“Stuff of Which Legends are Made”: Jack Trice Stadium and the Politics of Memory
In 1997 the football complex at Iowa State University (Ames, Iowa) was renamed Jack Trice Stadium. This dedication came seventy-four years following the death of Trice, Iowa State’s first African American athlete who suffered fatal injuries during a 1923 competition. In this project, I conceptualize Jack Trice Stadium as a site of memory created at the articulation of history and memory—designed to preserve a particular version of the past and invested with symbolic and political significance (Bodnar, 1992; Nora, 1984; Olick & Robbins, 1998; Zelizer, 1995). I argue that this renaming was more than an effort to honor Trice; it was also a strategic maneuver to demonstrate that Iowa State University had both a history and consistent practice of racial equality and tolerance, despite any evidence that may exist to the contrary. Specifically, the decision to rededicate the field came at a historical moment that threatened to undermine the institution’s racially liberal traditions.
Cebronica Scott, Valerie Wayda and Roch King, Ball State University
Crispus Attucks: The Pride of Indianapolis or Was It?
Indianapolis, Indiana is supposed to be the hub for sports in the United States. One of its untold stories is Crispus Attucks High School which opened its doors in 1927 as an all-Black high school on the Southside of Indianapolis. Although a separate Black high school completed the segregation of the city’s public schools, Black students were taught by African-American teachers who were often better qualified than their White counterparts. Crispus Attucks quickly established itself as a community center for local Blacks, as well as the first all-Black high school basketball team to clinch the state championship. In 1986, 59 years after many individuals fought the opening of an all-Black high school it was converted to a middle school despite emotionally-charged protests by many former athletes, students, and community members. This poster presentation will provide a pictorial history of the outstanding athletes (e.g. Oscar Robertson) and coaches (e.g. Ray Crowe) which played on Crispus Attucks sport teams. Supplementary materials (i.e., newspaper clippings) will attempt to illustrate the paradox faced by the African-American community in Indianapolis.
Jennifer Scott, Queen's University
Boys Being Boys: The Pathology of High School Jock Culture
Critical discourse of jock culture in American high schools seems to have materialized in response to “incidents”–such as the Columbine shootings. These incidents are often portrayed in the media as individual, random episodes—not as symptoms of a broader cultural ideology which methodically rewards particular forms of masculinity at the expense of their alternatives. This paper offers an analysis of these “incidents” as systemic, and possibly predictable consequences of the hypermasculinized structure of American high school sports. The incidents will be interpreted as consequences of a school, community and nation which continue to celebrate jocks for their masculinized physicality and demonstrations of aggression. This paper will examine discourse surrounding the Glen Ridge rape trial and the Spur Posse sex ring in order to investigate the preferential treatment jocks receive in American culture. Analysis of the public discourse surrounding these cases will provide insight into the structured, gendered hierarchy within the high school environment and the surrounding communities that legitimate this myopic privileging of certain forms of masculinity. Sources for this interpretive project will include primary and secondary literature regarding the “incidents” and the media’s representation and dialogue concerning high school jocks.
Morgan Seeley and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa
Youth with Disabilities: Rethinking Discourses of the “Healthy” Body
Increasing concerns over the “youth fitness crisis” of North American children has resulted in Canadian youth being bombarded by messages about health and fitness from a variety of popular and scholarly media. In examining dominant discourses of health, fitness and physical activity, researchers have shown that contemporary culture has centered on the body as a measure of health, well-being and morality. Discourses that equate “good” health with a particular body shape, size, weight and ability may be particularly oppressive to youth with physical disabilities. However, researchers in the areas of sport studies and health sociology have not yet examined how youth with physical disabilities position themselves within dominant discourses of health, fitness and the “healthy” body. This paper begins to address this absence by focusing on constructions of health, fitness and disability in a group of Canadian youth aged 13 to 15 years with a variety of mobility impairments. Using a poststructuralist feminist framework, we examine how these youth take-up dominant discourses of health and fitness and how their understandings of disability and impairment may complicate popular constructions of the healthy/fit body.
Robert M. Sellers, University of Michigan and Gabriel P. Kuperminc, Georgia State University
Background and Institutional Predictors of Academic/Athletic Role Conflict in Student-Athletes
Although previous research points to differences in academic/athletic role conflict as a function of race, sex and participation in revenue-producing vs. nonrevenue sports, there has been no research which has considered possible differences in the predictors of role conflict across these comparison groups. The present study investigated possible group differences in the structural relationships of personal and institutional predictors of academic/athletic role conflict in a sample of NCAA Division I college athletes. Academic/athletic role conflict was operationally defined as the extent to which student-athletes reported that being an athlete interferes with demands associated with their student roles. The results suggested that increased levels of role conflict were associated with higher socioeconomic status, higher SAT scores, higher intensity of recruitment experiences, attending a predominantly White university and living/dining conditions which segregated athletes more from non-athletes. The model was found to be structurally invariant across gender, race, and sport (revenue vs. non-revenue), suggesting that the measurement of academic-athletic role conflict held similar meanings across groups of student-athletes. A gender x race x sport ANOVA suggested that males, Whites, and athletes in revenue producing sports experienced significantly higher levels of role conflict than other comparison groups.
