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Emma Pérez, University of Colorado

Session 9

11:45 p.m. – 1:15 p.m.

Session 9A Canyon B

Interdisciplinary Dialogues with NASSS Keynote, Emma Pérez, University of Colorado

Presider: Mary G. McDonald, Miami University

Session 9B Canyon C

Power, Gender and Media Images: What Would Stuart Hall Say?

Session Organizer and Presider: Jim Steele, James Madison

Media Representations of Gender and Physicality: Women’s Martial Arts,

Janelle Joseph, University of Toronto

Cross-National Comparisons of Newspapers' Gendered Coverage of Wimbledon 2004, Jane Crossman, Lakehead University and John Vincent, The University of Alabama

Broadcast Sport, Communication and Culture,

Fabrice Desmarais and Toni Bruce, University of Waikato

Good Gays and Bad Gays: The “Faggot” Gimmick in Professional Wrestling,

Larry DeGaris, James Madison University

Session 9C Pima

The Reform Movement in College Sport

Panel Organizer and Presider: Michael Malec, Boston College

This panel is co-sponsored by The Drake Group

Empowering Athletes to Control Their Fate as Students,

Ellen J. Staurowsky, Ithaca College

The Faculty and Contemporary Intercollegiate Athletics Reform Efforts: The DrakeGroupand the Coalition for Intercollegiate Athletics, Steve Estes, East Carolina University

Faculty Power: How to Jump Start the Athletic Reform Process,

Allen Sack, University of New Haven

Discussant: Welch Suggs, The Chronicle of Higher Education

Session 9D Canyon A

Comparative Perspectives on Sport Policy II

Session Organizers and Presiders: Barrie Houlihan, Loughborough University and Hilmar Rommetvedt, Rogaland Research

Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Discontinuity in Hungarian Sport Policy, Emese Ivan, University of Western Ontario

Developing National Sport Policy through Consultation: The Rules of Engagement, Michael Sam, University of Otago

Norwegian Sport Politics and Policy: A Reflection of General Trends or Deviant Case? Hilmar Rommetvedt, Rogaland Research and Nils Asle Bergsgard, Rogaland Research and Telemark Research

Session 9E Ventana

Body Culture II: Discourses

Session Organizer and Presider: Margaret Carlisle Duncan, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Songs of Innocence, Songs of Experience: Romantic Idiom in Body Culture Advertising, Alan Aycock, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Toward a Genealogy of Wellness: Destabilizing a Unified Definition,

Darcy C. Plymire, Towson University

Portrayals of the African-American Female Body in Urban Music Videos,

Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Monica Branch, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Session 9F Madera

Race and Sport I

Session Organizer: Cynthia Fabrizio Pelak, University of Memphis

Session Presider: Corey Twombly, University of Memphis

Entering the Gym Class, Entering Whiteness: Exploring Female Physical Education Teachers’ Subjectivity, Yuka Nakamura, University of Toronto

Researching Whiteness in Sport,

Alina Potrzebowski, University of New Mexico

Stacking in Sport: Towards a More Sophisticated Analysis,

Robert Chappell and Daniel Burdsey, Brunel University, London

Session 9G Board Room

Disability in Sport Sociology

Organizer and Presider: Eli Wolff, Northeastern University

Incorporating Perspectives on Athletes with a Disability into the Sport SociologyCurriculum, Eli Wolff, Northeastern University, Howard L. Nixon II, Towson University and Ian Brittain, University of Warwick

Teaching and Learning: Disability in Sport Sociology Applied

Ted Fay, SUNY, Cortland, Mary Hums, University of Louisville and Karen DePauw, Virginia Tech University

Discussant: Jay Coakley, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

Take a Student to Lunch

1:15 p.m. – 2:45 p.m.

Session 10

2:45 p.m. – 4:15 p.m.

Session 10A Pima

"Glass Ceilings” in Sport Organizations: Studies on Gender Arrangement in Leadership Positions II

Session Organizer and Presider: Gertrud Pfister, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Copenhagen

Discourses about Diversity: Gender and Ethnic/Race Subtexts,

Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen, University of Utrecht

Greedy Institutions and the Dearth of Women Coaches,

Margaret M. Gehring, Ohio Wesleyan University

Life in Purgatory: Female Journalists and the Sports Media Hierarchy,

Marie Hardin, Pennsylvania State University

Session 10B Canyon B

Poster Session

"Teaching to Transgress": Critical Pedagogical Practices in the Sociology of Sport and Open Poster Session

