

Rob Beamish, Queen's University

Sport and Revolution,

Ian McDonald, University of Brighton

Session 3D Canyon C

Sport and the Nation I

Session Organizer: Toni Bruce, University of Waikato

Presider: Emma H. Wensing, University of Toronto

Soccer, Scots, Scottishness and the Irish Diaspora in Scotland,

Joseph M. Bradley, University of Stirling

Representing the Nation: Transnational Appropriations,

Toni Bruce, University of Waikato, and Belinda Wheaton, University of Brighton

Session 3E Ventana

Diverse Gender Constructs and Perceptions

Presider: Tess Kay, Loughborough University

"King Frog" vs. "Madelaine": Gender Differences in Sport-Related Computer-MediatedCommunications, Chris Stevenson, University of New Brunswick

The Relationship between Actual and Perceived Gender Dissimilarity,

George B. Cunningham, Texas A. & M. University

Sport, Fatherhood and Family,

Tess Kay, Loughborough University

Session 3F Madera

Deconstructing Discourses on Women's Health/Fitness

Session Organizer and Presider: Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Learning to Lose Curves: Examining Discourses on Women's Fitness,

Maxine Craig and Rita Liberti, California State University, Hayward

Writing for Oneself: Creating Ethical Practices for Women's Fitness,

Pirkko Markula, University of Exeter

Media, Youth Movement and Active Health Literacy,

Margaret MacNeill and LeAnne Petherick, University of Toronto

Session 3G Canyon A

Social Manifestations of the Psychic-Psychoanalysis of Culture and Sport

Session Organizers and Presiders: Judy Davidson, University of Alberta and Michelle Helstein, Lethbridge University

Olympic Melancholia: Pride, Shame, and the Emergence of the Gay Games,

Judy Davidson, University of Alberta

: (Mis)Recognition, Gendered Desire, and Sport,

Michelle Helstein, University of Lethbridge

Finding Space: Negotiating Trans-Identity Within Sport,

Jodi H. Cohen, Bridgewater State College and Tamar Z. Semerjian, California State University, Los Angeles

Lunch

1:15 p.m. – 2:30 p.m.

Session 4

2:30 p.m. – 4:00 p.m.

Session 4A Ventana

Visual Economies of/in Motion: Sport and Film I

Session Organizer and Presider: C. Richard King, Washington State University

A Road Less Traveled: Sport Film Research and Instructional Implementation,

Demetrius W. Pearson and Augusto Rodriquez, University of Houston

Without a Soul: Lenie Riefenstahl's "Olympia" Reconsidered,

Stephen D. Mosher, Ithaca College

Media, Marketing, and Matters of Memory: Sport and Seabiscuit,

Holly Kruse, University of Tulsa

Remembering the Titans: Racialized Educational Policy and the Re-narration ofDe/Segregation, Michael D. Giardina, University of Illinois

Session 4B Canyon B

Integration, Inclusion, Sport and Disability

Session Organizer and Presider: Eli Wolff, Northeastern University

Integration, Disability and Sport: Past and Future Research Directions,

Howard L. Nixon II, Towson University

Inclusion, Integration and Human Rights: From the Athlete Perspective,

Eli Wolff, Northeastern University, Ted Fay, SUNY, Cortland, and Mary Hums, University of Louisville

Discussant: P. David Howe, University of Brighton

Session 4C Canyon A

Graduate Workshop: Negotiating the Publication Terrain

Graduate Organizers: Alissa Overend, University of Alberta and Emma Wensing, University of Toronto, NASSS Board Graduate Student Representatives

Presider: Emma Wensing, University of Toronto

Annelies Knoppers, Incoming Editor, Sociology of Sport Journal

Peter Donnelly, Editor, International Review of the Sociology of Sport

Audrey Giles, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Alberta

Session 4D Sabino

"Glass Ceilings” in Sport Organizations: Studies on Gender Arrangement in Leadership Positions I

Session Organizer and Presider: Gertrud Pfister, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Copenhagen

Too Many Conflicts ..." Leaders in Sport Organisations Who "Dropped Out",

Gertrud Pfister, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Copenhagen

Gender Differences in the Biographies of Functionaries in German Sport,

Sabine Radtke, Freie Universität

An Analysis of Women’s Leadership Roles in the Olympic Movement,

Gerald Gems, North Central College

Session 4E Pima

Interdisciplinary Dialogues: Sport Studies and Urban Studies I

Session Organizer and Presider: Kimberly Schimmel, Kent State University

(Re)defining Community: Sport and Civic Development Strategies,

Laura Misener, University of Alberta

We’re the People You Do Not See”: Governance and Regulation in Sterile Spaces ofPlay, Michael L. Silk and David L. Andrews, University of Maryland

Corporate Philanthropy and Social Responsibility,

Jeremy Howell, University of San Francisco

Session 4F Madera

Marginalized Masculinities and Sport

Session Organizer and Presider: Eric Anderson, State University of New York, Stony Brook

Racial Marking, Stereotyping, and Preferential-Positioning in the 2004 SummerOlympics, Brian J. Wigley and Gina Daddario, Shenandoah University

Boys Being Boys: The Pathology of High School Jock Culture,

Jennifer Scott, Queen's University

Where We Live Now: Kobe Bryant and the Fire This Time

Delia D. Douglas, Independent Scholar

Session 4G Canyon C

Sport and Recreation in Diverse Global, Spacial and Institutional Sites

Presider: Amy S. Hribar, Montana State University

The Games of Glengarry: Cultural (Re)production and Identity Politics in RuralCommunities, Courtney W. Mason, University of Windsor

Stories of Identity, Kay Biscomb, University of Wolverhampton

Weekend Youth Sports Programs in Japanese Community

Takahiro Kitamura and Masashi Kawanishi, National Institute of Fitness and Sports, Japan

Session 5

4:15 p.m. – 5:45 p.m.

Session 5A Ventana

Visual Economies of/in Motion: Sport and Film II

Session Organizer and Presider: C. Richard King, Washington State University

Is this Heaven?” Whiteness, Hollywood and the Sports Imagination,

David Leonard, Washington State University

Interrogating the Politics of White Particularity in Dogtown and Z-Boys,

Kyle Kusz, University of Rhode Island

Chiefs, Warriors, and Racists: Indianness in Recent Sport Documentaries,

C. Richard King, Washington State University

Discussant: Aaron Baker, Arizona State University

Session 5B Canyon C

The Cultural Politics of Lifestyle Sports I

Session Organizer: Belinda Wheaton, University of Brighton

Presider: Ben Carrington, University of Texas

The Performative Avant-Garde, Robert E. Rinehart, Washington State University

Capoeria: A ‘Mixed Race’ Game of Resistance (?),

Janelle Joseph, University of Toronto

Dogtown and Z-Boys: Producing a Subcultural Past For a Mainstream Present,

Donald Meckiffe, University of Wisconsin Fox Valley

Session 5C Sabino

Politics of Sport Policy

Session Organizer and Presider: Ian McDonald, University of Brighton

Deliberative Democracy and the Canadian Sport Policy,

Lisa Kikulis, Brock University, Lisa Kihl, University of Minnesota and Lucie Thibault, Brock University

Sport Medicine Policy’s Scope of Practice,

Parissa Safai, University of Toronto

The Body as Container: Biopolitics of the “Muscle Gap,”

Jeffrey Montez de Oca, University of Southern California

Session 5D Canyon A

Theorizing and Representing Race: Memories, Bodies and Spaces

Presider: Jamie Schultz, University of Iowa

Stuff of Which Legends are Made”: Jack Trice Stadium and the Politics of Memory, Jaime Schultz, University of Iowa

Athletisizing Black Athletes: The Social Construction of Black Student Athletes,

Robin Hughes, Oklahoma State University and James Satterfield, The University of Texas, El Paso

Representations of Rugby in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South African Literature,

Anne M. Reef, University of Memphis

South African Rugby in Turmoil and the Rise of the “New Outsiders: Race, Ethnicity and Commercial Interests, Gary BE Boshoff, University of the Western Cape

Session 5E Pima

Body Culture III: Extreme Expressions of the Body

Session Organizer and Presider: Margaret Carlisle Duncan, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

American Steroids:  Using Race & Gender,

CL Cole and Alex Mobley, University of Illinois

Anabolic Steroids: The Men’s World?

Bjorn Barland, Aker University Hospital, Hormone Laboratory, Oslo, Norway

Inhibiting Progress: The Record of the Four-Minute Mile,

Jim Denison, University of Bath

Session 5F Canyon B

Women, Sport and the Iconography of Nationhood

Session Organizer and Presider: Irene A Reid, University of Stirling

The Girl Who Threw the Stone of Destiny”: Media Representations of Scotland’s 2002Olympic Curling Champions, Irene A Reid, University of Stirling

Naela Nasr: Symbol of the South Yemeni State,

Thomas B. Stevenson, Ohio University, Zanesville

The Game of ‘Their’ Lives”: The Established and the Outsiders in Canada’s NationalSport, Carly Adams, University of Western Ontario

Session 5G Madera

Sport and [Queer]Sexuality: Critical inQueeries I

Session Organizer and Presider: Jayne Caudwell, University of Brighton

The Performance of Non Conventional Sexual Identities in Women’s Sports,

Barbara Ravel, Université de Montréal and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Contested Spaces of Women’s Professional Basketball,

Tiffany Muller, University of Minnesota

Trans/Feminist Sport Sociology: Applying Transgender Theory to the Sociology ofSport, Tamar Meyer, York University

Session 6

6:00 p.m. – 7:00 p.m.

Session 6A Canyon C

The Changing Culture of American Golf: The Tiger Woods Effect

Session Organizer and Presider: Gary Sailes, Indiana University

A Spiritual Swing? Transmitting Buddha Through (a) Tiger,

Jane M. Stangl, Smith College

The Changing Culture of American Golf: The Tiger Woods Effect,

Gary Sailes, Indiana University

Session 6B Ventana

Investigating the Old and New: Sport Value Constructs and Celebrating NASSS's Silver Anniversary

Session Organizer and Presider: Wib Leonard, Illinois State University

Old School - New School, Value Constructs In Sport and Among Sport Consumers,

Chris Grenfell, California State University, San Bernardino

Quo Vadis Sport Sociology? Is There a Future for You in the Horizon?

Andrew Yiannakis, University of Connecticut

Session 6C Canyon A

What Does Legal and Moral Theory Have to Do with the Social Criticism and Analysis of Sport?

Session Organizers and Presiders: Sarah Fields and William J. Morgan, Ohio State University

Social Criticism, Moral Anti-Realism and Sport: Some Contemporary Cases,

William J. Morgan, Ohio State University

Jurisprudence, Gender, and Sport,

Sarah Fields, Ohio State University

Session 6D Madera

Evaluating Values, Beliefs and Inequalities in Sport

Presider: Pat António Goldsmith, University of Wisconsin, Parkside

Race and Basketball Playing Ability: Preliminary Investigation with a Large, NationallyRepresentative Sample of High School Students,

Pat António Goldsmith, University of Wisconsin, Parkside

Competence Beliefs, Achievement Values, Race, and Gender in Physical Activity,

Zan Gao, Louisiana State University, Louis Harrison, Jr., Louisiana State University, and Ping Xiang, Texas A. & M. University

Session 6E Canyon B

Sport Sociology and History: The Legacy of Mountaineer John Muir

Session Organizers and Presiders: Tim Curry, Ohio State University and John C. Phillips, University of the Pacific

The Muir-Whitney Debate—Observation Meets Authority,

John C. Phillips, University of the Pacific

John Muir, Mountaineer: A Gender Perspective,

Tim Curry, Ohio State University

Session 6F Pima

Representing American Indians: Psychological Costs and Sociological Consequences

Presider: Laurel Davis-Delano, Springfield College

We’re Honoring You, Dude”: The Impact of Using American Indian Mascots,

Stephanie Fryberg, University of Arizona

Friday, November 5, 2004

7:00 a.m. – 8:15 a.m. SSJ Board Meeting Board Room

7:00 a.m. – 8:15 a.m. Graduate Student Meeting Conference Room 1

8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Registration Foyer

8:30 a.m. – 4:15 p.m. Sessions

10:00 p.m. – 11:30 p.m. Keynote Address, Emma Pérez Pima

1:15 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Take a Student to Lunch

4:30 p.m. – 5:30 p.m. NASSS Dialogues: A Discussion of the Future Pima

5:30 p.m. – 6:30 p.m. Business Meeting/Awards Presentation Pima

6:30 p.m. – 8:30 p.m. NASSS Reception Outside Patio

FRIDAY SESSIONS

Session 7

8:15 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.

Session 7A Pima

Interdisciplinary Studies of Sport and (Ill)Health

Session Organizer and Presider: Elizabeth Pike, University College Chichester

Train Without Strain: Health and Amateur Athletes,

Peter Mewett, Deakin University

Epistemology and (Ill) Health: Lay Knowledge and the Elite Sporting Body,

P. David Howe, University of Brighton

Flop, Turn, River: Alcohol Use and Gambling Among College Students,

Philip Suchma and Sarah L. Offenbaker, Ohio State University

Sexual Health, Physical Activity, and Teenage Identity Construction,

Elizabeth Pike, Sarah Gilroy, and Natalie Dobson, University College Chichester

Session 7B Madera

Sport and [Queer]Sexuality: Critical inQueeries II

Session Organizer and Presider: Jayne Caudwell, University of Brighton

Queering Boxing, Boxing Queer, Lainie Mandlis, University of Alberta

The Femme and Football: Queering Femininity, Queering Football?,

Jayne Caudwell, University of Brighton

Freudian Psychoanalysis and Queer Embodiment in Sport and PE,

Heather Sykes, University of Toronto

Sporting Metrosexuality: Sport, Gender, and Sexuality in Contemporary America,

Amy S. Hribar, Montana State University

Session 7C Canyon A

Facilitating (Inter)Disciplinary Dialogue: (Re)Considering Sport As a Communication Phenomenon

Session Organizer: Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

Session Presider: Jeffrey W. Kassing, Arizona State University West

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative Enactment,

Lindsey J. Mean, Arizona State University West

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative (Re)Production,

Andrew C. Billings, Clemson University

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative Consumption,

Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative Organizing,

Robert L. Krizek, St. Louis University

Session 7D Canyon B

Poster Session

Images of Brown V Board of Education: 50 Years of Contradictions

Poster Session Organizers and Presiders: Dana Brooks and Ron Althouse, West Virginia University

Brown vs. Board of Education: Sport as an Agent of Change,

Kenneth C. Teed, George Mason University, Damien Clement, West Virginia University, Heather Bosetti, Independent Scholar

A Reflective Look at Hoosiers in Middletown, USA,

Valerie Wayda, Amy Kent, Cebronica Scott, and Jeff Pauline, Ball State University

Crispus Attucks: The Pride of Indianapolis or Was It?

Cebronica Scott, Valerie Wayda, and Roch King, Ball State University

From Pollard to Vick: Trials and Tribulations of the Black Quarterback,

Fritz G. Polite, The University of Central Florida, E.N. Jackson, Florida A. & M. University, Rudy Collum, Florida Atlantic University and Justin Weir, The University of Central Florida

Remembering Jim Crow: Pride within Black High School Athletics,

Ronald Althouse, Dana Brooks and Damien Clement, West Virginia University

Session 7E Ventana

Sport, Culture and Advertising I

Session Organizer and Presider: Steve Jackson, University of Otago

Local/Global Sport Advertising: Major Sporting Events,

Joseph Maguire, Loughborough University

Corporate Branding and Municipal Boosterism in Canada,

Hart Cantelon, The University of Lethbridge

Cyber-Corporate Nationalism: Adidas’ “Beat Rugby” Within and Beyond New Zealand, Jay Scherer, University of Otago

Dawn of the Living Dead: Advertising, Sport and Commodifying the Past,

Steve Jackson, University of Otago

Session 7F Canyon C

Ethnographic Investigations of Men in Sport

Session Organizer and Presider: Eric Anderson, State University of New York, Stony Brook

Southern Collegiate Rugby: Examining a Masculine Space,

Will Rote, University of Mississippi

The Effect of Sex-Segregation on Homophobia and Misogyny: Sport and theReproduction of Orthodox Masculinity, Eric Anderson, State University of New York, Stony Brook

 

Of Pucks and Men: A Queer Female Body in Naturalized Masculine Terrain,

PJ McGann, University of Michigan

Gay Hockey Talk”: The Dominant Gay Liberal Philosophy of the Colorado Climax, Brian Frederick, University of Colorado

Session 8

10:00 a.m. – 11:30 a.m.

Keynote Address Pima

Presider: Katherine M. Jamieson

The Decolonial Queer Body,

Emma Pérez, University of Colorado

Session 9

11:45 p.m. – 1:15 p.m.

Session 9A Canyon B

Interdisciplinary Dialogues with NASSS Keynote, Emma Pérez, University of Colorado

Presider: Mary G. McDonald, Miami University

Session 9B Canyon C

Power, Gender and Media Images: What Would Stuart Hall Say?

Session Organizer and Presider: Jim Steele, James Madison

Media Representations of Gender and Physicality: Women’s Martial Arts,

Janelle Joseph, University of Toronto

Cross-National Comparisons of Newspapers' Gendered Coverage of Wimbledon 2004, Jane Crossman, Lakehead University and John Vincent, The University of Alabama

Broadcast Sport, Communication and Culture,

Fabrice Desmarais and Toni Bruce, University of Waikato

Good Gays and Bad Gays: The “Faggot” Gimmick in Professional Wrestling,

Larry DeGaris, James Madison University

Session 9C Pima

The Reform Movement in College Sport

Panel Organizer and Presider: Michael Malec, Boston College

This panel is co-sponsored by The Drake Group

Empowering Athletes to Control Their Fate as Students,

Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College

The Faculty and Contemporary Intercollegiate Athletics Reform Efforts: The DrakeGroupand the Coalition for Intercollegiate Athletics, Steve Estes, East Carolina University

Faculty Power: How to Jump Start the Athletic Reform Process,

Allen Sack, University of New Haven

Discussant: Welch Suggs, The Chronicle of Higher Education

Session 9D Canyon A

Comparative Perspectives on Sport Policy II

Session Organizers and Presiders: Barrie Houlihan, Loughborough University and Hilmar Rommetvedt, Rogaland Research

Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Discontinuity in Hungarian Sport Policy, Emese Ivan, University of Western Ontario

Developing National Sport Policy through Consultation: The Rules of Engagement, Michael Sam, University of Otago

Norwegian Sport Politics and Policy: A Reflection of General Trends or Deviant Case? Hilmar Rommetvedt, Rogaland Research and Nils Asle Bergsgard, Rogaland Research and Telemark Research

Session 9E Ventana

Body Culture II: Discourses

Session Organizer and Presider: Margaret Carlisle Duncan, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Songs of Innocence, Songs of Experience: Romantic Idiom in Body Culture Advertising, Alan Aycock, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Toward a Genealogy of Wellness: Destabilizing a Unified Definition,

Darcy C. Plymire, Towson University

Portrayals of the African-American Female Body in Urban Music Videos,

Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Monica Branch, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Session 9F Madera

Race and Sport I

Session Organizer: Cynthia Fabrizio Pelak, University of Memphis

Session Presider: Corey Twombly, University of Memphis

Entering the Gym Class, Entering Whiteness: Exploring Female Physical Education Teachers’ Subjectivity, Yuka Nakamura, University of Toronto

Researching Whiteness in Sport,

Alina Potrzebowski, University of New Mexico

Stacking in Sport: Towards a More Sophisticated Analysis,

Robert Chappell and Daniel Burdsey, Brunel University, London

Session 9G Board Room

Disability in Sport Sociology

Organizer and Presider: Eli Wolff, Northeastern University

Incorporating Perspectives on Athletes with a Disability into the Sport SociologyCurriculum, Eli Wolff, Northeastern University, Howard L. Nixon II, Towson University and Ian Brittain, University of Warwick

Teaching and Learning: Disability in Sport Sociology Applied

Ted Fay, SUNY, Cortland, Mary Hums, University of Louisville and Karen DePauw, Virginia Tech University

Discussant: Jay Coakley, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

Take a Student to Lunch

1:15 p.m. – 2:45 p.m.

Session 10

2:45 p.m. – 4:15 p.m.

Session 10A Pima

"Glass Ceilings” in Sport Organizations: Studies on Gender Arrangement in Leadership Positions II

Session Organizer and Presider: Gertrud Pfister, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Copenhagen

Discourses about Diversity: Gender and Ethnic/Race Subtexts,

Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen, University of Utrecht

Greedy Institutions and the Dearth of Women Coaches,

Margaret M. Gehring, Ohio Wesleyan University

Life in Purgatory: Female Journalists and the Sports Media Hierarchy,

Marie Hardin, Pennsylvania State University

Session 10B Canyon B

Poster Session

"Teaching to Transgress": Critical Pedagogical Practices in the Sociology of Sport and Open Poster Session

Poster Session Organizer and Presider: Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Explorations in Learning: Interdisciplinary Collaborations in Teaching Diversity, Catriona Higgs and Betsy McKinley, Slippery Rock University

Competes (Challenging Obesity: Media Powered Experiences To Engage Students), Connie Collier, Mary Ann Devine, Ellen Glickman, Mary LaVine, Mary Parr, Kimberly Peer, Katherine Newsham, and Theresa Walton, Kent State University

Critiquing the Pedagogical Practice of Service-Learning in Sport Sociology,

Cindra S. Kamphoff and Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Does a New Stadium Benefit the Community?,

Chiung-Hsia Wang and Ping-Kun Chiu, University of Northern Colorado

Session 10C Canyon A

Race and Sport II

Session Organizer: Cynthia Fabrizio Pelak, University of Memphis

Session Presider: Nikki White, University of Memphis

Access Discrimination in University Athletics: The Case of Men’s Basketball,

George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas, Texas A. & M. University

Black Male Student-Athletes’ Perceptions of Racism in College Sport,

John N. Singer, James Madison University

Females of Color in Sports Illustrated for Women,

Laurie L. Gordy, Daniel Webster College

Epic Trickster, Epic Trippin(g), and Trash Talking Runners: The Traditional African Epic, Race(ism), and Black Sports, Gregory E. Rutledge, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Session 10D Ventana

Challenging the Gender Binary in Sport I

Session Organizer and Presider: Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University

The Gendering of Sport: A History of Women’s Figure Skating,

Mary Louise Adams, Queen's University

Slaying the Sacred Cow": Girls in Dene Games,

Audrey Giles, University of Alberta

Leave It on the Mat: Gender Construction and College Women Wrestlers,

Jennifer Rothchild and Christopher Butler, University of Minnesota Morris

Subversive Behaviour’ and the Negotiation of Gendered Physicality,

Laura Hills, University of Durham, Queen’s Campus

Session 10E Maderia

Sport, Culture and Advertising II

Session Organizer and Presider: Steve Jackson, University of Otago

Celebrity Athletes and Sports Imagery in Advertising during NFL Telecasts,

Dan C. Hilliard and Alexandra O. Hendley, Southwestern University

Making Meaning for the Audience Share: Non-Sport Advertiser’s World Cups,

Fred Mason, University of Western Ontario

The Growth of NASCAR: Ethical Issues in Corporate Sponsorships,

Keith Strudler, Marist College

Reaching Minority Customers through Athlete Endorsement,

Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse

Session 10F Canyon C

Sports Fanship: Active Consumption of Sport—Processes, Effects and Implications

Session Organizer and Presider: Don Levy, University of Connecticut

Blacks' Sport Fanship: Illuminations of the Afrocentricity of Sport Consumption,

Ketra L. Armstrong, California State University, Long Beach

The State in the Stands: Soccer Fandom in Italy,

Matthew Guschwan, Indiana University

Constructing Reality: The Active World of Fantasy Sports,

Don Levy, University of Connecticut

Sacrifice of the Bartman Ball and the Ambiguity of an American Ritual,

Jeff Scholes, University of Denver

Session 11

4:30 p.m. – 5:30 p.m.

Special Session Pima

Organizer and Presider: Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton

NASSS Dialogues: A Discussion of the Future

5:30 p.m. – 6:30 p.m. Business Meeting/Awards Presentation Pima

6:30 p.m. – 8:30 p.m. Presidential Reception Outside Patio

Saturday, November 6, 2004

7:00 a.m. – 8:15 a.m. Board of Directors Board Room

8:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m. Registration Foyer

8:30 a.m. – 5:15 p.m. Sessions

10:00 a.m. –11;45 p.m. Keynote Panel Pima

11:45 a.m. – 1:00 p.m. Lunch

1:00 a.m. – 2:30 p.m. NASSS Spotlight Session Madera

SATURDAY SESSIONS

Session 12

8:15 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.

Session 12A Canyon B

Racing the Athletes: The Continuing Significance of Whiteness and Racism in Sport

Session Organizers: Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, and Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University

Presider: Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University

A Farewell to ReMember: Interrogating the Nancy Lopez Farewell Tour,

Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro and Delia D. Douglas, Independent Scholar

Barry Bonds vs. Lance Armstrong: Steroids, Race, and the Assumption of Guilt orInnocence, Lisa Alexander, Bowling Green State University

"Tennis Whites:" The Unbearable Whiteness of Being

Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University

Session 12B Canyon C

Challenging the Gender Binary in Sport II

Session Organizer and Presider: Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University

Women in the Olympics: Now You See Them, Now You Don't,

Giovanna Follo and Desire Anastasia, Wayne State University

TV/VCR

Gender Doping”: Sex and Drug-Tests in the Age of Containment,

Ian Ritchie, Brock University

Rothblatt's Apartheid of Sex and IOC Transsexual Inclusion,

Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University

Session 12C Pima

Interdisciplinary Dialogues: Sport Studies and Urban Studies II

Session Organizer and Presider: Kimberly Schimmel, Kent State University

Crunk’, ‘Crackin’, and ‘Crossovers’: An Analysis of Young People’s Engagements with Urban Physical Activity Spaces, Matthew Atencio, University of Wollongong

Cities and Urban Marathons: Revitalization Tools and Race Amenities,

Krista M. Park, University of Maryland

For Richer, for Poorer: A First Nations Casino and the “Urban Crisis”,

Cathy van Ingen, Brock University

Session 12D Canyon A

Sport, Social Capital and Social Class

Session Organizer and Presider: Peter Donnelly, University of Toronto

Upper-Middle Class Mothering: The "Soccer Mom's" Transformation of Capital,

Lisa Swanson, Towson University

Characteristics of the Transition—A Case Study of Hungary,

Csaba Nikolenyi, Concordia University and Emese Ivan, University of Western Ontario

Social Class, Gender and the Sporting Capital-Economic Capital Nexus,

Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward

Session 12E Madera

Analysis of Cultural Values in College Sport

Session Organizer and Presider: Richard M. Southall, University of Memphis

Factors That Influence the Academic Performance of NCAA Division I Athletes,

B. David Ridpath, Mississippi State University, John Kiger, Ohio University, Jennifer Mak, Marshall University, and Teresa Eagle, Marshall University

Homophobia: Just a “Thing” on United States College Campuses?,

Richard M. Southall, The University of Memphis, Brett Folske, State University of West Georgia, Kerri Eagan, State University of West Georgia, and Mark S. Nagel, Georgia State University

To Glorify God: Religion’s Role in One Intercollegiate Athletics Culture,

Peter J. Schroeder, University of California, Santa Barbara

Session 12F Ventana

Sporting Initiatives and Peace Processes in Divided Societies

Session Organizer: John Sugden, University of Brighton

Presider: Alan Bairner, Loughborough University

Football for Peace (F4P): Sport, Community, Conflict and Co-Existence in Israel,

John Sugden, University of Brighton

A Values Based Approach to Coaching Sport in Divided Societies,

John Lambert, University of Brighton

The Gender Agenda and Sport for Peace in Israel,

Frances Powney and Gary Stidder, University of Brighton

Session 13

10:00 a.m. – 11:45 a.m.

Keynote Panel Pima

(Post)Identity and Sport

Presider: Samantha King, Queens University

“Merely Identity?”: Cultural Identity and the Politics of Sport,

Ben Carrington, University of Texas

When Everything Old Becomes New Again: Sport, and the Retreat From Subjectivity and Romanticism, Richard Gruneau, Simon Fraser University,

While Ruminating About Self and Activities . . . ,

Othello Harris, Miami University

Identity, Representation and Critical Media Studies,

Margaret MacNeill, University of Toronto

Lunch

11:45 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.

Session 14

1:00 p.m. – 2:30 p.m.

Session 14A Madera

Spotlight Session: Interdisciplinary Dialogues: Thinking Through Race, Nation and Sport

Presider: Mary G. McDonald, Miami University

Sport and the Politics of Biocultural Racial Explanation,

Brett St. Louis, University of California, San Diego

Orientalism and its Discontents": Basketball and Performing Nation and RacializedMasculinities, Kathleen S. Yep, Claremont Colleges

National Identity, Raza Boxing, and History: An Interdisciplinary Perspective,

Gregory S. Rodriguez, University of Arizona

Session 14B Canyon A

Discourses of Gender, Equity and Sport

Presider: Cheryl Cooky, University of Southern California

Women’s Inter-university Sport within a Patriarchal Institution: A Case Study ofQueen’sWomen in the 1920s, Anne Warner, Queen's University

Women’s Olympic Wrestling Debut: A Critical Examination of IOC Evaluation Criteria, Theresa Walton, Kent State University

Community Perceptions of Title IX,

Amanda Paule, Miami University

"Girls Just Aren't Interested in Sports": The Construction of (Dis) Interest in Youth Sport, Cheryl Cooky, University of Southern California

Session 14C Canyon B

The Public, the Political, and the Professional: (Re) Examining The Rhetorical Interplay Between Communication and Sport

Session Organizer: Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

Session Presider: Robert L. Krizek, St. Louis University

9/11 and the Shift in Rhetorical Strategies of Sport During Crises,

Robert S. Brown, Ashland University

Reagan’s Presidential Sports Encomia: Responding to the ‘Foot Race,’ Metaphor, Michael Hester, Georgia State University

Swifter, Higher, Stronger:” Athletes’ Responses to Doping Accusations,

R. Pierre Rodgers, George Mason University, Grant C. Cos, Rochester Institute of Technology

Session 14D Canyon C

Rethinking Hazardous Bodily Practices: Risk, Hazing and Terrorism

Presider: Emma H. Wensing, University of Toronto

The Flipside: Female Skateboarders and Risk Discourses,

Alana Young, University of Ottawa

Securing the Olympics: The Impact of Terrorism on Athens 2004,

Emma H. Wensing, University of Toronto

Initiation or Hazing: Recognizing Differences,

Colleen McGlone and George Schaefer, University of New Mexico

Session 14E Ventana

Simulated Culture and Virtual Sport

Presider: Andrew Baerg, University of Iowa

The Art of Work in the Age of its Recombinant Simulation,

Sean Smith, Sportsweb Consulting

Camdenization: Authenticity and Simulation in the Renovation of Fenway Park,

Michael Friedman, University of Maryland

Technologies of Government and Virtual Football,

Andrew Baerg, University of Iowa

Session 14F Pima

Sport Spectating and Consumption

Presider: Jason R. Lanter, Miami University

Fear the Turtle or the Fans? Editorials on Fan Behavior,

Jason R. Lanter, Miami University

Hegemonic Masculinity, Perceptions of Group Homogeneity and Enjoyment of TelevisedFootball, Bryan E. Denham, Clemson University

Session 15

2:45 p.m. – 4:15p.m.

Session 15A Madera

Masculinities and the Sports-Media Complex

Session Organizer and Presider: Eric Anderson State University of New York, Stony Brook

Have a Take: Masculinity and Sports Talk Radio, David Nylund, California State University, Sacramento

Welcome to My Crib”: Locating Athletes’ Masculinities on MTV’s Cribs,

Maureen Smith, California State University, Sacramento and Becky Beal, University of the Pacific

Televised Sports, Masculinist Moral Capital and Support for the Iraqi War,

Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward

Session 15B Pima

Spaces for Racism: Sport, Race, and Nation II

Session Organizers and Presiders: Rod S. Murray and Lainie Mandlis, University of Alberta

Bringing Da 'Hood to the Hill: (Un)Critical Pedagogies of Whiteness?,

Sean Brayton, University of British Columbia

We Lie, We Cheat, We Steal?”: Media Portrayals of Latinos in the WWE,

Ted M. Butryn, San Jose State University

Who Is (Not): Canada, Culture and Boxing?,

Lainie Mandlis and Debra Shogan, University of Alberta

Session 15C Canyon B

The Athlete as Activist: Using Sport to Effect Social Change

Session Organizer and Presider: Peter Kaufman, SUNY, New Paltz

Moving Toward Social Change: A Durkheimian Analysis of Anomie in the NFL,

Eric Carter and Yolanda Gallardo, Kansas State University

The Role of the Boxer Joe Louis Within Burgeoning African American Communities ofthe 1930's, Pellom McDaniels III, Emory University

Biting the Hand that Feeds You: Athletes Against Sweatshop Labor,

Peter Kaufman, SUNY, New Paltz

Session 15D Ventana

The Cultural Politics of Lifestyle Sports II:

Session Organizer: Belinda Wheaton, University of Brighton

Presider: Ben Carrington, University of Texas

All Female Snowboard Camps–Empowerment through Segregation?