Tamar Z. Semerjian, California State University, Los Angeles
Striving Towards Increased Exercise Accessibility for Individuals with SCI
This paper will discuss the findings of the first two years of a five-year study of the exercise experiences of individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI), and will discuss emergent themes from semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 study participants. The goal of this study is to modify existing exercise equipment and help create settings that are safe and accessible for individuals with SCI. In conjunction with the interviews, field notes were recorded during each exercise session, bringing forth several central themes including: a desire for accessible exercise space, a sense of frustration with the lack of concern by mainstream culture for individuals with SCI and other disabilities, a belief that exercise is critical to maintaining optimal functioning both in terms of psychological and physical functioning, and a desire for doctors and health care professionals to share a sense of hopefulness with their patients, rather than asking their patients to accept their current level of ability. Race, class, and gender dynamics within the exercise setting are also explored. This paper employs theoretical frameworks presented by Duncan (2001), Guthrie and Castelnuovo (2001), Foucault (1990), and Clare (1999)
Michael L. Silk and David L. Andrews, University of Maryland
“We’re the People You Do Not See”: Governance and Regulation in Sterile Spaces of Play
The post-industrial city—a ‘revanchist’ urban vernacular predicated on spectacular spaces of consumption centered on shopping malls, themed restaurants, bars, theme parks, gentrified housing, conference complexes and waterfront pleasure domes, and, of course, mega-complexes for professional sport franchises—may well have helped to define a city among potential visitors and repair the ‘pockmarks’ of a dilapidated and obsolete urban core (MacLeod et al., 2003). However, such processes speak to an increasingly polarized or segregated city space, a divided city, a container of multiple narratives within the context of transformation in the predominant mode of social regulation (Walks, 2001).Within this paper, we address the constellation of public/private institutions that operate largely independently from democracy, with little public accountability (Judd & Simpson, 2003), and which suspend commitment to extend social justice to the whole of society, compelling the poor and ill-disposed to be tightly disciplined through an impositional range of legal and architectural technologies (MacLeod et al, 2003; Smith, 1998). Through recourse to empirical data and experiences drawn from a number of North American cities, we critically interrogate the governance of the conditions (often oppressive) over how urban lives can be lived, and how urban societies have become splintered into crude binary distinctions between those included in social, political and cultural practices and those excluded. In particular, through a focus on the discursive construction of ‘degenerate’ communities as problems to be addressed by specific policy measures that regulate (ideally, inculcate) moral norms and values—‘degenerate’ bodies are thus subject to increased governance, monitoring, policing and regulation and surveillance in the sanitized space of the ‘tourist bubble’ (Judd, 1999). That is, and in the interest of creating ‘capital space’ (Harvey, 2001), the new downtown place of ‘play’ (of which sport plays a central and prefigurative part) is a space designed and managed for the gentrified enclaves, a space emblematic of the ‘securitization’ and ‘fortification’ of ‘degenerate’ communities and codes of conduct that explicitly aim to regulate behavior within the downtown cores of major US cities (Chatterton & Hollands, 2002; MacLeod et al, 2003).
John N. Singer, James Madison University
Black Male Student-Athletes’ Perceptions of Racism in College Sport
This study utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) as an epistemological tool for understanding Black male student-athletes' perceptions of racism and the potential impact racism might have on their experiences and overall development. This qualitative case study included a single focus group and in-depth interviews with four Black male football players in a big-time college sport program at a predominantly White institution (PWI). These Black males felt that racism manifested itself in terms of Blacks 1) being denied access to leadership and major decision-making opportunities, and 2) being treated differently than their White counterparts. These findings point to the need for further studies that are inclusive of the voices of this particular group of student-athletes. Further, these results have implications for administrators, coaches, and academic support personnel in college sport.
Bruce A. Smith and Jessica Parker, University of California Berkeley
Bringing the Sociology of Sport Alive for Summer Bridge Students
This paper describes two classes that utilize a pedagogy of empowerment designed to assist students in challenging sport’s power differentials by creating sport counternarratives. Using a cultural studies perspective, the classes do more than focus on sport studies. In bringing the sociology of sport alive, these classes provide space for students to interrogate sport’s power dynamics and culture of capitalism. As Giroux (1996) states in promoting critical pedagogy and cultural studies, "education is an ongoing site of struggle and contestations" (p. 43). This research examines the possibilities of these struggles. The presenters of this paper are instructors in the Summer Bridge program at the University, an academically and athletically elite public university in the Western half of the United States. Many of these students are considered "academically underprepared" and must attend Summer Bridge to guarantee their admissions. Collected data includes the work produced by these students. The data exhibit the ways it is possible to: (1) read sport (Birrell and McDonanld, 2000) by analyzing its social and political consequences; and (2) write sport by producing counternarratives. The data includes student productions, such as power point presentations and on-the-street interviews, showing the ways students actively participate in authentic assignments.
Maureen Smith, California State University, Sacramento and Becky Beal, University of the Pacific
“Welcome to My Crib”: Locating Athletes’ Masculinities on MTV’s Cribs
MTV has created a series, Cribs, that displays the homes of famous athletes and entertainers. Cribs presents these male athletes and their households as exemplars of ‘making it.’ This paper examines the representation of male athletes in the context of their homes, and how various types of ‘successful’ masculinity are conflated with race and class (e.g., Burstyn, 1999; Dyer, 1997; Kusz, 2001; Lott, 1997; Wald, 1997). We chose ten episodes: 6 of those represent traditional sports such as basketball and the other 4 represent ‘action’ sports such as skateboarding, to discuss MTV’s construction of sporting masculinities.
Sean Smith, Sportsweb Consulting
The Art of Work in the Age of its Recombinant Simulation
The substantial amount of academic attention dedicated to the nature of representation inherent in televised sports stands in stark contrast to the relative non-existence of studies that critically examine the nature of interactive sports simulations, most notably those found in sport-themed videogames and so-called fantasy sports. This void is disconcerting, given the recent market explosion for sports videogames and fantasy sports services, manifest along existing and newfound vectors of sport media consumption. In this paper, I attempt to focus academic discourse on the nature of representation in sports simulation, using a theoretical synthesis of the works of Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard and Walter Benjamin. In laying the foundation for a critical investigation of sports simulations, I suggest that the artistry of the athlete in producing uncertain game outcomes is being opposed by a simultaneous need to rationally “put up numbers” for financial reward. Thus, a tension has arisen in the athlete between the competing identities of uncertainty-producing artist and rational information-producing machine, which surpasses Benjamin’s loss of aura by challenging the very existence of the athletic body itself.
Jan Sokol-Katz, Lorrine Basinger-Flieschman and Jomills Henry Braddock II, University of Miami
Sport as an Engaging Learning Context
One of the biggest challenges educators face today is that of finding effective strategies for increasing academic engagement. This is particularly true for educators of at-risk youth (Finn, 1993). As one of the most pervasive and important social institutions in the lives of American youth, sport represents a valuable and relatively untapped tool for addressing this need. Based on this belief, the Center for Research on Sport in Society (CRSS) created a sport themed mathematics and reading curriculum called TEAMS—Teaching Excellence, Achievement, and Motivation through Sports–and implemented it in an extended school day program with a population of at-risk youth. The curriculum utilized a wide variety of sports and games in order to appeal to the interests of as many children as possible, regardless of age and gender. Learning took place both in the classroom and on the field. In this presentation, we will describe the TEAMS program in more detail and provide the results of its evaluation. We will show that, indeed, this unique approach had a positive and greater effect on students’ reading and math performance, as well as on academic self-concept, when compared to the effect of a traditional after-school program.
Richard M. Southall, University of Memphis, Brett Folske, State University of West Georgia, Kerri Eagan State University of West Georgia, Mark S. Nagel, Georgia State University
Homophobia: Just a “Thing” on United States College Campuses?