Poster Session Organizer and Presider: Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Explorations in Learning: Interdisciplinary Collaborations in Teaching Diversity, Catriona Higgs and Betsy McKinley, Slippery Rock University

Competes (Challenging Obesity: Media Powered Experiences To Engage Students), Connie Collier, Mary Ann Devine, Ellen Glickman, Mary LaVine, Mary Parr, Kimberly Peer, Katherine Newsham, and Theresa Walton, Kent State University

Critiquing the Pedagogical Practice of Service-Learning in Sport Sociology,

Cindra S. Kamphoff and Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Does a New Stadium Benefit the Community?,

Chiung-Hsia Wang and Ping-Kun Chiu, University of Northern Colorado

Session 10C Canyon A

Race and Sport II

Session Organizer: Cynthia Fabrizio Pelak, University of Memphis

Session Presider: Nikki White, University of Memphis

Access Discrimination in University Athletics: The Case of Men’s Basketball,

George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas, Texas A. & M. University

Black Male Student-Athletes’ Perceptions of Racism in College Sport,

John N. Singer, James Madison University

Females of Color in Sports Illustrated for Women,

Laurie L. Gordy, Daniel Webster College

Epic Trickster, Epic Trippin(g), and Trash Talking Runners: The Traditional African Epic, Race(ism), and Black Sports, Gregory E. Rutledge, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Session 10D Ventana

Challenging the Gender Binary in Sport I

Session Organizer and Presider: Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University

The Gendering of Sport: A History of Women’s Figure Skating,

Mary Louise Adams, Queen's University

Slaying the Sacred Cow": Girls in Dene Games,

Audrey Giles, University of Alberta

Leave It on the Mat: Gender Construction and College Women Wrestlers,

Jennifer Rothchild and Christopher Butler, University of Minnesota Morris

Subversive Behaviour’ and the Negotiation of Gendered Physicality,

Laura Hills, University of Durham, Queen’s Campus

Session 10E Maderia

Sport, Culture and Advertising II

Session Organizer and Presider: Steve Jackson, University of Otago

Celebrity Athletes and Sports Imagery in Advertising during NFL Telecasts,

Dan C. Hilliard and Alexandra O. Hendley, Southwestern University

Making Meaning for the Audience Share: Non-Sport Advertiser’s World Cups,

Fred Mason, University of Western Ontario

The Growth of NASCAR: Ethical Issues in Corporate Sponsorships,

Keith Strudler, Marist College

Reaching Minority Customers through Athlete Endorsement,

Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse

Session 10F Canyon C

Sports Fanship: Active Consumption of Sport—Processes, Effects and Implications

Session Organizer and Presider: Don Levy, University of Connecticut

Blacks' Sport Fanship: Illuminations of the Afrocentricity of Sport Consumption,

Ketra L. Armstrong, California State University, Long Beach

The State in the Stands: Soccer Fandom in Italy,

Matthew Guschwan, Indiana University

Constructing Reality: The Active World of Fantasy Sports,

Don Levy, University of Connecticut

Sacrifice of the Bartman Ball and the Ambiguity of an American Ritual,

Jeff Scholes, University of Denver

Session 11

4:30 p.m. – 5:30 p.m.

Special Session Pima

Organizer and Presider: Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton

NASSS Dialogues: A Discussion of the Future

5:30 p.m. – 6:30 p.m. Business Meeting/Awards Presentation Pima

6:30 p.m. – 8:30 p.m. Presidential Reception Outside Patio

Saturday, November 6, 2004

7:00 a.m. – 8:15 a.m. Board of Directors Board Room

8:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m. Registration Foyer

8:30 a.m. – 5:15 p.m. Sessions

10:00 a.m. –11;45 p.m. Keynote Panel Pima

11:45 a.m. – 1:00 p.m. Lunch

1:00 a.m. – 2:30 p.m. NASSS Spotlight Session Madera


Session 12

8:15 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.