Michele Donnelly, University of Maryland

Recreational Rink Culture and the Swaggering Midlife Female Trick-Skater,

Linnet Fawcett, Concordia University

Embodied Boarders: Snowboarding, Status and Style,

Holly Thorpe, Waikato University

Session 15E Canyon C

Interrogating Bodily Assumptions

Presider: Amy S. Hribar, Montana State University

Striving Towards Increased Exercise Accessibility for Individuals with SCI,

Tamar Z. Semerjian, California State University, Los Angeles

From Sex Roles to Self-Esteem: Sport Science and the Athletic Female Body in 1970s, America, Dorie A. Geissler, University of Illinois

Session 15F Canyon A

Gender Rebels, Then and Now: Self-Representation, Women’s Sport Participation, and the Media Since Title IX

Session Organizer and Presider: Leslie Heywood, SUNY, Binghamton

Shifting the Lens: Athlete Commentary on How Media and Gender Inform Their SportExperience, Leslie Heywood, SUNY, Binghamton

Compromised “Reality” and the “Involuntary Insider”: The Case of Leilani Rios,

Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton

When Transgressive Leisure Isn’t: Women in “Male Identified” Sports,

Faye Linda Wachs, Cal Poly Pomona

The Dirt on Female Athlete Self-Description,

Tracy Walker, University of Toronto

Session 16

4:30 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.

Session 16A Ventana

Health and Fitness Practices Among “Minority” Girls and Women

Session Presider: Geneviève Rail

Belonging/Be-longing Canadian: Minority Stereotypes and Canadian-Korean Adolescents' Construction of Health and Fitness, Kyoung-Yim Kim and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Social Influences Among Minority Women Engaging in Exercise for Health Purposes, Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, Brenda Soto-Torres, Nova Southeastern University

Fusion, Confusion or Illusion: An Exploration of Health and Fitness among Young SouthAsian Canadian Women, Tammy George and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Session 16B Canyon A

Sport and the Nation II

Session Organizer and Presider: Toni Bruce, University of Waikato

'The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig:' The Convergence of the High-Performance Sport Systems in the Formerly Divided Germany,

Rob Beamish, Queen's University

Socialist (?) Sport and the Nation in Contemporary Cuba,

Thomas Carter, University of Wales, Newport

Sport, Nationalism and Iconicity: David Beckham, Celebrity Status and Popular Culture,

Andrew Parker, University of Warwick

Session 16C Canyon C

Sports and Youth Academic and Developmental Outcomes

Session Organizer and Presider: Jan Sokol-Katz, University of Miami

The Infusion of Character Education into Youth Sport Programs,

Susan Mullane, University of Miami

Background and Institutional Predictors of Academic/Athletic Role Conflict in Student-Athletes, Robert M. Sellers, University of Michigan, Gabriel P. Kuperminc, Georgia State University

Sport as an Engaging Learning Context,

Jan Sokol-Katz, Lorrine Basinger-Flieschman, Jomills Henry Braddock II, University of Miami

Session 16D Canyon B

Leadership and Group Diversity in Sport Teams and Sport Organizations

Session Organizer and Presider: George B. Cunningham, Texas A. & M. University

Examining Homologous Reproduction in the Representation of Assistant Coaches, Michael Sagas, Texas A. & M. University, George B. Cunningham, Texas A. & M. University, Kenneth C. Teed, George Mason University, and D. Scott Waltemyer, Texas A. & M. University

NFL Players’ Career Perspectives from 1994 to 2003,

Leo E. Lewis, Minnesota Vikings and S. Malia Lawrence, State University of West Georgia

The Influence of Leadership and Ethical Orientation on Intercollegiate Athletics,

D. Scott Waltemyer, Texas A. & M. University

ABSTRACTS

RÉSUMÉS

NASSS Annual Meeting

Conférence annuelle de la SNASS

Tucson, Arizona

November 3-6, 2004

3 au 6 novembre, 2004

Carly Adams, University of Western Ontario

“The Game of ‘Their’ Lives”: The Established and the Outsiders in Canada’s National Sport

Males and females in the 20th century have experienced sport under very different terms and conditions. Men and women have internalized the gender order that sport has reproduced; a historically constructed pattern of power relations between men and women that dictates how men and women understand, celebrate, and in some cases criticize specific masculinities and femininities. Although women have actively played ice hockey in Canada since the latter part of the 19th century, hockey has traditionally been viewed as the exclusive purview of men. Gruneau and Whitson argue that hockey is part of the collective memories of Canadians; it is the “game of our lives.” But more accurately, as Etue and Williams contend, it is the game of ‘their’ lives. Women have always been positioned as the ‘outsiders’ in this sport. Dynamic individuals and groups of women have refused to accept the imposed boundaries instead working to ‘establish’ themselves and create their own meaningful sport experiences. This historical sociological examination of women’s ice hockey in Canada will draw on Elias’s theory of established-outsider relations to examine why women have historically occupied the position of ‘outsider’ in this sport and how women have fought and perhaps in some ways succeeded to claim a place in Canada’s national game. Particular attention will be given to the events leading up to the announcement of the inclusion of women’s hockey on the Olympic program and the influence and persistence of key organizations and individuals that shaped the negotiation process.

Mary Louise Adams, Queen's University

The Gendering of Sport: A History of Women’s Figure Skating

In North America and much of Europe, women did not skate in significant numbers until the 1860s, more than 100 years after the founding of the world’s first skating club. Then followed a number of decades when skating was admirably gender-mixed as pastime and sport, with men and women competing against each other in some events. Not until the 1930s did women begin to outnumber men and skating come to be seen as a ‘girls sport,’ incompatible with prevailing masculine norms. The history of skating tells much about the constructedness of gender and about sport typing (Kane & Snyder, 1989; Metheny, 1965) as a historically contingent process. Although sport is popularly assumed to demonstrate sex-related characteristics, the attribution of these to male or female bodies changes over time, as does interest in them. This paper discusses the history of women in skating, especially the transformation of skating into the quintessential ‘girls’ sport.’ The paper argues that gender difference is central to the sport’s structure, limiting the participation of boys and men and the types of femininity represented on the ice. Sources for the paper include archival documents from the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries—textbooks, regulations, media reports, films—from North America and Britain.

Lisa Alexander, Bowling Green State University

Barry Bonds vs. Lance Armstrong: Steroids, Race, and the Assumption of Guilt or Innocence

Ask any sports fan to name the most dominant athletes in sports today and chances are the names Lance Armstrong and Barry Bonds will be on that list. Both athletes’ achievements seem unprecedented in modern history. This year alone, Lance Armstrong won his sixth straight Tour de France while Barry Bonds continues to break almost every offensive record known to baseball. Unfortunately, at the same time, both men’s accomplishments have been marred by the suspicion of steroid abuse. Both men continue to proclaim their innocence, however the allegations remain. What is interesting about the steroid controversy surrounding Bonds and Armstrong is the dissimilar way in which the mainstream media discusses the two cases. It would seem that sports analysts are quick to believe that Lance Armstrong is innocent of doping and just as quick to assume that Barry Bonds is guilty. This paper will explore how race operates in perceptions of guilt or innocence where steroid abuse is concerned. Is there in fact a difference between how Armstrong’s allegations are discussed and how Bonds’ allegations are discussed? By analyzing the media discussions surrounding Armstrong’s and Bond’s steroid allegations, we can ascertain whether or not whiteness is the factor that means the difference between “innocent until proven guilty,” and “guilty until proven innocent.”

Ronald Althouse, Dana Brooks and Damien Clement, West Virginia University

Remembering Jim Crow: Pride within Black High School Athletics

This set of photographs presents an effort at “history-telling” about high school sports in African American high schools prior to and following school "desegregation" in West Virginia. What arises is a photo-interview centered on a collection of historical-linked sports photos which provide a look, listen, and learn procedure to get oral histories from African Americans who were athletes or coaches a half-century ago. Following the 1954 decision, school desegregation, particularly Black high school sports, followed an uneven path. Jim Crow ensured segregation, but Black school facilities were below the norm. In these schools, lessons that athletics had to offer took on special significance to instill a discipline to gird for a Jim Crow world. Like churches, Black high schools spawned social and human capital that sustained, albeit self-reflexively, a Black middle-class self-reflective about its’ relations to the surrounding White community. Prior to 1954, sports were part of the academic quest in the Black community. Following integration, Black student alienation had a definite effect on interest in athletics. By the late 1960’s, evoking Civil Rights and Black pride, the “Black student athlete” emerged in a reconstructed context of “stacking,” exploitation, unequal access, racism, and discrimination.

Eric Anderson, State University of New York, Stony Brook

The Effect of Sex-Segregation on Homophobia and Misogyny: Sport and the Reproduction of Orthodox Masculinity

The maintenance of sport as an institution that promotes highly homophobic and misogynistic attitudes among male team sport athletes is often attributed to the ritual of sports, as boys are socialized into gender segregated orthodox ways of thinking. By examining men who first played high school football and then became college cheerleaders, this ethnographic research explores the maintenance of these attitudes through the structure and culture of sport. I show that crucial to the production of homophobia and misogyny is the structural segregation of men into a near-total institution, where they are removed from the narratives of women and openly gay men. I then show how desegregating sport can lead once homophobic and misogynistic men to reformulate many of their attitudes toward women and gay men. This research has serious implications for the structure upon which American athletics operate, and it suggests that the hegemonic perspective of sheltering women from the violence of masculinity through gender segregation might instead promote such hostility. It also has relevant and contemporaneous policy implications as the Bush administration is currently looking to seek ways in which to allow for gender segregation in physical education courses.

Ketra L. Armstrong, California State University, Long Beach

Blacks' Sport Fanship: Illuminations of the Afrocentricity of Sport Consumption

Social identity theory asserts that affiliation or membership in a social group has a pervasive influence on self and the sociocognitive process in which identity is internalized and operationalized (Hogg, Terry, & White, 1995). Sport consumption influences consumers’ social identity such that they often make concerted efforts to cultivate psychosocial attachments to sport teams and other sport spectators. Consequently, sport consumption communicates social meaning and is often the site of struggle over social distinction (Corrigal, 1997). Duncan (1983) commented on the need for scholars to study the symbolic dimensions of sport consumption to understand the power of spectator sports. However, since the majority of research on sport consumption has not emanated from African-centered paradigms, a void exists regarding the cultural and psychosocial dynamics of Blacks' sport fanship. Nonetheless (notwithstanding the dearth of research on this topic) many Blacks are active and (apparently) socially conspicuous sport fans. Moreover, the nuances of their active sport consumption offer insight into the symbolic role the consumption of racially/ethnically infused sport plays in the sociocognitive processes that undergird their identity creation and/or affirmation. This presentation will discuss Blacks’ sport fanship and will illuminate the Afrocentricity of sport consumption.

Matthew Atencio, University of Wollongong

‘Crunk’, ‘Crackin’, and ‘Crossovers’: An Analysis of Young People’s Engagements with Urban Physical Activity Spaces.

In the context of several adjacent urban neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon (US), my paper will describe how physical activity spaces and their inhabitants exclude, separate, and contain young people in ways related to their ethnicity, gender, choice of physical activity, and perceived capabilities. I am particularly interested in examining how these hierarchies simultaneously (re)produce notions of what are ‘acceptable’ and ‘inappropriate’ behaviours for physically active young people. This paper will draw upon collected qualitative descriptions of young people’s engagements with urban spaces while participating in various forms of basketball, skateboarding, scootering, running, dance, and soccer. These descriptions were often transformed into geographic maps which illustrated the physical movements and experiences of young people in their urban environments. My analysis will also be informed by emerging critical leisure geography approaches which draw upon postmodern, poststructural, subaltern, and feminist theories. Specifically, I would like to explore how geographic metaphors such as ethnic space, marginality, territoriality, hybridity, habitat, and diaspora (Gruenewald, 2003, p. 631) can yield new insights into socio-spatial physical activity relationships and enhance our ‘geographic imagination’ (Aitchison, 1999, p.1). It is my contention that these emerging conceptions of spaces and identities more adequately describe the ways young people challenge, rework, and transgress rigid and totalising ‘boundaries’ (metaphorical and material) of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. This paper concludes that young people are able to create new spaces, identities, and knowledges by being physically active in their local urban spaces (including homes, parks, streets, buildings, sidewalks, stairways, gyms, and schools). I would also suggest that categorizing these activity spaces as ‘formal’ or ‘informal’ is inadequate. These urban physical activity spaces are often inter-related and can exclude and constrain young people in similar as well as diverse ways.

Michael Atkinson, McMaster University and Kevin Young, University of Calgary

Mediated 'Sports Crime': Professional Ice Hockey as a Discursive Battleground

Recent cases of on-ice hockey violence in Canada have challenged professional leagues in North America to reconsider their policies on unwanted aggression and physicality in the sport. But, perhaps more significantly, the National Hockey League’s and affiliated American Hockey League’s institutional ownership over the policing of player violence in ice hockey has been fractured by the Canadian legal system’s intervention into the sport over the past several years. Flamboyantly violent on-ice incidents involving Marty McSorley (NHL), Todd Bertuzzi (NHL) and Alexandre Perezhogin (AHL) all, for example, resulted in arrests and Crown prosecution. In this paper, data gathered from select Canadian and American newspapers on the ‘pre-arrest’ media coverage of the McSorley, Bertuzzi, and Perezhogin ‘incidents’ are compared in order to explore how league, player, audience and legal discourses about ‘criminality’ in the sport of ice hockey are promulgated on a broad social scale. By employing an integrated victimological and figurational theoretical position, we unpack how ‘preferred’ social definitions of violence in the sport tactically disavow any notion of problematic ‘criminal’ violence in the game or the need for ‘outside’ intervention by legal, academic, or political agents.

Alan Aycock, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Songs of Innocence, Songs of Experience: Romantic Idiom in Body Culture Advertising

Ads appeal to us in ways that both reflect and shape current body-centered cultural practices. Although few would consider advertising to be a literary genre, in fact Romantic words and images suffuse ads for sport and exercise, leisure, diet and health, beauty, and fashions in nearly all of the mainstream glossies. In this context, Romance refers to such qualities as authenticity, spontaneity, imagination, passion, mystery, innocence, nature, and community. Since these Romantic words and images constitute a share of our daily lived experience, we incorporate them into our sense of identity and employ them as we relate to others as well. This paper uses current body culture advertising from mainstream glossies to illustrate the significance of Romantic imagery for our self-fashioning in modernity. Sub-genres of Romanticism, and areas where the genre may express conflict or contradiction, are identified from the sample of ads. The paper concludes by evaluating the usefulness of a literary genre approach to the understanding of body culture, and suggesting lines for further investigation.

Andrew Baerg, University of Iowa

Technologies of Government and Virtual Football

This paper draws upon Nikolas Rose’s (1999) and Mitchell Dean’s (1999) reading of Foucault’s notion of governmentality and applies aspects of governmentality studies to the most recent incarnation of the digital football video game, ESPN NFL 2K5. In keeping with Rose’s emphasis on technologies of government as “an assemblage of forms of practical knowledge…[used] to achieve certain outcomes in the conduct of the governed,” the video game, ESPN NFL 2K5, produces a technology of government associated with rational productivity and quantification. In order to compete successfully in the game, players must interact with these technologies of government implicated in the game’s digital football world. As such the virtual football that is ESPN NFL 2K5 remediates technologies of government that have long been associated with the real game of football.

Alan Bairner, Loughborough University

Marxism, Hegemony and Sport: Towards a Re-Appropriation of Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci has long been one of the most visible intellectual influences in the development of radical sociologies of sport. However, this paper argues that many of those who currently apply Gramscian concepts to the analysis of sport have failed to engage honestly with his work. Indeed many exponents of hegemony theory ignore Gramsci’s revolutionary Marxism and offer in its place social democratic, liberal or postmodernist readings which serve to misrepresent Gramsci’s social and political theory. The paper seeks to rescue Gramsci from some of his admirers and to demonstrate ways in which his work can be used in the sociology of sport without betraying his political legacy. Particular reference is made to Gramsci’s theory of the state, his concept of the intellectuals and his ideas concerning passive revolution and the national-popular.

Bjorn Barland, Aker University Hospital Hormone Laboratory, Oslo, Norway

Anabolic Steroids: The Men’s World?

This abstract is based on findings and experience gained from an ongoing multidisciplinary research project at the Aker University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Six months ago, the Norwegian Anti-doping Information Centre opened a hot-line phone and a web site. The Services were localized to the Hormone Laboratory Aker University Hospital, Aker University Hospital, Oslo. The Information Centre was officially opened by the Minister of Health, with the mandate to generate multidisciplinary research projects concerning doping abuse. In the last decades several publications have drawn on attention to the male body obsession, which is named as megarexia, reverse anorexia, the Adonis Complex, etc. The aforementioned male body obsession usually is connected with anabolic steroid abuse. On this basis we assumed that a hot-line phone and a web site would be a popular helping element for male users of anabolic steroids to give up their abuse. Our experiences so far have shown more or less the opposite. A great number of the users define this service as troublesome and have a hostile and aggressive attitude to documentations, facts, and general contents on the home page. The paper will discuss some theories as explanations for the user’s negative attitudes.

Rob Beamish, Queen's University

'The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig:' The Convergence of the High-Performance Sport Systems in the Formerly Divided Germany

Prior to the end of World War II, Germans on both sides of the post-War iron curtain shared a common sport history and sport culture. Despite that shared history, the unique political dynamics that existed among the Allied occupational forces in the immediate post-War period, along with the wider dynamics of the Cold War as it developed in the 1950s and 1960s, led to the formation of two high-performance sport systems that differed in many substantial ways. This paper begins with an overview of some of the major political forces that shaped the high-performance sport systems in the respective Germanys and indicates some of their fundamental differences. At the same time, both systems created and were confronted by social forces and historical pressures that overrode the apparently fundamental differences between the Federal Republic (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic’s sport systems. When these forces are examined and one studies the overall trajectory of the FRG’s sport system, in particular, it is apparent that prior to unification the two systems shared fundamental features that made them more alike than different. In the end, at the most fundamental levels, one could not tell the men from the pigs.

Rob Beamish, Queen's University

Sport, Steroids and Alienated Labour: A Marxist Analysis.

High-performance athletes appear as the epitome of individualism; single-minded, hard work leads to success, glamour, and abundant material reward. But a critical examination of high-performance athletes' labour process shows they are just one component within a complex, scientifically rationalized system. Drawing upon Marxist-informed themes of alienated labour, this paper examines the imperatives of high performance sport and locates the use of performance-enhancing substances within that system. The athletes' work-world extends well beyond the glamour of television to systems of early childhood identification, rationalized training, national sport systems, and the sports medicine complex. The way high-performance sport confronts its athlete-producers, and dehumanizes them, is placed in its full socio-historical context. No different than the Third World garment workers who stitch their track suits and produce their shoes, world-class athletes work to production rhythms, within a complex division of labour that lies outside their individual control. The potentially most liberating and expressive experience athletic performance at the world-class level is one that dominates and controls its immediate producers to the detriment of them and the spectators who consume their production.

Don Belcher, The University of Alabama

Gone With the Wind: Integration and the Southeastern Conference

The Southeastern Conference (SEC) was the last major intercollegiate conference in the United States to integrate its sports teams. This reflects the Southeast’s volatile past, both in the Civil War and later in opposition to the Civil Rights Movement At present, the SEC is one of the premier athletic conferences. The schools of the SEC have been rewarded with high national media exposure, which may in turn be utilized in student recruitment. A casual view of the sports teams of the SEC, especially football and basketball, would leave the impression that integration has prospered at these academic institutions. This presentation will highlight and analyze the extent to which the schools of the SEC have integrated their athletic programs compared to both the general school population and racial make up of the states involved. Data will be drawn from the NCAA (race and ethnicity by sport data), the Academic Athletic Report Card, and State Department High School Graduation Data. Further, discussion of the African American athletes’ arrival, daily life, and eventual leaving from the institutions for which they perform will be compared to the Old South. The multiple ways in which the image of the plantation from the Old South can be paralleled in this New South will be highlighted.

Andrew C. Billings, Clemson University

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative (Re)Production

The community of sport is a process that is communicatively accomplished and interactively maintained. Accordingly, the intersection of communication and sport is conceptually explored. Drawing upon literature from the discipline of communication studies, and various allied disciplines, the domain of sport is (re)considered as a form of communicative (re)production. Integrating such interdisciplinary research serves to illustrate the multiplicity of ways in which communication (re)produces—and subsequently shapes—the experience of sport.

Andrew C. Billings, Clemson University

(Re)Examining the Past, Present, and Future of Sport Promotion Scholarship

Sports television programming has proven to be the most elastic of all television program genres; as viewing options increase, demand has increased as well. Because the bulk of television sports viewers are usually the coveted demographic (males, ages 18-49), networks have often loaded sports contests with enticements for sports viewers to watch other programming, and communication scholars have carefully examined the potential effectiveness of these on-air promotional strategies. This paper provides an overview of past scholarship in the area of sports promotion, particularly examining the multiple methodologies employed and the often contradictory findings about the impact of on-air promotion of televised sport on program ratings. In addition, the author will address promotion work that has been conducted within sports venues, but will also survey studies in other areas of promotion that have relevance to sports promotion. Finally, potential avenues for sport communication scholars in promotion research and practical applications for network executives and programmers will be outlined.

Kay Biscomb, University of Wolverhampton

Stories of Identity

The role sport and physical activity plays in the construction of identity has already been previously acknowledged by researchers (Henderson, 1994; Sparkes, 1998). The methods by which identity construction has been explored has recently been challenged with the notion that narrative and autobiography are appropriate paradigms to explore this phenomenon (Sparkes, 2000; Tsang, 2000). This paper outlines the use of narrative as a means of analysing identity amongst Sports Studies students. Tsang (2000) was used as benchmark to question the nature of validity and explore what is data in qualitative research. Over a period of five years Sports Studies students were asked to write their own story of their experiences in sport, PE or physical activity. The stories that have been gathered over the years are analysed to determine the process by which individuals reveal their identity through narrative. Themes of marginalisation, importance of significant others, competition and the transitional nature of sport emerged. These themes are explored through an interactionist framework and are used to unpack the process through which identity in these groups is formulated and exposed.

Gary BE Boshoff, University of the Western Cape

South African Rugby in Turmoil and the Rise of the “New Outsiders: Race, Ethnicity and Commercial Interests

The growing domination of South African rugby by commercial interests in recent years resulted in the formation of new figurations across racial, ethnic and political boundaries. These “New Outsiders” unseated the incumbents and effectively ‘took control’ of the South Africa Rugby Football Union (SARFU). The expected marginalization of smaller provinces ensuing from a proposed new competition structure forced individuals and groups from disparate backgrounds into alliance. However, their leverage is tempered by ‘interdependency chains’ that bind them to the other figurations. Though the proposed new competition structure served as catalyst for the present turmoil, support was quickly forthcoming from groups within the bigger provinces who sighted lack of transparent management structures, lack of political will to effect fundamental transformational change and the apparent neglect of amateur rugby, as justification. The author uses Norbert Elias’ Established-Outsider Theory to explicate the interdependent nature of the different figurations, the power chances of the “New Outsiders” and the potential implications for the organizational structure of SARFU. Twenty senior rugby administrators from the fourteen affiliated provinces of SARFU were interviewed to collect additional data for the study.

Joseph M. Bradley, University of Stirling

Soccer, Scots, Scottishness and the Irish Diaspora in Scotland

The Scotland international soccer side is for many people the sporting epitome of Scottishness. Partly reflecting this perceived reality is the role played by the Scottish media in promoting and articulating Scottishness. Narratives used by members of the Tartan Army, the name given to those who follow and support the Scottish national team, as well as the Scottish print media and other soccer followers, also reflects the relatively coherent view that exists of Scottishness within the confines of Scotland’s soccer environment. However, other identities that exist within Scottish football, particularly those within an ethnic Irish context, encounter a varying experience as a result of their ‘difference’. Using excerpts from interviews with members of the Tartan Army supplemented by a review of print media sources this paper reflects on the contestation of identities that exists within Scottish soccer.

Sean Brayton, University of British Columbia

Bringing Da 'Hood to the Hill: (Un)Critical Pedagogies of Whiteness?

Snowboarders were once the outlaws of alpine leisure. Yet within a short period, impresarios of the ski industry received an economic epiphany over these mountain rebels. A growing demographic of affluent White youth, eager to differentiate themselves from their parents and their parents’ sports, proved to be a very lucrative market. And while snowboarding is now a billion dollar business, it nevertheless retains its renegade image by adopting a White fiction of urban Black masculinity. This reliance on gangsta sounds and fashion, however, conceals the overwhelming whiteness of the sport’s representation. An unavoidable idiosyncrasy remains: the music and fashions originating from inner city boroughs (like Brooklyn) now co-exist with White affluence on the slopes of North American bourgeois culture–a social scene historically excluding Black individuals. And so it seems, at the level of representation, that blackness haunts the White imagination. White culture desires an affinity with blackness (channeled through style and music) but a comfortable distance must remain. Aesthetically, the ‘hood may be brought to the hill, but the riders remain as white as the snow. This points to a political economy of multiculturalism in general, and a fiction of “blackness” in particular.

Dana Brooks, Ronald Althouse and Damien Clement, West Virginia University

WVU: Local Economy to "Beast of the East"

The purpose of this paper is to describe conditions leading to the integration and/or lack of integration of sports at West Virginia University. Analysis of sports at WVU and its unique geographical location represent the intersection of race, gender, culture, and sport status (i.e., clubs, revenue, non-revenue). The racial integration of varsity sports at WVU followed a slow and uneven path. Integration of the two primary revenue sports (football and basketball) took place in the early 1960’s, while non-revenue sports’ integration occurred in the late 1970’s. From 1891 to 1963 all WVU football players were Caucasian. It was not until 1963 that WVU recruited two African American football players: Roger Alford and Dick Leftridge. Basketball at WVU was established in 1903-1904. The first African American male basketball players on the freshman team were Jim Lewis, Ron Williams, Ed Harvard, and Norman Holmes (1964). Today, several varsity level athletic teams have yet to award a varsity scholarship to an African American male or female athlete. Since 1891, no African American male or female has held the titles Head Coach or Athletic Director.

Robert S. Brown, Ashland University

9/11 and the Shift in Rhetorical Strategies of Sport During Crises

Since President Roosevelt issued his "Green Light Letter" after Pearl Harbor, Sports have found reason to continue play in the aftermath of significant American social crises. Throughout WWII, the assassination of President Kennedy, the attempted assassination of President Reagan, the start of the Gulf War, etc, political and sport leaders have argued that society would be aided by the continuation of sporting events. These arguments resonated throughout society and formed the basis for many "play or not to play" debates, but the games always went on, with the addition of appropriate on-field symbols to communicate appropriate "healing” messages. After 9/11, there was a significant shift in sport policy and justification. While political leaders still suggested the games should carry on, sports leaders, while still promoting the "healing" powers of their games, now argued that it would be inappropriate for their leagues to continue after a crisis. This paper traces the growth and sudden shift in sport policy and the rationalization of sport as a source of healing messages for American society.

Toni Bruce, University of Waikato and Belinda Wheaton, University of Brighton

Representing the Nation: Transnational Appropriations

In this paper we analyse how the media in two different countries claimed Sir Peter Blake as representative of the nation after his unexpected death in 2003. Our focus is on the ways that Blake was appropriated and (re)presented by the media in both England and New Zealand as 'one of us'. An exploration of the similarities and differences in how Blake was represented in each country points to culturally specific understandings of the national character and provides a strong case study of the ways in which the media (and through it, the nation) draw upon available resources to create national fictions of identity and belonging.

Allison Butler, New York University

“Girls are Powerful”: Young Women, Meaning Making and Athletic Bodies

This presentation focuses on the social role played by young women who self-identify as athletes and how they understand themselves through their sport activities. Within American culture, sport is dominated by men literally on the field as well as in larger theoretical discussions of sport. A central tenet of sport is its intimate, inextricable connection to competition which, it will be shown, is coded as a masculine endeavor. The data in this research comes from interviews with teenage girls who self-identify as athletes and queries how they understand themselves as individuals developing in patriarchal culture. How do adolescent girls understand themselves as athletes and as young women within sport culture? What role does their physicality and self-perception play in their athleticism? As athletes, these young women are in-touch with their bodies; how is this relationship understood and made manifest? Looking through health, wellness and boy image, what is the relationship between sport and young women in body development?

Ted M. Butryn, San Jose State University

“We Lie, We Cheat, We Steal?”: Media Portrayals of Latinos in the WWE

As Jhally and Katz (2002) note, although World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) programs are consistently among the highest rated cable television shows, the WWE has been subjected to relatively little academic scrutiny. While there has been an increase in the research on the meanings and representations of Latina/o athletes, particularly within American sport (Jamieson, 1998, 2003; Juffer, 2002; Klein, 2003), little attention has been focused on the connection between the WWE and Latina/o characters and fans. Therefore, in this paper I draw from critical sport studies, cultural studies, and Latina/o and Chicana/o studies, as well as various media sources, including televised events, internet fan sites, and a WWE produced documentary in an effort to critically examine (McDonald & Birrell, 1999) the media portrayals of Latinos within the WWE. I focus specifically on how the framing of current champion, “Latino Heat” Eddie Guerrero, works to perpetuate racist stereotypes and xenophobia in ways that are different from previous representations of minorities in professional wrestling. The current WWE narratives involving Latinos are situated within the “real” political landscape of American tensions over immigration, language, and what counts as “American.” Finally, the WWE’s marketing aimed at Hispanic audiences is discussed in terms of the discourse on the commodification and consumption of racial and ethnic stereotypes.

Michael L. Butterworth, Indiana University

Towards a Rhetorical Theory of Sport in Democratic Culture

Scholars in sociology and cultural studies long ago recognized the extent to which sport reflects, maintains, and produces the values of a given culture. Meanwhile, communication scholars only recently have begun to contribute to this intellectual landscape. This essay suggests that sport is a meaningful site of cultural production that mandates attention from communication critics. More specifically, the argument provides a framework for viewing sport as an ideal model for theorizing an agonistic approach to democratic culture. Agonism asserts that meanings and decisions are negotiated through contests over symbols. The results of these contests are contingent, fluid, and temporary; thus, a turn to the tradition of rhetoric provides the means by which contests can be engaged. Because agonism strives for maximum inclusion of voices and participation in a democratic society, its application to sport—often considered an ideal institution of democracy—yields an appreciation for the triumphs and limits of democracy in the United States. In turn, a rhetorical approach to the study of sport provides a valuable lens through which sociologists and cultural theorists may view the symbolic terrain of sport.

Hart Cantelon, The University of Lethbridge

Corporate Branding and Municipal Boosterism in Canada

The 1998 Mills Report (SPORT IN CANADA: Everybody's Business Leadership, Partnership and Accountability) recognized the importance of sports sponsorship as an important advertising tool for companies to promote their enterprise or products. Among the Report recommendations was the creation of a governmental marketing advisory board to promote sport sponsorship. The Report also saw the hosting of major sports events as an important vehicle to demonstrate “the vitality of sport in Canada in terms of both athletes’ development and economic spinoffs” (Section 5). While such objectives may be laudable, they need to be grounded in empirical research. Does the private sector engage in sponsorship to develop and enhance a national or international (global) advertising image? Is it interested in cultivating corporate nationalism? Are there substantial economic spinoffs to communities that host mega sports events? I wish to reflect on these issues using empirical research solicited over the past two years. Specifically, information gleaned from 40 plus private sector interviews, with companies that have an on-going sponsorship policy of partnering with Canadian sport; personal involvement in writing a bid application to host the 2009 Universiade in the city of Edmonton, Alberta.

Michael Cantelon, University of Alberta

Where You From?: Canadian National Identity and High-Performance Sport

Sport in Canada at all of its various levels (eg. recreational, child or youth sport, competitive, professional etc.) has included both overt and hidden ideals geared towards the governance of both the sport itself as well as its participants. This governance also extends beyond the sport explicitly as many see sport as a way to reinforce societal norms and mores. Indeed, sport has been espoused as a site for moral, physical and mental development as well as inculcating feelings of national identity and a sense of belonging to the 'nation' at large. However, sport does not play out in a vacuum and participants do not come to sport as a homogeneous group, rather they are, what Shogan (1999) refers to as 'hybrid athletes'. That is, they are first and foremost athletes but they can be further defined with regards to 'race', sexuality, gender and class. This complicates the issue of social governance in sport, as many participants do not fit neatly into popular conceptions of what an athlete is or even what it means to be a Canadian. This paper will draw upon two major sporting events both inextricably linked to the Canadian sporting psyche, the 2004 Olympics and the World Cup of Hockey, to discuss the links between national identity and sport within the Canadian context. Further, the paper will address the issues surrounding those who do not fit into the narrow confines of popular stereotypical views of what it means to be a Canadian.

Ben Carrington, University of Texas

Keynote Panel: (Post)Identity and Sport

“Merely Identity?”: Cultural Identity and the Politics of Sport

The extent to which the claim to identity and the rights of recognition underpin or undermine progressive politics has been a central part of critical discussions on culture since the 1980s. More recently some have suggested that 'identity politics' has itself gone too far, leading some commentators to argue that we are now in a putative post-identity situation. Within the academy this position has been articulated from two divergent

positions. The first, emanating most clearly from what Spivak has called the conservative Left, derides 'identity politics' as a movement away from materialist struggles and suggests further that Leftist politics concerned with challenging forms of social inequality has been undermined by what is sometimes referred to as the 'cultural turn'. Identity politics, for the conservative Left, is either not political enough, or more often political

in the wrong way. The second position argues that identity politics, often mis-labelled as political correctness, is at fault for being over-political, for reading politics into every aspect of knowledge production and therefore is blamed for the movement away from detached forms of social scientific endeavour towards political, interventionist activism. I want to argue that rather than perceiving identity to be in contradiction to questions of

inequality that it is in fact a necessary, although not sufficient, precondition for any effective oppositional politics. I further suggest that attempts to caricature identity politics as a manifestation of political correctness, is itself an operation of institutional power within the academic field of sport sociology. To this end I argue for an explicitly politicised form of cultural studies that interrogates the speaking positions of those who argue for a 'return' to the good old days of sport sociology 'before identity' and that instead centres identity as a constitutive process of becoming that is the necessary basis for any (cultural) politics.