Homophobia has been defined as an irrational fear or hatred of gay men, lesbians, or bisexuals. A homophobic individual may also become anxious or afraid when they are perceived as gay or lesbian by others, or anxious or repulsed upon finding themselves attracted to a person of your own sex (Messner, 1994). Many facets of organized sport, including several “major” intercollegiate sports, are highly homophobic cultures and are highly intolerant of gay athletes (Anderson 2000; Griffin 1998). Many athletes feel gay athletes don’t “belong” in intercollegiate sports, and females participating in sport are frequently “labeled” lesbians by onlookers simply based on their participation in sport (Griffin, 1998). The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes toward sexual orientation from a sample of Division II university athletes, looking for possible correlations and/or significant differences in expressed attitudes toward sexuality. The two primary research questions were: a) Are there significant correlations between athletes’ or students’ attitudes toward sexual orientation and various independent variables (gender, ethnicity, athletic participation, sport participation, age, etc), and b) Are there significant differences in athletes’ or students’ attitudes toward sexual orientation based on various independent variables? This study presents the results of a 2003 study of (N = 405) Division II university students, including (n = 105) athletes, and offers a framework for future research.
Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University
"Tennis Whites:" The Unbearable Whiteness of Being "Milk White"
In 2003, a milk mustache ad entitled “Tennis whites” appeared in ESPN: The Magazine and Sports Illustrated. The ad featured three women tennis players, all of whom are coded as White, and each of whom has retired or is nearing the end of her career: Chris Evert, popularly known as “America’s sweetheart;” Monica Seles, an active player on the circuit who appears to be nearing the end of her career; and Mary Joe Fernandez, a former tour player and now ESPN tennis analyst. The heading for the ad reads simply “Tennis Whites,” and features all three players wearing the trademark milk mustache, although none wears traditional all-white tennis apparel. The notion of “Tennis whites” undoubtedly serves as a double entendre, referring on one hand to the outdated practice of requiring tennis players at elite clubs (e.g., Wimbledon) to wear predominantly White apparel, and on the other, to the racial reconfiguration of the previously all-White space of women’s tennis that has occurred since the emergence of the Williams sisters. This paper interrogates the category of “whiteness” within a post-9/11 world where what counts as “White” has been reconfigured to include groups that became merged into an “unhyphenated whole” (Roediger, 2002).
Brett St. Louis, University of California, San Diego
Sport and the Politics of Biocultural Racial Explanation
Given the popularity of sport and its common acceptance as a marker of human attributes, patterns of racial performance and achievement within particular sports are easily accepted as empirical examples and evidence of meaningful racial difference. This paper discusses the analytical salience and popular resonance of explanations of the biological and cultural basis of racially distributed athletic capacities. I argue that such biocultural forms of racial explanation are especially significant in two key senses: first, their capacity to move between the biological and socio-cultural forms of racial description offers a potent antidote to the competing assertions of race as either biological fact or social and cultural construction. Second, by combining ostensibly scientific frameworks with intuitive understanding, moral argument and the popular sporting medium, the biocultural mode of racial explanation and its conclusions on the racial distribution of athletic propensities can be defended through appeals to intellectual freedom and value-free objective scientism while representing a much-needed opposition to the evils of liberal and radical ideological dogma and political correctness. Taken together, this categorical and analytical fluidity is a valuable political resource that cannot be easily dismissed or countered, nonetheless I draw attention to a series of methodological inconsistencies and ethical dilemmas as demanding urgent attention. And, perhaps most importantly, I ask whether we can justifiably ignore the implications of remaining ensnared by a furtive and fundamental fascination with qualitatively meaningful racialized difference.
Jane M. Stangl, Smith College
A Spiritual Swing? Transmitting Buddha through (a) Tiger
Broadly speaking, this paper attempts to explore the intersections of Zen/Buddhism with golf in contemporary culture. Currently, golf’s world-wide appeal and increasing attention to health and well being—drawing on core ideas from eastern philosophies such as Zen, and spiritual/physical practices such as yoga—offers a hybrid sort of intermeshing across disciplines and traditions that has arguably been (mis)appropriated from and disassociated with its historical moorings. This work offers a critical reading of the narratives that dominant mainstream (sport and golf) press and the ideological underpinnings that have seemingly turned to a more contemplative approach toward such activity. By drawing on connections between Vijay Singh’s endorsement of Joseph Parent’s popular “Zen Golf” (2002), Phil Mickelson’s 2004 win at Augusta, and Tiger Woods multi-cultural appeal above all, the goal of this work in large part examines the transmission and translation of Buddhism especially, to golf, particularly. In that such a cultural shift offers a striking paradox to a venue that is socially and historically wracked with elitism, gender-bias, ethnic and racial inequalities, and environmental controversies, such connections are timely. What inroads this philosophy cum religion, and such intercultural dialogue impresses on contemporary western sporting practices more broadly, are critical questions that drive this inquiry.
Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College
Empowering Athletes To Control Their Fate As Students
Central to the Drake Group position on college athletic reform is a proposal to require athletes to achieve a minimum 2.0 grade point average in order to participate in their sports. This presentation will provide context for this proposal. This proposal will be presented from an athlete empowerment perspective and will be contrasted with what is ordinarily thought of within contemporary National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rhetoric as “student-athlete welfare”. An argument will be made that athletes’ rights are eroded or severely diminished as a result of the inequity of power inherent within the present-day coach/athlete relationship. As a result, athletes have less opportunity than other students to advocate on behalf of their own educational and intellectual best interests. In effect, this proposal argues for a corrective that will offer protections for college athletes that emphasizes “graduation eligibility” rather than “athletic eligibility”.
Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College
The “Sport” Sociology Exemption in the U.S. Faculty Bias Discourse
In recent years, American culture has become rife with allegations that the professoriate is liberally biased and routinely engages in violating principles of academic freedom. In an effort to stem the tide of this perceived imbalance in American classrooms, a movement to research faculty bias on college and universities has been initiated by a group called
Students for Academic Freedom. In the spring of 2004, I had occasion to participate in a faculty and student forum on the issue of academic freedom, faculty bias, and “intellectual diversity” on campus. During the course of the discussion, I questioned how valid the research on faculty bias was given the fact that the criteria for selection limited scrutiny
to a narrow set of “professorial research subjects” from a list of 11 departments and disciplines. Sociology is one of those listed department. Sport sciences departments (management, kinesiology, exercise science) are not. An explanation was offered that “sport has to do with muscles” and “doesn’t have anything to do with politics”. This exchange left me wondering whether it was better to be perceived as a threat to academic
freedom or so irrelevant as to be no threat at all. Given the construction of the research being done on faculty bias, a sport sociologist in a sociology department, for example, is eligible to be scrutinized for faculty bias while a sport sociologist in a department of
sport management receives an exemption. This paper will provide an overview of the recent history of academic freedom issues in the U.S., the polarized frameworks and assumptions used to shape the debate (liberal/conservative) and conclude with consideration given to the implications this holds for scholars who wish to study sport.
Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward
Social Class, Gender and the Sporting Capital-Economic Capital Nexus
This study is part of a larger project that uses Bourdieu’s theories to analyze how sport operates as cultural, physical and social capital. It builds on Curtis et al’s (2003) study which revived and reformulated work done on the economic payoffs of high school sport participation that used the individualistic status attainment model. The theoretical and analytical limitations of the status attainment studies are discussed. Curtis et al (2003) looked at long range effects of high school sport participation on adult income levels among all Canadian adults over the age of 24. The present study refines their understanding of sport as cultural capital, tests the high school sport participation–adult income relationship for the U.S., and is the first study that tests how adult sport participation mediates the high school sport participation–adult income relationship. It also explores gender, social class, and age differences in the high school varsity sport–adult income relationship. It finds a moderately strong relationship for men of all educational groups for men age 22-44 that is highly mediated by adult sport participation, and for college-educated women age 22-54 that is weakly mediated by adult sport participation. The findings are analyzed using Bourdieu’s conception of rites of institution.
Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward
Televised Sports, Masculinist Moral Capital and Support for the Iraqi War
This study presents systematic data demonstrating the existence of a televised masculinist sport-militaristic nationalism complex that contributes to support for imperialistic wars by the United States. The masculinist sport-militaristic nationalism complex includes a variety of televised sports that represent, iconize and naturalize a combination of masculinist and nationalistic ideals and morals, and a field of politics where imperialist military projects are imagined and popular support and acquiescence is garnered. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 1048 Americans, I show that in the summer of 2003 the level of involvement in televised masculinist sports was strongly correlated with support for the Iraqi war, the unilateralist doctrine of preventive attacks, and strong patriotic feelings for the U.S. Both critical feminists and figurationalists posit a linkage between war and masculinist sports that is based on a macho- or hyper-masculinity found most in combat sports such as football. Using Lamont’s work on moral capital and Lakoff’s work on the conservative worldview I develop an alternative conception of hegemonic masculinity that emphasizes moral strength, moral authority, and moral order. All three theories posit a Masculinist Sport-Militaristic Nationalism complex, but only the Lakoff-Lamont theory predicts the patterns found in the study.
Chris Stevenson, University of New Brunswick
"King Frog" vs. "Madelaine": Gender Differences in Sport-Related Computer-Mediated Communications
Research has shown that men and women differ not only in the styles and the content of their face-to-face communications (Tannen, 1990), but such gender differences also exist in computer-mediated communications (cmc) (Herring, 2003). This project attempted to replicate these findings specific to a sport internet discussion group. The internet discussion group, rec.sport.swimming, was chosen and all cmc for one month, April 2004, were collected. Analyses of these data (N = 624 cmc) consisted of categorizing the topics discussed, generating descriptive statistics regarding apparent male and apparent female cmc (given that gender assignment is problematic and gender identity morphing is possible), and a content analysis to examine the communication styles of the apparent male and female discussants. The data indicate that the majority of cmc were apparently male, with only 9% apparently female—which is typical for such open cmc groups. The predominant topics of interest were around the politics, ethics, and consequences of the disqualification of Ian Thorpe at the Australian Olympic trials. Focusing on the threads in which most of the apparent females cmc occurred, the content analysis indicated that the characteristics of both the apparent male and female cmc were consonant with the research literature.
Thomas B. Stevenson, Ohio University, Zanesville
Naela Nasr: Symbol of the South Yemeni State
From 1967 to 1990 South Yemen was anomalous: an Arab Muslim state pursuing a socialist ideology. The state implemented a number of laws promoting women’s equality. It also adopted policies to encourage women’s participation in physical activities including the support of women’s sports teams in the national club system. These teams’ successes were primarily in domestic competitions and so star athletes did not achieve the stature of Maradona or Pele, representatives of national character. Still a number of women were recognized by the state as the embodiment of national goals. As such they were given widespread media attention and in the case of Naela Nasr enjoyed national prominence which continues to the present. Available models don’t seem to describe women as national icons. For example, neither women’s body culture (Brownell, 1995) nor physical and psychological embodiment of national virtues
(Achetti, 1999) seem to apply in most Muslim nations. This paper, based on research currently in process, provides some preliminary data and analysis on women as representatives of national identity.
Keith Strudler, Marist College
The Growth of NASCAR: Ethical Issues in Corporate Sponsorships
The growth of NASCAR and its various racing series have been buoyed by loyal corporate sponsorships at a variety of levels. However, as the sport has grown from regional, second tier events to world wide media showcases, the value and power of these sponsorships have grown as well. While this has been positive for the sport, allowing eager corporations to reach a fiercely loyal and growing audience, this growth hasn’t come without ethical quandaries. Of particular concern is the promotion of villain products such as cigarettes and alcohol, particularly to young fans and viewers, evading the voluntary ban on advertising these products on network television. This paper will examine the evolving nature of sponsorship in NASCAR races, paying particular attention to villain products. This will be done in two steps. First, revolving sponsorship agreements will be examined from a historical perspective, particularly as NASCAR traded Winston for the global communication corporation Nextel as its primary sponsor. Second, textual and content analysis will be done on three NASCAR events (Nextel Cup, Busch Series, and Craftsman Truck). Each race will be evaluated for prominence of sponsors and visibility of villain products. Finally, potential effects and predictions for future evolution will be discussed.
Philip Suchma and Sarah L. Offenbaker, Ohio State University
Flop, Turn, River: Alcohol Use and Gambling Among College Students
The notion of "Student Wellness" is an all-encompassing concept of student health; addressing physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, career, and social components. Many colleges and universities have turned to "alternative" or "late night" programs in an attempt to promote student wellness. These programs also directly address drinking cultures on campus (i.e. underage and binge drinking), and often include sports and games among their activities. In the Spring 2004, Ohio State University's Late Night Programming included a late night poker tournament on its calendar of events. Both gambling and alcohol are potentially addictive behaviors, especially among college students who participate at levels three to five times higher than does the adult population (Griffiths, 1994; Shaffer, et al., 2000; and Takushi, et al., 2004). Such programming calls into question the rationale and responsibility in using a gambling-based event to counter alcohol-abuse among students. This paper hopes to raise questions about the growing problems of gambling and the existing problem of alcohol use on campus by briefly looking at the link between the two. Professional, scholarly, and student perspectives on this issue came from a review of scholarly literature, university sponsored assessment of late night programming, and a survey of participating students.
John Sugden, University of Brighton
Football for Peace (F4P): Sport, Community, Conflict and Co-existence in Israel.