Session 12A Canyon B

Racing the Athletes: The Continuing Significance of Whiteness and Racism in Sport

Session Organizers: Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, and Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University

Presider: Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University

A Farewell to ReMember: Interrogating the Nancy Lopez Farewell Tour,

Katherine M. Jamieson, University of North Carolina, Greensboro and Delia D. Douglas, Independent Scholar

Barry Bonds vs. Lance Armstrong: Steroids, Race, and the Assumption of Guilt orInnocence, Lisa Alexander, Bowling Green State University

"Tennis Whites:" The Unbearable Whiteness of Being

Nancy E. Spencer, Bowling Green State University

Session 12B Canyon C

Challenging the Gender Binary in Sport II

Session Organizer and Presider: Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University

Women in the Olympics: Now You See Them, Now You Don't,

Giovanna Follo and Desire Anastasia, Wayne State University


Gender Doping”: Sex and Drug-Tests in the Age of Containment,

Ian Ritchie, Brock University

Rothblatt's Apartheid of Sex and IOC Transsexual Inclusion,

Ann Travers, Simon Fraser University

Session 12C Pima

Interdisciplinary Dialogues: Sport Studies and Urban Studies II

Session Organizer and Presider: Kimberly Schimmel, Kent State University

Crunk’, ‘Crackin’, and ‘Crossovers’: An Analysis of Young People’s Engagements with Urban Physical Activity Spaces, Matthew Atencio, University of Wollongong

Cities and Urban Marathons: Revitalization Tools and Race Amenities,

Krista M. Park, University of Maryland

For Richer, for Poorer: A First Nations Casino and the “Urban Crisis”,

Cathy van Ingen, Brock University

Session 12D Canyon A

Sport, Social Capital and Social Class

Session Organizer and Presider: Peter Donnelly, University of Toronto

Upper-Middle Class Mothering: The "Soccer Mom's" Transformation of Capital,

Lisa Swanson, Towson University

Characteristics of the Transition—A Case Study of Hungary,

Csaba Nikolenyi, Concordia University and Emese Ivan, University of Western Ontario

Social Class, Gender and the Sporting Capital-Economic Capital Nexus,

Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward

Session 12E Madera

Analysis of Cultural Values in College Sport

Session Organizer and Presider: Richard M. Southall, University of Memphis

Factors That Influence the Academic Performance of NCAA Division I Athletes,

B. David Ridpath, Mississippi State University, John Kiger, Ohio University, Jennifer Mak, Marshall University, and Teresa Eagle, Marshall University

Homophobia: Just a “Thing” on United States College Campuses?,

Richard M. Southall, The University of Memphis, Brett Folske, State University of West Georgia, Kerri Eagan, State University of West Georgia, and Mark S. Nagel, Georgia State University

To Glorify God: Religion’s Role in One Intercollegiate Athletics Culture,

Peter J. Schroeder, University of California, Santa Barbara

Session 12F Ventana

Sporting Initiatives and Peace Processes in Divided Societies

Session Organizer: John Sugden, University of Brighton

Presider: Alan Bairner, Loughborough University

Football for Peace (F4P): Sport, Community, Conflict and Co-Existence in Israel,

John Sugden, University of Brighton

A Values Based Approach to Coaching Sport in Divided Societies,

John Lambert, University of Brighton

The Gender Agenda and Sport for Peace in Israel,

Frances Powney and Gary Stidder, University of Brighton

Session 13

10:00 a.m. – 11:45 a.m.

Keynote Panel Pima

(Post)Identity and Sport

Presider: Samantha King, Queens University

“Merely Identity?”: Cultural Identity and the Politics of Sport,

Ben Carrington, University of Texas

When Everything Old Becomes New Again: Sport, and the Retreat From Subjectivity and Romanticism, Richard Gruneau, Simon Fraser University,

While Ruminating About Self and Activities . . . ,

Othello Harris, Miami University

Identity, Representation and Critical Media Studies,

Margaret MacNeill, University of Toronto


11:45 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.

Session 14

1:00 p.m. – 2:30 p.m.

Session 14A Madera

Spotlight Session: Interdisciplinary Dialogues: Thinking Through Race, Nation and Sport

Presider: Mary G. McDonald, Miami University

Sport and the Politics of Biocultural Racial Explanation,

Brett St. Louis, University of California, San Diego

Orientalism and its Discontents": Basketball and Performing Nation and RacializedMasculinities, Kathleen S. Yep, Claremont Colleges

National Identity, Raza Boxing, and History: An Interdisciplinary Perspective,

Gregory S. Rodriguez, University of Arizona

Session 14B Canyon A

Discourses of Gender, Equity and Sport

Presider: Cheryl Cooky, University of Southern California

Women’s Inter-university Sport within a Patriarchal Institution: A Case Study ofQueen’sWomen in the 1920s, Anne Warner, Queen's University

Women’s Olympic Wrestling Debut: A Critical Examination of IOC Evaluation Criteria, Theresa Walton, Kent State University