Eric Carter and Yolanda Gallardo, Kansas State University

Moving Toward Social Change: A Durkheimian Analysis of Anomie in the NFL

This working qualitative study describes and analyzes the perspectives and perceptions of current and former National Football League players regarding the effects of sudden change, wealth, and power. The theoretical framework of this study is Emile Durkheim's (1951) conception of anomie. The research design involves in-depth interviews and personal conversations with current and former NFL players. This research will have implications for looking at ways to promote positive social change in NFL player's lives, NFL communities, and the entertainment/sports industry.

Thomas Carter, University of Wales, Newport

Socialist (?) Sport and the Nation in Contemporary Cuba

For forty years, Cuban sport has represented the best that the Revolution had to offer. Since their ascension to power, Cuban leaders have made use of sport as a legitimating tool to emphasize the “Cuban” nature of their revolution. Using ethnographic data collected in the late 1990s with interviews and field work at subsequent international competitions, this paper looks at how Cuban sport has, in practice, moved away from socialist ideals even as the country’s athletes continue to represent the socialist state. The post-Soviet era in Cuban sport reflects the overall uncertainty faced by all Cubans. Sport remains one of the three “triumphs” of the Revolution along with health care and education in increasingly tumultuous times for Cuban society. The economic crisis forced Cubans to find novel solutions to economic situations as all state owned industries were required to become self-sufficient, including all sports programs. In response, sport officials began to expand their economic horizons, essentially turning Cuban sports into an export commodity. Coaches and athletes are contracted through a state-owned business to work overseas. I examine the contradictions that emerged from this situation resulting in the insertion of socialist sport into the field of capitalist–based sport, with an emphasis on the national sport of baseball, and how this affects the construction of a sporting Cuban nation.

Jayne Caudwell, University of Brighton

The Femme and Football: Queering Femininity, Queering Football?

Within sporting imaginary the figure of the butch has a haunting and evocative presence. She is often understood as ubiquitous especially in team sports that are legitimised through practice and display of traditional masculinity. To date, academic study has gone some way to establishing woman-masculine-lesbian as a re-claimed and normative identity. In some ways this work has made 'butch' safe and liveable for some women. Given the documentation of the actual or imagined presence of the butch the paper aims to make visible previously obscure sex-gender-desire footballing subjectivities. The purpose of the discussion is to capture incidents within football contexts that challenge and resist female lesbian masculinity. These moments are analysed in relation to queer and queer theory. Analyses seek to problematise queer and contribute further to the troubling of sex-gender-desire as it functions within a specific sporting context.

Robert Chappell and Daniel Burdsey, Brunel University, London

Stacking in Sport: Towards a More Sophisticated Analysis

Since Loy and McElvogue’s (1970) pioneering research, numerous studies have been conducted in an effort to explain the phenomenon of stacking, that is the segregation of ethnic minorities into non-central positions in certain team sports. Traditionally, non-central positions are characterised by manual dexterity or physical attributes rather than leadership qualities. Research in the United States (US) in football, basketball and baseball has consistently confirmed that the majority of group players typically occupy central positions while minority group members occupy peripheral positions (Berghorn, Yetman & Hanna, 1988; Margolis & Piliavin, 1999; Smith & Leonard, 1997). Researchers have also investigated this phenomenon in professional sports in other countries including English basketball (Chappell, Jones, & Burden, 1996), English soccer and rugby union (Maguire, 1988, 1991; Norris & Jones, 1998) and English cricket (Malcolm, 1997, 2002). Despite 30 years of research, several methodological inconsistencies exist even when researching the same sports. These inconsistencies make comparisons between studies difficult to make. One area in which inconsistencies exist is the methods used for determining ethnicity or “race”. For example, past researchers in basketball and baseball in the US consulted press brochures in order to determine these traits. According to Berghorn et al. (1988, p. 108) such data permitted “a visual racial identification of the players (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian or native Indian)”. This paper suggests that more sophisticated criteria should be used in order to determine ethnicity. This is exemplified in the research of Chappell and Karageorghis (2000). Finally, it is contended that with an increase in mixed-ethnicity, ethnic categories will become increasingly obsolete, and research on stacking will eventually become impossible to undertake and perhaps irrelevant (Burdsey, 2003).

Jodi H. Cohen, Bridgewater State College and Tamar Z. Semerjian

California State University

Finding Space: Negotiating Trans-Identity Within Sport

Transgendered identified athletes often find themselves negotiating with sport governing bodies to find and occupy spaces where they can participate and compete safely and comfortably. For some transgendered athletes, sport is a space where they feel strong and powerful, and for others sport is a transgressive zone where access is limited and there is an absence of teams where they feel that they can belong. This paper explores interviews of transgendered athletes, discussing their experiences in sporting communities, the ways in which these individuals struggle against, or work within the gender binary, and how this impacts their sport participation. Both queer theory and, more recent, trans-theoretical perspectives are employed in this analysis. Transgendered athletes’ participation in sport potentially disrupts socially constructed gender as a binary system, and confronts sport organizations reliance on essentialist notions of biological sex, which leads to confrontation of the anxieties presented by transgendered athletes’ participation. This project does not limit itself to an exploration of individuals’ experiences, but also engages in a discussion of the ways that power structures, particularly sport organizations, along with the legal and medical communities, work to regulate, discipline, and define sex and gender.

CL Cole and Alex Mobley, University of Illinois

American Steroids:  Using Race & Gender

In the past, the U.S. has displaced or found ways to conceal the use of performance enhancing drugs among its athletes while charging others, most specifically Eastern Bloc athletes, with steroid-induced performances.  Last year, Richard Pound and the World

Anti-doping Agency publicly challenged America's representations of its drug-free athletes and itself as leading the war against drug use in sport. In this paper, we consider the deeply raced and gendered assumptions that have shaped the US government's attempts to manage an ensuing public relations crisis. Most specifically, we

consider how guilt was displaced onto specific athletes through individually profiling stereotypically racialized and gendered performances.

Connie Collier, Mary Ann Devine, Ellen Glickman, Mary LaVine, Mary Parr, Kimberly Peer, Katherine Newsham, and Theresa Walton, Kent State University

Competes (Challenging Obesity: Media Powered Experiences To Engage Students)

A collaborative team of faculty representing five distinct disciplinary perspectives (physical education, exercise physiology, leisure studies, athletic training and sport studies) within the School of Exercise, Leisure and Sport (SELS) at Kent State are in the initial stages of developing a technologically and pedagogically based project to create an integrated learning environment for students across the disciplinary divides inherent in a multidisciplinary unit, such as SELS. COMPETES is a multi-stage project with the goal of constructing and implementing interactive multimedia cases applicable across the SELS curriculum to enhance student learning. COMPETES will substantially change the way students learn by focusing on the prevalent problem of obesity using a student centered pedagogy. The multimedia cases will provide students and instructors with a pedagogical context to critically analyze real world problems that are ecologically valid and possess complex layers requiring multidisciplinary solutions. The cutting edge technology supporting these cases will allow students time and space to safely analyze and interpret problems that have immediate, practicable consequences for our community. Initially, we will use the theme, or context, of obesity to present a variety of theoretical perspectives. These perspectives will contribute to the development of essential knowledge and strategies graduates can use in their professional endeavors to mediate this national health concern. In so doing, a conceptual model for integrating technology and scaffolding content will be developed. This conceptual model will serve as a prototype for developing other themes within SELS that may be useful to other disciplines across campuses. For example, nutrition, human development, and family studies may wish to use the resources we develop to integrate their own perspectives related to obesity, while sport sociologists could use a similar framework for examining any number of social issues related to sport.

Cheryl Cooky, University of Southern California

"Girls Just Aren't Interested in Sports": The Construction of (Dis) Interest in Youth Sport

Critical feminist sport scholars have examined how gender is structured through youth sport leagues, particularly through the separation of boys and girls (Messner, 2000; Theberge, 2003). Part of a larger dissertation projection, this paper explores how the structure of a youth sport league, Girls Play Los Angeles * (GPLA), (re)constructs ideologies of gender and sport that posit girls’ participation as secondary to that of boys’ participation. Through qualitative research (fieldwork, participant observations, and interviews with girls, coaches, recreation site directors and the Director of Gender Equity for the LA Department of Recreation and Parks) at two sites in the Los Angeles metropolitan region, this paper will show that the structure surrounding sport, as constructed by the recreation center staff, coaches, parents and peers, has a tremendous impact on shaping the sporting experiences of girls in the league. Rather than viewing girls’ interest or disinterest in sport as emerging solely from the individual or personal preference, I have found that the ways in which the site itself is structured interacts with and helps shape the girls’ interest in sport. It also impacts the ways in which adults in the league come to understand girls’ participation and (dis)interest in sport. * GPLA is a low-cost league targeting low-income, urban girls between the ages of 13-15 who would otherwise not be playing sports. GPLA emerged as a result of the out-of-court settlement of the Civil Rights case, Baca vs. the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks, and as such it is designed to provide more opportunities for urban girls.

Maxine Craig and Rita Liberti, California State University, Hayward

Learning to Lose Curves: Examining Discourses on Women's Fitness

With over 7,000 franchises in the United States and a dozen other countries around the world, Curves Fitness Centers for women have seen tremendous growth in their first decade of existence. The Curves 30 minute workout is targeted and appeals to middle aged women, in part, through empowerment rhetoric. Curves markets its franchises as inclusive, female-centered, non-competitive, supportive, and empowering communities whose purpose is to support female health. We seek to examine the emancipatory potential of this rhetoric through the use of participant observation, focus groups, interviews, and textual analysis of Curves publications. In their descriptions, women contrasted Curves to other gyms and classes in which isolation, competitiveness, physical difficulty, and emphasis on appearance were demoralizing. Despite the emergence of multiple discourses, we argue that far from liberating, Curves reproduces, rather than resists, restrictive and finite notions of femininity and health. Progress and success within Curves is defined and quantified by body surveillance strategies, including the preoccupation with weight loss and size reduction. We argue that in place of a genuine community Curves produces a feeling of community grounded in the member's shared dislike of exercise and mutual discomfort with their bodies. Curves contributes to women's alienation from their bodies by promoting psychic fragmentation of the body into good and bad parts and substitution of quantitative "truths" for sensual knowledge of the body.

Jane Crossman, Lakehead University and John Vincent, The University of Alabama

Cross-National Comparisons of Newspapers' Gendered Coverage of Wimbledon 2004

This study will compare how selected broadsheet newspapers from three countries cover female and male tennis players competing in the 2004 Wimbledon Championships. From Canada, The Globe and Mail; from Great Britain, The Times; and from the United States; The New York Times will be examined. Content analysis will be used to compare the amount and prominence of the coverage devoted to female and male tennis players in all articles and photographs during the 16-day period coinciding with the Wimbledon Championships fortnight (June 20 - July 5, 2004). A combination of two-tailed independent t-tests and a 3 x 2, (newspapers x gender), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) will be used to determine statistically significant differences. An alpha level of .05 will determine statistical significance. Drawing on Connell's (1987, 1993, 1995) theory of gender power relations, textual analysis will be used to compare recurring themes in the coverage of female and male tennis players and examine how the gendered coverage intersects with nationalism. The results and their implications will be discussed from a cross-national perspective.

George B. Cunningham, Texas A. & M. University

The Relationship between Actual and Perceived Gender Dissimilarity

Relational demography research has consistently indicated that persons demographically dissimilar from others in a group have poor work experiences. Recently, authors have proposed that the relationship between dissimilarity and work outcomes is mediated by perceptions of being different. However, tests of this linkage are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between actual and perceived gender dissimilarity. Data were gathered from 171 assistant coaches of university track and field teams. Bivariate correlations indicated that actual gender dissimilarity was strongly related to perceptions of such differences (r = .60). Moderated regression, followed by simple slope analysis, indicated that gender was a significant moderator of the relationship between actual and perceived dissimilarity. Contrary to the nonsymmetrical hypothesis, the effects of being different were stronger for women than they were for men. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical contributions to relational demography research.

George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas, Texas A. & M. University

Access Discrimination in University Athletics: The Case of Men’s Basketball

Access discrimination is concerned with limitations ethnic minority group members encounter that are not related to their actual or potential job performance. This discrimination occurs at the time the job is filled (e.g., rejection of applications, limited advertising of positions) and prevents members of a particular group from entering a job, organization, or profession. The purpose of this study was to examine the representation of ethnic minorities in intercollegiate coaching positions. Data were gathered from 191 NCAA Division I men’s basketball programs. Results indicate that Caucasian head coaches were more likely than African American head coaches to have Caucasian assistant coaches on staff, and vice versa. Results further indicate that the proportion of African American assistant coaches (33%) was significantly less than the proportion of potential African American coaches (48%). Further, the ethnicity of the head coach moderated this relationship, as African Americans were significantly underrepresented on the coaching staffs of Caucasian head coaches (29%) but not African American head coaches (49%). It is suggested that the key to mitigating access discrimination is for coaches and administrators to realize the value of diversity and the importance of a diverse workforce on the ultimate effectiveness of the workgroup and organization.

Tim Curry, Ohio State University

John Muir, Mountaineer: A Gender Perspective

Life histories are culturally produced artifacts as well as interpretive documents. In this paper I construct the life history of John Muir from a gender perspective. In doing so, I discover that the historian’s emphasis on the “masculine” qualities of Muir as a famous explorer and rugged individualist fighting a lonely battle to save Yosemite Valley gives way to a different view. Through the mentoring of Jeanne Carr, Louie Strentzel, and others, Muir’s “feminine” qualities as a good conversationalist, impassioned lover of nature, and prolific letter writer were enhanced, and enabled Muir to develop connections to many important people. It was these connections, not his rugged individualism that led Muir to become the most successful Western nature writer of his time. Told in this way, Muir’s life history can provide a valuable example about the importance of social connectivity even for the most rugged mountaineer of the 19th century.

Judy Davidson, University of Alberta

Olympic Melancholia: Pride, Shame, and the Emergence of the Gay Games

When the United States Olympic Committee was granted a court injunction to stop the first Gay Olympic Games from using the word ‘Olympic’ in 1982, the ceaseless haunting of the Gay Games by discourses of Olympism and queer shame was secured. I argue that the metonymic relationships between Tom Waddell, his death, homophobic shame, and juridical Olympic prohibitions underpin and motivate the production of this frenzied athletic event of urgent gay pride. The (sometimes unconscious) identifications with things Olympic and with gay pride discourses have both enabled and constrained the success and viability of the Gay Games through the past 20 years. I briefly outline the historical events leading up to the loss of the word Olympic in a US Supreme Court decision and the death of Tom Waddell shortly after that decision. The Games are then read as complicated processes of melancholic incorporation, where shame and pride are important parts of a particular identification which produces the fraught relationship between Olympism and the Gay Games. I use Judith Butler's argument about gender melancholia (1990, 1997) and rework that heuristic to consider how loss has operated in the discursive production of the Gay Games.

Larry DeGaris, James Madison University

Good Gays and Bad Gays: The “Faggot” Gimmick in Professional Wrestling

Homoerotic characters and storylines have a long and prominent history in professional wrestling. However, the characters are not promoted uniformly as villains, nor have they been received as such by fans. That is, there are “good gays” and “bad gays.” Drawing on an analysis of televised events and results from an experimental ethnography, I discuss the factors associated with determining how performers are able to elicit the desired reactions from their audiences by performing homoerotic identities. In particular, I suggest that dynamics of dominance and subordination are cloaked in a rhetoric of morality; and that elements of power can supersede sexual behaviors in determining sexual identities. In conclusion, I discuss aspects of homophobia that lend themselves to commercial exploitation within the pro wrestling’s performative idiom.

Bryan E. Denham, Clemson University

Hegemonic Masculinity, Perceptions of Group Homogeneity and Enjoyment of Televised Football

Drawing on literature from communication, sport and social psychology, this paper explores the concept of media enjoyment through televised football, moving beyond the game itself and considering more carefully the milieu in which many men, subscribing to traditional notions of masculinity, experience the contest. Addressing how individuals tend to connect with, and sometimes count on, established social groups, the article suggests that in scholarly research efforts, the enjoyment individuals sometimes attribute to media content can be characterized more accurately as enjoyment of an environment facilitated by a specific type of content, such as that found in the “masculine” game of football. Such an environment reinforces hegemonic masculinity and allows group members, who commonly can predict the attitudes of others in the group, to express thoughts that extend beyond the game and into domains in which traditional conceptions of masculinity have been challenged, without fear of repercussion. Thus, when commentators call football a “male preserve,” they may be partially correct—for reasons beyond kickoffs and touchdowns. Theoretical frameworks addressed in the article include uses and gratifications, social identity, disposition and uncertainty reduction theory.

Jim Denison, University of Bath

Inhibiting Progress: The Record of the Four-Minute Mile

In this paper I explore the long standing significance of the four-minute mile in line with the meaning it still holds today. A meaning, I argue, that derives from the construction of an idealized past. To support my argument I discuss the concept of nostalgia, as well as examine how four minutes as a meaningful barrier for runners first arose. Further, I cite material from a series of in-depth interviews I conducted with 21 sub four-minute milers. These athletes, whose careers spanned five decades, represent a variety of cultures, styles and abilities. In fact, I deliberately selected a wide array of sub four-minute milers to interview—from those who broke four minutes dozens of times to those who did so only once; from those who were professional milers to those who were strictly amateur; from those who came from countries with no miling tradition to those who were brought up on the mile; and from those who went on to set world records and win Olympic medals to those who remained distinctly sub-elite—to try and track any changing perceptions with respect to the four-minute mile’s significance over the last half-century. Despite my diverse sample, however, every miler I spoke to, irrespective of his era, remarked on how momentous and memorable his first sub-four was. A cherished memory from the past, they all said. And it’s precisely how idealized sporting memories such as this form and the effect they have on contemporary standards that I analyze. Effectively, then, this paper presents an embodied history of the last fifty years of sub-four miling and considers how and why this landmark achievement has magically maintained its significance and the implications this has for runners today.

Fabrice Desmarais and Toni Bruce, University of Waikato

Broadcast Sport, Communication and Culture

Sports broadcast commentary constitutes a site for the theatrical production of meaning and the construction of particular 'fictions' of identity. In this paper, analysis of broadcasts of France versus New Zealand rugby clashes and interviews with famous commentators in both nations allows us to uncover how broadcast practices in both countries create culturally specific understandings of rugby, masculinity and national 'style'.

Michele Donnelly, University of Maryland

All Female Snowboard Camps–Empowerment Through Segregation?

Women only snowboard camps, where women pay money to learn how to snowboard without men (as instructors or participants), are now available at many ski resorts across North America. This paper presents a preliminary investigation into the growing trend of female only snowboard camps. Using promotional materials produced for these camps and interviews with instructors and camp organizers, I examine the reasons given for their existence, as well as their claimed benefits for girls and women interested in learning how to snowboard. Snowboard camps indicate a further commodification and ‘mainstreaming’ of snowboarding, a formerly ‘alternative’ lifestyle sport. The idea of learning to snowboard at an organized (and costly) camp runs counter to the ethic of alternative sport subcultures. Additionally, all female snowboard camps promote the notion of an essentially female/feminine way of learning and of snowboarding, while earning money for themselves and for companies making specific equipment and clothing for women. This includes a reliance on characteristics of hegemonic femininity – that girls and women are more social, dependent, and less competitive. By promoting an ideology of essential gender differences, all women snowboard camps both rationalize and ensure their own existence.

Delia D. Douglas, Independent Scholar

Where We Live Now: Kobe Bryant and the Fire this Time

"Because sports and athletic competition constitute a primary context in which masculine identity is forged … the need to ensure that male athletes actually possess the heterosexual orientation supposed to found masculinity is particularly great" (Harper, 1996, p. 23). This essay is not an attempt to address the question of Kobe Bryant’s ‘guilt’ or ‘innocence’ of the charge of rape. Rather I am using the occasion of his admission of adultery and the allegation of sexual assault as a point of departure from which to interrogate contemporary cultural politics. The NBA remains a key site through which we encounter and interpret images of Black male heterosexuality. This link between athletic prowess and Black heterosexual manhood has obscured the complex ways in which basketball has contributed to the reproduction of a heteronormative ideal and code of behaviour which has had a profound influence on Black sexual politics and gender relations in Black communities. Drawing upon the insights offered by multiracial feminism and critical race scholarship this paper considers how the charges against Kobe Bryant is an occasion through which we can explore the intersection of discourses of race, gender and sexuality in the production of racialized masculinities and gay sexual identities.

Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Monica Branch, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Portrayals of the African-American Female Body in Urban Music Videos

This study examines the objectification and eroticization of the Black female body in urban music videos. Employing textual analysis and group interviews, we examine how these images contribute to a social process that helps shape the African-American woman's view of herself and larger society's view of her. Six young college-education/bound Black women participate in a focus group discussion that centers on portrayals of female bodies in four popular urban music videos. In particular, we ask how is the ideal female body portrayed in urban music videos? And from whose point of view? How do these representations affect our focus group members' views of their bodies? What are the sources of social pressure to conform to these images? An analysis of the transcript identifies several related themes, which are discussed in the context of contemporary African-American culture in the 21st century.

Steve Estes, East Carolina University

The Faculty and Contemporary Intercollegiate Athletics Reform

Efforts: The Drake Group and the Coalition for Intercollegiate Athletics

The Drake Group and the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletics (COIA) represent two contemporary faculty perspectives on reforming intercollegiate athletics. While both perspectives support reform agendas, their methods differ. The Drake Group has put forth specific reform goals, whereas the COIA has focused on the reform process. Both the Drake Group and the COIA enjoy different types of support, and each approach has demonstrated an ability to sway public opinion and to garner national attention. This purpose of this paper is to compare the two organizations to each other, along with the pros and cons of both approaches. Also, it will be argued that a process similar to that developed by the COIA to mobilize and empower faculties to obtain athletics reform will be the means by which the seven Drake Group goals can be achieved.

Linnet Fawcett, Concordia University

Recreational Rink Culture and the Swaggering Midlife Female Trick-Skater

This paper revolves around the figure of the midlife female recreational trick-skater–a risk-taking, gender-bending, genre-distending entity who performs figure skating moves on hockey skates. Proposing that this figure’s playful and irreverent mixing of two distinct and highly structured on-ice disciplines troubles the traditional division between feminized-aesthetic and masculinized-athletic sport, I argue that the new forms of individual bodily comportment and communal space negotiation to emerge out of this disruption offer important insights into where the liberatory potential in “alternative” sports might lie. In particular, I examine the typically macho attitude of “swagger”: observing how it manifests itself in its bladed and generally male embodiment down at the Atrium–a skating rink located in the middle of the food court of a busy commercial centre in downtown Montreal; suggesting how the midlife female recreational trick-skater re-configures swagger into a feminist attitude through her unconventional approach to movement, and her subverting of skate technology and its associated practices. Informed by a lively cohort of feminist “body” theorists (I.M. Young, J. Frueh, J. Grimshaw, J. Halberstam, M. Ian) and based on an ethnographic study of recreational rink culture, this paper also draws on my own experience as a "born-again" trick-skater.

Ted Fay, SUNY, Cortland, Mary Hums, University of Louisville and Karen DePauw, Virginia Tech University

Teaching and Learning: Disability in Sport Sociology Applied

Theory versus practice. Problem-based learning strategies versus lecture formats. What is best? How and where do you infuse, create or otherwise integrate a disability in sport perspective within the sport-related humanities or science courses in undergraduate or graduate curriculums? What can the literature in sport sociology inform students and faculty about the critical issues facing athletes with disabilities that are similar or different from their worldview? After all, if it is not presented on ESPN or Fox Sports does it really exist as a true sport anyway. What is the role of the sport humanities courses, particularly those that are foundationally rooted in the various perspectives of sport sociology, to create new critical contexts in challenging whether athletes with disabilities competing from novice to elite levels should have rights to access to sport similar to their non-disabled peers? How and where are these new paradigms or critical contexts formed and presented as part of the body of knowledge deemed as important by sport sociologists as related to sport and physical activity-related curriculums? How does one best convey such a message to students assuming adequate materials with reasonably constructed content exists? Is it a 50 or 75 minute video in one session in an introductory sport sociology class? Is it a separate, upper division elective course on Disability in Sport? Is it a module-based curriculum with engaging and challenging case studies that examine the implicit and explicit issues found in most identity group studies such as: a) stratification and sports governance and operating structures, b) discrimination, c) integration, d) segregation, e) power, f) social identity and socialization, g) gender, h) race, i) minority relations, j) cultural diversity, k) the role of media and the organizational hierarchy of sport to name a few? This presentation will examine some of the more practical or applied pedagogical strategies for infusing and integrating the discussion of critical issues facing athletes with disabilities in a nation’s sporting culture. Tested examples of teaching practices dealing with the subject of disability in sport will be presented. Future needs and considerations will also be presented as a concluding summary.

Sarah Fields, Ohio State University

Jurisprudence, Gender, and Sport

In part because of Title IX and the Fourteenth Amendment, competitive sport in America has become a system designed around separate but equitable teams for males and females. Although the numbers of women and girls participating in sports has increased exponentially since 1972 and the enactment of Title IX, the question still remains of whether or not separate but equal is the fairest and most just way to maximize the opportunities for and experiences of female participation in sport. I will examine the system through the lens of jurisprudence (legal philosophy), particularly the different branches of feminist legal theory and critical legal studies. These varied philosophical schools of thought disagree on the utility as well as the fairness of separate but equal as a means of promoting gender equality and social justice.

Giovanna Follo and Desire Anastasia, Wayne State University

Women in the Olympics: Now You See Them, Now You Don't

Sport is unfeminine. Could this perception be the catalyst for the second-hand treatment of female athletes? Literature suggests that female athletes receive less coverage than male athletes in all forms of media. To investigate this assumption, a quantitative content analysis will explore the media coverage of women’s sports during the 2004 Athens Summer Olympic Games, August 13–29, 2004. The Games will be videotaped in their entirety from the American channel NBC and the Canadian channel CBC. Taping will commence with the pre-opening ceremonies on August 13th and continue until the end of the ceremonies. During both the week and weekend the Games will be taped from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Using SPSS, the authors will perform quantitative analyses of how many female versus male athletes are covered by each network, as well as how much coverage time each gender is allowed. In addition, the authors will code for the following themes: the type of sport played, the duration of the event televised, and the time of day the sport is televised. It is hypothesized that, compared to the male athletes, the female athlete will be covered less and at times when T.V. viewership is low.

Brian Frederick, University of Colorado

“Gay Hockey Talk”: The Dominant Gay Liberal Philosophy of the Colorado Climax

This ethnographic research explores the production of masculinity by a gay hockey team in an ostensibly heterosexual, and homophobic hockey league. Results find that gay athletes reproduce a dominant gay liberal philosophy of adopting all attributes of masculinity, other than their sexuality. This was particularly true of gay players who were socialized into hockey early in youth. This study carries interesting implications for the understanding of masculinity, particularly in an area of decreasing homophobia.

Michael Friedman, University of Maryland

Camdenization: Authenticity and Simulation in the Renovation of Fenway Park

Opened in 1912 for baseball’s Boston Red Sox, Fenway Park is one of the most iconic, popular and economically-successful sports structures in the United States with its distinctive architecture and storied history. As such, Fenway Park and its “early-modern era” contemporaries (Ritzer & Stillman, 2001) have been design templates for all 15 Major League Baseball stadiums opened following the nostalgia-laden Camden Yards in 1992. Built in a postmodern style, “retro” facilities represent a “random cannibalization of all the styles of the past” (Jameson, 1991, p. 18) as superficial aesthetic signifiers from early-modern ballparks have been combined together with little regard for their initial contexts, and melded with spectacular displays and revenue-generating amenities (Ritzer, 1999). In this presentation, I focus on the developments made to Fenway Park within the past three years. Guided by Camden Yards-designer Janet Marie Smith, the Red Sox have made several physical and aesthetic improvements to the ballpark, many similar to postmodern stadiums, especially in Fenway Park’s use of heritage. While these improvements have been made to increase revenues and enhance fan experience, they ironically may serve to undermine the character of Fenway Park and devalue its authenticity.

Stephanie Fryberg, University of Arizona

“We’re Honoring You, Dude”: The Impact of Using American Indian Mascots

Five studies examine the psychological consequences of American Indian mascots on American Indian high school and college students. In Studies 1 and 2, American Indian high school students were either primed with an American Indian mascot (i.e., Chief Wahoo) or were not (control condition) and then completed state self-esteem or collective self-efficacy measures. In both studies, American Indian students primed with the mascot showed depressed self-esteem and collective self-efficacy when compared to American Indian students in the control condition. In study 3, American Indians attending a predominantly American Indian university with an American Indian mascot (Haskell Indian) were also shown one of three mascots (either Chief Wahoo, Chief Iliniwek, or the Haskell Indian). Participants in the mascot conditions reported fewer achievement-related possible selves than did American Indians in the no-prime control condition. Finally, in Study 5, European Americans were either primed with an American Indian mascot (i.e., Chief Wahoo) or were not (no-prime control). In the mascot prime condition, European Americans reported heightened self-esteem compared to those in the control condition. This boost in self-esteem for European Americans suggests that the dominant social representations of minority groups have significant implications for the psychological functioning of both minority and majority group members.

Zan Gao, Louisiana State University, Louis Harrison, Jr., Louisiana State University and Ping Xiang, Texas A. & M. University

Competence Beliefs, Achievement Values, Race, and Gender in Physical Activity

Guided by an expectancy-value model of achievement choice (Wigfield, Eccles, & Rodriguez, 1998), this study examined the relationships among competence beliefs, achievement values and performance among college students in a physical activity as well as if these variables differed by race and gender. A total of 120 participants (64 Females, 56 Males) completed questionnaires assessing their competence beliefs, achievement values, and performance at a dart-throwing task. Pearson correlations indicated that competence beliefs and achievement values were positively related to each other (r = 0.48) and both were positively related to students’ performance at the dart-throwing task (r = 0.51; r = 0.18). A multiple regression analysis further revealed that competence beliefs (É¿=0.57) and achievement values (É¿= 0.21) were positive predictors of students’ performance. A 2 Å~2 (raceÅ~ gender) MANOVA yielded no significant differences on competence beliefs, achievement values and performance between African- and White-American participants, which was consistent with the previous research (Graham, 1994). Gender differences, however, emerged (Wilks' É©=0.76, F3,114=11.72,p<0.01) with males reporting higher scores on competence beliefs and performance than females. Overall, these findings provided additional empirical evidence to support the importance of examining race and gender differences in students’ motivation in physical activities.

Margaret M. Gehring, Ohio Wesleyan University

Greedy Institutions and the Dearth of Women Coaches.

The dearth of women coaches is an established fact (Acosta & Carpenter, 2004), however the reasons for this steady decline over the past couple of decades are not clear. Further, when examining this phenomenon from an individual perspective the findings do little more than “blame the victim” (Stangl & Kane, 1991). For instance, Sagas et al (2000) found that women lack interest in coaching due to perceived occupational stress. The purpose of this session is to turn the focus (and blame) away from the individual by critically analyzing the collegiate coaching profession from a gendered perspective. Recent research on this topic will be reviewed and analyzed from multiple perspectives. In doing so, Coser’s (1974) notion of a “greedy institution” will be used to help explain the dearth of women coaches at U.S. institutions. Finally, strategies for challenging the status quo in an effort to get and keep more women in coaching will be discussed.

Dorie A. Geissler, University of Illinois

From Sex Roles to Self-Esteem: Sport Science and the Athletic Female Body in 1970s America

This paper revisits early research conducted during the 1970s on the physical and psychological consequences of female sport participation to explore its role in the production of particular “truths” about the athletic female body and their effects. Informed by cultural studies and post-structuralist sensibilities, I consider how early efforts by the sport sciences to come to terms with female sport involvement in the U.S. during the 1970s, were shaped and limited by popular debates and concerns over female sport participation and their articulation with broader cultural anxieties over racial, sexual, gender, and economic transformations. More importantly, this paper explores how the popular dissemination of (?) scientific definitions of the athletic female body as feminine, healthy, and empowered, functioned to dismiss cultural suspicions about female sport participation as physically risky and masculinizing as outdated falsehoods. To this extent, I argue that during the 1970s, through the authority of science, the athletic female body was “made safe” for social, cultural, and economic consumption, and in turn, served as an important site for the imagination of corporeal deviance and the operation of power in America. Lastly, this paper considers the enduring influence of early scientific definitions on contemporary understandings of female sport participation and definitions of healthy female subjectivity and agency.