The post cold-war world is no less troubled than when West confronted East across chilled northern European frontiers. Instead of the definable stand-off between Western and Soviet military and political blocs we are enmeshed in a less tangible, but perhaps more ancient conflict between Western and Islamic ideological and political world views. This conflict has many manifestations and has led to wars being fought on several fronts. However, at its centre is the conflict in the Middle East between Jewish and Arab peoples. There is a widely held belief that if a lasting peace could be achieved in the Middle East, then serious conflict in other theatres, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, would be much easier to resolve. Clearly, the key dimensions of any peace plan in Israel/Palestine have to be political, military and economic. However, if proposals articulating at these levels do not resonate with the feelings and aspirations of the people, if they are not sympathetically received at the level of community, then it is unlikely that such grand schemes can succeed. It is important therefore, that work taking place at the level of political society is matched and complemented through efforts being made within the multiple spheres of civil society and this includes popular culture. Drawing upon fieldwork carried out in the Galilee region of Israel (2001-2004), this paper argues that sport can make an important contribution to the development of the cultural dimensions that are required to support the political machinery of peace processes in places like Israel/Palestine.
Lisa Swanson, Towson University
Upper-Middle Class Mothering: The "Soccer Mom's" Transformation of Capital
According to Bourdieu (1986) economic capital can be manipulated and transformed into both cultural and social forms of capital. This transformation of economic capital requires a “specific labor, i.e., an apparently gratuitous expenditure of time, attention, care, concern” (p. 253). Such labor necessary for transformation to take place can only occur if one’s economic capital is significant enough to allow time for the exchange. Bourdieu (1986) points out that within a family, the amount of free time a mother possesses is particularly important in enabling that family to experience the transformation of capital and to reap the delayed benefits. This paper examines the “soccer mom’s” transformation of capital as a result of upper-middle class habitus. Data used in this paper are results from a much larger ethnographic study of a group of mothers with young soccer-playing sons. Included in this paper is an analysis of the upper-middle class demands the mothers placed on their sons, reasons soccer fit with their upper-middle class body schema, and the social capital the mothers gained as a result of being part of their group. The paper concludes that the subjects effectively utilize the soccer field as a field of cultural reproduction for their sons. This analysis contributes to an understanding of “how systems of domination co-construct one another, and how we are ‘enlisted’, materially and ideologically in their continued operation” (Frankenberg, 1994, p. 75).
Heather Sykes, University of Toronto
Freudian Psychoanalysis and Queer Embodiment in Sport and PE
This paper speculates how sport and physical education entail aggression and identification, suggesting this may be a useful way of thinking through normalization processes in contemporary educational and sporting contexts. I trace how queer theorists (such as Eng, Shildrick, Butler, Sedgwick) have used Freudian psychoanalytic theory to theorize embodiment and, in particular, body image. I will suggest that bodily movement, athleticism and, by extension, sport involve dynamics of aggression toward the body. Also, the notion that physical education relies upon the ambivalent processes of repression and identification will be explored.
Kenneth C. Teed, George Mason University, Damien Clement, West Virginia University, Heather Bosetti, Independent Scholar
Brown vs. Board of Education: Sport as an Agent of Change
The purpose of this poster is to highlight one case study in high school desegregation. The landmark decisions of the US Supreme Court in 1954 and 1971 had yet to be realized in many states. The Virginia policy of K6-2-2-2 (1971) was enacted to drive economic and racial benefits to a segregated educational system. The film, Remember the Titans described how sport was used as one device to create racial awareness and a climate of equality. Sport and Education are large cultural institutions that do not accept change easily. This poster documents some of the experiences of the State championship team of 1971 at T.C. Williams High School. A number of athletes and coaches from that team were given structured interviews to garner their insights surrounding the changes in the Northern Virginia athletic and school system. Each participant was queried as to the significant social impact and relevant cultural aspects that Sport played in the desegregation of the school system. Central to this issue was the introduction of an African American head coach in a predominately White school system. This paper seeks to record the growing pains of a Northern Virginia community with Brown vs. Board of Education.
Holly Thorpe, Waikato University
Embodied Boarders: Snowboarding, Status and Style
The body is a symbol of status, a system of social markings, and a site of distinctions. Drawing on documentary and visual sources, combined with participant observations, this article explores the body as a signifier through an examination of numerous cultural practices used by snowboarders to distinguish themselves from non-snowboarders and each other. In examining embodied snowboarders I firstly analyse their cultural tastes and styles of dress, language, and bodily deportment. Secondly, I consider how boarders earn symbolic capital through demonstrations of commitment, physical prowess and risk taking. This analysis implicitly views the body as a social phenomenon, that is, it conceptualises the body as a possessor of power, a form of status, a bearer of
symbolic value, and a form of physical capital. The body now plays a central role in producing and reproducing social groups, and the “embodied boarder” is an important case study for understanding how contemporary youth both construct and make sense of their worlds.
Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University
Rothblatt's Apartheid of Sex and IOC Transsexual Inclusion
In 1995 Martine Rothblatt published The Apartheid of Sex. In this text she argued that society is fundamentally organized in terms of sex segregation to the extent that it can be termed "apartheid". One of the key institutions for maintaining and normalizing sex segregation and reinforcing the secondary status of women in western societies, she documented, is that of sport. The recent decision by the International Olympic Committee to allow post-operative transsexuals to compete in their assigned sex category raises interesting questions about essentialist assumptions of sex difference and the role of sport in maintaining sex segregation. In this paper I summarize Rothblatt's argument and explore the implications of the IOC's ruling on the role of sport in maintaining sex segregation and reinforcing gender inequality.
Gabriela Tymowski, University of New Brunswick
Lifestyle Choices: Parental Accountability and the Problem of Childhood Obesity
When parents "allow" their children to become obese, are those children being harmed? If parents have duties to prevent their children from being harmed, and to care for and nurture their children's health and wellness, and if the state of obesity is harmful, then those children are being harmed. This paper will argue that the condition of obesity ought indeed to be considered harm, and that the obese child's rights to freedom from harm and to an open future are being abrogated.
Cathy van Ingen, Brock University
For Richer, for Poorer: A First Nations Casino and the “Urban Crisis”
Gambling has been normalized as a legitimate form of entertainment comparable to visiting a shopping mall or theme park (Ritzer, 2001). Enoch Cree Nation, a First Nations reservation that borders the western outskirts of the City of Edmonton, in Alberta, Canada recently obtained the first casino license granted to a First Nations community in the province. The announcement was introduced amidst significant controversy, media coverage and political fanfare. Partnered with Las Vegas based Paragon Gaming, Enoch Cree Nation reveals plans to build a premier resort centre, gambling, sport and entertainment complex. For tribal leaders the Enoch Casino and Entertainment Centre is viewed as key to the economic development of this First Nations community. The $127-million casino complex will include two hotels, several restaurants, a small concert venue, a sports bar, health club and spa, and a sports complex with two indoor soccer fields, a swimming pool, and two ice arenas, including one Olympic sized. This presentation explores the tensions that surface as boundaries between urban consumption, economic growth and a First Nations reservation are “imploded”. Using David Smith’s (1997, 1999, 2000, 2001) notion of ‘moral geographies’ and David Sibley’s (1995) concept of ‘boundary consciousness’ I focus on the ways in which race structures understandings of both place and gambling.