Community Perceptions of Title IX,

Amanda Paule, Miami University

"Girls Just Aren't Interested in Sports": The Construction of (Dis) Interest in Youth Sport, Cheryl Cooky, University of Southern California

Session 14C Canyon B

The Public, the Political, and the Professional: (Re) Examining The Rhetorical Interplay Between Communication and Sport

Session Organizer: Kelby K. Halone, University of Tennessee

Session Presider: Robert L. Krizek, St. Louis University

9/11 and the Shift in Rhetorical Strategies of Sport During Crises,

Robert S. Brown, Ashland University

Reagan’s Presidential Sports Encomia: Responding to the ‘Foot Race,’ Metaphor, Michael Hester, Georgia State University

Swifter, Higher, Stronger:” Athletes’ Responses to Doping Accusations,

R. Pierre Rodgers, George Mason University, Grant C. Cos, Rochester Institute of Technology

Session 14D Canyon C

Rethinking Hazardous Bodily Practices: Risk, Hazing and Terrorism

Presider: Emma H. Wensing, University of Toronto

The Flipside: Female Skateboarders and Risk Discourses,

Alana Young, University of Ottawa

Securing the Olympics: The Impact of Terrorism on Athens 2004,

Emma H. Wensing, University of Toronto

Initiation or Hazing: Recognizing Differences,

Colleen McGlone and George Schaefer, University of New Mexico

Session 14E Ventana

Simulated Culture and Virtual Sport

Presider: Andrew Baerg, University of Iowa

The Art of Work in the Age of its Recombinant Simulation,

Sean Smith, Sportsweb Consulting

Camdenization: Authenticity and Simulation in the Renovation of Fenway Park,

Michael Friedman, University of Maryland

Technologies of Government and Virtual Football,

Andrew Baerg, University of Iowa

Session 14F Pima

Sport Spectating and Consumption

Presider: Jason R. Lanter, Miami University

Fear the Turtle or the Fans? Editorials on Fan Behavior,

Jason R. Lanter, Miami University

Hegemonic Masculinity, Perceptions of Group Homogeneity and Enjoyment of TelevisedFootball, Bryan E. Denham, Clemson University

Session 15

2:45 p.m. – 4:15p.m.

Session 15A Madera

Masculinities and the Sports-Media Complex

Session Organizer and Presider: Eric Anderson State University of New York, Stony Brook

Have a Take: Masculinity and Sports Talk Radio, David Nylund, California State University, Sacramento

Welcome to My Crib”: Locating Athletes’ Masculinities on MTV’s Cribs,

Maureen Smith, California State University, Sacramento and Becky Beal, University of the Pacific

Televised Sports, Masculinist Moral Capital and Support for the Iraqi War,

Carl Stempel, California State University, Hayward

Session 15B Pima

Spaces for Racism: Sport, Race, and Nation II

Session Organizers and Presiders: Rod S. Murray and Lainie Mandlis, University of Alberta

Bringing Da 'Hood to the Hill: (Un)Critical Pedagogies of Whiteness?,

Sean Brayton, University of British Columbia

We Lie, We Cheat, We Steal?”: Media Portrayals of Latinos in the WWE,

Ted M. Butryn, San Jose State University

Who Is (Not): Canada, Culture and Boxing?,

Lainie Mandlis and Debra Shogan, University of Alberta

Session 15C Canyon B

The Athlete as Activist: Using Sport to Effect Social Change

Session Organizer and Presider: Peter Kaufman, SUNY, New Paltz

Moving Toward Social Change: A Durkheimian Analysis of Anomie in the NFL,

Eric Carter and Yolanda Gallardo, Kansas State University

The Role of the Boxer Joe Louis Within Burgeoning African American Communities ofthe 1930's, Pellom McDaniels III, Emory University

Biting the Hand that Feeds You: Athletes Against Sweatshop Labor,

Peter Kaufman, SUNY, New Paltz

Session 15D Ventana

The Cultural Politics of Lifestyle Sports II:

Session Organizer: Belinda Wheaton, University of Brighton

Presider: Ben Carrington, University of Texas

All Female Snowboard Camps–Empowerment through Segregation?