Gerald Gems, North Central College

An Analysis of Women’s Leadership Roles in the Olympic Movement

This study undertakes a brief historical analysis of women’s participatory roles in the Olympic movement from athletic participants to leadership positions. Its primary focus examines more recent developments in the International Olympic Committee and its member organizations, i.e. national organizing committees (NOCs), and international sport federations. It particularly examines the IOC’s aims and strategies to improve gender equity in governing bodies. It more specifically emphasizes the importance of gender equity in the process of bidding for the Olympic Games. Does the IOC require any standards of parity in the bid process? Do bid cities practice gender equity with regard to decision making groups and committees? Do bid cities’ proposals to the International Olympic Committee include gender as a consideration in the bid process? The study is based on primary documentation from the bid cities’, including IOC reports from 2004–2008 from the International Olympic Academy Library and web pages from the 2012 bid cities’ to derive among other things the number of women and the nature of female roles in the bid cities’ management boards. Preliminary data suggests that the majority of bid cities are not in compliance with IOC aims for gender policy. Such deficiencies apparently have little effect on one’s application; thus calling into question the commitment and efficacy of the IOC’s stated intentions for gender equity. Even if bid cities met the stated IOC guidelines gender parity in leadership roles would take many years. This study concludes with a more radical approach based on historical precedents.

Tammy George and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Fusion, Confusion or Illusion: An Exploration of Health and Fitness Among Young South Asian Canadian Women

Stereotypes emphasizing passivity, docility, and uncleanliness all contribute to cultural (mis)understandings of Canadian women of South Asian background. Such understandings feed dominant racist discourses, including “bodily” discourses related to fitness and health. In turn, such discourses have “effects” in terms of how women approach bodily practices. This study focuses on the constructions of health and fitness among 20-25 years old second generation South-Asian Canadian women who now live in Ottawa or Toronto. Based on conversations with these women, the study focuses on how they construct health and fitness as well as the types of institutional and cultural discourses they draw from. Results show how these women struggle to construct an identity that speaks to their experience of being South Asian in Canada: they often unsettle, contest, negotiate and resist normative constructions of both “South Asian” and “Canadian” identities. Results also highlight the impact of these negotiations on the young women’s constructions of health and fitness, and on their position as un/fit and un/healthy subjects within cultural discourses. Insights from this study fill an important gap in the Canadian literature on health as well as inform contemporary debates regarding health policy and health education programs for South-Asian Canadian women.

Michael D. Giardina, University of Illinois

Remembering the Titans: Racialized Educational Policy and the Re-narration of De/Segregation

Based on a true story of the racial integration of a high school and its football team in 1971 Virginia, Disney’s (2000) Remember the Titans is regarded by many popular critics as one of the most poignant Hollywood movies to tackle desegregation in recent memory. However, though popularly conceived of as an historical “parable about racial harmony yoked to the formula of a sports movie” (Ebert, 2000), the film serves as commentary on present-day race relations, affirmative-action, and debates concerning school vouchers as read through a culturally conservative White middle-class lens of Disney “magic” that re-narrates history with a commodified history book account filled with sound-byte fictions of school integration and the struggle for Civil Rights. This paper thus interrogates the filmic narratives of Remember the Titans, paying specific attention to its tripartite focus on sport, education, and racial affiliation. I then articulate the film to debates currently circulating in US political and popular cultural germane to education policy, specifically the “No Child Left Behind Act” and school vouchers. I conclude by commenting on the cultural pedagogical role films such as Remember the Titans play in the production of a national fantasy of the present that makes claims on our understanding of the past, national coherence, and popular memory as a site of injustice, criticism, and renewal.

Audrey Giles, University of Alberta

Negotiating Boundaries: Traditional Dene Games in Contemporary Classrooms

The need for a culturally sensitive and relevant curriculum in schools has been recognized and articulated in education policy in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Despite the existence of such policy, many difficulties remain in implementing Dene Games as a meaningful part of school curriculum. This paper explores the tensions faced by teachers and school administrators in Fort Simpson, NWT as they attempt to find a place/make room for Dene Games in politically and emotionally charged classroom environments.

Audrey Giles, University of Alberta

"Slaying the Sacred Cow": Girls in Dene Games

The 2004 Arctic Winter Games (AWG) in Fort McMurray, Alberta marked the first time that Dene Games component of the AWG included a category for women. The expansion of girls into the formerly exclusively male athletic realm in the Dene Games drew mixed reviews from athletes, coaches, organizers, and spectators alike. The addition of the category for girls also raised questions concerning the need–which some view as real, others as perceived–for the continued maintenance separation of males and females or the exclusion of females in many Dene Games. Excerpts from semi- and unstructured interviews will be used to examine discourses and challenge metanarratives concerning women and girls’ participation in Dene Games.

Pat António Goldsmith, University of Wisconsin-Parkside

Race and Basketball Playing Ability: Preliminary Investigation With a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of High School Students

One of the most controversial topics in the sociology of sport literature is the relationship between race and sport-playing ability. Unfortunately, much of this discussion focuses exclusively on elite athletes and consequently, we do not know how much race and other factors influence sport-playing ability in the general population. In this study, I investigate the importance of race, socioeconomic status, neighborhood residence, and other conditions in influencing ability in the sport of basketball using the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), a nationally representative data set. Results indicate that students who self-identify as Black tend to be better basketball players than those with other racial/ethnic-identifications, all else equal. However, Blacks' advantage over others is larger in some schools than in others. Most notably, Blacks' advantage in playing ability is especially large in schools where there are large status differences between Whites and Blacks and where relations between Blacks and Whites are relatively conflictual. Thus, the findings indicate that race does play a significant role in playing ability in the population, but the importance of race in doing so depends upon the level of racial inequality and the racial relations in the surrounding environment.

Laurie L. Gordy, Daniel Webster College

Females of Color in Sports Illustrated for Women

With few exceptions, racial minority female athletes receive little attention in mainstream sports. Furthermore, there is very little research on the media's portrayal of female athletes of color. In Sports Illustrated for Women, a sports magazine published from 1999-2002, racial minority female athletes did receive more attention and coverage compared to mainstream or "male centered" sports magazines. However, much of the coverage in the feature stories of SI for Women consigned Black female and Asian female athletes to very limited roles. Based on content analysis of the feature stories in SI for Women this research examines the roles, as defined by words and photos, assigned to Black female and Asian female athletes. These roles, in fact, reinforce cultural stereotypes in that Asian females were often depicted as submissive and graceful while Black females were often depicted as assertive, aggressive, or as domestics. Such stereotypes were clear not only in the images presented but also in the framing of contradictory images. Female athletes of color face the cultural ideals of race and gender in that Black females are often under-feminized (and seen as more masculine than White females) and Asian females are often over-feminized.

Andrew Grainger, University of Maryland and Joshua I. Newman,

The University of Memphis

From Immigrant to Overstayer: Nationalism, Rugby, and Pacific Island Identity

During the late 1970s thousands of-in many cases legal-Pacific Island immigrants were systematically evicted from New Zealand shores. Once filling the boom-time demand for unskilled labor, they had become the easy scapegoats for looming recession and rising unemployment-overstayers taking jobs from "real" New Zealanders. It is somewhat ironic then that today that very bastion of New Zealand-ness, the national rugby team, should be dominated by players of Pacific Island descent. Indeed, in the "All Blacks" New Zealanders find their ostensible postcolonial present: Pakeha men toiling side-by-side with their South Pacific Island brethren. However, it is our contention that the All Blacks in fact contribute to a veneer multiculturalism, which obfuscates the cultural politics of race and nation embodied in, and played out through, the game of rugby. Taking rugby as a cultural tracer of wider New Zealand society, in this paper we examine: how players of Pacific Island descent raise increasingly complex questions of national eligibility and allegiance; the parallel exploitation of Pacific Island industrial and athletic labor; and, finally, how the new Pasifika team-in drawing its players from Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji-may provide an opportunity to build on an emergent diasporic “Black Pacific” culture which transcends the boundaries of nationalism

Mick Green, Loughborough University

Elite Sport Development in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom

This paper explores the processes underlying elite sport development and policy change in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom (UK). The analysis draws on an examination of policy documents and data gained from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key personnel in three Australian and Canadian national sporting organisations (NSOs) and three UK national governing bodies (NGBs) of sport in swimming, athletics and sailing; senior officials at the Australian Sports Commission, Sport Canada and UK Sport; and sport policy analysts/academics. In Australia, it is apparent that, over the past decade, there has been a relatively unquestioned federal emphasis on developing elite athletes, legitimised in large part, by the hosting of the Sydney Olympic Games. In Canada, recent policy statements and legislation suggest a shift, at federal government level, away from its preoccupation with elite sport over the past 30 years. In contrast, in the UK, from the mid-1990s onwards, there has been a noticeable shift towards supporting elite sport objectives from both Conservative and Labour administrations. Insights provided by the advocacy coalition framework throw into sharp relief the part played by the state in using its resource control to shape the context within which debates on beliefs/values within NSOs/NGBs take place; in particular, debates around the emphasis placed on elite sport compared to mass participation initiatives.

Chris Grenfell, California State University, San Bernardino

Old School - New School, Value Constructs In Sport and Among Sport Consumers

The fluidity of language, particularly the English language, allows for and often encourages change in the meaning of words and phrases. Within the context of change, I discuss the value orientations of the phrases "old school" and "new school." These phrases occur frequently in sport vernacular and in media coverage of sport. There is even recent research which attempts to quantify "old schoolness" in sport consumers to better enable marketers to match their products with the clientele. (Sukhdial, et.al.,2002) In virtually all settings, the phrases old school and new school are discussed as having a dichotomous relationship with opposing value orientations. However, there is little evidence to indicate that there is a conceptual understanding of the phrases old school and new school or an awareness of the philosophical foundation for the role of sport as it interacts with the larger social system. I explore here the philosophical antecedents of old school, the dynamic between old school and new school and the extent to which the social system acts to change the value constructs it purports to support.

Richard Gruneau, Simon Fraser University

Keynote Panel: (Post)Identity and Sport

When Everything Old Becomes New Again: Sport, and the Retreat

From Subjectivity and Romanticism

Social theory has oscillated over the past two centuries between a concern for concrete social "facts," or readily identifiable social forces that shape human beings and their social relations, and a concern for the meaningful, interpretive, dimensions of human life, including subjectivity, discourse, identity and the emotions. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the concern for subjectivity, discourse, identity and emotion was often most powerfully expressed by romanticism. I want to argue that work in the sociology of sport since the 1960s been swept up in this broader series of theoretical

oscillations. Notably, the postmodern assertion of subjectivity and identity in the sociology of sport in recent years is a manifestation of a burgeoning post-war romanticism that arose in the 1960s and took full flight during the culture wars of the 1980s and 1990s. This romanticism provided an important corrective to many of the limitations of mainstream social theory and traditional political economic analysis,

but its excesses have prompted a renewed interest in alternative perspectives. Suddenly, with the growth of "post-identity" thinking, everything old becomes new again.

Matthew Guschwan, Indiana University

The State in the Stands: Soccer Fandom in Italy.

The State in the Stands: Soccer Fandom in Italy. The State in the Stands: Soccer Fandom in Italy. The State in the Stands: Roman Soccer Fans

When fans of Italian soccer team, AS Roma, gather in the stadium, they sing, “Tell me what it is that makes us feel like friends even though we don’t know each other?” (translated from the song, Grazie Roma). These self-reflexive lyrics are a testament to the deeply emotional, if ephemeral, sense of community that Roma fans feel when they are at the match. While the Roma fans answer their rhetorical question, “AS Roma”, this presentation will open this question to broader interpretation. How do AS Roma soccer fans (called ultras) create an imagined community? To what extent does soccer affect and reflect the ultras’ understanding of Italy as a culture and as a state? Soccer offers the fan a deeply affective sense of identity that is expressed at the stadium through songs, cheers, gestures, costumes, banners and periodically, violence. Away from the stadium, they use websites, newspapers and occasional protests to express their views. In this presentation, I will examine the ways in which the displays of AS Roma ultras reflect regional prejudice, xenophobia, and nationalism. I will also speculate on how these ultra groups influence the individual’s notion of community and citizenship.

Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

Disciplining Sport as a Communication Phenomenon

The domain of sport is a communicatively rich locale for understanding an array of symbolic processes endemic to everyday human interaction. A cursory overview of the interdisciplinary research clearly intimates how processes and practices of communicating play a central and critical role in understanding a host of personal, relational, group, organizational, and mediated issues. These issues, subsequently, can give rise to a host of applied communication considerations at both micro and macro levels. A majority of this research on sport, consequently, have endorsed disciplinary assumptions that privilege an understanding of sport from psychological and sociological paradigms—amidst previous intellectual advances—to the sheer exclusion of those communication processes that essentially give rise to (and empirically constitute) such respective issues and topics. What is absent from this respective body of interdisciplinary literature is a serious consideration of those communicative processes that symbolically govern the course of sport and those communication consequences that interactively fuel the everyday conduct of sport. This paper intellectually (re)considers what the domain of sport might look like if disciplined from a communication paradigm. Engaging in such a task provides an opportunity to (re)examine how the conduct of sport research in communicative terms can productively advance theory and practice in the domain of sport.

Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative Consumption

The community of sport is a process that is communicatively accomplished and interactively maintained. Accordingly, the intersection of communication and sport is conceptually explored. Drawing upon literature from the discipline of communication studies, and various allied disciplines, the domain of sport is (re)considered as a form of communicative consumption. Integrating such interdisciplinary research serves to illustrate the multiplicity of ways in which processes of sport become communicatively consumed.

Marie Hardin, Pennsylvania State University

Life in Purgatory: Female Journalists and the Sports Media Hierarchy

Although sports media organizations in the United States have publicly made diversity, including the hiring and promoting of women, a goal, sports media leaders say it is difficult to recruit and retain women. The number of women working in sports media has grown during the past two decades but remains relatively low; the number of women in leadership positions is even lower. Focus-group interviews with 20 women who work at various levels in U.S. newspaper sports departments reveal that although they believe their gender was an advantage in their “breaking into the business,” it is ultimately a barrier to their career advancement. These journalists discuss feeling pigeonholed, tokenized and marginalized by male co-workers and feeling harassed by sources and readers. They also report feeling a strong sense of responsibility to mentor younger females in sports media and to provide more coverage of women’s sports in their newspapers.

Othello Harris, Miami University

Keynote Panel: (Post)Identity and Sport

While Ruminating About Self and Activities . . .

Identity politics. This is the first time I’ve used that term. It’s not that I am unfamiliar with the term or some of its uses. On the contrary, I’ve become quite acquainted with it through discussions with, or listening to discussions by, colleagues and students. It’s also a term that appears in a number of my readings. Yet, I have avoided it like the term, “political correctness.” And, like the term “political correctness”—in its popular usage— identity politics is often invoked contemptuously. I suppose, here, I should set the context for my understanding of, and feelings about, the concept identity politics. Years ago, I was engaged in a debate with a “scholar” about race and sport in America. Having thought I had made an important point (and I will admit, I was probably enjoying the moment a little too much), I was accused of identity politics. The point was that my political position was tied to my racial classification. Suddenly, nothing I had said was a result of my willingness to interrogate ideas (or historical “facts”) and come to a non-traditional or unconventional conclusion. My position was determined by “race.” My colleague, of course, did not indulge in identity politics because he was “race-less” (and perhaps in his mind “class-less” and “gender-less”) for only those who are concerned with race, class, and gender oppression have race, class and gender status. I don’t mean to argue that there is no connection between race, class, gender and one’s political position. Certainly, social movements are mobilized by leaders’ ability to identify collective concerns based on one’s class, gender, ethnicity or race (to name a few identities). By way of example, leaders of the Black Power Movement sought to identify the structural and cultural barriers “Afro-Americans” faced, and appeal to “Black pride” as a way to organize a large segment of the population to contest their largely, societally-imposed predicament. But, to argue that race determined one’s position regarding this movement is to miss out on the considerable variation in peoples’ perceptions and practices. African American communities, churches and families, like (and likely more than) others, were divided about this movement. In addition, many older African Americans were more resistant to the movement than some of the younger ones. This is but one example of how identarian political claims can be too deterministic. To quote Mostern’s paraphrase of Stuart Hall, “while a cultural pattern of articulation may exist between various subject-positions and various political statements, this relationship is arbitrary, conforming to no objective conditions of social enforcement” (1999, p. 7).

Louis Harrison, Jr. and Leonard Moore, Louisiana State University

The Integration of LSU Athletics

As a national powerhouse in a range of sports, LSU student-athletes serve as the primary ambassadors for the university. It is common to see 92,000 fans cheering in Tiger Stadium, 15,000 fans going crazy in the Pete Maravich Assembly Center, and thousands in the stands at the Bernie Moore Track Facility routing for their beloved Tigers. While the fans are overwhelmingly White, the vast majority of the athletes in revenue-generating sports are African-American. Although south Louisiana is arguably the most unique region in America with its mixture of African, Anglo, French, and Cajun, cultures, and African-Americans make up over 30% of the state’s population, LSU still managed to keep African-American athletes out of competition until the late 1960s and early 1970s. Even then, Black student-athletes were brought to campus in such small numbers that it amounted to nothing more than tokenism. This paper will discuss the integration of LSU athletics in the 1970s and in particular it seeks to explain why LSU was one of the last schools in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) to integrate. We will examine both the internal and external forces that paved the way for the integration of LSU Athletics.

Mike Hartill, Edge Hill College of Higher Education

Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

In 1990, Struve claimed, “a growing number of clinicians who work with sexual abuse are discovering that males probably are sexually victimized just as frequently as females” (p.3). Despite research on the ‘sexually victimized’ male reaching back over the last 20 years, researchers in sport have, so far, largely ignored the issue of the sexual abuse of males. Researchers, generally of a feminist or pro-feminist persuasion, have tended to work within the confines of the ‘male perpetrator-female victim’ paradigm and have largely ignored a significant body of work on the sexual abuse of males. Through feminist research, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations resulting in significant practical reform. However, the flip-side to this positive impact is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored and inadvertently silenced. This paper discusses the sexually abused male in the context of prevalence, severity, frequency, location, under-reporting and under-identification. It will also discuss the issue of female perpetrators. In our pursuit of an environment where all children are safeguarded, research in, and analyses of, sport, must reflect the complex nature of child sexual abuse, including the experience of male children.

Michelle Helstein, University of Lethbridge

: (Mis)Recognition, Gendered Desire, and Sport

As the Calgary Flames, of the National Hockey League (NHL), progressed through the playoffs and into the NHL Stanley Cup Championship Final excitement and support for the team exploded in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. One of the manifestations of this excitement was the trend to ‘flashing’ which began on Calgary’s bar lined 17th Ave where fans gathered in huge numbers to watch games. Pictures of the willingly exposed breasts of everyday fans (almost exclusively women) began showing up on various internet pages, and before long the pictures had been compiled at a professional quality website called . This presentation will explore this cultural manifestation of fan identification (of both those flashing and those looking) as a site of (mis)recognition. The articulations between desire, gender, sexuality, and sport as they relate to this site of identification/(mis)recognition will figure prominently in this discussion of .

Michael Hester, Georgia State University

Reagan’s Presidential Sports Encomia: Responding to the ‘Foot Race’ Metaphor

President Lyndon Johnson employed the metaphor of a ‘foot race’ in his effort to sway public opinion in favor of his civil rights policies. His rhetoric not only contributed to passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, but successfully framed (how?) the federal government’s role in society would be viewed for the next two decades. Not until the presidency of Ronald Reagan was this viewpoint effectively challenged. While previous scholars have noted that the success of the Reagan Revolution required the articulation of an alternative to LBJ’s ‘foot race’ metaphor, none so far have examined the most overt examples of the political-sports connection in presidential address – White House ceremonies honoring sports champions. In both his choice of which sports champions to invite to the White House and the content of his commemorations, President Reagan’s sports encomia can provide key perspectives into the communicative strategies employed during the Reagan presidency to counter both the ‘foot race’ metaphor and the subsequent federal approach to civil rights. Rhetorical analysis of presidential sports encomia offers not only insight into the Reagan presidency, but more generally allows scholars to more comprehensively understand the manner by which government leaders invoke sports rhetoric for political gain.

Leslie Heywood, SUNY, Binghamton

Shifting the Lens: Athlete Commentary on How Media and Gender Inform Their Sport Experience

New research on female athletes’ experiences in sport demonstrate the ways gender as it is articulated through that experience has come to be understood by the athletes themselves in ways that are no longer characterized by the binaries male/female; masculine/feminine, or even straight/gay. Instead, sex, gender, and sexuality exist on a continuum. This research shows that while media may create its version of gender in hegemonic, traditional ways, women’s actual experiences in sport are very different, and the notion of gender as a continuum is much more commonplace within the athletes’ own self-assessment than has been previously described. While women might internalize media messages on one level, these messages do no represent the totality of their experience or understanding of that experience. Nor do their communities expect them to act out traditional femininity. Instead their sport participation is a source of such fundamental praise that playing even “masculine” sports is part of a normative context in which sport and the “masculinity” associated with it was a highly valued social identity. If the media is selling heteronormative femininity as the requirement for female athletes, clearly those athletes and those around them are not buying it.

Catriona Higgs and Betsy McKinley, Slippery Rock University

Explorations in Learning: Interdisciplinary Collaborations in Teaching Diversity

This presentation will focus on the collaborative efforts between two faculty members in a Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) program and a Sport Management program to design a Diversity course for PETE and SM majors. The value of using interdisciplinary methods to teach diversity, the process of designing an experiential diversity class, and the benefits of utilizing strategies from two different disciplines to plan and teach course material will be explored. Further, strategies that assist PETE and SM students in embedding diversity and social responsibility throughout all aspects of teaching and management will be highlighted. Particular emphasis will be placed on the value of utilizing constructivist strategies to teach and apply shared theoretical and pedagogical diversity issues in two disciplines.

Dan C. Hilliard and Alexandra O. Hendley, Southwestern University

Celebrity Athletes and Sports Imagery in Advertising during NFL Telecasts

In this paper we investigate the contribution of advertising to "the sports-media-commercial complex" (Messner, Darnell & Hunt, 2000, p. 391) through content analysis of 1525 commercial messages contained in a sample of 15 National Football League games from the 2003 season. Games were sampled across four networks and throughout the regular season and playoffs (excluding the Super Bowl). We focus particular attention on ads utilizing a sports setting, employing sports imagery (either visual or verbal), or including a celebrity athlete. Approximately 21% of ads in the data set used a sports setting in a significant way, while nearly 30% employed sports imagery; however, only about 10% of the ads included a celebrity athlete. A simple but significant finding of the research is that sports settings, imagery and celebrities are frequently used to advertise sport itself -- future sports telecasts, sports clothing, sports video games, and even public service announcements serving as public relations for the NFL. We discuss in detail the way sports settings, imagery and celebrity are used to advertise non-sports products. We consider how gender and race are connected to sport in these ads, and drawing on our analysis we speculate about the relationships among advertising, sport, and American culture.

Laura Hills, University of Durham, Queens Campus

‘Subversive Behaviour’ and The Negotiation of Gendered Physicality

The presence of an ideological and institutionalised gender binary remains a key factor influencing understandings of female physicality. In particular, the association of particular forms of physicality with masculinity continues to influence sporting experiences and represents a continuing challenge to defining a subject position for the female sportswoman as agentic and empowered. Analysing the influence of gender binary thinking involves the identification of social practices that serve to create, maintain, disturb and disrupt gender divisions rather than the assumption of difference as a starting point. This presentation will draw on McNay’s interpretation of Bourdieu’s work to explore how girls negotiate understandings of gender within the context of potentially contradictory social fields such as home and school and mixed gender and gender segregated contexts. Empirical data from research in a mixed comprehensive school in the Northeast of England will be used to explore the contested meanings of gendered physicality in relation to institutional discourses and practices and girls’ embodied subjectivities. Issues identified as key to engaging in ‘subversive behaviour’ that challenges the gender binary in sport include embodiment, the heterogeneity of girls’ experiences, the discrepancies between institutionalised discourses and practices and individual experiences, and the continuing problematic of defining female physicality.

Margery Holman, University of Windsor

Harassment, Gender and Power Relations in Canadian University Sport

Recent research has shown that respondents continue to experience harassment and abuse in the sport context (Fasting, Brackenridge, & Sundgot-Borgen, 2003; Kirby, Greaves, & Hankivsky, 2000; Kirby & Greaves, 1997; Tomlinson & Yorganci, 1997). Previous research has investigated the experiences and perceptions of athletes but there has been sparse examination of the perceptions of coaches. Further, with the perception that sexual harassment has been managed through education and policy (Holman, 1999) the issue of harassment has assumed a new image. The purpose of this presentation is to share the responses of a cross section of Canadian Interuniversity Athletics coaches to the nature of sexual harassment within current athletic programs. Further, it will examine the perceived effectiveness of policy and educational strategies that that have been introduced over the past several years to provide an environment free from harassment and discrimination for all organizational members.

Barrie Houlihan, Loughborough University

A Framework for Comparative Analysis of Sport Policy

The paper examines competing strategies for undertaking comparative analysis of sport policy. Following a brief review of the limited comparative literature on sport policy the paper explores the theoretical basis for comparison. Three broad approaches to comparison are identified and evaluated: rationalist, structuralist and culturalist. In seeking a framework of analysis that provides a balance of emphasis on structure and agency the paper examines current typologies of policy systems and reviews two meso-level frameworks - institutional analysis and the advocacy coalition framework as potential approaches to comparison. The paper continues with a discussion of the impact of globalisation and international sport policy regimes on comparative sport policy analysis. The paper concludes with a suggested approach for undertaking sport policy analysis.

P. David Howe, University of Brighton

Epistemology and (Ill) Health: Lay Knowledge and the Elite Sporting Body

This paper examines how elite athletes develop an epistemology of their bodies that enables them to traverse the fine line between health and illness. It will argue that this lay knowledge of the elite athlete’s sporting body is constructed through the habits and practices of training, through innovation and through absence. Lay knowledge is developed without/apart from the scientific knowledge associated with conventional medical training. Lay knowledge of the (injured) body is used to both question scientific/ medical knowledge and to make informed/discerning choices about the utilisation of medical treatment when illness in the form of pain and injury occur. Lay knowledge of the sporting body needs to be taken more seriously in the prevention and treatment of injury among elite athletes. The paper concludes by arguing for a better dialogue between the two types of knowledge.

Jeremy Howell, University of San Francisco

Corporate Philanthropy and Social Responsibility

Despite the current corporate crisis facing the United States, there do exist corporations with strong leadership, governance, transparency and integrity. There are businesses that value the worker and respect the environment. And, in arguably the most publicized measure of good citizenship, there are corporations that have a strong philanthropic investment in their communities. But, should we follow Milton Friedman’s argument that the only role of business should be to increase corporate profits, where philanthropy is the right of individual generosity rather than any corporate mandate. Or should we argue that the corporation has a moral and ethical responsibility to enhance the lives of the community out of which its profits have been generated? If so, should philanthropy be a peripheral value, part of a loosely defined goal of increasing community health, employee morale, customer goodwill and positive publicity? Or should philanthropy be a core part of the business strategy, embedded into the daily practices of the corporation? This presentation focuses on these philosophical questions via a case study of a new corporate philanthropic program instituted by Western Athletic Clubs Inc., owner of eleven athletic/sports clubs on the West Coast of the United States. Since 1990 the corporation has been wholly owned by Atlantic Philanthropies, a charitable and philanthropic foundation created by Chuck Feeney. Named by Business Week in 2004 as “one of the top philanthropists of our time,” Feeney believes that good models of corporate philanthropy are “important and necessary for our society’s welfare” and encourages a philanthropic model of “giving while living.”

Amy S. Hribar, Montana State University

Sporting Metrosexuality: Sport, Gender, and Sexuality in Contemporary America

Since being coined by British author and satirist Mark Simpson in 1994, the term "metrosexual" has gained a particular currency in popular and consumer culture. Interestingly, the term did not gain widespread usage in the US until 2002 when Simpson used the term to describe gender bending fashion conscious British soccer player David Beckham. In this paper, I seek to understand the discourse around and use of the term metrosexual in the realm of sport in contemporary America. I begin by tracing the creation, deployment, and popularization of the term and ask how the notion of the metrosexual operates in sport, what it encourages us to consider about sport, gender, and sexuality, and what it elides, particularly when contrasted with the gender-bending behavior of former NBA star Dennis Rodman.

Robin Hughes, Oklahoma State University and James Satterfield

The University of Texas, El Paso

Athletisizing Black Athletes: The Social Construction of Black Student Athletes

This study explores how African American student athletes are perceived at a Research Extensive, Division One college campus by their peers, faculty and staff. It grew out of a compelling need to understand the dynamics that contribute to assigned “athletic” meanings to Black male athletes. We refer to this process as “athletisizing”, and it is used to describe the processes, people, and institutions that contribute to the athletic construction of African American student athletes. In this study, race matters to Black students who are not athletes. However, according to Black student athletes, race is insignificant—and the jersey matters.

Emese Ivan, University of Western Ontario

Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Discontinuity in Hungarian Sport Policy

Since the fall of communism in Hungary it has generally been agreed that the rapidity of changes in the country's political, economic and social life would include and affect the Hungarian sport system: it would generate solid shifts in its goals, strategies, and policies. This presentation would like to give an overview of these developments. The analysis rests on three contextual premisses:1)the timing of the liberalization and democratization processes; 2) the significant impact of globalization; 3) the specific features of the Continental integration process. The analysis would like to conclude answering the question: to what extent Hungarian sport policy has been able to follow its historical path or/and to make rational choices for its future developments.

Steve Jackson, University of Otago

Dawn of the Living Dead: Advertising, Sport and Commodifying the Past

In their bid to globalize transnational corporations (TNC’s) and their allied promotional industries utilize a diverse range of strategies and synergies in order to insert into, and locate within, local/national cultures. Amongst their strategies TNC’s invest in a range of powerful and innovative advertising and marketing campaigns. However, the pressure to attract and retain potential consumers as well as to distinguish brands has lead to a compulsive search for new images and themes with the consequence that culture has become a giant mine where no meaning system is sacred (Goldman & Papson, 1996). While various shock tactics such as sex and violence have become commonplace another increasingly popular strategy is that of drawing on the past. As such the advertising industry has been engaging in the use of nostalgia, memory and the appropriation of history. This paper is a preliminary examination of the commodification of one particular aspect of the past: death and the deceased. The paper highlights some of the implications of such practices in relation to a range of moral, ethical, social and legal issues.

Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Delia D. Douglas, Independent Scholar

A Farewell to ReMember: Interrogating the Nancy Lopez Farewell Tour

In March of 2002, Nancy Lopez formally announced her retirement from the Ladies Professional Golf Association Tour (LPGA). To commemorate her retirement, Nancy played in 14 tournaments between June and October 2002. This paper focuses on media accounts of the Lopez Farewell Tour in order to examine the cultural meaning and significance of her career through the varied racial projects that occurred in response to her departure from the LPGA. As a Mexican woman of working class origins, Nancy Lopez has negotiated a variety of social/cultural positions—as a devoted daughter, mother, wife and professional athlete. The occasion of her retirement allows for the interrogation of a number of competing and contradictory discourses regarding the themes of race and citizenship, mothering, and the LPGA’s preoccupation with het(sexuality), athleticism and femininity.

Janelle Joseph, University of Toronto

Capoeria: A ‘Mixed Race’ Game of Resistance (?)

This presentation elucidates the controversy inherent in a Brazilian martial art’s (mis)appropriation by mainstream (mediatized, commodity) culture and its subsequent democratization in twentieth century Brazil and Canada. Autochthonous capoeira reflects African slaves’ visions of a utopia, where ‘work’ does not exist and a man of any age, colour or ability can compete and gain respect through outsmarting his opponent. The ginga (capoeira’s fundamental movement) is embodied resistance, the movement of a people prohibited from action, in bodies that knew only toil, torture, pain, and persecution. Through transplantation to Brazil’s upper classes and overseas to Western nations, capoeira has lost its nature as a game/fight/dance of resistance against slavery. Current values of the sport/ game/ fight/ dance/ martial art increasingly reflect commodified performance, regimented training, and skill specialization, common features of many ‘modern’ sports, yet it simultaneously may provide an ‘alternative sporting lifestyle’ representing resistance to a mainstream focus on hostile competition, physical domination of opponents, and scoring. The work of bell hooks can be used to explain capoeira’s growing popularity in western nations where fantasies of self-transformation through contact with the more exotic, intense, seductive, funky, athletic and entertaining Other can be achieved through integration in a community of capoeiristas.

Janelle Joseph, University of Toronto

Media Representations of Gender and Physicality: Women’s Martial Arts

Attention to mediatized sport and the inherent issues of physicality, sexuality, and dominance increases our understandings of the dynamics of power that underlie contemporary gender relations. The study of men’s and women’s differential physicalities (i.e. types of physical activities pursued, uses of the body within those activities, and meanings attributed to body comportment and skill) as presented in the media reveals a socially constructed weak, passive, female body and a model of sport/fitness for women that discourages large stature and rough physical contact between athletes. The male sporting institutions encourage the opposite, “bulking up” with weight training and domination of opponents during the game. These constructions leave women in a vulnerable position, as they have been taught to be non-threatening, inactive, and defenseless. Images of women in martial arts movies or in positions where self-defense is necessary may help to encourage women to develop healthy relationships with their bodies, learn appropriate reactions to physical violence, and discover their true capacities for power and strength. On the other hand, these media images of ‘empowered’ women may actually reinforce dominant notions of women’s role in society, relations with strangers, acquaintances and intimates thereby maintaining their assault and rape risk.

Cindra S. Kamphoff and Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Critiquing the Pedagogical Practice of Service-Learning in Sport Sociology

This poster presentation offers an analytic snapshot of student experiences in a service-learning-oriented undergraduate course in sociology of sport. The authors present evidence of student-learning as well as survey data regarding student beliefs about the usefulness of service-learning for content knowledge and professional development. This intentional pedagogical practice of service-learning provides students with a means of applying critical sport sociology while contributing to the local community. This presentation also offers a critique of service-learning as pedagogical practice that meets curricular needs versus a pedagogical practice that meets community needs.