Karin Volkwein-Caplan, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Homophobia in Women's Sport
Introduction: Homophobia, the irrational fear of homosexuality or homosexuals, combined with the lack of a body of knowledge and research on this subject (Greendorfer & Rubinson, 1997) has had a significant impact on women in sport. Too often, athletic women are viewed as "not normal" or "manly in nature." This leads to the perception that women athletes are lesbians (Griffin, 1989). Some of the underlying beliefs are that a woman who trains to be strong, powerful, and muscular must want to be male and, therefore, to attract other women (Women's Sports Foundation, 2000a). Society's fear of homosexuality, according to the Women's Sports Foundation, is one of the remaining tools to keep women from participating in sport. Impact of Homophobia: Women who do participate in sport may find their athletic skills demeaned, employment opportunities lost (Griffin, 1992) or endorsements revoked due to their perceived sexual orientation. Manifestations of homophobia in women's sport result in a preference for male coaches (Griffin, 1992). Many girls, fearful of being labeled as lesbians, choose not to participate in sports (Women's Sports Foundation, 2000b). As a result of homophobia, the psychological well-being of many females who remain active in sport continues to be hindered. Homophobia can also negatively impact the physical well-being of females. Studies show that women who are physically active have a lower incidence of osteoporosis, breast cancer, and depression, as well as higher self-esteem. In addition, girls who participate in sports have a lower frequency of teen pregnancy and higher graduation rates (Women’s Sports Foundation, 2000b). Given these benefits, women and girls should be encouraged to participate in sports. Rather, the homophobia-based barriers inhibit women and girls from participating (Lenskyj, 1990), resulting in them missing out on the physical and mental benefits that sports afford. Focus of Paper: The lack of theoretical frameworks or applications of theory make it difficult to draw specific conclusions about homophobia (Greendorfer & Rubinson, 1997). This paper considers the impact of homophobia on women in sport, discusses the psychological and physical implications of this impact, and proposes a theory of why homophobia is a critical mechanism in sport.
Faye Linda Wachs, Cal Poly Pomona
When Transgressive Leisure Isn’t: Women in “Male Identified” Sports
This paper examines how female athletes understand their sport experience in sports that are traditionally considered “male.” These women frequently expressed feelings of "fitting in," "feeling at home," and a discourse of "finding oneself." The feeling of fitting in best in a place previously defined as inappropriate for women creates an interesting paradox. It would seem that for many of these women, the ways that they learned to "do" selfhood, and even often "do gender" made them feel they fit in best in forums previously assumed to be antithetical to femininity.
Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton
Compromised “Reality” and the “Involuntary Insider”: The Case of Leilani Rios
In 2001, Cal State Fullerton cross country runner Leilani Rios was dismissed from her team for refusing to discontinue her career as a stripper at a Southern California night club. The story became fodder for an extraordinary variety of media accounts in the national and international media. Some outlets cast the case as emblematic of hypocrisy and gender politics-as-usual, while others contextualized the story as a humorous sideline to the more “serious” issues in sport. This paper explores the schizophrenic depictions of the case within popular media accounts and the disconnection of those accounts from the actual facts—but also notes the ultimate irrelevance of those facts. It also notes that this case can be cited to advance both second and third wave feminist accounts of contemporary sport. While many media accounts furthered an already well established voyeuristic frame on women athletes, interviews with Ms. Rios suggested little that would compromise her identity and experience as an athlete. Finally, the paper explores the both subtle and obvious ethical implications of being an involuntary “insider” in such a case, given that the author was both a member of campus athletics committees and subsequently a professor of Ms. Rios.
Tracy Walker, University of Toronto
The Dirt on Female Athlete Self-Description
This paper concentrates on the feedback effect of how female athletes incorporate the lexicon of sport media into their own language, and performs a qualitative inquiry into how female athletes internalize and project the language and tone of sport media and speculation on how that affects other girls and women in sport. I ask whether in 2004 the prospect of getting dirty, being unkempt, and demonstrating that a woman is willing to extend her body and spirit to its utmost to win regardless of how that may be construed, constrains the performances and limits the careers of the female athlete. Or is that athletes will inevitably get dirty of no consequence to them, or alternately, a measure of engagement and effort?” “Getting dirty” is my metaphor for athletes who reject the norms of conventional femininity, and I find significant evidence of historical change and a revision of the “female apologetic” in sport.
D. Scott Waltemyer, Texas A. & M. University
The Influence of Leadership and Ethical Orientation on Intercollegiate Athletics
Intercollegiate athletics are ever growing in popularity, but along with this popularity has come an increase in NCAA violations. Many university presidents, as well as the public, feel there is need for change (Kuga, 1996). In order to change this pattern of behavior, Trail and Chelladurai (2000) suggest that research move away from looking at specific violations, and look at the deeper issue, the goals and processes that lead to these violations. Research has shown (i.e. Scott, 1999) that leader behavior can influence the climate, and employee behaviors, within an organization. Weaver and Trevino (1999) found that an organization’s ethical orientation can, also, lead to different employee attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this presentation is to present a framework which suggests that the leadership of an intercollegiate athletic department will influence the ethical orientation of the athletic department. In turn, the ethical orientation is thought to impact the goals and processes that are emphasized, which, in turn, affect employee attitudes and behaviors. Implications for reform are discussed.