Michele Donnelly, University of Maryland

Recreational Rink Culture and the Swaggering Midlife Female Trick-Skater,

Linnet Fawcett, Concordia University

Embodied Boarders: Snowboarding, Status and Style,

Holly Thorpe, Waikato University

Session 15E Canyon C

Interrogating Bodily Assumptions

Presider: Amy S. Hribar, Montana State University

Striving Towards Increased Exercise Accessibility for Individuals with SCI,

Tamar Z. Semerjian, California State University, Los Angeles

From Sex Roles to Self-Esteem: Sport Science and the Athletic Female Body in 1970s, America, Dorie A. Geissler, University of Illinois

Session 15F Canyon A

Gender Rebels, Then and Now: Self-Representation, Women’s Sport Participation, and the Media Since Title IX

Session Organizer and Presider: Leslie Heywood, SUNY, Binghamton

Shifting the Lens: Athlete Commentary on How Media and Gender Inform Their SportExperience, Leslie Heywood, SUNY, Binghamton

Compromised “Reality” and the “Involuntary Insider”: The Case of Leilani Rios,

Stephan R. Walk, California State University, Fullerton

When Transgressive Leisure Isn’t: Women in “Male Identified” Sports,

Faye Linda Wachs, Cal Poly Pomona

The Dirt on Female Athlete Self-Description,

Tracy Walker, University of Toronto

Session 16

4:30 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.

Session 16A Ventana

Health and Fitness Practices Among “Minority” Girls and Women

Session Presider: Geneviève Rail

Belonging/Be-longing Canadian: Minority Stereotypes and Canadian-Korean Adolescents' Construction of Health and Fitness, Kyoung-Yim Kim and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Social Influences Among Minority Women Engaging in Exercise for Health Purposes, Chia-Chen Yu, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, Brenda Soto-Torres, Nova Southeastern University

Fusion, Confusion or Illusion: An Exploration of Health and Fitness among Young SouthAsian Canadian Women, Tammy George and Geneviève Rail, University of Ottawa

Session 16B Canyon A

Sport and the Nation II

Session Organizer and Presider: Toni Bruce, University of Waikato

'The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig:' The Convergence of the High-Performance Sport Systems in the Formerly Divided Germany,

Rob Beamish, Queen's University

Socialist (?) Sport and the Nation in Contemporary Cuba,

Thomas Carter, University of Wales, Newport

Sport, Nationalism and Iconicity: David Beckham, Celebrity Status and Popular Culture,

Andrew Parker, University of Warwick

Session 16C Canyon C

Sports and Youth Academic and Developmental Outcomes

Session Organizer and Presider: Jan Sokol-Katz, University of Miami

The Infusion of Character Education into Youth Sport Programs,

Susan Mullane, University of Miami

Background and Institutional Predictors of Academic/Athletic Role Conflict in Student-Athletes, Robert M. Sellers, University of Michigan, Gabriel P. Kuperminc, Georgia State University

Sport as an Engaging Learning Context,

Jan Sokol-Katz, Lorrine Basinger-Flieschman, Jomills Henry Braddock II, University of Miami

Session 16D Canyon B

Leadership and Group Diversity in Sport Teams and Sport Organizations

Session Organizer and Presider: George B. Cunningham, Texas A. & M. University

Examining Homologous Reproduction in the Representation of Assistant Coaches, Michael Sagas, Texas A. & M. University, George B. Cunningham, Texas A. & M. University, Kenneth C. Teed, George Mason University, and D. Scott Waltemyer, Texas A. & M. University

NFL Players’ Career Perspectives from 1994 to 2003,

Leo E. Lewis, Minnesota Vikings and S. Malia Lawrence, State University of West Georgia

The Influence of Leadership and Ethical Orientation on Intercollegiate Athletics,

D. Scott Waltemyer, Texas A. & M. University



NASSS Annual Meeting

Conférence annuelle de la SNASS

Tucson, Arizona

November 3-6, 2004

3 au 6 novembre, 2004

Carly Adams, University of Western Ontario

“The Game of ‘Their’ Lives”: The Established and the Outsiders in Canada’s National Sport

Males and females in the 20th century have experienced sport under very different terms and conditions. Men and women have internalized the gender order that sport has reproduced; a historically constructed pattern of power relations between men and women that dictates how men and women understand, celebrate, and in some cases criticize specific masculinities and femininities. Although women have actively played ice hockey in Canada since the latter part of the 19th century, hockey has traditionally been viewed as the exclusive purview of men. Gruneau and Whitson argue that hockey is part of the collective memories of Canadians; it is the “game of our lives.” But more accurately, as Etue and Williams contend, it is the game of ‘their’ lives. Women have always been positioned as the ‘outsiders’ in this sport. Dynamic individuals and groups of women have refused to accept the imposed boundaries instead working to ‘establish’ themselves and create their own meaningful sport experiences. This historical sociological examination of women’s ice hockey in Canada will draw on Elias’s theory of established-outsider relations to examine why women have historically occupied the position of ‘outsider’ in this sport and how women have fought and perhaps in some ways succeeded to claim a place in Canada’s national game. Particular attention will be given to the events leading up to the announcement of the inclusion of women’s hockey on the Olympic program and the influence and persistence of key organizations and individuals that shaped the negotiation process.