Peter Kaufman, SUNY, New Paltz

Biting the Hand that Feeds You: Athletes Against Sweatshop Labor

A recent issue of Sports Illustrated identified the richest athletes in sport. Besides just listing the salaries of the athletes, the magazine broke down the athletes' earnings into two categories: salaries (which included winnings) and endorsements. For many of the athletes, the endorsements far outweighed their salary. This is not too surprising given that Nike alone recently indicated that it spends $1.44 billion on endorsement deals with athletes. If we add Adidas, Reebok, Fila, and all of the other athletic apparel companies into the mix, the numbers are truly astonishing. Equally astounding are the reprehensibly low salaries and horrendous working conditions that the workers of these companies endure as they toil away making the products that the multi-million dollar athletes endorse. In this paper, I examine the connection between athletes, athletic companies, and sweatshop labor. Using both first-hand interviews and newspaper accounts of athletes speaking out against sweatshop labor, I argue that all athletes at all levels of sport have an ethical responsibility to use their social, economic, and cultural capital to improve the rights of workers around the globe.

Tess Kay, Loughborough University

Sport, Fatherhood and Family

As ‘family’ has become a highly contested concept in academic, policy and popular discourses in westernised societies, so too have the associated notions of ‘parenting’ and ‘fatherhood’. To date some aspects of this broader debate have been reflected in gender analyses in sport, but to a limited extent and mainly with an orientation towards women. Despite the growing interest in the relationship between sport and masculine identity, analyses of men’s experiences of sport have rarely been situated in the family context. This paper draws on multi-disciplinary perspectives to examine the meaning of father’s involvement in their children’s sport in the context of changing expectations and conditions of family life. Adopting a social constructionist framework, it locates analyses of fatherhood and sport in relation to change and diversity in family roles and relations. The paper uses the findings of a small-scale exploratory qualitative study of fathers (n=8) with active involvement in their child/ren’s sport to examine the extent, nature and reasons for fathers’ engagement in children’s sport, and the ideologies of fatherhood that underpin it. The paper concludes by evaluating the potential of sport as an analytical focus for understanding the nature of contemporary fatherhood and family life.

Lisa Kikulis, Brock University, Lisa Kihl, University of Minnesota, and Lucie Thibault, Brock University

Deliberative Democracy and the Canadian Sport Policy

The 2002 Canadian Sport Policy, endorsed by governmental sport ministers, was developed following an extensive consultative process aimed at giving stakeholders a voice in the policy process. Public policy development has displayed a shift toward citizen participation and the literature has engaged in debates over various models and success of the deliberative process, however there has been little empirical investigation of the implementation of the principle of deliberative democracy. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present an empirical investigation of this deliberative process. We focus on how deliberation was defined, who was included and why? What are the consequences of this choice for the implementation of the policy? Our exploration of the Canadian Sport Policy process uncovered a focused stakeholder consultation process where the governments assisted some individuals and organizations with similar concerns to assemble and find creative solutions. While this process reflects the shift toward public participation, the intended cohesive process came at the expense of inclusion as many citizens were excluded from discussions and had their interests denied. Additionally, we explore the application of deliberative democracy as a framework for analyzing the Canadian Sport Policy process and citizen participation.

Kyoung-Yim Kim and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Belonging/Be-longing Canadian: Minority Stereotypes and Canadian-Korean Adolescents' Construction of Health and Fitness

In North America and internationally, the literature on the understandings of health and physical fitness among adolescents is extremely limited even if such understandings seem to be the key to improve health and fitness programs for them. So far, the studies from Australia and New Zealand have found that young people conceptualize primarily in terms of beauty and the appearance of their bodies. This finding has been linked to Western discourses on the body and their solidification within media representations of youth. Dominant health and physical fitness discourses, however, do not reflect the realities of marginalized youth in general, and of young Asian people’s lives and dispositions in particular. This study focuses on the way in which young Canadian-Korean people read cultural and educational messages about health and fitness, and construct their own understandings of health and fitness. We use grounded theory for our analysis of in-depth conversations with 11 Canadian-Korean adolescents. Our results show how these young people appropriate elements of dominant health and fitness discourses and construct themselves as un/fit or un/healthy subjects within them. In addition, we suggest that stereotypes related to Asian minorities in North America impact on constructions of health and physical fitness. Finally, we note the circumstances linked to the exercise of an “ethnic” identity and the associated resistance shown by young Canadian-Koreans vis-à-vis already gendered and racialized health and fitness discourses.

C. Richard King, Washington State University

Chiefs, Warriors, and Racists: Indianness in Recent Sport Documentaries

This paper critically analyzes the representation of Indianness in three recent sport documentaries, “Chiefs,” “Lady Warriors,” and “They call me Chief.” These award-winning films tell stories which are at once profound, powerful, and localized, stories about the Wind River Indian High School basketball team’s quest for a state title, seven Hopi and Navajo teens trying to defend a cross country title, and the careers of First Nations hockey players in Canada respectively. In many ways though, they tell the same story. All stress the importance of tradition in a changing world, the unfairness of prejudice, and the significance of individual dreams of athletic success. Reading these films together, in light of the much acclaimed “Hoop Dreams,” and in the context of the ongoing colonization of Native America, it argues that despite efforts to offer sympathetic, even sensitive, portraits of indigenous athletes, they actually reinforce prevailing understandings of racial difference, cultural conflict, individual achievement, social power, and the liberatory promise of sport

Takahiro Kitamura and Masashi Kawanishi, National Institute of Fitness and Sports, Japan

Weekend Youth Sports Programs in Japanese Community

Almost all high schools in Japan have sports clubs. They are divided by sport and students can belong to them depending on their interests. These school sports clubs are called “Bukatsu”, and it has played a very important role for youth sports participation in Japan. 73.9% of junior high school students and 49.0% of high school students belong to these clubs. However, the declining birth rate means a decline in the number of high school students. This results in a declining number of students who belong to the clubs. For this reason, it is becoming difficult to create a team and consequently, many school sports clubs have ceased to exist. On the other hand, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology announced a Basic Plan for the Promotion of Sports in 2000. It recommends creating at least one comprehensive community sports club in each municipality nationwide by 2010. The development of a connection between community sports clubs and school sport or physical education programs is also examined. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the current status of Japanese local youth sports programs and consider the issues for the important future.

Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen, University of Utrecht

Discourses about Diversity: Gender and Ethnic/Race Subtexts

Dominant discourses about sport participation include those that construct sport as a site for equal opportunities and those that construct certain masculinities as physically superior to all femininities and marginalized and subordinated masculinities. The growing importance attached to sport in the Western world may mean that its discourses influence those outside of the context of sport participation. The extent to which such discourses overlap with, challenge, and reinforce discourses about diversity in leadership and managerial work in sport organizations has received relatively little scholarly attention. In contrast, the lack of demographic diversity in leadership and management positions in sport has been well documented. In this paper, we explore discourses about diversity used by White men in these positions in sport organizations. Specifically, we explore the ways in which meanings given to gender, race/ethnicity and sport are embedded in their discourses about diversity and their work.

Robert L. Krizek, St. Louis University

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative Organizing

The community of sport is a process that is communicatively accomplished and interactively maintained. Accordingly, the intersection of communication and sport is conceptually explored. Drawing upon literature from the discipline of communication studies, and various allied disciplines, the domain of sport is (re)considered as a form of communicative organizing. Integrating such interdisciplinary research serves to illustrate the multiplicity of ways in which communication organizes—and subsequently shapes—the experience of sport.

Holly Kruse, University of Tulsa

Media, Marketing, and Matters of Memory: Sport and Seabiscuit

Scholars have in recent years rediscovered the concept of memory as a useful tool in understanding culture and social life. Yet the relationship between individual memory and a posited "group" memory is often left substantively unexamined, and terms like "collective memory", "popular memory", and "social memory" often are deployed by scholars but unaccompanied by precise definitions that account for concrete processes of memory and make clear connections between the individual and the social. Laura Hillenbrand's recent book Seabiscuit: An American Hero and the resulting movie provide excellent examples to use in asking what exactly is "memory," and for whose memories do we account, in what ways, and to what ends? In its attempts to use the movie to market its sport, the National Thoroughbred Racing Association (NTRA), has drawn on collective representations of horse racing's past and found that the perceived authenticity of accounts is highly contested terrain within and outside of the racing world. In addition, George W. Bush recently called Seabiscuit "a great book about America," demonstrating that at this moment, during a perceived crisis of national security and perhaps national identity, currently popular versions of the Seabiscuit story provide "more meaningful ground for construction and contestation" (Spillman, 1998). The role played by "memory"–memories experienced by individuals inside and outside of racing in the late 1930s, "memories" purveyed through the media at the time and today, and "memories" created in social structures – has implications for "Seabiscuit" as a marketing tool for horse racing and as a dominant national memory. This paper is a focused study of the relationship between the problem of individual memory, and of the social and cultural production of memory, and practice.

Kyle Kusz, University of Rhode Island

Interrogating the Politics of White Particularity in Dogtown and Z-Boys

Using critical contextual analysis, the paper examines the representational politics of whiteness in the popularly acclaimed skateboarding documentary, Dogtown and Z-Boys. Following the work of Savran (1997), Wiegman (1999), and Robinson (2000) each of whom point out how the marking and particularizing of White racial identity have been recurring representational strategies employed in the late 1990s to disavow and deny the existence of whiteness and White privilege (and thereby protect and re-secure White privilege), this analysis illuminates how the film's form and content construct a White identity for the Z-Boys that attempts to authenticate its disaffiliation from whiteness and White privilege in a variety of ways. This paper is timely considering sport sociology's recent interest in entering the interdisciplinary dialogue of what has come to be known as 'whiteness' studies (see SSJ's call for papers for a special issue on whiteness studies, as well as, King & Springwood, 2001; Kusz, 2001; Long & Hylton, 2002; McDonald, 2002). Finally, this analysis argues that the extreme sport athlete and sport-related films are vital, yet often overlooked, cultural sites integrally involved in contemporary racial politics, particularly efforts to recuperate White normativity and supremacy.

John Lambert, University of Brighton

A Values Based Approach to Coaching Sport in Divided Societies

Depending what values it is laden with, sport can either foster harmonious relations between peoples or generate conflict. Thus, in deeply divided societies, simply getting rival communities to play more sport does not guarantee that conflict resolution and co-existence will follow. To achieve the latter, the meanings attached to sport and the teaching and learning styles used need to be appropriate to peace related objectives. Football for Peace (F4P) is a sport-based co-existence project for Jewish and Arab Children in Northern Israel. One of its distinguishing features has been the development of a specialist football (soccer) coaching manual. Through a carefully designed series of practical coaching activities, this manual emphasises, animates and embodies a series of values that promote fair play, cooperation, mutual understanding, and aid the cause of conflict prevention and co-existence. This paper outlines the development of this manual, identifies its key features and, drawing upon empirical studies carried out in the UK and Israel in 2004, critically evaluates its efficacy.

Jason R. Lanter, Miami University

Fear the Turtle or the Fans? Editorials on Fan Behavior

Since February 2000, the University of Maryland has experienced multiple instances of celebratory violence following victories and defeats in intercollegiate athletic competition. These events occurred both on-campus and in the local community following games by the football and men’s basketball teams. The debate over this celebratory violence has raged ever since in the student newspaper as students, alumni, and campus administrators have written editorials espousing their opinions on this new phenomenon on campus. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the support and criticism for celebratory violence in these editorials. Will students be critical or supportive of other students’ actions during celebratory violence? How do alumni feel about this new trend of celebratory violence? Has the administration altered its perception and concern over celebratory violence over the past four years? Is the outcome of the game, win or loss, an important factor in these editorials? The last four years of editorials from the Maryland student newspaper, The Diamondback, will be examined to answer the above questions. The goal of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of the cultural context in which celebratory violence is both embraced and condemned – by whom, when, and why.

David Leonard, Washington State University

“Is this Heaven?” Whiteness, Hollywood and the Sports Imagination

It is not difficult to see the centrality of whiteness to the genre of sports films. All one needs to do is go to , type in “sports films” and you will be besieged by lists of the “greatest American” sports films, all of which are about White athletes. America’s love affair with these films cannot be understood outside the cinematic hegemony of whiteness as well as the relationship between race, sports and the American historical imagination. Holding whiteness and, thus, the complexities of race under erasure results in partial, if not faulty, understandings of the genre of sports films, and the dialectical underpinnings between sports, race, and the American imagination. This paper accepts the task of exploring this genre, paying particular attention to the ways in which these films conceive a world of sports as a space of White dominance, thereby inscribing the positive or desirable values onto White athletes. Focusing on Hoosiers, Rudy and Miracle, this paper demonstrates how the genre of White-centered sports films represents a powerful discursive field of racialized meanings, necessitating textual, contextual and subtextual analysis. In extracting cues of whiteness, this paper attempts to make the familiar unfamiliar, to challenge the process of naturalization imbued onto categories of whiteness, through a critical interrogation of the genre of White-centered sports films.

Don Levy, University of Connecticut

Constructing Reality: The Active World of Fantasy Sports

Although many scholars have seen sport fans as passive recipients of dominant cultural messages, those that engage in fantasy sports are active and involved fans. Still, these fans assume an active function within a social context not initially of their own making. This research explores the construction of a fanship habitus, that is, a set of practices, cognitive structures and perceptual tendencies that develop interactively both for individuals and across groups based upon both socialization and initiative. Through participant observation and intensive interviews, the phenomenon of fantasy sports is used as representative of active sports fanship. This research simultaneously explores the tendency of sports fanship to promote abstraction, rationality and positivism while at the same time forging unintended interpersonal connections among fans.

Leo E. Lewis, Minnesota Vikings and S. Malia Lawrence

State University of West Georgia

NFL Players’ Career Perspectives from 1994 to 2003

The purpose of this study was to explore the career perspectives of National Football League (NFL) players. The scope of this inquiry focuses on two different surveys that were administered to NFL players, one in 1994 and the other in 2003. Upon completing both the surveys, Professional Athlete Status Questionnaire (PASQ: Lewis, 1994) and Player Development Survey (PDS: Lewis & Harrold, 2003) participants were specifically prompted by researchers with an open-ended question (Patton, 2001) in efforts to discover the primary concerns of the players. With regard to the PASQ (1994) three major themes emerged from participants’ (n=112) responses: Big Business, Many Avenues & Opportunities, and Need Help! With regard to the PDS (2003) five major themes emerged from participants’ (n=97) responses: Sky Is The Limit, Financial Concerns, Blessed Beyond Comparison, Post-Career Life Adjustments, and Physical Demands. Based upon the individuals who volunteered to answer the question, results revealed that player attitudes about their careers in 2004 focused more on personal issues and less on the relationships with the League and the Players Association. Current trends and player development goals in the NFL will be presented. Demographical information from participants’ will also be revealed.

Margaret MacNeill, University of Toronto

Keynote Panel: (Post)Identity and Sport

Identity, Representation and Critical Media Studies,

Identities are fluid, slippery and central to political attempts to redress inequality. Over the past few decades the issue of identity has been taken up in contradictory ways in both scholarly debates and political struggle. My initial attraction to the field of sociology of sport was sparked by the possibility of redressing sexist media representations in fitness and sport media. A critical cultural studies approach has been central to all my work and recently has been adapted to include poststructuralist and postcolonial approaches. As a student of Gruneau, Kidd, Beamish, and Cantelon, my under/graduate work and research as a junior prof was heavily influenced by the Gramsican turn in media and critical cultural studies (CCS). Thus, the CCS approaches of Hall, Johnson, Hebdige, Willis, and McRobbie figured centrally in my fitness media and sport media research – particularly concerns for deconstructing dominant hegemonic ideologies about gender and nation, unearthing capitalist media labour processes, and speculating about audience positioning, interpellation and resistance. Within our field, the pioneering work of Hall, Hargreaves, Fasting, Lenskyj, Theberge and Vertinsky have also been focal to the development of my feminist approach, while broader media scholars like Jhally, Ang, Morley, and Whannel are some of the many scholars that have influenced my media research. Engagement with groups like Promotion+, Media Watch and CAAWS has allowed me to address gender inequality and mediated identities through research and activism. The constructivist phase of my early work was implicated in pressuring Canadian media to increase the amount and type of coverage of women’s sports, eliminate the “babe cam” from CBC programming, contribute to Olympic press kits, to offer athletes’ rights and media skills workshops, and to change the editorial policy of Shape from a diet to a lifestyle orientation. A major limitation of my applied studies – which attempted to combine political economic scrutiny of the media and feminist cultural studies -- include rendering issues of race, ability, sexuality and class invisible. More recently, I have become intrigued with cultural studies as transformative practice using the radical contextualism of Ang in media ethnography, feminist poststructuralist approaches (e.g. Butler, Davies, Weedon, Hutcheon) and post colonial approaches to explore difference, identity and power (e.g. Jiwani, Bhaba, James, Razack, Mojab, Gilroy, and hooks). My earlier constructivist approach to ethnography foregrounded the research participants’ realist accounts of the sport/fitness-media-sponsor nexus as they experienced it. Following Davies (1982), I’ve shifted to problematize subjectivity and to locate my accounting of gender inequality along other axes of difference. Feminist post-structuralist approaches attempt to understand the processes through which the researcher, research participants and communities are subjected by social structures, relations and discourses, as well as constituted by them. Thus, I’ve shifted from issues of socialization to subjectification, that is, from an examination of shaping by the media to the ways in which people actively take up discourses to produce identities, seek pleasure and to tackle oppressive relations.

Margaret MacNeill and LeAnne Petherick, University of Toronto

Media, Youth Movement and Active Health Literacy

Knowledge is produced, mediated, refused, and resisted within various relations of power both inside and outside the classroom (Giroux, 1992). In this paper we ethnographically explore youth readings of popular media representations of health and activity by adapting critical pedagogy with feminist media studies and recent approaches to health literacy. This framework permits an exploration of the lived cultures of contradictory health messages marked by race, gender, class and ability. We consider how multi-mediated knowledge, desires and identities reciprocally impinge on school-based experiences, knowledge and relationships. This paper is organized into three sections. Section one develops the notion of active media literacy. Section two provides a comparative case study of male and female grade seven to nine students’ understandings of health, fitness and active living garnered from physical education classes and the media. The final section will provide suggestions to help teachers meld critical pedagogy and active media literacy in health and physical education curriculum. We argue for the replacement of the traditional three “R’s” of education with the three “X’s” of active media literacy, that is, to examine, explain and actively express. Students can critically engage and transform their lived cultures by pursuing an active media literacy approach.

Joseph Maguire, Loughborough University

Local/Global Sport Advertising: Major Sporting Events

The paper situates the study of major sporting events within broader local/global processes, with specific reference to media and consumption (Maguire, et al., 2002; Miller, et al, 2001; Tomlinson, 1999). That is, the paper examines how a global mega-event, such as the Rugby World Cup, or the Olympics, plays out locally, (UK) and does so through the lens of the media-sport complex (Jhally, 1989; Puijk, 2000; Rowe, 1999; Toohey & Veal, 2000; Wenner, 1998; Whitson, 1998). In seeking to examine the interdependency between sport, consumer culture and advertising, attention is given to the nature of commodified sport, and the concomitant local /global politics of cultural representation, and identity formation, when expressed through and at such ‘mega-events’(Bairner, 2001; Bourdieu, 1999; Boyle & Blaine, 2000; Dauncey & Hare, 1999). Here, a study of magazine/journal coverage of the men's 2003 Rugby World Cup is undertaken - with evidence drawn from the UK, South Africa and Australia. In such a comparative analysis attention has to be given to the interdependence between: identity politics, contoured and shaped by national concerns, and, consumerism, advertising and marketing (Jackson & Andrews, 1999), contoured and shaped global/ local processes.

Lainie Mandlis, University of Alberta

Queering Boxing, Boxing Queer

Within Euro-Western culture ‘the boxer’ is popularly understood to be a specific ideal: young, Black, unintelligent, poor, uneducated, masculine, heterosexual and male. Discourse about boxing requires the boxer to be heterosexual. The homoerotic atmosphere in the ring paradoxically requires compulsory heterosexuality to allow boxing to be seen as a sport and not a potentially sexual encounter. The queer boxer disrupts this paradox, and creates unease in those boxers who do meet the standard. Homosexuality is not the only way to create unease within boxing discourse as it relates to identity. I use queer theory to disrupt the concept ‘boxer’ for all participants in the sport, not only those who self-identify as queer. I read the boxer as queer regardless of individual behaviour or self-identification. While the more traditionally queer individual has an important impact on the coherent identity boxer that is worthy of study, this is not my focus. To borrow Warner’s (1993) words, I wish “to make theory queer, not just to have a theory about queers” (p. xxvi). Thus my paper contributes both to an understanding of how queer theory can disrupt unified notions of ‘the boxer’ and through this open up queer theory to other identity interrogations.

Lainie Mandlis and Debra Shogan, University of Alberta

Who Is (Not): Canada, Culture and Boxing?

In North American popular culture, the meaning of boxing is solidified within a framework that suggests that boxing and maleness, as well as blackness, youth, poverty, a lack of education and intelligence, violent and unethical behavior are irrevocably linked. When the common understanding of what it means to be Canadian is White, male, hard working, honest, brave, tolerant, modest, polite, and law-abiding, and all Canadians, if they are in fact ‘real Canadians’, must be these things, ‘the boxer’, then, cannot be Canadian. ‘The Canadian boxer’ is represented as White, hard working, modest, polite, brave, honest, and violent only when necessary. As such, he has much in common with the myth of the Mountie. This paper explores how representations of particular Canadian boxers show the racist assumptions that are produced within the popular understanding of who is Canadian. By exploring representations of ‘Canadian’, particularly the Canadian Mountie in relation to representations of Canadian boxers, this paper shows both of these discourses to be racially problematic.

Pirkko Markula, University of Exeter

Writing for Oneself: Creating Ethical Practices for Women's Fitness

Women's exercise practices have often been justified by creating a scientific link to improved health. From a Foucauldian perspective, women's health in this discourse has become closely connected to the aesthetics of the thin body ideal. This connection locks individual woman into an endless quest for a "truly" healthy and beautiful body. Foucault points out, however, that as each individual is an active participant in the construction of dominant discourse, s/he also has an ability to change them. In this paper, I examine how one popular exercise form, Pilates, might act as what Foucault titles a practice of freedom that allows women to dismantle the dominance of the current health and fitness truth game. Foucault (1984) argues further that for any practice to act as a practice of freedom, it must be embedded in the ethics of the care of the self. In Ancient Greece, one way to learn the "art of living" ethically was to write hypomnemata that were types of individual account books serving as guides for using one's power ethically. My intention is to investigate how writing hypomnemata during a Pilates instructor training course could act as exercise through which one can train oneself to engage in the technologies of the self that have the potential to transgress the current scientifically constructed discourses of health, body, and fitness.

Courtney W. Mason, University of Windsor

The Games of Glengarry: Cultural (Re)production and Identity Politics in Rural Communities

In 1948, the Scottish Highland Games tradition was revived in Glengarry, Canada. The organizers of this festival chose to celebrate the Scottish cultural roots of this small agrarian community in Eastern Canada at a time when the Franco-Ontarian majority had finally achieved hegemonic dominance in economic and political realms of the county. Throughout the second half of the twentieth century the Glengarry Scottish Highland Games underwent a commercial and cultural renaissance that has contributed to, and benefited from, the growth and proliferation of Scottish cultural traditions as well as the crystallization of a regional identity. Initiated by the revival of the Glengarry Games, this cultural resurgence supported a Scottish cultural hegemony within this ethnically diverse county. Key individuals also created a buttressing network of Scottish cultural institutions, further augmenting the cultural impact of the Glengarry festival. Using archival resources and personal interviews, I explore how the revivalists and cultural producers of the Glengarry festival have (re)produced a particular, dominant understanding of Scottish culture in this unique rural region.

Fred Mason, University of Western Ontario

Making Meaning for the Audience Share: Non-Sport Advertiser’s World Cups

Instead of simply tying their products to World Cup 2002, non-sport advertisers remade the meaning of the event to parallel their level of sponsorship and global audience share. Mastercard (a global sponsor) constructed the World Cup as a “global brotherhood” of soccer fans, almost without players. Panasonic (sponsor of U.S.A. soccer), turned the event into a celebration of American nationalism centered around the U.S. team and electronic technology. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s advertisements for its own coverage promoted ideals of Canadian multiculturalism, reshaping the event into a multicultural festival where hyphenated Canadians could support other countries, yet retain their Canadianness. McDonald’s Canada, sponsor only on Radio-Canada, the French language national network, stayed consistent with the network’s style and focused on Quebec. McDonald’s portrayed the World Cup as a future goal for young Quebeckers and constructed a corporate image of supporter of local communities and Quebec regionalism. Each of the advertisers reconstructed the meaning of the event, creating simulated World Cups to sell products or corporate images to their audience share. Such hyperrealities threaten not only the media reality of the event, but the elements of pageantry, nationalism and the carnivalesque that make the World Cup the global phenomenon it is.

Pellom McDaniels III, Emory University

The Role of the Boxer Joe Louis within Burgeoning African American Communities of the 1930's

This study explores a radical concept within collective identity development: the marquee conversational social actor or MCSA. Previous research has presented differing reasons why social actors act collectively: they define cognitively the field of perceived possibilities and limits while simultaneously maintaining productive relationships which seek the same outcome, or they are the result of the acknowledgment of a set of attitudes, commitments, and rules for behavior of a social movement organization (SMO). Both of these standpoints are challenged in this study of the impact and characteristics of the marquee conversational social actor the boxer Joe Louis during the conscious raising period for African Americans between 1933 and 1935. This analysis is based on data collected from various media sources, and includes a discourse analysis that recognizes the changes in language and symbols used to define African Americans’ leadership prior to 1935. The paper concludes by arguing that Louis, during the post depression, pre World War II and pre civil rights era, was the primary MCSA that influenced the relationships between the two oppositional groups, while simultaneously providing an effective schema for African Americans to achieve a successful collective identity.

Ian McDonald, University of Brighton

Sport and Revolution

Critical Theory, and Cultural Studies represent dominant strands of Marxist theorising in Sport Studies. While Critical Theory has been concerned with sport and social reproduction, Cultural Studies has tended to focus on sport and the politics of cultural identity and representation (albeit with social class denied any privileged status over other forms of subjectivity based on gender, ethnicity and nationality). However, advocates of Critical Theory and Cultural Studies have rarely raised the question of sport and its relationship to the revolution. This could be understood as a rejection of the possibilities and potentialities of the revolution itself. The other significant Marxist tradition is situated primarily outside the academy and is associated with labour movements and, presently, with the anti-globalisation movements. Fundamentally, this is an activist-Marxism, and is geared towards actualising resistance as part of a strategy to change unequal power relations and inequalities. However, even within this activist tradition, the critical issue of the relationship between sport and revolution has yet to be analysed. This paper begins by briefly charting the place of the revolution in the three aforementioned Marxist traditions. It then examines different aspects of the sport-revolution nexus posed by activist-Marxism. This includes an examination of the absent presence of sport in the revolutionary party; an overview of the fate of the institutions and cultural meanings of sport during the revolutionary process; and a critical review of the place of sport, and its relationship to the internationalism of Marxism, in a range of post-revolutionary societies.

PJ McGann, University of Michigan

Of Pucks and Men: A Queer Female Body in Naturalized Masculine Terrain

Sport is an arena that reflects and produces gendered identities and social relations, as well as cultural notions of gender. Team sports in particular are a central locale for the enactment and reproduction of masculinities. Many men construct their male/masculine identity by participating in team sports; such participation also constructs Men and masculinities as "naturally" superior to Women and femininities. Indeed, sport helps naturalize a gender order and sexual regime that empowers men over women, and that normalizes and privileges heterosexuality over queer desires. In this nexus female athletes are often seen as trespassing in male space, posing threats to both individual men and the gender order. What happens, then, when a female-bodied person competes with and against men? How do men react when beaten by "a girl" or "a dyke"? Based on two years of participant observation in adult hockey, this research explores how gender and sexuality are produced and disseminated at the rink, how institutions and individual men respond to the presence of a female body in the hypermasculine space of hockey, and the conundrums their various containment strategies create.

Colleen McGlone and George Schaefer, University of New Mexico

Initiation or Hazing: Recognizing Differences

The purpose of this presentation is to identify the differences between what constitutes initiation rites and what constitutes hazing. Hazing has increasingly been the focus of much media attention and is an issue that sport administrators will continue to face in the future. Sport Administrators will need to understand and be able to identify the differences between initiation rites and hazing. Initiation can be defined in several different ways, many of which introduce the elements of learning the secrets of a particular group society or team. One example, defines initiation as “the rite of introduction into a society, a beginning” (Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary, 2000). Initiation also incorporates the concept, that as part of the initiation process, the new members of the group need to be taught the various elements involved in being a part of the group. There is no universal definition of hazing. Merriam Webster defines hazing “as an initiation process involving harassment,” while Hoover (1999) defined hazing as “any activity expected of someone joining a group that humiliates, degrades, abuses, or endangers, regardless of the person’s willingness to participate.” These definitions show a very different notion from what is considered as initiation. By identifying the differences between the two behaviors, sport administrators will be better equipped to create new strategies aimed at curtailing activities that put athletes, athletic administrators and institutions at risk. Many strategies (other then hazing) can be utilized while building team unity. Most importantly, athletes should be advised of the differences

Lindsey J. Mean, Arizona State University West

(Re)Considering Sport as Communicative Enactment

The community of sport is a process that is communicatively accomplished and interactively maintained. Accordingly, the intersection of communication and sport is conceptually explored. Drawing upon literature from the discipline of communication studies, and various allied disciplines, the domain of sport is (re)considered as a form of communicative enactment. Integrating such interdisciplinary research serves to illustrate the multiplicity of ways in which communication enacts—and subsequently shapes—the experience of sport.

Donald Meckiffe, University of Wisconsin Fox Valley

Dogtown and Z-Boys: Producing a Subcultural Past for a Mainstream Present

This paper takes the recent widespread popularity of skateboarding as a starting point to reconsider the concepts of mainstream and subculture. Rather than notions of appropriation, co-optation and resistance, I utilize the idea of “economies of exchange” (both discursive and economic) as a productive way to think about the relationship between marginal and dominant expressive cultures. In order to demonstrate the utility of the “economies of exchange” model, the paper focuses on the particularities, conceptualization, production, distribution and context surrounding Stacey Peralta’s Sundance-winning documentary and origin history of skateboarding, Dogtown and Z-Boys (2001). Supported by industry evidence and testimony from players involved in the project, I reveal how the counter-intuitive, convoluted and unpredictable mechanisms of contemporary commodification played out in this particular case. Key to the success of Dogtown and Z-Boys with the skateboarding audience is that it appears to have an expressive authenticity that sets it apart from a marketing film or X-Games promo. In order to understand contemporary forms of commodification my paper demonstrates that it is necessary to conceive of mainstream and subcultural locales as plural, always interdependent, both constantly trying to produce, struggle over and coordinate discourses that will pass for “authentic” with a skeptical audience.

Peter Mewett, Deakin University

Train Without Strain: Health and Amateur Athletes

An exercise in historical sociology, this paper investigates the association between training and health made by amateur athletes between about 1860 and WWI. It examines the idea that while exercise benefited a person’s health and well-being, excessive exertion caused potentially life-threatening ‘strain’. The paper sets out the interpretation of contemporary scientific knowledge about the body–which the author terms the ‘physiology of strain’–that underpinned the advice given to those undergoing a training program for amateur competition. The point is made that the imputed effects of exercise on health were deduced from this scientific knowledge; it did not derive from bio-medical investigations specifically addressing these issues. Amateur athletes included people drawn from the professionally educated elite and medical practitioners figured significantly among them. Using insights from Bourdieu and Foucault, it is argued that their social power and professional connections served to legitimate their interpretation of the physiological effects of exercise (denying the value of the training practices of working class professional athletes) and cemented the physiology of strain as a ‘factual’ statement about exercise and health until well into the twentieth century. The data for the paper comes from training manuals, medical journals and other contemporary publications.

Tamar Meyer, York University,

Trans/Feminist Sport Sociology: Applying Transgender Theory to the Sociology of Sport

This paper explores the recent and hotly contested IOC ruling allowing transsexuals to compete in the Olympic Games and argues that sport sociology needs to be improved upon to take into account the growing number of transgender/transsexual athletes. The application of trans/gender theory to feminist sport sociology extends beyond the trans community by challenging the hegemonic loyalty to the bi-polar gender system that dictates that males are stronger, faster and better athletes than females. Trans/gender theory will also allow researchers to imagine new athletic embodiments of “person”hood, take into account gender variant and intersexed athletes and foster an appreciation of a multiplicity of body types–from the strawweight to the heavyweight.

John Miles, University of New Mexico

"Whatever Happened to Frank Snake Church": Basketball in the Fiction of Sherman Alexie

Basketball's impact on American culture is immeasurable. The rise of the NBA and its unparalleled success within our culture calls into question its validity as a part of culture. Sherman Alexie's three collections of short fiction contain characters who play and watch basketball. In his fiction, basketball becomes a ceremonial and cultural icon. In my paper I trace basketball’s presence in Alexie’s fiction beginning with his first collection of short stories “The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven”, I then trace its meaning and presence in “The Toughest Indian in the World” and “Ten Little Indians.”