Theresa Walton, Kent State University
Women’s Olympic Wrestling Debut: A Critical Examination of IOC Evaluation Criteria
Just as women’s explosion into collegiate sport has been framed as costing men’s participation opportunities (Walton, 2004), women’s wrestling inclusion into the Olympic Games in 2004 has been held accountable for denying some men their Olympic dreams. The International Olympic Committee decision to add women’s wrestling in 2002 came with announcements of cuts to weight classes offered in men’s wrestling and boxing, tying the two together in public consciousness. Yet, the IOC record of including women has been less than enthusiastic throughout the century, with women currently comprising only one third of the athletes. Given the declared intent of current IOC president Jacques Rogge to limit the growth of the Games, while also looking at gender equity as an issue of “image” to be improved, Olympic opportunities are framed as a zero-sum game. If women win, men automatically lose. And, in fact, the IOC anticipates that for the first time in recent memory, the Athens Games will offer fewer events (299) and host fewer athletes (10,508) than the previous Games (Sydney 2000–300 events, 10,655 athletes), thereby bucking the tradition of continual growth. These decisions have important ramifications for the acceptance of female athletes into the Olympic fold–particularly from International Federations (IF), which must be supportive for admittance into the Games. In this paper I will examine the IOC’s evaluation criteria for adding and maintaining sports and disciplines along with a critical media examination of the coverage of women’s Olympic wrestling at the Athens Games. Whether and how the media covers this event will determine the future of women’s wrestling on the Olympic stage. Media interest (including written press coverage, television coverage, and Internet coverage), spectator interest and support, as well as the IF’s sponsorship and marketing programs are all part of the IOC’s criteria for judging the popularity of the sport and therefore its privileged status as an Olympic event.
Chiung-Hsia Wang and Ping-Kun Chiu, University of Northern Colorado
Does a New Stadium Benefit the Community?
State policymakers think that building or renovating stadiums/arenas increases per capita income and benefits a community. However, Baade (1996) found no positive connections between professional sports and per capita income, and Coates and Humphreys (2001, 2003) demonstrated that professional sport in the short run reduces local real income, and has only a small positive effect on employees’ earnings in the long run. Between 1996 and 2006, over $8 billion will be spent on sports facilities at colleges and universities (Zimbalist, 1999). The purpose of this study is to develop an empirical model to examine whether the NCAA sports environment changes the level of per capita income in communities. It examines communities that built or renovated stadiums/arenas between 1980 and 2002. This study could make policymakers rethink the true situation of building or renovating stadiums /arenas.
Anne Warner, Queen's University
Women’s Interuniversity Sport within a Patriarchal Institution: A Case Study of Queen’s Women in the 1920s
In 1920, women from Queen’s University and McGill University met to compete in the first interuniversity women’s game in eastern Canada. Along with increasing numbers of women entering Ontario universities, this momentous game represented a breaking down of two traditional male strongholds: higher education and sport. Using primary research sources from the Queen’s University Archives, this paper presents a qualitative exploration of the university environment for both women in general and female athletes during the 1920s at Queen’s. First, the paper addresses why the conditions leading up to 1920 were particularly favourable for women to become involved in intercollegiate competition. Second, the paper discusses how the university, as a patriarchal institution grappling with conflicting views about the appropriate role of women, placed constraints on their activities within the university. Finally, the paper explores how Victorian perceptions about masculinity and beliefs about innate physiological and psychological differences shaped the response of men to women’s foray into intercollegiate sport in the 1920s. Using Queen’s as a case study, this paper offers an in-depth view into the factors that constrained and facilitated the development of intercollegiate athletics at Ontario universities in the early twentieth century and laid the foundation for women’s interuniversity sport participation today.
Valerie Wayda, Amy Kent, Cebronica Scott and Jeff Pauline, Ball State University
A Reflective Look at Hoosiers in Middletown, USA
Many sociology students are required to read about Middletown. However, is there a chapter missing from the books? The purpose of this presentation will be to focus on one high school within Middletown, USA to examine the impact of Brown vs. the Board of Education on the desegregation and integration of the sport program and the community. While the majority of the American population may know of Muncie Central High School as the "big school" which lost the state basketball championship to the little school of Milan in the movie Hoosiers, the school has a rich history of success especially on the hard court with eight state titles. One factor which was unique to the State of Indiana sports programs prior to 1997 was that it had a classless system where all schools competed against each other in post-season play without any regard for the school’s enrollment. The authors will present a pictorial history of Muncie Central’s sports programs over the past 50 years.
Lawrence A. Wenner, Loyola Marymount University
The Case of Janet Jackson vs. the Super Bowl: An Analysis of Synergy, Promotional Communication, Crisis Management, and Ethics
This case study examines the context of and reaction to the uncovering of singer Janet Jackson’s breast during the broadcast of the 2004 Super Bowl halftime show. Using a select thick reading of the event and its coverage, the analysis focuses on 1) the construction of the event by its organizational stakeholders, 2) the reconstruction of understandings about how the fiasco came to be and what really happened and should have happened, and 3) the deconstruction of the event by critics and those in the political environment who had reason to consider the incident and response to it in a broader social context. Strategies for change and the prospects for “ethical health” in the sport marketplace are considered, with special attention given to promotional communication and crisis management.
Emma H. Wensing, University of Toronto
Securing the Olympics: The Impact of Terrorism on Athens 2004
The Olympic Games provide a global stage for political statement. As a major international event that gathers athletes and dignitaries from around the globe, its potential as a terrorism target is widely known. Indeed, events at Munich and Atlanta for example, shook the Olympic and wider global communities in such a way that the security of athletes and the public is of paramount concern to Olympic organizers. As the first Olympics since the 9/11 attacks on the USA, the Athens Games have been assessed as a major target for terrorism. Consequentially, these security concerns have influenced the preparation for the Games, and will undoubtedly change the Olympic experience for athletes, spectators and media personnel. Using textual and document analysis, and by locating the Games in a wider context of increased terrorism concern, this presentation will examine the impact security measures had on the 2004 Olympic experience for key stakeholders.
Brian J. Wigley and Gina Daddario, Shenandoah University
Racial Marking, Stereotyping, and Preferential-Positioning in the 2004 Summer Olympics
Racial stacking refers to sport-related stereotyping which assigns athletes to specific sporting positions based on assumptions about race and intrinsic ability. This phenomenon fosters the perception that White athletes are better suited to positions requiring intelligence and leadership, while Black athletes are more likely to excel in those requiring strength and speed. Sport positioning based on race is often reinforced by athletic coaches and media commentators. This study proposes to examine the extent to which racial and gender marking appears in the sport commentary and television coverage of athletes participating in the 2004 Summer Games. The marking literature has tended to focus on gender and how some sports are stereotyped as “masculine” or “feminine,” while the stacking literature has focused on assumptions based on racial characteristics. This study is an attempt to converge gender marking research with racial-stacking literature in an examination of Olympic telecasts. Our findings could suggest that racial-marking is a contributing factor to racial-stacking in that athletes presumed to possess certain physical or psychological attributes are assigned certain athletic roles. That rhetorical treatment of athletes based on race could lead to a form of exclusion–labeled here as “positional exclusion in sport”–will also be considered.