Laura Misener, University of Alberta

(Re)defining Community: Sport and Civic Development Strategies

As cities struggle to find a place in the new global economy, sport has become a key strategic tool in urban development strategies. Many cities are attempting to (re)invent and (re)image themselves through the use of sporting events and professional sport franchises (Rosentraub, 1999). With cities continually evolving in order to compete to draw in capital, rigid conceptualisations of community and community development are no longer appropriate. In conjunction with this social, economic and political struggle for cities there has been the attempt to define what cities mean and subsequently whom cities are for. Communitarian theory describes how residents take on the responsibility of capacity building through active involvement in activities and participation within the community–thus becoming legitimate members of the community (Sites, 1998). Accordingly, this paper explores the use of sport as a strategic development tool and how this affects the notions of community identity and community development. While researchers have begun to explore the importance of civic (re)development, citizens who are affected by this process are often overlooked (Whitson & Macintosh, 1993, 1996). The marketing goals of global sporting organisations often conflict with the quality-of-life concerns of local populations. Local communities that play host to major sporting events are faced with changing social and political landscapes tied to the urban development strategies.

Jeffrey Montez de Oca, University of Southern California

The Body as Container: Biopolitics of the “Muscle Gap”

This paper looks at a moment of anxiety in the United States over the strength and fitness of its male citizens. Following the Korean War, concern over the physicality of American men was promulgated through the media. The dominant narrative of what was called “the muscle gap” held that the conveniences of modern society made American youth softer than European youth, and given the dangers of the Cold War “our boys” needed to harden up fast. And, if our boys could not get hard, they would lack the vigor necessary to defend the free world. Subsequently, both Eisenhower and Kennedy worked with leading athletic figures like Charles “Bud” Wilkinson to create national fitness policies such as the President’s Council on Physical Fitness that would target the population for a general increase in its health and fitness. The outcome of these cultural policies included greater funding and increased professionalization of physical education in the public education system, a national increase in fitness facilities, and greater national awareness of and participation in fitness activities. In effect, Cold War foreign policy imperatives led to a transformation in the culture of the United States in the area of health and fitness.

William J. Morgan, Ohio State University

Social Criticism, Moral Anti-Realism and Sport: Some Contemporary Cases

I argue that social criticism of sport always bottoms out as moral criticism of some or other feature of sporting conduct. But not all moral theory is conversant or compatible with social criticism. I sketch out an anti-realist moral account of sport, show how it is relevant to critical theory, and illustrate its utility using contemporary cases such as the ongoing debate about performance-enhancing drugs in sports, and moral debates between feminist takes on sport and certain ethnocentric Muslim ones.

Stephen D. Mosher, Ithaca College

Without a Soul: Lenie Riefenstahl's "Olympia" Reconsidered

The debate concerning Leni Reifenstahl'sOlympia has been waged for over 65 years. Universally acknowledged as a technically stunning achievement, the film was always defended by Riefenstahl as pure documentary without political motives. Most critics have argued that, if not a direct propaganda vehicle for the Nazi cause like Riefenstahl's "Triumph of the Will," "Olympia," nonetheless, emphasizes a simplistic and fascist point of view. This presentation will argue that a more accurate reading of "Olympia" will yield a consistent world view based on Riefenstahl's self-indulgent understanding of Greek mythology and expressed with a voyeuristic camera. In final analysis, "Olympia" is an aesthetic creation with no moral foundation, thus resulting in an objectively beautiful product that may be technically stunning, but has no human value.

Susan Mullane, University of Miami

The Infusion of Character Education into Youth Sport Programs

The need for character education programs in our schools is well documented and hardly debatable. Youth trends such as rising violence, bigotry, and hate crimes, increasing dishonesty, and bullying are prevalent in elementary, middle and high schools, and detract from the educational mission. Character education programs have enjoyed a recent resurgence in this nation at all levels, and successful implementation of these programs should be pervasive throughout the curriculum and in extracurricular activities as well. Given the values inherent in youth sport programs, such as honesty, integrity, mutual respect, teamwork, and sportsmanship, youth sports provide an excellent opportunity for incorporation of the ideals embodied by the character education movement. This session will examine the differences between the gamesmanship (winning at all costs) versus sportsmanship (winning the right way) models of youth sports, and will focus on the values that should be inherent in a successful youth sport program. The character education movement will be discussed, and practical strategies for its infusion into youth sport programs will be presented.

Tiffany Muller, University of Minnesota

Contested Spaces of Women’s Professional Basketball

Women’s sport space is a contradictory social venue where gender roles, sexuality, and citizenship are performed and reproduced. I propose that women’s sport space is a new site through which to examine social change. This is evidenced by a comparative study of two U.S. women’s professional basketball teams, in which I explore how participants in women’s sport space contribute to and challenge the dominant gendered and raced categories of these spaces, and how participants reflect and contest the contradictory ways these spaces are marketed. Additionally, I evaluate the potential for diverse understandings of sexual citizenship and the constitution of the public sphere to exist in these spaces. I will give an overview of this study, in which I use qualitative methods to bring together discourse analysis of women’s professional league marketing representations, with understandings of how league executives, athletes, and fans experience and construct meaning through sport space. As such, I consider through empirical case studies how women’s sport space is a contested terrain, produced by and (re)producing gendered and sexed social norms.

Rod S. Murray and Debra Shogan, University of Alberta

Wide Open Spaces: Canadian Identity via Multiculturalism and Sport Policy

The past several decades have witnessed several projects/government programs designed explicitly to help build the Canadian nation. Pierre Elliott Trudeau believed that "sport is important for the way Canadians see themselves" (Burstyn, 2000). Thus, we witnessed an increase in funding for high-performance sport leading up to the now infamous 1988 Olympics. For Trudeau, sport policy was simply one resource to help increase federalism in the face of growing Quebec separatism. Under the same project of nation-building, critics of official multiculturalism (Mackey, 2002) argue that aboriginal and multicultural issues have also been used frequently to combat dissention between Franco- and Anglo-Canadians, often pitting Indigenous-Canadians versus French-Canadians in the process. In either scenario, what can be shown to result is the creation of open spaces for racism and cultural intolerance (articulated often by the likes of Don Cherry) instead of the tolerance and unity claimed as the objectives of these government policies. This paper will show how both Multiculturalism and Sport Policy reinforce a dominantly White-Anglo Canadian identity and subordinate and marginalize Other-Canadians.

Mark S. Nagel, Georgia State University and Daniel Rascher, University of San Francisco

Redskins: Legal, Financial, and Policy Issues Relative to Harjo v. Pro-Football, Inc.

On October 1, 2003, Judge Colleen Koller-Kotellay issued a ruling finding there was insufficient evidence to decisively conclude that the name “Redskins” was disparaging to “American Indians” (Harjo v. Pro-Football, Inc., 2003). This judgment overturned a 1999 United States Patent and Trademark Office decision that had revoked the National Football League’s Washington Redskins’ exclusive right to the use of the term “Redskins,” trademarked by the team in 1967. The pivotal issue, according to Koller-Kotellay, was the amount of time that had intervened between the granting of the trademark in 1967 and the plaintiff’s initial lawsuit in 1992. Harjo v. Pro-Football, Inc. raises many questions that will be the basis for the panel discussion: a) In light of Harjo, what is the legal threshold for determining legitimate contempt and/or disrepute? b) Under the Theory of Latches, when is it too late to file a trademark infringement complaint? c) What are the stakes in this case for the Redskins and the NFL, from both financial and policy perspectives? d) How much longer will the Washington football team be able to “circle their corporate wagons” against the converging social, legislative, and judicial forces in today’s society?

Yuka Nakamura, University of Toronto

Entering the Gym Class, Entering Whiteness: Exploring Female Physical Education Teachers’ Subjectivity

In 1997, the Toronto Board of Education published guides for teachers “designed to provide basic information about the diverse ethnic groups, cultures and religions” in the student body. The first in this series focused on Muslim students and included information about the Muslim community, religion and issues within the curriculum. This paper critically examines this guide, relying on Orientalism and notions of whiteness, to illuminate the guide and the Muslim Other’s productive function in the construction of teacher identities as ‘sensitive,’ ‘good’ teachers. Secondly, previous research that explores female physical education teachers’ experiences is read in parallel with this Orientalist relationship. In doing so, I suggest that, in their attempt to attain subjectivity and personhood, it is particularly ‘easy’ for female physical education teachers to make a colonial gesture and slip into performances of whiteness.

Csaba Nikolenyi, Concordia University and Emese Ivan, University of Western Ontario

Characteristics of the Transition - A Case Study of Hungary

Many theorists have long emphasized the importance of civic society and voluntary organizations as vital to the lifeblood of democracy. Interest in this topic has been revived by Putman's theory of social capital claiming that rich and dense associational networks provide the social foundations for a vibrant democracy. The authors would like to give an analysis of the structural changes in the Hungarian social capital during the transition period of the country—with a particular focus on the role played by sport and recreational associations—and to present the existing alternatives for social classes during this process.

Howard L. Nixon II, Towson University

Integration, Disability and Sport: Past and Future Research Directions

Participation in disability sport, especially at the elite levels, such as the Paralympics, has grown in recent years. Nevertheless, participation by people with disabilities in sport remains relatively limited, and significant obstacles to fuller participation persist. Research in sport sociology about disability and sport has also been limited. This paper proposes integration as a useful lens for increasing our understanding of disability, sport and society. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to convey our current understanding of integration, disability and sport and suggest future directions for sport sociology research in this vein. The concepts of appropriate, inappropriate, genuine and social integration are emphasized. Connections among them are proposed in the context of different models of sport for people with disabilities, which are distinguished by the structural characteristics of the amount and type of inclusiveness or access, disability modification or accommodation, sport classification, competitive intensity and direct or indirect competition between participants with disabilities and able-bodied participants. One of the broad questions discussed and posed for further investigation is how appropriate integration of people with disabilities in various types of disability and mainstream sport influences their social experiences in sport and their social integration in the larger society.

Svein Ingve Nødland and Nils Asle Bergsgaard, Rogaland Research/ Telemark Research

”Sport for All” Policy: A Cross-Country Comparison

“Sport for all” has for decades been on the agenda of governments and sport organisations. In contrast to elite sport development, however, there are no evident and fairly uniform objectives that the governments and the sport community go for–like medals and championships. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss to which extent different countries adapt similar or different motivations, objectives and means in this field of sport policy. The country cases which are studied are Canada, England, Germany and Norway. Are “Sport for all”- policies subject to processes of globalisation and unification, or is it rather a question of national idiosyncratic processes? After a description and comparison of the situation of the different countries, we will in the paper discuss how differences with regard to the organisation of sport, sport policy structures, and the general political and administrative system have an impact on how sport for all is developed as a policy area.

David Nylund, California State University, Sacramento

Have a Take: Masculinity and Sports Talk Radio

My paper is an examination into sports talk radio in order to understand the appeal of the genre and to examine some questions it raises for masculinity. Through interviews with production staff, an analysis of the content of sports radio programs, and hanging out in sports bars with fans of sports radio, my study seeks to 'make sense' of this cultural phenomenon. My research was particularly interested in the gendered and commercial character of sports radio, and the implications they have for the way we understand capitalism, masculinity, and sports fandom in the (post)modern world. My paper will suggest that sports talk radio is am ambivalent text that both reinscribes hegemonic masculinity while subverting some traditional notions of manhood. Some of the fissures and contradictions in sports radio will be theorized including its civic potential.

Alissa Overend, University of Alberta and Emma Wensing, University of Toronto, NASSS Board Graduate Student Representatives

Graduate Workshop: Negotiating the Publication Terrain

Publish or perish is a common, and often accurate rhetoric among most university institutions. Grants, scholarships, productivity, job applications, and tenure are often gauged upon one’s ability to publish. For those of us just entering the already-challenging world of academia, the “p” word can be both frightening and intimidating. How does one begin this arduous process? What kinds of journals are available for those who study sociology and cultural studies of health, physical activity, recreation, and sport? What non-refereed sources should also be considered? What are some of the dos and don’ts around written submissions? Designed for but not restricted to graduate students, this seminar will include three panelists in a round table format: Annelies Knoppers, the newly appointed editor of the Sociology of Sport Journal; Peter Donnelly, the editor of the International Review of the Sociology of Sport; and Audrey Giles, an all-but-defended Ph.D. student. Each presenter will speak for about 10-15 minutes, leaving ample time for a question and answer period. If you have any concerns or curiosities about the publication process, this seminar will provide a non-threatening and informative environment where graduate students can help negotiate the ever-important publication terrain. We hope to see you all there.

Victoria Paraschak, University of Windsor and Michael Heine, University of Manitoba

Space, Place and Experience: “Knowing” Oneself through Distinctions

We know ourselves, shape our identities, in part through our distinctiveness from Others. But how does that knowing change as we actively attempt to reduce those boundaries? Yi-Fu Tuan (1977), John Bale (2004), and others have claimed that spaces become places through our experiencing of them. A remote kayaking trip, along the Porcupine River in northern Yukon and Alaska, provided us with an opportunity for critical reflection on the ways through which this “space” becomes understood as “places” through our experiencing of it. Knowledge is embedded in power relations; we will know this “place” according to the ways we can imagine it. Different sources of “knowledge”–fur traders’ journals, elders’ stories, theoretical musings on space, the Aboriginal owners of that “space”–all provide possibilities for shaping our experiences along that river. Our interest in privileging aboriginal accounts—to decrease the distinctiveness between their worlds and our own—enables us to decrease some differences between us while heightening others. Various accounts of our “experience” serve to highlight the social construction underlying “experience”, “knowledge”, and the many ways that “distinctiveness” can connect us to and differentiate us from the Other–whether one is paddling through Aboriginal lands, or trying to “come to know” the Aboriginal perspective as part of the research process.

Krista M. Park, University of Maryland

Cities and Urban Marathons: Revitalization Tools and Race Amenities

Large urban marathons are simultaneously sporting events, public festivals, and urban planning challenges. For race organizers and participants, the twenty-six miles of road closures, multiple messy water stations, scattered port-a-potties, loud cheering crowds, and parking and traffic congestion at the start and finish zones are at least neutral, understandable inconveniences that must be endured in order to experience the joy of the race. For the members of communities through which marathons run (frequently less prosperous and non-White neighborhoods), these same events can disrupt their lives and disguise the larger structural problems their neighborhoods face. As the one time a year when more affluent community members enter their neighborhoods and cities frequently clean-up the spaces and supplement infrastructure, the events display falsely positive images of city. Analysis of race advertisements, publications, and news coverage using David Harvey and Don Mitchell’s theories about urban development and contemporary constructions of “public” space reveal the interdependent relationship between destination marathons and the cities in which they are located: the spectacular scenery of the course sells the marathon while the marathon helps the city portray itself as a preeminent city.

Andrew Parker, University of Warwick

Sport, Nationalism and Iconicity: David Beckham, Celebrity Status and Popular Culture

Within the realms of UK popular culture at least, David Beckham has become perhaps the quintessential transfigural icon at the nexus of sport, celebrity and what has been heralded a radical reconfiguration of masculinity. This paper examines the David Beckham phenomenon through two overarching themes. First, it considers the ways in which David Beckham can be read as representative (and productive) of a fragmentation of gender performance and heterosexuality in wider culture. In this sense, I address the constitution of Beckham as both an object and agent of desire and of spectacular bodily performance, whilst also focussing on counter posed repertoires of the sacred and the transcendent (sacred space, loyalties, work and the transfigural body) that pervasively attach to Beckham’s popular representation. Secondly, I consider the ways in which Beckham embodies a distinctive process of celebrity, one that oscillates between local structures of feeling (i.e. the totemic) and a more globalised affective iconicity. The specific focus here will be on the distinctive and eroticised repertoires of emotionality, abjection and identification that attach to Beckham’s perceived transcendent masculinity and how the presence of these repertoires offer linkages and connections to other (established and revered) celebrity forms.

Amanda Paule, Miami University

Community Perceptions of Title IX

Title IX, of the Education Amendments of 1972, is a United States federal statute that was created to prohibit sex discrimination in education programs that receive federal financial assistance. Since its inception, there has been a five-fold increase in the number of women participating in collegiate athletics (Bryjak, 2000; National Women’s Law Center, 1997; United States General Accounting Office, 2001). In addition, Title IX has increased women’s opportunities to attend universities, medical schools, law schools, and graduate schools (Owens, Smothers, & Love, 2003). Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, there are divergent beliefs regarding its usefulness and impact on collegiate sport. While some have a largely positive impression of Title IX—its goals are laudable and should be enforced—others question the enforcement of Title IX, particularly its impact on collegiate men’s sports. This paper examines perceptions of Title IX from the viewpoints of members of a college community that recently made changes to its athletic programs. The results unveiled what Title IX means to different individuals. Four main themes emerged from the interviews: differences between females and males are ignored, football as a benefactor and problem, opportunity gained and lost, and the problem is not the law, it’s….

Demetrius W. Pearson and Augusto Rodriquez, University of Houston

A Road Less Traveled: Sport Film Research and Instructional Implementation

Frequently neglected as a viable research agenda and theme within contemporary sociology of sport texts, sport films offer a myriad of benefits for the researcher and instructor alike. Some of the more salient benefits are as follows: a) the identification of societal trends; b) a keener historical perspective; c) the social significance of sport; and

d) basic concept reinforcement (Baker, 1998; Briley, 1994; Pearson, 2001; Zucker & Babich, 1987). As a result, this paper will address sport films as a research focus and instructional strategy. Contemporary sport film research and strategies, as well as data collected and findings, will be discussed. In addition, instructional ideas will be shared with individuals interested in utilizing sport films as a pedagogical technique.

Emma Pérez, University of Colorado

Keynote Address

The Decolonial Queer Body

What is the decolonial queer body? And why should we even care? In my mind, the decolonial interrogates colonial ideologies and hierarchical institutions. In other words, to decolonize is to move beyond a history of racism, homophobia, and sexism in order to promote egalitarianism for all. If “queer” refers to any and all non-heteronormative sexualities, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, transsexual, and two-spirit, then, we can assume that it has become the umbrella for all of these alleged perversities. To be queer, to queer and to exhibit queer ways are all projects for the queer theorist. To be queer is simple enough, however “queering” that which is perceived as heteronormative takes a bit more work. At the same time, investigating race and ethnicity can determine what is queer to some cultures and not to others. As an historian and decolonial critic, I find myself “queering” and “racializing” documents as I conduct archival research to uncover our multi-faceted histories. But how is the queer, racialized body retrieved and/or theorized? And what is a queer, racialized body? To answer my own questions about the decolonial queer body, I will take us through a journey that summarizes the contributions of a few decolonial queer scholars who theorize the decolonial queer body.

Gertrud Pfister, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Copenhagen

“Too Many Conflicts ..." Leaders in Sport Organisations who "Dropped Out"

The lack of women on the top of sport organisations is well known, and there are numerous, various and interconnected reasons for this phenomenon. Several empirical studies from several countries provided differentiated results about male and female leaders, their biographies, motivations and situations. However, these projects addressed those who have a leadership position. In this contribution I will present the results of a study about former leaders who finished their “careers”, who “dropped out”. Aims of this research project are to analyse factors and processes which support or prevent a commitment as male or female leader. We wanted to reconstruct the biographies and “careers” of male and female “drop outs”, their experiences as leaders, their life circumstances and to identify the reasons for the drop-out. In addition, we tried to find out about their evaluation of their time as leaders; their attitude to leadership in sport organisations today; their knowledge and evaluation of gender mainstreaming. The complexity of the topic “gender, sport and leadership” demands to take several theoretical approaches into consideration, among others constructivist approaches to gender and approaches of the sociology of organisations, especially on the culture of organisations. The sample consisted of male and female leaders who had been engaged in various positions on the national level of different sport federations. We chose a qualitative approach and conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The evaluation and the interpretation of the qualitative interviews were carried out according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. The analysis of the interviews showed a great variety of drop-out biographies and reasons. However, some patterns and typical processes as well as different types of “drop-outs” could be identified. Whereas numerous influences on and developments in the leadership as well as in the drop out career did not show gender specific differences, some factors, also some discriminations turned out to be typical for female leaders and drop outs.

John C. Phillips, University of the Pacific

The Muir-Whitney Debate-Observation Meets Authority

There exist clear lines of demarcation between "empiricists" or "positivists" in the sociology of sport and "post modernists" who reject the strictures associated with positivism. Sociologists who identify with the scientific (empiricist, positivist), and, therefore, skeptical approach are reluctant to make claims of truth absent thorough evidence to support the claims. The other camp would argue that "truth" will emerge via discourse, the more free the better. One is reminded of the 19th century dispute about the origin of the Yosemite Valley between naturalist (and positivist par excellence) John Muir and California State Geologist, Josiah Whitney (who relied more on reason and authority). The paper compares the approaches of the two "debaters" to ongoing debates in today's Sociology of Sport.

Elizabeth Pike, Sarah Gilroy, and Natalie Dobson, University College Chichester

Sexual Health, Physical Activity, and Teenage Identity Construction

The UK has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies in Western Europe. In 1998, the British government identified a Teenage Pregnancy Strategy to reduce rates by 15% by 2004. A survey based in the USA promotes involvement in sport and physical activity as an effective intervention to reduce teenage sexual activity and pregnancy (Women’s Sports Foundation, 1998). This study set out to examine the relevance of these recommendations for British teenagers, by conducting interviews with a physical education teacher and students, along with a questionnaire survey of 16 year old girls. A symbolic interactionist framework was adopted to consider the way that these teenagers evaluated the costs and benefits to self of involvement in particular activities, including sport and/or sexual activities. It was found that they had to negotiate multiple identities: including the embodied (and sometimes contradictory) identities as ‘woman’ and as ‘athlete’. In contrast to the USA study, sport was seen as a poor substitute for sexual identity as a source of popularity. We found no significant relationship between physical activity and sexual activity and, for many, sport served as an ‘enabling’ environment providing opportunities for sexual experiences. This study suggests that teenage behaviour needs to be understood as part of a broader process of identity construction.

Robert Pitter and Lindsay Fenton, Acadia University

The Body’s Role in Socialization of Pain in Men’s Rugby

This paper presents a comparative analysis of participant observations of pain and injury throughout a season of rural high school and university-level rugby during which the second author filled the role of student athletic trainer. In keeping with the psychology and physiology of pain literature (DePalma et al., 1998; Melzack, 1973; Sternbach, 1986), we note that social factors can influence both the response to pain and the pain behaviours exhibited by individuals (Peck, 1986), these behaviours conveying the degree of anxiety concerning their pain. We explore how the athletes’ bodies and their understanding of them play a key role in the social dynamics surrounding pain and decisions to play with pain. Our findings suggest that the concept of a boundary of pain is both a physical and psychological boundary that athletes define based on social, psychological, and physical factors. Social factors include the status of athletes and rules of the game. Psychological factors include anxiety about the injury as well as a player’s knowledge about their body and what is happening to it. Physical factors include pain perception and the physical limit (Nixon, 1994) of a body’s capacity to perform while in pain.

Darcy C. Plymire, Towson University

Toward a Genealogy of Wellness: Destabilizing a Unified Definition

This paper comprises a critical genealogical study of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sport’s (PCPFS) project of developing a unified definition of wellness that will delimit wellness and associated constructs so that they may be more easily operationalized for the purposes of rigorous scientific study. The present study adapts Foucault’s genealogical methods to understand how the PCPFS uses its definitions to position itself in a web of social, political, and economic power relationships. At stake is access to government funding and to the authority to command the influential and important field of wellness. This paper accomplishes two objectives: 1) a close reading of documents the PCPFS identifies as legitimate origins of the wellness movement and 2) identifying those ideas and practices that are marginalized by the PCPFS. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the PCPFS’s scientization of wellness and associated constructs contributes to a discourse about the body that strips physical activity of its emotional and affective content and reduces it to its utilitarian functions.

Fritz G. Polite, University of Central Flordia, E.N. Jackson, Florida A. & M. University, Rudy Collum, Florida Atlantic University and Justin Weir, University of Central Florida,

From Pollard to Vick: Trials and Tribulations of the Black Quarterback

While we recognize the 50th anniversary of the Supreme Courts ruling in the Brown v. Board of Education case, along with the 40th commemoration of several 1964 Civil Rights Legislative acts, our profession is at a critical point in terms of our progress in addressing the issues of race, ethnicity and diversity in our society. The current study sought to explore the role and scope of the Black Quarterback, his chronological/ historical progress and the impact of the past and present phenomenon. Investigations into the historical precedence of Black quarterbacks along with images and perceptions illuminating unique circumstances associated with the racial discourses linked to the position are identified and probed.

Alina Potrzebowski, University of New Mexico

Researching Whiteness in Sport

Multicultural research in sport has primarily focused on the experience of the “Other”; people of color, women, the poor, LGBT people, and the disabled. Recently scholars have begun to examine the cultural construction of racism and the ways in which White identity is constructed and White privilege normalized. Research in these areas is an important addition to multicultural research. The denial and changing face of racism ranging from Jim Crow racism to color blind racism plays a role in sport as well as society as a whole. The research that we do exploring White identity and racism are key in understanding ways in which to create effective antiracist interventions. This paper will examine the possibilities of researching Whiteness in sport as a way of deconstructing White supremacy and becoming a White antiracist. Interviews with White sport managers and the author’s own White identity development will be used as a place to begin a discussion regarding researching Whiteness in sport.

Frances Powney and Gary Stidder, University of Brighton

The Gender Agenda and Sport for Peace in Israel.

Women in Israel suffer from the conflict there as much if not more than men. Since its beginnings in 2001 Football for Peace (F4P), a sport based co-existence project in Northern Israel, has had a significant blind spot—the under representation of female participants. Both the Arab and Jewish communities involved in the project have proven either reluctant or unable to recruit girls and local women coaches as participants. Recognising some of the significant local cultural barriers that have made it difficult for Jewish and Arab girls to consider mixing and playing sport in the same settings as Jewish and Arab boys, the project development team agreed to mount a girls-only project as part of the 2004 initiative. This project was run by women coaches and leaders from the UK and it was subject to detailed scrutiny and evaluation by a team led by female researchers. This paper reports the key findings of this research and relates its conclusions to broader issues connected to gender and power relations in cross-cultural settings.

Sabine Radtke, Freie Universität

Gender Differences in the Biographies of Functionaries in German Sport

Girls and women represent approximately 40% of the membership base in German sports clubs, but hold only 10% of leading positions within national sports federations. This lack of women in leading positions of the German sports organizations caused the team of the project “Women taking the Lead” at the Freie Universität Berlin (Germany) to analyse the situation of female functionaries in the German sport system and to find the reasons for their under-representation. I will present selected results of two empirical studies that have been undertaken within the project. The representative evaluation of all leaders in the chairmanships of the German sports federations and the regional sports confederations (sample: N=413) included questions concerning their socio-demography, their careers as executive members in the sports federation as well as their careers in sport and profession. The survey proves significant gender-differences concerning for example the age of the functionaries, their marital status, their professions, their responsibilities in the executive committees, their time of office and their career barriers. Besides, we conducted 23 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with women in leadership positions concerning their motives, attitudes, barriers and wishes. I will present the current type of a female leader in German sport.

Barbara Ravel, Université de Montréal and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

The Performance of Non Conventional Sexual Identities in Women’s Sports

The expression of sexual identity in women’s sports is a growing topic of interest within sport sociology. However, “conventional” approaches compete with queer perspectives concerning the meaning of sexual identity. The present study explores the experiences of women who play team sports and define their sexual identity as non conventional. Using in-depth conversations with 10 sportswomen, this study is grounded in feminist post-structuralism for the qualitative analysis of the data. The study examines various questions around the “performance” of sexual identity by these women and the factors that help or hinder non conventional sexual identity performance. Answers concerning sexual identity are considered in light of queer theory and the relevance of queer theory for the study of women playing team sports and defining their sexual identity as non conventional is assessed.

Anne M. Reef, University of Memphis

Representations of Rugby in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South African Literature

This paper argues that in South African literature of the apartheid and post-apartheid periods, a male character’s ability to play rugby well is a predictor of political affiliation with the apartheid regime while, his dislike of the game is a predictor of his defection from apartheid ideology. Further, in this literature, a character’s lack of enthusiasm for rugby is associated not just with lack of masculinity, but with an effeminacy (which may or may not be indicative of male homosexuality) that also predicts lack of support for apartheid. This paper uses a multidisciplinary approach to examine the relationship between rugby, masculinity, and apartheid South African nationalism in novels by South African authors Alan Paton, Damon Galgut, and Mark Behr: it draws on the work of sports historians and sociologists like John Nauright, and in a South African context, Albert Grundlingh, as well as the work of literary critics like Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and South African Michiel Heyns. This paper is important to history, sociology, psychology, gender studies, cultural studies, queer theory, literature, and other arts and sciences for several reasons, especially because it reveals how work done in any one area may validate work done in others.

C. Roger Rees, Adelphi University

Mepham Messages: Hazing and Sports Related Pain across the Community

In this presentation I discuss the effects of the recent hazing incident at Mepham HS on the victims, the football team, the school and the community. I use the case to highlight the inadequacy of anthropologically based theories of sport hazing that "normalize" hazing as a rite of passage and limit explanation to the dynamics of sports teams. In seeking to understand the controversy that this case has caused I examine the belief that sports are an important part of the "invented traditions" of the Mepham community. Messages about what defines community pride and distinction are located in the expected behavior of high school varsity athletes. However, sport messages at odds with an idealized sense of community are open to contested interpretations. The Mepham hazing case has precipitated a community crisis through intense public disagreement over values attached to sports, school, and family. As a result the belief in a shared sense of "community" is undercut. I explore evidence of pain, guilt, denial, and responsibility in the reactions to the hazing case of thirty high school and junior high school coaches from the school district in which Mepham HS is located.

Irene A Reid, University of Stirling

“The Girl Who Threw the Stone of Destiny”: Media Representations of Scotland’s 2002 Olympic Curling Champions

Over the last two decades a body of literature has emerged that examines the relationships between sport and nationhood in different social, cultural, political and historical contexts. To date this work has tended to focus on events and practices that are built around the place of male sports practices and the representations of and meanings associated with nationhood. In contrast comparatively little attention has been given to the ways in which sportswomen are included in such discourses. This paper will examine media representations of the British women's Olympic curling champions. More specifically it probes: (i) the discourses of national (Scottish) and state (British) identities that underpinned coverage of the Olympic event; (ii) the representation of the UK women curlers in the iconography of a distinctive Scottish nation within the UK; and (iii) the reproduction of preferred images of womanhood through the female curlers. Using qualitative analysis techniques, the investigation is developed from a case study of UK media coverage of the women's curling competition at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, USA.

B. David Ridpath, Mississippi State University, John Kiger, Ohio University, Jennifer Mak, Marshall University and Teresa Eagle, Marshall University

Factors That Influence the Academic Performance of NCAA Division I Athletes

Several cultural, academic, and non-academic factors can influence, positively and negatively, the academic performance of NCAA Division I athletes in revenue and non- revenue sports. A proportional stratified sample of randomly selected athletes from 13 schools in the Mid-American Conference (NCAA Division I-A) provided the sample for this study (n=310). The purpose of this study was to examine specific factors such as the athlete’s perception of the influence of college coach on academic progress after enrollment, the athlete’s perception of the importance of academics v. athletics, the athlete’s perception of the need for specialized academic support services, and the academic influence of athletic academic advisors. A regression analysis revealed that athletes themselves are a more significant motivating factor in achieving academic success and graduation than a member of the coaching staff when using current college grade point average as the dependent variable. An independent samples’ test revealed the differences between revenue and non-revenue sports with regard to perceptions of the influences of coaches and specialized academic advisors with regard to academic achievement. Significant differences in individual motivation also exist between revenue and non-revenue sports in NCAA Division I athletics. This study offered an examination of specific factors that may enhance and/or inhibit the academic progress and graduation of NCAA Division I college athletes.

Robert E. Rinehart, Washington State University

The Performative Avant-Garde

In this piece, I discuss general trends of mainstream and alternative sport, including the seamlessness of emerging sport, and attempt to interpolate the avant garde metaphor within the archipelago of such extreme/action sports as Rollerblading, skateboarding, snowboarding, sky surfing, street luge, BMX, and so forth. Using topical references from contemporary examples, I contextualize extreme/action sports within postmodern sport culture, within performance studies and studies of ritual group behavior, and provide general examination of why sport, much like art, constantly is reconceptualizing and reforming: like DeChamps' "ready-mades" were avant garde when first conceived, so too are sport forms in the current vogue.

Ian Ritchie, Brock University

“Gender Doping”: Sex and Drug-Tests in the Age of Containment

The Second World War and the ensuing Cold War years led to a paradigm shift in Olympic sport that would alter the Movement irrevocably. Totalitarian symbolism manifested itself in the form of fears of ‘Frankenstein’ athletes in the aftermath of the War during which time the development of the world’s first sophisticated high performance sport systems emerged. No image evoked greater concerns than elite east bloc female athletes who, it was feared at the time, would be unwillingly subjected to the androgynous effects of steroids. During the ‘age of containment’ during which time women’s gendered and sexual lives were highly regulated, these athletes symbolized the fact that world class, high performance sport was moving significantly beyond the dominant images of the gender binary and ideals of what was ‘appropriate’ for female athletes. This paper traces this history in detail and argues that the simultaneous introduction of ‘sex-tests’ alongside the list of banned substances and practices in the Olympic Games in the same year was not coincidental; both were based on fears pronounced during the Cold War era–and possibly continuing to the present–of ‘monstrous’ athletes whose bodies did not conform to the socially prescribed standards of the day.