Eli Wolff, Northeastern University, Ted Fay, SUNY, Cortland and Mary Hums, University of Louisville
Inclusion, Integration and Human Rights: From the Athlete Perspective
This presentation will describe research conducted on the views and opinions of a cross-section of “Paralympic” athletes concerning their perspectives on their status within the Olympic Movement, the Olympic Games, and related international sport federations and their respective competitions and championships. This presentation will examine the significant mainstream symbols and institutions of international sport in terms of their relevance in providing credibility and legitimacy to athletes with disabilities as elite athletes. The results of this exploratory study will also outline using a critical theory perspective of the relationship between the athlete perspectives on integration and inclusion into elite sport and their corresponding views concerning overall human rights. Further, this paper will present a framework for assessing the value and apparent respect or disrespect given to disability-specific sport opportunities being added as divisions or parts of existing mainstream sport governance, sporting events, programs and/or organizations. An assessment will also be presented as a means to discuss sport in this context as a means of transformation or the reinforcement of existing hegemony within sport governance models and organizations. Comparative linking of other related histories of marginalized identity groups (e.g., race and gender) in sport and societies will serve as the basis for discussion followed by recommendations for future research needs in this nascent area of sport sociology as it more openly addresses issues of ableism in sport.
Eli Wolff, Northeastern University, Howard L. Nixon II, Towson University and Ian Brittain, University of Warwick
Incorporating Perspectives on Athletes with a Disability into the Sport Sociology Curriculum
This presentation proposes important perspectives, issues and research about athletes with a disability in sport that could be included in introduction to sport sociology courses to enrich them and expand their usual focus. The significance and historical context of athletes with a disability in sport introduces this presentation. Athletes with a disability are discussed in relation to major sociological topics, such as stratification and the sports opportunity structure, discrimination, integration, segregation, power, social identity and socialization, gender, race, minority relations, cultural diversity, the role of the media and the organizational hierarchy of sport, which suggest places to fit the discussion of athletes with a disability into the sport sociology curriculum. Terms and ideas specifically related to disability sport and the involvement of athletes with a disability in sport are also presented. Key issues and debates about the involvement of persons with a disability in disability and mainstream sport are proposed as additional ways of integrating topics about disability and sport into the curriculum.
Andrew Yiannakis, University of Connecticut
Quo Vadis Sport Sociology? Is There a Future for You in the Horizon?
The presentation provides a brief outline of the development of the society from its inception in 1978 to the first conference in Denver in 1980. It also identifies and discusses the issues and problems that confronted (and some still continue to do so today) the organization over the years, from the early days to the present. The discussion also alludes to significant contributions by key sport sociologists, their impact on the growth and development of the society and their influence in shaping the future of both the field and the organization. The paper concludes with a discussion and analysis of current conditions, opportunities for growth, the emergence and influence of sport management and the current and future roles of the original parent “disciplines”, sociology and sport studies. Finally, the author suggests a wider role for the sociology of sport in the 21st century and proposes the use of a sociocultural perspective in the analysis of sport in history; a perspective that we may call sociocultural historiography of sport (e.g., a sociocultural analysis of the ancient Olympic Games).
Kathleen S. Yep, Claremont Colleges
"Orientalism and its Discontents": Basketball and Performing Nation and Racialized Masculinities
In 1939-1940 and 1940-1941, the first and only professional Chinese American men's basketball team, known as the Hong Wah Kues, traveled around the United States and Canada. On the barnstorming circuit, the Hong Wah Kues competed against local Caucasian teams as well as other "ethnic theme teams" such as the African American Harlem Globetrotters, a Native American team, and a White ethnic team representing a religious colony. Described in racialized and gendered terms by local newspapers as "tiny little oriental rug cutters" or the "foreign attackers," the newspaper coverage and the promotional marketing defined the borders of "America" through contradictory but simultaneous themes of alien invasion and assimilation. Through an analysis of newspapers, advertisements and key informant interviews, this paper explores the use of novelty and sport to (re)articulate racialized notions of masculinity and nation.
Alana Young, University of Ottawa
The Flipside: Female Skateboarders and Risk Discourses
This study follows on a presentation made at NASSS 2003 that documented young women’s experiences in the skateboarding subculture. Although the concept of risk was not the focus of this study, women’s understanding of risks was integral to their explanations of women’s minimal participation in skateboarding. Specifically, young women referred to the physical and social risks associated with skateboarding and with identifying with a masculine, street-based subculture. This study explores young women’s skateboarding experiences and how ideas of ‘risk’ converge with ideas of femininity in shaping the skateboard subculture and practices as ‘inappropriate’ for young women. Despite the evidence of counter risk discourses, a majority of research has situated young women’s risk taking behaviours as negative and within the dominant discourse of masculinity and risk. Lupton (1999) argues that women’s risk-taking behaviours can be beneficial, as counter discourses encourage the ability to surpass expectations of performing gender.
Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse
Reaching Minority Customers through Athlete Endorsement
In the past, the major target market for most corporations was men between the ages of 18-35. Today, due to the change of society and a new direction of business, corporations have started to expand their target market to other groups of customers, such as women and ethnic populations. Consumers now receive numerous forms of advertising information daily through television, radio, magazines, newspapers and the World Wide Web. As a result, corporations are using different advertising strategies to reach their target market in order to deliver the message in the most effective way; minority athlete endorsement is one of them. For example, Parra, a speed skater who is the first Mexican-American to win the Winter Olympics gold, and Yao Ming, an NBA star originally from China, have several endorsement deals. Having minority athletes endorsing the products not only serves as a role model for youth, it also provides marketing potential among minority groups. The presenter will first discuss the current trend of advertising strategies for minority populations. Further, the presenter will introduce a variety of examples of minority athletes’ endorsements and discuss how it might affect the growing trend of sports globalization.
Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse and Brenda Soto-Torres, Nova Southeastern University
Social Influences among Minority Women Engaging in Exercise for Health Purposes
Engaging in regular exercise to maintain health-related fitness and to raise the quality of life is currently a significant issue for the population ranging from children, youth, adults, and senior citizens in every country. According to the research (Wedderkopp, Froberg, Hansen, & Andersen, 2004), low physical fitness and obesity have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease risk. As a result, the government in various countries such as the USA and Taiwan, and scholars and practitioners in health and physical education have developed numerous plans to encourage individual’s engagement in exercise for health purposes. In recent years, research and planning have been focusing on the studies from physiological concerns, such as child obesity and menopausal women with osteoporosis. However, little research has been discussed from the cultural and social influences for individual’s participation in exercise to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, because of traditional cultural and social biases, women are not encouraged to participate in physical activities among some ethnic and racial groups such as Asians and Hispanics. Thus, this presentation will describe the cultural and social effects for Asian and Hispanic women’s engagement in physical activities for health purposes. Information and suggestions will also be provided for designing and promoting exercise for health purposes among Asian and Hispanic women.