R. Pierre Rodgers, George Mason University and Grant C. Cos, Rochester Institute of Technology

“Swifter, Higher, Stronger”: Athletes' Responses to Doping Accusations

Today's athletes are expected to make sacrifices, play through pain, strive for excellence, and reach for their dreams (Coakley, 2004). Typically, these time-honored beliefs have come about due to training, commitment, and desire. However, more athletes—under pressure to improve—turn to various drug substances geared to enhance performance. Sports governing agencies have stepped up their efforts at identifying and punishing violators of anti-doping policies. Conversely, some athletes note the pervasiveness of substance usage and offer justification for the practice. Foss (1996) notes that "the primary goal of the ideological critic is to discover and make visible the dominant ideology or ideologies embedded in an artifact and the ideologies that are being muted in it" (pp. 295-296). Taking her lead, we examine public statements in the performance-enhancement drug controversy: accusations made by agencies and athletes' responses to the allegations. Critical analysis of competing discourse may reveal the intensity of values held by society in this issue.

GregoryS. Rodríguez, University of Arizona

Spotlight Sessions

National Identity, Raza Boxing, and History: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

In the United States, sport confounds many long-standing, academic paradigms of Mexican immigrant history. Categories, such as “Ethnicity” and “nationality” lose their original intent as categories of analysis in their everyday cultural practice as sport. My premier example of this is raza boxing (by raza I include all Mexican-descent people residing in the U.S.). I interpret some possible meanings presented in the historical boxing feud between Mexican nationals and Mexican Americans that has raged since at least the 1940s. Over the decades, these boxing bouts often erupted into full-blown rebellions that reflected the interstitial spaces growing numbers of undocumented Mexicans began to occupy and from which new definitions of identity emerged. Mexican nationals, together with Mexican Americans, came to use boxing as a means of self-identification and expression. The literature against which I frame the social movements I see in boxing history is from an emergent school of thinkers for whom Mexican and Mexican-American history are deeply intertwined and as such require an interdisciplinary method in order to speak outside the box of nation-centered approaches to social inquiry. In my work, the nation poses a problem in so much as it is a powerful force of recognition on the cultural ground of history. In boxing history, the “nation” is imagined as a critical terrain on which new identities are deployed in the face of powerful, impersonal, hemispheric forces. Yet, without a doubt, as boxing demonstrates, the antinomies of capital appear incapable of exhausting cultural possibilities. For example, transmigrant Mexican nationals, whose culture emerges full-blown in U.S. boxing industries, demonstrate a manifestly adaptable and resilient use of boxing that might be thought of as one of many ways this community is transforming the cultural and national terrain on which we live. This transforming sense of self and connection to place is seen in the way transmigrants have made boxing a means of not submitting to the vagaries of multinational capitalists demands and dominant popular cultural expectations.

Hilmar Rommetvedt, Rogaland Research and Nils Asle Bergsgard, Rogaland Research and Telemark Research

Norwegian Sport Politics and Policy: A Reflection of General Trends or Deviant Case?

Time and again developments in the sport sector have been characterised as a mirror image of the modernisation process in society at large. This paper compares recent changes in sport politics and policy with general trends in Norwegian politics. The ongoing changes in the Norwegian political system can be related to what we may call the processes of pluralisation and parliamentarisation and their strategic implications for political actors. The paper is based on a five dimensional scheme of analysis. The first two dimensions, a) concentration or dispersion of private power and b) concentration or dispersion of public power, are related to the process of pluralisation. The process of parliamentarisation is related to the third and fourth dimension, c) executive-legislative relations and d) corporatism versus lobbyism. Finally, the strategic implications are related partly to dimension d) and partly to dimension e) generalisation of interests and coalition building. To what extent do sport politics and policy reflect general trends in Norwegian politics? Is sport a forerunner, latecomer or deviant case as compared with other sectors?

Will Rote, University of Mississippi

Southern Collegiate Rugby: Examining a Masculine Space

This study sought to uncover a dynamic process, that is, the masculine sport space embodied by a collegiate rugby team in the southern United States. Current sociological research on gender, particularly research done by R.W. Connell and Michael Messner, is based on the premise that there is not one definable form of masculinity, but rather many masculinities, dynamic processes rather than static categories. This study investigated the construction, governance, and legitimization of this particular masculine sport space. In so doing, the attitudes and actions of the members of this rugby team toward women, femininity, and other masculinities were examined, resulting in an analysis of the relationship between this masculine sport space and hegemonic masculinity. The conceptual framework for this qualitative case study was developed from previous research done by Timothy Chandler, Connell, Messner, and John Nauright in particular. This previous research provided a framework from which to analyze in-depth interviews and the author's experiences as a participant observer. Sociologists have not traditionally studied rugby subcultures in the southern United States, and as such, this research contributes to the sociology of sport. And, this research also answers questions posed by rugby sociologists working in regions where rugby is popular and prevalent.

Jennifer Rothchild and Christopher Butler, University of Minnesota Morris

Leave It on the Mat: Gender Construction and College Women Wrestlers

Title IX has made significant inroads for women in sports dominated by men in terms of creating opportunity for participation. However, a few collegiate sports, namely football and wrestling, have maintained a reputation and composition almost wholly masculine and male. For instance, consider that there are only seven collegiate women’s wrestling teams competing in the United States with official team status compared with more than 100 women’s teams in basketball, soccer and swimming. Many college women wrestlers begin their careers wrestling with men in junior and high school leagues, oftentimes with a good amount of success. In college, however, women wrestlers are segregated to their own league. Our preliminary research has shown that women wrestlers do not challenge or question this segregation; in fact, many see it as necessary. Our paper will attempt to answer why this becomes so. We will use life histories to examine how college women wrestlers’ self-perceptions have been influenced by their ability to compete against men, and within a sport strongly associated with “masculine” traits. We will tie these findings to this seeming passive acceptance of gender segregation in wrestling on the collegiate level.

Gregory E. Rutledge, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Epic Trickster, Epic Trippin(g), and Trash Talking Runners: The Traditional African Epic, Race(ism), and Black Sports

Although often overlooked because of its Homeric militarism, a veritable sport of the gods, a significant part of the epic’s action occurs earlier. At the outset, the epic protagonist and his family are deformed socio-politically, sometimes even physically, as victims of oppressive state power. Reduced to a trickster-like struggle for survival, the “epic trickster’s” only recourse is retreat—he runs into the diaspora. My presentation explores this narrative moment, the running epic trickster body, as a deformed, “blackened,” and enslaved symptom of the African-American retention and transformation of the traditional African epic habitus. Here, running is the centuries-long, epic experience of Africans who were “running” as the newly enslaved on the middle passage, as “Black” slaves, as “citizens” struggling under the inhumanities of segregation, and as inner-city residents supporting a telling feature of the modern American epic: Black professional sport performers. This includes the epic gridiron “gladiators” of the NFL and “flying” warriors of the parquet, and the racial legacy—epic trippin’(g)—behind their trash talkin’. I will conflate the scholarship on the muscularity of the trickster heroic with the linguistic felicity of the trickster proper, and posit the epic trickster as a heuristic useful for re-reading Black sports culture.

Allen Sack, University of New Haven

Faculty Power: How to Jump Start the Athletic Reform Process

Faculty who are concerned that big-time collegiate sport as currently structured poses a threat to academic integrity often choose not to be involved in various reform efforts because they feel they lack the power to make a difference. “Why invest time and energy in actions that are doomed to failure?” they ask. The fact that collegiate athletics has evolved into a very complex industry whose management requires specialized skills and knowledge has also deterred faculty from getting involved in its day-to-day governance. . The purpose of this paper is to argue that although faculty lack the power and expertise to influence the day-to-day management of collegiate sport, their control of academic standards and of what goes on in their classrooms gives them considerable leverage. The purpose of this paper is to present four proposals that can have a profound effect on restoring academic integrity in athletics and which faculty can set in motion by a simple vote of their faculty senates. The starting point is to require a 2.0 GPA for athletic eligibility. The link between this proposal and three others that can alter the landscape of collegiate sport will be discussed.

Parissa Safai, University of Toronto

Sport Medicine Policy’s Scope of Practice

Sport medicine, as a healthcare field occupied by a variety of occupational groups, represents an interesting case study of the power of interest groups as they act, interact and consolidate ‘presence’ and resources for themselves within the Canadian high performance sport system. Since the late 1960s and early 1970s, arguably the beginning of sport medicine as we know it, the relationships between the occupational groups have been characterized by a variety of strategies of social closure as each group has engaged in their own professionalization project. The study of the development of sport medicine in Canada also reveals the precarious nature of policy analysis in this area since the delivery of such services for elite athletes operates at the intersection of both policy-taking and policy-making. Sport medicine within the high performance sport system rests between the jurisdictions of federal-provincial/territorial healthcare legislation and high performance sport policy. In Canada, the result has been a sport medical delivery system for elite athletes characterized by fragmentation, duplication and lack of policy. This paper explores these themes in an attempt to ‘identify and articulate the relations of power’ between interest groups, including the government, as they relate to the development of the high performance sport medicine system.

Michael Sagas, Texas A. & M. University, George B. Cunningham, Texas A. & M. University, Kenneth C. Teed, George Mason University and Scott Waltemyer, Texas A. & M. University

Examining Homologous Reproduction in the Representation of Assistant Coaches

Researchers have been successful in using homologous reproduction theory to explain the decline of women in coaching roles (e.g., Stangl & Kane, 1991). In this investigation, we aimed to extend this previous research by exploring the practice in (a) employment patterns of assistant coaches, and (b) environments in which women are actually the dominant gender doing the hiring. Data resulting from The Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA) was used to determine if a head coach’s gender impacted the gender composition of assistant coaches on a staff in four different women’s teams sports (soccer, basketball, softball, and volleyball; n = 2,964). The results indicated that the gender of a head coach does impact the gender composition of the assistant coaches on a staff, irrespective of sport. This relationship was most notable when the head coach was female, as female head coaches were much more likely to hire female assistants than male head coaches were in hiring male assistant coaches. Thus, homologous reproduction on the part of female head coaches may represent a structural practice in place that may be increasing the representation of female assistant coaches. However, this advantage may be short lived, as a similar pattern does not seem to be in place in the hiring of head coaches (Acosta & Carpenter, 2002).

Gary Sailes, Indiana University

Bringing Sport Sociology to Life in the Classroom

My undergraduate sport sociology class at Indiana University grew from 40 to 250 students with a waitlist of over 100 students since 1989. Through trial and error, I have discovered interesting and popular projects and teaching methodologies to make sport sociology meaningful, educational, fun and memorable. In this session, I will highlight several successful student projects and teaching techniques (some borrowed) that caused this class to become so popular and successful.

Gary Sailes, Indiana University

The Changing Culture of American Golf: The Tiger Woods Effect

This session will focus on the changes in American golf from socio-cultural, economic, media and participation perspectives. Data were collected from a number of golf industry sources including the popular press. Tiger Woods' talent is unquestionable but his popularity has obvious racial underpinnings and probably serves as an unspoken basis for much of the cultural change embracing American golf today.

Michael Sam, University of Otago

Developing National Sport Policy through Consultation: The Rules of Engagement

The ways in which social policy processes are organised have profound implications–both in terms of shaping the policy itself and in terms of shaping future political deliberations. This study investigates the role of institutional arrangements (including public consultation and submission procedures) in delimiting and circumscribing the policy recommendations of a government appointed inquiry into sport. New Zealand’s Ministerial Taskforce on Sport, Fitness and Leisure is critically analysed through available texts including recorded observations of public consultations, written submissions, committee notes, and interviews with Taskforce members. Two features of this Taskforce are described and analysed: 1) its terms of reference and operative assumptions and, 2) its rules and procedures guiding public participation processes. Implications of these institutional arrangements are discussed focusing on their capacity for channeling debates and their propensity to recast political relations between interests. In light of other countries’ recurrent use of national taskforces and commissions of inquiry to formulate sport policy, this study briefly addresses the fundamental (and sometimes contradictory) role of these bodies in interpreting policy problems and ideas.

Jay Scherer, University of Otago

Cyber-Corporate Nationalism: Adidas’ “Beat Rugby” Within and Beyond New Zealand

The commodification of national sporting mythologies continues to expand in conjunction with the global reach of new media technologies. As part of their 2000-2001 sponsorship of the New Zealand All Blacks, Adidas released a free, downloadable rugby game and parallel website entitled “Beat Rugby” targeting a male, computer-literate global teenage audience. 43,000 participants played in the three-month interactive online rugby tournament. The eventual winners, the virtual 15 All Blacks, were flown to New Zealand to meet their “real” counterparts. Complete with ecommerce capability, the broader website also featured chat rooms that allowed participants to interact with and virtually experience a (trans)national sporting cyber community. This paper locates “Beat Rugby” within its conditions of production including: a) Adidas’ global marketing aims and objectives in 2000-2001, b) the networks and work routines of cultural intermediaries at Saatchi and Saatchi, and c) some power relations including the censorship of critical messages against Adidas. The analysis is drawn from interviews with the head of the interactive team at Saatchi and Saatchi’s Wellington office, the marketing managers for the New Zealand Rugby Union and Adidas New Zealand, and sponsorship documents obtained from Saatchi and Saatchi.

Jeff Scholes, University of Denver

Sacrifice of the Bartman Ball and the Ambiguity of an American Ritual

It is fairly common knowledge that the power of rituals to provide societal meaning and structure has been on the decline for sometime in the U.S. though on February 26, 2004 at a popular Chicago restaurant, an infamous baseball was ceremoniously destroyed in the fashion of a classic sacrifice ritual. Lacking the kind of surrounding society that traditionally produces such rituals, this event seems anomalous. Yet, I will argue, with the aid of certain ritual sacrifice theories, that this event performed a classic sacrificial function—that of reestablishing the proper relationship between the Cubs' fans and its players—and thus is continuous with certain sacrifice rituals of pre-modern societies. At the same time, an underlying intention of those staging the ritual, to receive publicity for their restaurant, served to circumscribe the power of the ritual thus impressing a "modern” stamp on it thereby distinguishing this sacrifice from its predecessors.

Peter J. Schroeder, University of California

To Glorify God: Religion’s Role in One Intercollegiate Athletics Culture

In the past year numerous events have provided evidence that the cultural values and assumptions of intercollegiate athletic departments are often incongruent with those of their host institutions (Sperber, 2004; Zimbalist, 1999). Using the organizational culture perspective, this study sought to determine how religion influenced the culture of one intercollegiate athletics department. The study took place at a highly selective evangelical Christian college with a nationally competitive athletic department. Data were collected through interviews with 19 campus leaders, observation of cultural events, and document analysis. Analysis occurred qualitatively through a process of theorizing (Goetz & LeCompte, 1984). Results indicate that evangelical Christianity played a significant role in the values and assumptions of the athletics subculture. Consequently, the athletics department experienced few of the problems evident at many institutions (Suggs, 2003) and was instead functionally integrated with the overall campus culture. The reasons underlying this cultural integration offer administrators of all institutional affiliations the possibility that the organizational culture perspective can be used to create athletic programs that are more consistent with institutional values.

Jaime Schultz, University of Iowa

“Stuff of Which Legends are Made”: Jack Trice Stadium and the Politics of Memory

In 1997 the football complex at Iowa State University (Ames, Iowa) was renamed Jack Trice Stadium. This dedication came seventy-four years following the death of Trice, Iowa State’s first African American athlete who suffered fatal injuries during a 1923 competition. In this project, I conceptualize Jack Trice Stadium as a site of memory created at the articulation of history and memory—designed to preserve a particular version of the past and invested with symbolic and political significance (Bodnar, 1992; Nora, 1984; Olick & Robbins, 1998; Zelizer, 1995). I argue that this renaming was more than an effort to honor Trice; it was also a strategic maneuver to demonstrate that Iowa State University had both a history and consistent practice of racial equality and tolerance, despite any evidence that may exist to the contrary. Specifically, the decision to rededicate the field came at a historical moment that threatened to undermine the institution’s racially liberal traditions.

Cebronica Scott, Valerie Wayda and Roch King, Ball State University

Crispus Attucks: The Pride of Indianapolis or Was It?

Indianapolis, Indiana is supposed to be the hub for sports in the United States. One of its untold stories is Crispus Attucks High School which opened its doors in 1927 as an all-Black high school on the Southside of Indianapolis. Although a separate Black high school completed the segregation of the city’s public schools, Black students were taught by African-American teachers who were often better qualified than their White counterparts. Crispus Attucks quickly established itself as a community center for local Blacks, as well as the first all-Black high school basketball team to clinch the state championship. In 1986, 59 years after many individuals fought the opening of an all-Black high school it was converted to a middle school despite emotionally-charged protests by many former athletes, students, and community members. This poster presentation will provide a pictorial history of the outstanding athletes (e.g. Oscar Robertson) and coaches (e.g. Ray Crowe) which played on Crispus Attucks sport teams. Supplementary materials (i.e., newspaper clippings) will attempt to illustrate the paradox faced by the African-American community in Indianapolis.

Jennifer Scott, Queen's University

Boys Being Boys: The Pathology of High School Jock Culture

Critical discourse of jock culture in American high schools seems to have materialized in response to “incidents”–such as the Columbine shootings. These incidents are often portrayed in the media as individual, random episodes—not as symptoms of a broader cultural ideology which methodically rewards particular forms of masculinity at the expense of their alternatives. This paper offers an analysis of these “incidents” as systemic, and possibly predictable consequences of the hypermasculinized structure of American high school sports. The incidents will be interpreted as consequences of a school, community and nation which continue to celebrate jocks for their masculinized physicality and demonstrations of aggression. This paper will examine discourse surrounding the Glen Ridge rape trial and the Spur Posse sex ring in order to investigate the preferential treatment jocks receive in American culture. Analysis of the public discourse surrounding these cases will provide insight into the structured, gendered hierarchy within the high school environment and the surrounding communities that legitimate this myopic privileging of certain forms of masculinity. Sources for this interpretive project will include primary and secondary literature regarding the “incidents” and the media’s representation and dialogue concerning high school jocks.

Morgan Seeley and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Youth with Disabilities: Rethinking Discourses of the “Healthy” Body

Increasing concerns over the “youth fitness crisis” of North American children has resulted in Canadian youth being bombarded by messages about health and fitness from a variety of popular and scholarly media. In examining dominant discourses of health, fitness and physical activity, researchers have shown that contemporary culture has centered on the body as a measure of health, well-being and morality. Discourses that equate “good” health with a particular body shape, size, weight and ability may be particularly oppressive to youth with physical disabilities. However, researchers in the areas of sport studies and health sociology have not yet examined how youth with physical disabilities position themselves within dominant discourses of health, fitness and the “healthy” body. This paper begins to address this absence by focusing on constructions of health, fitness and disability in a group of Canadian youth aged 13 to 15 years with a variety of mobility impairments. Using a poststructuralist feminist framework, we examine how these youth take-up dominant discourses of health and fitness and how their understandings of disability and impairment may complicate popular constructions of the healthy/fit body.

Robert M. Sellers, University of Michigan and Gabriel P. Kuperminc, Georgia State University

Background and Institutional Predictors of Academic/Athletic Role Conflict in Student-Athletes

Although previous research points to differences in academic/athletic role conflict as a function of race, sex and participation in revenue-producing vs. nonrevenue sports, there has been no research which has considered possible differences in the predictors of role conflict across these comparison groups. The present study investigated possible group differences in the structural relationships of personal and institutional predictors of academic/athletic role conflict in a sample of NCAA Division I college athletes. Academic/athletic role conflict was operationally defined as the extent to which student-athletes reported that being an athlete interferes with demands associated with their student roles. The results suggested that increased levels of role conflict were associated with higher socioeconomic status, higher SAT scores, higher intensity of recruitment experiences, attending a predominantly White university and living/dining conditions which segregated athletes more from non-athletes. The model was found to be structurally invariant across gender, race, and sport (revenue vs. non-revenue), suggesting that the measurement of academic-athletic role conflict held similar meanings across groups of student-athletes. A gender x race x sport ANOVA suggested that males, Whites, and athletes in revenue producing sports experienced significantly higher levels of role conflict than other comparison groups.

Tamar Z. Semerjian, California State University, Los Angeles

Striving Towards Increased Exercise Accessibility for Individuals with SCI

This paper will discuss the findings of the first two years of a five-year study of the exercise experiences of individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI), and will discuss emergent themes from semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 study participants. The goal of this study is to modify existing exercise equipment and help create settings that are safe and accessible for individuals with SCI. In conjunction with the interviews, field notes were recorded during each exercise session, bringing forth several central themes including: a desire for accessible exercise space, a sense of frustration with the lack of concern by mainstream culture for individuals with SCI and other disabilities, a belief that exercise is critical to maintaining optimal functioning both in terms of psychological and physical functioning, and a desire for doctors and health care professionals to share a sense of hopefulness with their patients, rather than asking their patients to accept their current level of ability. Race, class, and gender dynamics within the exercise setting are also explored. This paper employs theoretical frameworks presented by Duncan (2001), Guthrie and Castelnuovo (2001), Foucault (1990), and Clare (1999)

Michael L. Silk and David L. Andrews, University of Maryland

“We’re the People You Do Not See”: Governance and Regulation in Sterile Spaces of Play

The post-industrial city—a ‘revanchist’ urban vernacular predicated on spectacular spaces of consumption centered on shopping malls, themed restaurants, bars, theme parks, gentrified housing, conference complexes and waterfront pleasure domes, and, of course, mega-complexes for professional sport franchises—may well have helped to define a city among potential visitors and repair the ‘pockmarks’ of a dilapidated and obsolete urban core (MacLeod et al., 2003). However, such processes speak to an increasingly polarized or segregated city space, a divided city, a container of multiple narratives within the context of transformation in the predominant mode of social regulation (Walks, 2001).Within this paper, we address the constellation of public/private institutions that operate largely independently from democracy, with little public accountability (Judd & Simpson, 2003), and which suspend commitment to extend social justice to the whole of society, compelling the poor and ill-disposed to be tightly disciplined through an impositional range of legal and architectural technologies (MacLeod et al, 2003; Smith, 1998). Through recourse to empirical data and experiences drawn from a number of North American cities, we critically interrogate the governance of the conditions (often oppressive) over how urban lives can be lived, and how urban societies have become splintered into crude binary distinctions between those included in social, political and cultural practices and those excluded. In particular, through a focus on the discursive construction of ‘degenerate’ communities as problems to be addressed by specific policy measures that regulate (ideally, inculcate) moral norms and values—‘degenerate’ bodies are thus subject to increased governance, monitoring, policing and regulation and surveillance in the sanitized space of the ‘tourist bubble’ (Judd, 1999). That is, and in the interest of creating ‘capital space’ (Harvey, 2001), the new downtown place of ‘play’ (of which sport plays a central and prefigurative part) is a space designed and managed for the gentrified enclaves, a space emblematic of the ‘securitization’ and ‘fortification’ of ‘degenerate’ communities and codes of conduct that explicitly aim to regulate behavior within the downtown cores of major US cities (Chatterton & Hollands, 2002; MacLeod et al, 2003).

John N. Singer, James Madison University

Black Male Student-Athletes’ Perceptions of Racism in College Sport

This study utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) as an epistemological tool for understanding Black male student-athletes' perceptions of racism and the potential impact racism might have on their experiences and overall development. This qualitative case study included a single focus group and in-depth interviews with four Black male football players in a big-time college sport program at a predominantly White institution (PWI). These Black males felt that racism manifested itself in terms of Blacks 1) being denied access to leadership and major decision-making opportunities, and 2) being treated differently than their White counterparts. These findings point to the need for further studies that are inclusive of the voices of this particular group of student-athletes. Further, these results have implications for administrators, coaches, and academic support personnel in college sport.

Bruce A. Smith and Jessica Parker, University of California Berkeley

Bringing the Sociology of Sport Alive for Summer Bridge Students

This paper describes two classes that utilize a pedagogy of empowerment designed to assist students in challenging sport’s power differentials by creating sport counternarratives. Using a cultural studies perspective, the classes do more than focus on sport studies. In bringing the sociology of sport alive, these classes provide space for students to interrogate sport’s power dynamics and culture of capitalism. As Giroux (1996) states in promoting critical pedagogy and cultural studies, "education is an ongoing site of struggle and contestations" (p. 43). This research examines the possibilities of these struggles. The presenters of this paper are instructors in the Summer Bridge program at the University, an academically and athletically elite public university in the Western half of the United States. Many of these students are considered "academically underprepared" and must attend Summer Bridge to guarantee their admissions. Collected data includes the work produced by these students. The data exhibit the ways it is possible to: (1) read sport (Birrell and McDonanld, 2000) by analyzing its social and political consequences; and (2) write sport by producing counternarratives. The data includes student productions, such as power point presentations and on-the-street interviews, showing the ways students actively participate in authentic assignments.

Maureen Smith, California State University, Sacramento and Becky Beal, University of the Pacific

“Welcome to My Crib”: Locating Athletes’ Masculinities on MTV’s Cribs

MTV has created a series, Cribs, that displays the homes of famous athletes and entertainers. Cribs presents these male athletes and their households as exemplars of ‘making it.’ This paper examines the representation of male athletes in the context of their homes, and how various types of ‘successful’ masculinity are conflated with race and class (e.g., Burstyn, 1999; Dyer, 1997; Kusz, 2001; Lott, 1997; Wald, 1997). We chose ten episodes: 6 of those represent traditional sports such as basketball and the other 4 represent ‘action’ sports such as skateboarding, to discuss MTV’s construction of sporting masculinities.

Sean Smith, Sportsweb Consulting

The Art of Work in the Age of its Recombinant Simulation

The substantial amount of academic attention dedicated to the nature of representation inherent in televised sports stands in stark contrast to the relative non-existence of studies that critically examine the nature of interactive sports simulations, most notably those found in sport-themed videogames and so-called fantasy sports. This void is disconcerting, given the recent market explosion for sports videogames and fantasy sports services, manifest along existing and newfound vectors of sport media consumption. In this paper, I attempt to focus academic discourse on the nature of representation in sports simulation, using a theoretical synthesis of the works of Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard and Walter Benjamin. In laying the foundation for a critical investigation of sports simulations, I suggest that the artistry of the athlete in producing uncertain game outcomes is being opposed by a simultaneous need to rationally “put up numbers” for financial reward. Thus, a tension has arisen in the athlete between the competing identities of uncertainty-producing artist and rational information-producing machine, which surpasses Benjamin’s loss of aura by challenging the very existence of the athletic body itself.

Jan Sokol-Katz, Lorrine Basinger-Flieschman and Jomills Henry Braddock II, University of Miami

Sport as an Engaging Learning Context

One of the biggest challenges educators face today is that of finding effective strategies for increasing academic engagement. This is particularly true for educators of at-risk youth (Finn, 1993). As one of the most pervasive and important social institutions in the lives of American youth, sport represents a valuable and relatively untapped tool for addressing this need. Based on this belief, the Center for Research on Sport in Society (CRSS) created a sport themed mathematics and reading curriculum called TEAMS—Teaching Excellence, Achievement, and Motivation through Sports–and implemented it in an extended school day program with a population of at-risk youth. The curriculum utilized a wide variety of sports and games in order to appeal to the interests of as many children as possible, regardless of age and gender. Learning took place both in the classroom and on the field. In this presentation, we will describe the TEAMS program in more detail and provide the results of its evaluation. We will show that, indeed, this unique approach had a positive and greater effect on students’ reading and math performance, as well as on academic self-concept, when compared to the effect of a traditional after-school program.

Richard M. Southall, University of Memphis, Brett Folske, State University of West Georgia, Kerri Eagan State University of West Georgia, Mark S. Nagel, Georgia State University

Homophobia: Just a “Thing” on United States College Campuses?

Homophobia has been defined as an irrational fear or hatred of gay men, lesbians, or bisexuals. A homophobic individual may also become anxious or afraid when they are perceived as gay or lesbian by others, or anxious or repulsed upon finding themselves attracted to a person of your own sex (Messner, 1994). Many facets of organized sport, including several “major” intercollegiate sports, are highly homophobic cultures and are highly intolerant of gay athletes (Anderson 2000; Griffin 1998). Many athletes feel gay athletes don’t “belong” in intercollegiate sports, and females participating in sport are frequently “labeled” lesbians by onlookers simply based on their participation in sport (Griffin, 1998). The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes toward sexual orientation from a sample of Division II university athletes, looking for possible correlations and/or significant differences in expressed attitudes toward sexuality. The two primary research questions were: a) Are there significant correlations between athletes’ or students’ attitudes toward sexual orientation and various independent variables (gender, ethnicity, athletic participation, sport participation, age, etc), and b) Are there significant differences in athletes’ or students’ attitudes toward sexual orientation based on various independent variables? This study presents the results of a 2003 study of (N = 405) Division II university students, including (n = 105) athletes, and offers a framework for future research.

Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University

"Tennis Whites:" The Unbearable Whiteness of Being "Milk White"

In 2003, a milk mustache ad entitled “Tennis whites” appeared in ESPN: The Magazine and Sports Illustrated. The ad featured three women tennis players, all of whom are coded as White, and each of whom has retired or is nearing the end of her career: Chris Evert, popularly known as “America’s sweetheart;” Monica Seles, an active player on the circuit who appears to be nearing the end of her career; and Mary Joe Fernandez, a former tour player and now ESPN tennis analyst. The heading for the ad reads simply “Tennis Whites,” and features all three players wearing the trademark milk mustache, although none wears traditional all-white tennis apparel. The notion of “Tennis whites” undoubtedly serves as a double entendre, referring on one hand to the outdated practice of requiring tennis players at elite clubs (e.g., Wimbledon) to wear predominantly White apparel, and on the other, to the racial reconfiguration of the previously all-White space of women’s tennis that has occurred since the emergence of the Williams sisters. This paper interrogates the category of “whiteness” within a post-9/11 world where what counts as “White” has been reconfigured to include groups that became merged into an “unhyphenated whole” (Roediger, 2002).

Brett St. Louis, University of California, San Diego

Spotlight Session

Sport and the Politics of Biocultural Racial Explanation

Given the popularity of sport and its common acceptance as a marker of human attributes, patterns of racial performance and achievement within particular sports are easily accepted as empirical examples and evidence of meaningful racial difference. This paper discusses the analytical salience and popular resonance of explanations of the biological and cultural basis of racially distributed athletic capacities. I argue that such biocultural forms of racial explanation are especially significant in two key senses: first, their capacity to move between the biological and socio-cultural forms of racial description offers a potent antidote to the competing assertions of race as either biological fact or social and cultural construction. Second, by combining ostensibly scientific frameworks with intuitive understanding, moral argument and the popular sporting medium, the biocultural mode of racial explanation and its conclusions on the racial distribution of athletic propensities can be defended through appeals to intellectual freedom and value-free objective scientism while representing a much-needed opposition to the evils of liberal and radical ideological dogma and political correctness. Taken together, this categorical and analytical fluidity is a valuable political resource that cannot be easily dismissed or countered, nonetheless I draw attention to a series of methodological inconsistencies and ethical dilemmas as demanding urgent attention. And, perhaps most importantly, I ask whether we can justifiably ignore the implications of remaining ensnared by a furtive and fundamental fascination with qualitatively meaningful racialized difference.

Jane M. Stangl, Smith College

A Spiritual Swing? Transmitting Buddha through (a) Tiger

Broadly speaking, this paper attempts to explore the intersections of Zen/Buddhism with golf in contemporary culture. Currently, golf’s world-wide appeal and increasing attention to health and well being—drawing on core ideas from eastern philosophies such as Zen, and spiritual/physical practices such as yoga—offers a hybrid sort of intermeshing across disciplines and traditions that has arguably been (mis)appropriated from and disassociated with its historical moorings. This work offers a critical reading of the narratives that dominant mainstream (sport and golf) press and the ideological underpinnings that have seemingly turned to a more contemplative approach toward such activity. By drawing on connections between Vijay Singh’s endorsement of Joseph Parent’s popular “Zen Golf” (2002), Phil Mickelson’s 2004 win at Augusta, and Tiger Woods multi-cultural appeal above all, the goal of this work in large part examines the transmission and translation of Buddhism especially, to golf, particularly. In that such a cultural shift offers a striking paradox to a venue that is socially and historically wracked with elitism, gender-bias, ethnic and racial inequalities, and environmental controversies, such connections are timely. What inroads this philosophy cum religion, and such intercultural dialogue impresses on contemporary western sporting practices more broadly, are critical questions that drive this inquiry.

Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College

Empowering Athletes To Control Their Fate As Students

Central to the Drake Group position on college athletic reform is a proposal to require athletes to achieve a minimum 2.0 grade point average in order to participate in their sports. This presentation will provide context for this proposal. This proposal will be presented from an athlete empowerment perspective and will be contrasted with what is ordinarily thought of within contemporary National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rhetoric as “student-athlete welfare”. An argument will be made that athletes’ rights are eroded or severely diminished as a result of the inequity of power inherent within the present-day coach/athlete relationship. As a result, athletes have less opportunity than other students to advocate on behalf of their own educational and intellectual best interests. In effect, this proposal argues for a corrective that will offer protections for college athletes that emphasizes “graduation eligibility” rather than “athletic eligibility”.

Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College

Presidential Address

The “Sport” Sociology Exemption in the U.S. Faculty Bias Discourse

In recent years, American culture has become rife with allegations that the professoriate is liberally biased and routinely engages in violating principles of academic freedom. In an effort to stem the tide of this perceived imbalance in American classrooms, a movement to research faculty bias on college and universities has been initiated by a group called

Students for Academic Freedom. In the spring of 2004, I had occasion to participate in a faculty and student forum on the issue of academic freedom, faculty bias, and “intellectual diversity” on campus. During the course of the discussion, I questioned how valid the research on faculty bias was given the fact that the criteria for selection limited scrutiny

to a narrow set of “professorial research subjects” from a list of 11 departments and disciplines. Sociology is one of those listed department. Sport sciences departments (management, kinesiology, exercise science) are not. An explanation was offered that “sport has to do with muscles” and “doesn’t have anything to do with politics”. This exchange left me wondering whether it was better to be perceived as a threat to academic

freedom or so irrelevant as to be no threat at all. Given the construction of the research being done on faculty bias, a sport sociologist in a sociology department, for example, is eligible to be scrutinized for faculty bias while a sport sociologist in a department of

sport management receives an exemption. This paper will provide an overview of the recent history of academic freedom issues in the U.S., the polarized frameworks and assumptions used to shape the debate (liberal/conservative) and conclude with consideration given to the implications this holds for scholars who wish to study sport.

Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward

Social Class, Gender and the Sporting Capital-Economic Capital Nexus

This study is part of a larger project that uses Bourdieu’s theories to analyze how sport operates as cultural, physical and social capital. It builds on Curtis et al’s (2003) study which revived and reformulated work done on the economic payoffs of high school sport participation that used the individualistic status attainment model. The theoretical and analytical limitations of the status attainment studies are discussed. Curtis et al (2003) looked at long range effects of high school sport participation on adult income levels among all Canadian adults over the age of 24. The present study refines their understanding of sport as cultural capital, tests the high school sport participation–adult income relationship for the U.S., and is the first study that tests how adult sport participation mediates the high school sport participation–adult income relationship. It also explores gender, social class, and age differences in the high school varsity sport–adult income relationship. It finds a moderately strong relationship for men of all educational groups for men age 22-44 that is highly mediated by adult sport participation, and for college-educated women age 22-54 that is weakly mediated by adult sport participation. The findings are analyzed using Bourdieu’s conception of rites of institution.

Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward

Televised Sports, Masculinist Moral Capital and Support for the Iraqi War

This study presents systematic data demonstrating the existence of a televised masculinist sport-militaristic nationalism complex that contributes to support for imperialistic wars by the United States. The masculinist sport-militaristic nationalism complex includes a variety of televised sports that represent, iconize and naturalize a combination of masculinist and nationalistic ideals and morals, and a field of politics where imperialist military projects are imagined and popular support and acquiescence is garnered. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 1048 Americans, I show that in the summer of 2003 the level of involvement in televised masculinist sports was strongly correlated with support for the Iraqi war, the unilateralist doctrine of preventive attacks, and strong patriotic feelings for the U.S. Both critical feminists and figurationalists posit a linkage between war and masculinist sports that is based on a macho- or hyper-masculinity found most in combat sports such as football. Using Lamont’s work on moral capital and Lakoff’s work on the conservative worldview I develop an alternative conception of hegemonic masculinity that emphasizes moral strength, moral authority, and moral order. All three theories posit a Masculinist Sport-Militaristic Nationalism complex, but only the Lakoff-Lamont theory predicts the patterns found in the study.

Chris Stevenson, University of New Brunswick

"King Frog" vs. "Madelaine": Gender Differences in Sport-Related Computer-Mediated Communications

Research has shown that men and women differ not only in the styles and the content of their face-to-face communications (Tannen, 1990), but such gender differences also exist in computer-mediated communications (cmc) (Herring, 2003). This project attempted to replicate these findings specific to a sport internet discussion group. The internet discussion group, rec.sport.swimming, was chosen and all cmc for one month, April 2004, were collected. Analyses of these data (N = 624 cmc) consisted of categorizing the topics discussed, generating descriptive statistics regarding apparent male and apparent female cmc (given that gender assignment is problematic and gender identity morphing is possible), and a content analysis to examine the communication styles of the apparent male and female discussants. The data indicate that the majority of cmc were apparently male, with only 9% apparently female—which is typical for such open cmc groups. The predominant topics of interest were around the politics, ethics, and consequences of the disqualification of Ian Thorpe at the Australian Olympic trials. Focusing on the threads in which most of the apparent females cmc occurred, the content analysis indicated that the characteristics of both the apparent male and female cmc were consonant with the research literature.

Thomas B. Stevenson, Ohio University, Zanesville

Naela Nasr: Symbol of the South Yemeni State

From 1967 to 1990 South Yemen was anomalous: an Arab Muslim state pursuing a socialist ideology. The state implemented a number of laws promoting women’s equality. It also adopted policies to encourage women’s participation in physical activities including the support of women’s sports teams in the national club system. These teams’ successes were primarily in domestic competitions and so star athletes did not achieve the stature of Maradona or Pele, representatives of national character. Still a number of women were recognized by the state as the embodiment of national goals. As such they were given widespread media attention and in the case of Naela Nasr enjoyed national prominence which continues to the present. Available models don’t seem to describe women as national icons. For example, neither women’s body culture (Brownell, 1995) nor physical and psychological embodiment of national virtues

(Achetti, 1999) seem to apply in most Muslim nations. This paper, based on research currently in process, provides some preliminary data and analysis on women as representatives of national identity.

Keith Strudler, Marist College

The Growth of NASCAR: Ethical Issues in Corporate Sponsorships

The growth of NASCAR and its various racing series have been buoyed by loyal corporate sponsorships at a variety of levels. However, as the sport has grown from regional, second tier events to world wide media showcases, the value and power of these sponsorships have grown as well. While this has been positive for the sport, allowing eager corporations to reach a fiercely loyal and growing audience, this growth hasn’t come without ethical quandaries. Of particular concern is the promotion of villain products such as cigarettes and alcohol, particularly to young fans and viewers, evading the voluntary ban on advertising these products on network television. This paper will examine the evolving nature of sponsorship in NASCAR races, paying particular attention to villain products. This will be done in two steps. First, revolving sponsorship agreements will be examined from a historical perspective, particularly as NASCAR traded Winston for the global communication corporation Nextel as its primary sponsor. Second, textual and content analysis will be done on three NASCAR events (Nextel Cup, Busch Series, and Craftsman Truck). Each race will be evaluated for prominence of sponsors and visibility of villain products. Finally, potential effects and predictions for future evolution will be discussed.

Philip Suchma and Sarah L. Offenbaker, Ohio State University

Flop, Turn, River: Alcohol Use and Gambling Among College Students

The notion of "Student Wellness" is an all-encompassing concept of student health; addressing physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, career, and social components. Many colleges and universities have turned to "alternative" or "late night" programs in an attempt to promote student wellness. These programs also directly address drinking cultures on campus (i.e. underage and binge drinking), and often include sports and games among their activities. In the Spring 2004, Ohio State University's Late Night Programming included a late night poker tournament on its calendar of events. Both gambling and alcohol are potentially addictive behaviors, especially among college students who participate at levels three to five times higher than does the adult population (Griffiths, 1994; Shaffer, et al., 2000; and Takushi, et al., 2004). Such programming calls into question the rationale and responsibility in using a gambling-based event to counter alcohol-abuse among students. This paper hopes to raise questions about the growing problems of gambling and the existing problem of alcohol use on campus by briefly looking at the link between the two. Professional, scholarly, and student perspectives on this issue came from a review of scholarly literature, university sponsored assessment of late night programming, and a survey of participating students.

John Sugden, University of Brighton

Football for Peace (F4P): Sport, Community, Conflict and Co-existence in Israel.

The post cold-war world is no less troubled than when West confronted East across chilled northern European frontiers. Instead of the definable stand-off between Western and Soviet military and political blocs we are enmeshed in a less tangible, but perhaps more ancient conflict between Western and Islamic ideological and political world views. This conflict has many manifestations and has led to wars being fought on several fronts. However, at its centre is the conflict in the Middle East between Jewish and Arab peoples. There is a widely held belief that if a lasting peace could be achieved in the Middle East, then serious conflict in other theatres, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, would be much easier to resolve. Clearly, the key dimensions of any peace plan in Israel/Palestine have to be political, military and economic. However, if proposals articulating at these levels do not resonate with the feelings and aspirations of the people, if they are not sympathetically received at the level of community, then it is unlikely that such grand schemes can succeed. It is important therefore, that work taking place at the level of political society is matched and complemented through efforts being made within the multiple spheres of civil society and this includes popular culture. Drawing upon fieldwork carried out in the Galilee region of Israel (2001-2004), this paper argues that sport can make an important contribution to the development of the cultural dimensions that are required to support the political machinery of peace processes in places like Israel/Palestine.

Lisa Swanson, Towson University

Upper-Middle Class Mothering: The "Soccer Mom's" Transformation of Capital

According to Bourdieu (1986) economic capital can be manipulated and transformed into both cultural and social forms of capital. This transformation of economic capital requires a “specific labor, i.e., an apparently gratuitous expenditure of time, attention, care, concern” (p. 253). Such labor necessary for transformation to take place can only occur if one’s economic capital is significant enough to allow time for the exchange. Bourdieu (1986) points out that within a family, the amount of free time a mother possesses is particularly important in enabling that family to experience the transformation of capital and to reap the delayed benefits. This paper examines the “soccer mom’s” transformation of capital as a result of upper-middle class habitus. Data used in this paper are results from a much larger ethnographic study of a group of mothers with young soccer-playing sons. Included in this paper is an analysis of the upper-middle class demands the mothers placed on their sons, reasons soccer fit with their upper-middle class body schema, and the social capital the mothers gained as a result of being part of their group. The paper concludes that the subjects effectively utilize the soccer field as a field of cultural reproduction for their sons. This analysis contributes to an understanding of “how systems of domination co-construct one another, and how we are ‘enlisted’, materially and ideologically in their continued operation” (Frankenberg, 1994, p. 75).

Heather Sykes, University of Toronto

Freudian Psychoanalysis and Queer Embodiment in Sport and PE

This paper speculates how sport and physical education entail aggression and identification, suggesting this may be a useful way of thinking through normalization processes in contemporary educational and sporting contexts. I trace how queer theorists (such as Eng, Shildrick, Butler, Sedgwick) have used Freudian psychoanalytic theory to theorize embodiment and, in particular, body image. I will suggest that bodily movement, athleticism and, by extension, sport involve dynamics of aggression toward the body. Also, the notion that physical education relies upon the ambivalent processes of repression and identification will be explored.

Kenneth C. Teed, George Mason University, Damien Clement, West Virginia University, Heather Bosetti, Independent Scholar

Brown vs. Board of Education: Sport as an Agent of Change

The purpose of this poster is to highlight one case study in high school desegregation. The landmark decisions of the US Supreme Court in 1954 and 1971 had yet to be realized in many states. The Virginia policy of K6-2-2-2 (1971) was enacted to drive economic and racial benefits to a segregated educational system. The film, Remember the Titans described how sport was used as one device to create racial awareness and a climate of equality. Sport and Education are large cultural institutions that do not accept change easily. This poster documents some of the experiences of the State championship team of 1971 at T.C. Williams High School. A number of athletes and coaches from that team were given structured interviews to garner their insights surrounding the changes in the Northern Virginia athletic and school system. Each participant was queried as to the significant social impact and relevant cultural aspects that Sport played in the desegregation of the school system. Central to this issue was the introduction of an African American head coach in a predominately White school system. This paper seeks to record the growing pains of a Northern Virginia community with Brown vs. Board of Education.

Holly Thorpe, Waikato University

Embodied Boarders: Snowboarding, Status and Style

The body is a symbol of status, a system of social markings, and a site of distinctions. Drawing on documentary and visual sources, combined with participant observations, this article explores the body as a signifier through an examination of numerous cultural practices used by snowboarders to distinguish themselves from non-snowboarders and each other. In examining embodied snowboarders I firstly analyse their cultural tastes and styles of dress, language, and bodily deportment. Secondly, I consider how boarders earn symbolic capital through demonstrations of commitment, physical prowess and risk taking. This analysis implicitly views the body as a social phenomenon, that is, it conceptualises the body as a possessor of power, a form of status, a bearer of

symbolic value, and a form of physical capital. The body now plays a central role in producing and reproducing social groups, and the “embodied boarder” is an important case study for understanding how contemporary youth both construct and make sense of their worlds.

Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University

Rothblatt's Apartheid of Sex and IOC Transsexual Inclusion

In 1995 Martine Rothblatt published The Apartheid of Sex. In this text she argued that society is fundamentally organized in terms of sex segregation to the extent that it can be termed "apartheid". One of the key institutions for maintaining and normalizing sex segregation and reinforcing the secondary status of women in western societies, she documented, is that of sport. The recent decision by the International Olympic Committee to allow post-operative transsexuals to compete in their assigned sex category raises interesting questions about essentialist assumptions of sex difference and the role of sport in maintaining sex segregation. In this paper I summarize Rothblatt's argument and explore the implications of the IOC's ruling on the role of sport in maintaining sex segregation and reinforcing gender inequality.

Gabriela Tymowski, University of New Brunswick

Lifestyle Choices: Parental Accountability and the Problem of Childhood Obesity

When parents "allow" their children to become obese, are those children being harmed? If parents have duties to prevent their children from being harmed, and to care for and nurture their children's health and wellness, and if the state of obesity is harmful, then those children are being harmed. This paper will argue that the condition of obesity ought indeed to be considered harm, and that the obese child's rights to freedom from harm and to an open future are being abrogated.

Cathy van Ingen, Brock University

For Richer, for Poorer: A First Nations Casino and the “Urban Crisis”

Gambling has been normalized as a legitimate form of entertainment comparable to visiting a shopping mall or theme park (Ritzer, 2001). Enoch Cree Nation, a First Nations reservation that borders the western outskirts of the City of Edmonton, in Alberta, Canada recently obtained the first casino license granted to a First Nations community in the province. The announcement was introduced amidst significant controversy, media coverage and political fanfare. Partnered with Las Vegas based Paragon Gaming, Enoch Cree Nation reveals plans to build a premier resort centre, gambling, sport and entertainment complex. For tribal leaders the Enoch Casino and Entertainment Centre is viewed as key to the economic development of this First Nations community. The $127-million casino complex will include two hotels, several restaurants, a small concert venue, a sports bar, health club and spa, and a sports complex with two indoor soccer fields, a swimming pool, and two ice arenas, including one Olympic sized. This presentation explores the tensions that surface as boundaries between urban consumption, economic growth and a First Nations reservation are “imploded”. Using David Smith’s (1997, 1999, 2000, 2001) notion of ‘moral geographies’ and David Sibley’s (1995) concept of ‘boundary consciousness’ I focus on the ways in which race structures understandings of both place and gambling.

Karin Volkwein-Caplan, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Homophobia in Women's Sport

Introduction: Homophobia, the irrational fear of homosexuality or homosexuals, combined with the lack of a body of knowledge and research on this subject (Greendorfer & Rubinson, 1997) has had a significant impact on women in sport. Too often, athletic women are viewed as "not normal" or "manly in nature." This leads to the perception that women athletes are lesbians (Griffin, 1989). Some of the underlying beliefs are that a woman who trains to be strong, powerful, and muscular must want to be male and, therefore, to attract other women (Women's Sports Foundation, 2000a). Society's fear of homosexuality, according to the Women's Sports Foundation, is one of the remaining tools to keep women from participating in sport. Impact of Homophobia: Women who do participate in sport may find their athletic skills demeaned, employment opportunities lost (Griffin, 1992) or endorsements revoked due to their perceived sexual orientation. Manifestations of homophobia in women's sport result in a preference for male coaches (Griffin, 1992). Many girls, fearful of being labeled as lesbians, choose not to participate in sports (Women's Sports Foundation, 2000b). As a result of homophobia, the psychological well-being of many females who remain active in sport continues to be hindered. Homophobia can also negatively impact the physical well-being of females. Studies show that women who are physically active have a lower incidence of osteoporosis, breast cancer, and depression, as well as higher self-esteem. In addition, girls who participate in sports have a lower frequency of teen pregnancy and higher graduation rates (Women’s Sports Foundation, 2000b). Given these benefits, women and girls should be encouraged to participate in sports. Rather, the homophobia-based barriers inhibit women and girls from participating (Lenskyj, 1990), resulting in them missing out on the physical and mental benefits that sports afford. Focus of Paper: The lack of theoretical frameworks or applications of theory make it difficult to draw specific conclusions about homophobia (Greendorfer & Rubinson, 1997). This paper considers the impact of homophobia on women in sport, discusses the psychological and physical implications of this impact, and proposes a theory of why homophobia is a critical mechanism in sport.

Faye Linda Wachs, Cal Poly Pomona

When Transgressive Leisure Isn’t: Women in “Male Identified” Sports

This paper examines how female athletes understand their sport experience in sports that are traditionally considered “male.” These women frequently expressed feelings of "fitting in," "feeling at home," and a discourse of "finding oneself." The feeling of fitting in best in a place previously defined as inappropriate for women creates an interesting paradox. It would seem that for many of these women, the ways that they learned to "do" selfhood, and even often "do gender" made them feel they fit in best in forums previously assumed to be antithetical to femininity.

Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton

Compromised “Reality” and the “Involuntary Insider”: The Case of Leilani Rios

In 2001, Cal State Fullerton cross country runner Leilani Rios was dismissed from her team for refusing to discontinue her career as a stripper at a Southern California night club. The story became fodder for an extraordinary variety of media accounts in the national and international media. Some outlets cast the case as emblematic of hypocrisy and gender politics-as-usual, while others contextualized the story as a humorous sideline to the more “serious” issues in sport. This paper explores the schizophrenic depictions of the case within popular media accounts and the disconnection of those accounts from the actual facts—but also notes the ultimate irrelevance of those facts. It also notes that this case can be cited to advance both second and third wave feminist accounts of contemporary sport. While many media accounts furthered an already well established voyeuristic frame on women athletes, interviews with Ms. Rios suggested little that would compromise her identity and experience as an athlete. Finally, the paper explores the both subtle and obvious ethical implications of being an involuntary “insider” in such a case, given that the author was both a member of campus athletics committees and subsequently a professor of Ms. Rios.

Tracy Walker, University of Toronto

The Dirt on Female Athlete Self-Description

This paper concentrates on the feedback effect of how female athletes incorporate the lexicon of sport media into their own language, and performs a qualitative inquiry into how female athletes internalize and project the language and tone of sport media and speculation on how that affects other girls and women in sport. I ask whether in 2004 the prospect of getting dirty, being unkempt, and demonstrating that a woman is willing to extend her body and spirit to its utmost to win regardless of how that may be construed, constrains the performances and limits the careers of the female athlete. Or is that athletes will inevitably get dirty of no consequence to them, or alternately, a measure of engagement and effort?” “Getting dirty” is my metaphor for athletes who reject the norms of conventional femininity, and I find significant evidence of historical change and a revision of the “female apologetic” in sport.

D. Scott Waltemyer, Texas A. & M. University

The Influence of Leadership and Ethical Orientation on Intercollegiate Athletics

Intercollegiate athletics are ever growing in popularity, but along with this popularity has come an increase in NCAA violations. Many university presidents, as well as the public, feel there is need for change (Kuga, 1996). In order to change this pattern of behavior, Trail and Chelladurai (2000) suggest that research move away from looking at specific violations, and look at the deeper issue, the goals and processes that lead to these violations. Research has shown (i.e. Scott, 1999) that leader behavior can influence the climate, and employee behaviors, within an organization. Weaver and Trevino (1999) found that an organization’s ethical orientation can, also, lead to different employee attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this presentation is to present a framework which suggests that the leadership of an intercollegiate athletic department will influence the ethical orientation of the athletic department. In turn, the ethical orientation is thought to impact the goals and processes that are emphasized, which, in turn, affect employee attitudes and behaviors. Implications for reform are discussed.

Theresa Walton, Kent State University

Women’s Olympic Wrestling Debut: A Critical Examination of IOC Evaluation Criteria

Just as women’s explosion into collegiate sport has been framed as costing men’s participation opportunities (Walton, 2004), women’s wrestling inclusion into the Olympic Games in 2004 has been held accountable for denying some men their Olympic dreams. The International Olympic Committee decision to add women’s wrestling in 2002 came with announcements of cuts to weight classes offered in men’s wrestling and boxing, tying the two together in public consciousness. Yet, the IOC record of including women has been less than enthusiastic throughout the century, with women currently comprising only one third of the athletes. Given the declared intent of current IOC president Jacques Rogge to limit the growth of the Games, while also looking at gender equity as an issue of “image” to be improved, Olympic opportunities are framed as a zero-sum game. If women win, men automatically lose. And, in fact, the IOC anticipates that for the first time in recent memory, the Athens Games will offer fewer events (299) and host fewer athletes (10,508) than the previous Games (Sydney 2000–300 events, 10,655 athletes), thereby bucking the tradition of continual growth. These decisions have important ramifications for the acceptance of female athletes into the Olympic fold–particularly from International Federations (IF), which must be supportive for admittance into the Games. In this paper I will examine the IOC’s evaluation criteria for adding and maintaining sports and disciplines along with a critical media examination of the coverage of women’s Olympic wrestling at the Athens Games. Whether and how the media covers this event will determine the future of women’s wrestling on the Olympic stage. Media interest (including written press coverage, television coverage, and Internet coverage), spectator interest and support, as well as the IF’s sponsorship and marketing programs are all part of the IOC’s criteria for judging the popularity of the sport and therefore its privileged status as an Olympic event.

Chiung-Hsia Wang and Ping-Kun Chiu, University of Northern Colorado

Does a New Stadium Benefit the Community?

State policymakers think that building or renovating stadiums/arenas increases per capita income and benefits a community. However, Baade (1996) found no positive connections between professional sports and per capita income, and Coates and Humphreys (2001, 2003) demonstrated that professional sport in the short run reduces local real income, and has only a small positive effect on employees’ earnings in the long run. Between 1996 and 2006, over $8 billion will be spent on sports facilities at colleges and universities (Zimbalist, 1999). The purpose of this study is to develop an empirical model to examine whether the NCAA sports environment changes the level of per capita income in communities. It examines communities that built or renovated stadiums/arenas between 1980 and 2002. This study could make policymakers rethink the true situation of building or renovating stadiums /arenas.

Anne Warner, Queen's University

Women’s Interuniversity Sport within a Patriarchal Institution: A Case Study of Queen’s Women in the 1920s

In 1920, women from Queen’s University and McGill University met to compete in the first interuniversity women’s game in eastern Canada. Along with increasing numbers of women entering Ontario universities, this momentous game represented a breaking down of two traditional male strongholds: higher education and sport. Using primary research sources from the Queen’s University Archives, this paper presents a qualitative exploration of the university environment for both women in general and female athletes during the 1920s at Queen’s. First, the paper addresses why the conditions leading up to 1920 were particularly favourable for women to become involved in intercollegiate competition. Second, the paper discusses how the university, as a patriarchal institution grappling with conflicting views about the appropriate role of women, placed constraints on their activities within the university. Finally, the paper explores how Victorian perceptions about masculinity and beliefs about innate physiological and psychological differences shaped the response of men to women’s foray into intercollegiate sport in the 1920s. Using Queen’s as a case study, this paper offers an in-depth view into the factors that constrained and facilitated the development of intercollegiate athletics at Ontario universities in the early twentieth century and laid the foundation for women’s interuniversity sport participation today.

Valerie Wayda, Amy Kent, Cebronica Scott and Jeff Pauline, Ball State University

A Reflective Look at Hoosiers in Middletown, USA

Many sociology students are required to read about Middletown. However, is there a chapter missing from the books? The purpose of this presentation will be to focus on one high school within Middletown, USA to examine the impact of Brown vs. the Board of Education on the desegregation and integration of the sport program and the community. While the majority of the American population may know of Muncie Central High School as the "big school" which lost the state basketball championship to the little school of Milan in the movie Hoosiers, the school has a rich history of success especially on the hard court with eight state titles. One factor which was unique to the State of Indiana sports programs prior to 1997 was that it had a classless system where all schools competed against each other in post-season play without any regard for the school’s enrollment. The authors will present a pictorial history of Muncie Central’s sports programs over the past 50 years.

Lawrence A. Wenner, Loyola Marymount University

The Case of Janet Jackson vs. the Super Bowl: An Analysis of Synergy, Promotional Communication, Crisis Management, and Ethics

This case study examines the context of and reaction to the uncovering of singer Janet Jackson’s breast during the broadcast of the 2004 Super Bowl halftime show. Using a select thick reading of the event and its coverage, the analysis focuses on 1) the construction of the event by its organizational stakeholders, 2) the reconstruction of understandings about how the fiasco came to be and what really happened and should have happened, and 3) the deconstruction of the event by critics and those in the political environment who had reason to consider the incident and response to it in a broader social context. Strategies for change and the prospects for “ethical health” in the sport marketplace are considered, with special attention given to promotional communication and crisis management.

Emma H. Wensing, University of Toronto

Securing the Olympics: The Impact of Terrorism on Athens 2004

The Olympic Games provide a global stage for political statement. As a major international event that gathers athletes and dignitaries from around the globe, its potential as a terrorism target is widely known. Indeed, events at Munich and Atlanta for example, shook the Olympic and wider global communities in such a way that the security of athletes and the public is of paramount concern to Olympic organizers. As the first Olympics since the 9/11 attacks on the USA, the Athens Games have been assessed as a major target for terrorism. Consequentially, these security concerns have influenced the preparation for the Games, and will undoubtedly change the Olympic experience for athletes, spectators and media personnel. Using textual and document analysis, and by locating the Games in a wider context of increased terrorism concern, this presentation will examine the impact security measures had on the 2004 Olympic experience for key stakeholders.

Brian J. Wigley and Gina Daddario, Shenandoah University

Racial Marking, Stereotyping, and Preferential-Positioning in the 2004 Summer Olympics

Racial stacking refers to sport-related stereotyping which assigns athletes to specific sporting positions based on assumptions about race and intrinsic ability. This phenomenon fosters the perception that White athletes are better suited to positions requiring intelligence and leadership, while Black athletes are more likely to excel in those requiring strength and speed. Sport positioning based on race is often reinforced by athletic coaches and media commentators. This study proposes to examine the extent to which racial and gender marking appears in the sport commentary and television coverage of athletes participating in the 2004 Summer Games. The marking literature has tended to focus on gender and how some sports are stereotyped as “masculine” or “feminine,” while the stacking literature has focused on assumptions based on racial characteristics. This study is an attempt to converge gender marking research with racial-stacking literature in an examination of Olympic telecasts. Our findings could suggest that racial-marking is a contributing factor to racial-stacking in that athletes presumed to possess certain physical or psychological attributes are assigned certain athletic roles. That rhetorical treatment of athletes based on race could lead to a form of exclusion–labeled here as “positional exclusion in sport”–will also be considered.

Eli Wolff, Northeastern University, Ted Fay, SUNY, Cortland and Mary Hums, University of Louisville

Inclusion, Integration and Human Rights: From the Athlete Perspective

This presentation will describe research conducted on the views and opinions of a cross-section of “Paralympic” athletes concerning their perspectives on their status within the Olympic Movement, the Olympic Games, and related international sport federations and their respective competitions and championships. This presentation will examine the significant mainstream symbols and institutions of international sport in terms of their relevance in providing credibility and legitimacy to athletes with disabilities as elite athletes. The results of this exploratory study will also outline using a critical theory perspective of the relationship between the athlete perspectives on integration and inclusion into elite sport and their corresponding views concerning overall human rights. Further, this paper will present a framework for assessing the value and apparent respect or disrespect given to disability-specific sport opportunities being added as divisions or parts of existing mainstream sport governance, sporting events, programs and/or organizations. An assessment will also be presented as a means to discuss sport in this context as a means of transformation or the reinforcement of existing hegemony within sport governance models and organizations. Comparative linking of other related histories of marginalized identity groups (e.g., race and gender) in sport and societies will serve as the basis for discussion followed by recommendations for future research needs in this nascent area of sport sociology as it more openly addresses issues of ableism in sport.

Eli Wolff, Northeastern University, Howard L. Nixon II, Towson University and Ian Brittain, University of Warwick

Incorporating Perspectives on Athletes with a Disability into the Sport Sociology Curriculum

This presentation proposes important perspectives, issues and research about athletes with a disability in sport that could be included in introduction to sport sociology courses to enrich them and expand their usual focus. The significance and historical context of athletes with a disability in sport introduces this presentation. Athletes with a disability are discussed in relation to major sociological topics, such as stratification and the sports opportunity structure, discrimination, integration, segregation, power, social identity and socialization, gender, race, minority relations, cultural diversity, the role of the media and the organizational hierarchy of sport, which suggest places to fit the discussion of athletes with a disability into the sport sociology curriculum. Terms and ideas specifically related to disability sport and the involvement of athletes with a disability in sport are also presented. Key issues and debates about the involvement of persons with a disability in disability and mainstream sport are proposed as additional ways of integrating topics about disability and sport into the curriculum.

Andrew Yiannakis, University of Connecticut

Quo Vadis Sport Sociology? Is There a Future for You in the Horizon?

The presentation provides a brief outline of the development of the society from its inception in 1978 to the first conference in Denver in 1980. It also identifies and discusses the issues and problems that confronted (and some still continue to do so today) the organization over the years, from the early days to the present. The discussion also alludes to significant contributions by key sport sociologists, their impact on the growth and development of the society and their influence in shaping the future of both the field and the organization. The paper concludes with a discussion and analysis of current conditions, opportunities for growth, the emergence and influence of sport management and the current and future roles of the original parent “disciplines”, sociology and sport studies. Finally, the author suggests a wider role for the sociology of sport in the 21st century and proposes the use of a sociocultural perspective in the analysis of sport in history; a perspective that we may call sociocultural historiography of sport (e.g., a sociocultural analysis of the ancient Olympic Games).

Kathleen S. Yep, Claremont Colleges

Spotlight Session

"Orientalism and its Discontents": Basketball and Performing Nation and Racialized Masculinities

In 1939-1940 and 1940-1941, the first and only professional Chinese American men's basketball team, known as the Hong Wah Kues, traveled around the United States and Canada. On the barnstorming circuit, the Hong Wah Kues competed against local Caucasian teams as well as other "ethnic theme teams" such as the African American Harlem Globetrotters, a Native American team, and a White ethnic team representing a religious colony. Described in racialized and gendered terms by local newspapers as "tiny little oriental rug cutters" or the "foreign attackers," the newspaper coverage and the promotional marketing defined the borders of "America" through contradictory but simultaneous themes of alien invasion and assimilation. Through an analysis of newspapers, advertisements and key informant interviews, this paper explores the use of novelty and sport to (re)articulate racialized notions of masculinity and nation.

Alana Young, University of Ottawa

The Flipside: Female Skateboarders and Risk Discourses

This study follows on a presentation made at NASSS 2003 that documented young women’s experiences in the skateboarding subculture. Although the concept of risk was not the focus of this study, women’s understanding of risks was integral to their explanations of women’s minimal participation in skateboarding. Specifically, young women referred to the physical and social risks associated with skateboarding and with identifying with a masculine, street-based subculture. This study explores young women’s skateboarding experiences and how ideas of ‘risk’ converge with ideas of femininity in shaping the skateboard subculture and practices as ‘inappropriate’ for young women. Despite the evidence of counter risk discourses, a majority of research has situated young women’s risk taking behaviours as negative and within the dominant discourse of masculinity and risk. Lupton (1999) argues that women’s risk-taking behaviours can be beneficial, as counter discourses encourage the ability to surpass expectations of performing gender.

Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse

Reaching Minority Customers through Athlete Endorsement

In the past, the major target market for most corporations was men between the ages of 18-35. Today, due to the change of society and a new direction of business, corporations have started to expand their target market to other groups of customers, such as women and ethnic populations. Consumers now receive numerous forms of advertising information daily through television, radio, magazines, newspapers and the World Wide Web. As a result, corporations are using different advertising strategies to reach their target market in order to deliver the message in the most effective way; minority athlete endorsement is one of them. For example, Parra, a speed skater who is the first Mexican-American to win the Winter Olympics gold, and Yao Ming, an NBA star originally from China, have several endorsement deals. Having minority athletes endorsing the products not only serves as a role model for youth, it also provides marketing potential among minority groups. The presenter will first discuss the current trend of advertising strategies for minority populations. Further, the presenter will introduce a variety of examples of minority athletes’ endorsements and discuss how it might affect the growing trend of sports globalization.

Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse and Brenda Soto-Torres, Nova Southeastern University

Social Influences among Minority Women Engaging in Exercise for Health Purposes

Engaging in regular exercise to maintain health-related fitness and to raise the quality of life is currently a significant issue for the population ranging from children, youth, adults, and senior citizens in every country. According to the research (Wedderkopp, Froberg, Hansen, & Andersen, 2004), low physical fitness and obesity have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease risk. As a result, the government in various countries such as the USA and Taiwan, and scholars and practitioners in health and physical education have developed numerous plans to encourage individual’s engagement in exercise for health purposes. In recent years, research and planning have been focusing on the studies from physiological concerns, such as child obesity and menopausal women with osteoporosis. However, little research has been discussed from the cultural and social influences for individual’s participation in exercise to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, because of traditional cultural and social biases, women are not encouraged to participate in physical activities among some ethnic and racial groups such as Asians and Hispanics. Thus, this presentation will describe the cultural and social effects for Asian and Hispanic women’s engagement in physical activities for health purposes. Information and suggestions will also be provided for designing and promoting exercise for health purposes among Asian and Hispanic women.

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