Mary Louise Adams, Queen's University

The Gendering of Sport: A History of Women’s Figure Skating

In North America and much of Europe, women did not skate in significant numbers until the 1860s, more than 100 years after the founding of the world’s first skating club. Then followed a number of decades when skating was admirably gender-mixed as pastime and sport, with men and women competing against each other in some events. Not until the 1930s did women begin to outnumber men and skating come to be seen as a ‘girls sport,’ incompatible with prevailing masculine norms. The history of skating tells much about the constructedness of gender and about sport typing (Kane & Snyder, 1989; Metheny, 1965) as a historically contingent process. Although sport is popularly assumed to demonstrate sex-related characteristics, the attribution of these to male or female bodies changes over time, as does interest in them. This paper discusses the history of women in skating, especially the transformation of skating into the quintessential ‘girls’ sport.’ The paper argues that gender difference is central to the sport’s structure, limiting the participation of boys and men and the types of femininity represented on the ice. Sources for the paper include archival documents from the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries—textbooks, regulations, media reports, films—from North America and Britain.

Lisa Alexander, Bowling Green State University

Barry Bonds vs. Lance Armstrong: Steroids, Race, and the Assumption of Guilt or Innocence

Ask any sports fan to name the most dominant athletes in sports today and chances are the names Lance Armstrong and Barry Bonds will be on that list. Both athletes’ achievements seem unprecedented in modern history. This year alone, Lance Armstrong won his sixth straight Tour de France while Barry Bonds continues to break almost every offensive record known to baseball. Unfortunately, at the same time, both men’s accomplishments have been marred by the suspicion of steroid abuse. Both men continue to proclaim their innocence, however the allegations remain. What is interesting about the steroid controversy surrounding Bonds and Armstrong is the dissimilar way in which the mainstream media discusses the two cases. It would seem that sports analysts are quick to believe that Lance Armstrong is innocent of doping and just as quick to assume that Barry Bonds is guilty. This paper will explore how race operates in perceptions of guilt or innocence where steroid abuse is concerned. Is there in fact a difference between how Armstrong’s allegations are discussed and how Bonds’ allegations are discussed? By analyzing the media discussions surrounding Armstrong’s and Bond’s steroid allegations, we can ascertain whether or not whiteness is the factor that means the difference between “innocent until proven guilty,” and “guilty until proven innocent.”

Ronald Althouse, Dana Brooks and Damien Clement, West Virginia University

Remembering Jim Crow: Pride within Black High School Athletics

This set of photographs presents an effort at “history-telling” about high school sports in African American high schools prior to and following school "desegregation" in West Virginia. What arises is a photo-interview centered on a collection of historical-linked sports photos which provide a look, listen, and learn procedure to get oral histories from African Americans who were athletes or coaches a half-century ago. Following the 1954 decision, school desegregation, particularly Black high school sports, followed an uneven path. Jim Crow ensured segregation, but Black school facilities were below the norm. In these schools, lessons that athletics had to offer took on special significance to instill a discipline to gird for a Jim Crow world. Like churches, Black high schools spawned social and human capital that sustained, albeit self-reflexively, a Black middle-class self-reflective about its’ relations to the surrounding White community. Prior to 1954, sports were part of the academic quest in the Black community. Following integration, Black student alienation had a definite effect on interest in athletics. By the late 1960’s, evoking Civil Rights and Black pride, the “Black student athlete” emerged in a reconstructed context of “stacking,” exploitation, unequal access, racism, and discrimination.

Eric Anderson, State University of New York, Stony Brook

The Effect of Sex-Segregation on Homophobia and Misogyny: Sport and the Reproduction of Orthodox Masculinity

The maintenance of sport as an institution that promotes highly homophobic and misogynistic attitudes among male team sport athletes is often attributed to the ritual of sports, as boys are socialized into gender segregated orthodox ways of thinking. By examining men who first played high school football and then became college cheerleaders, this ethnographic research explores the maintenance of these attitudes through the structure and culture of sport. I show that crucial to the production of homophobia and misogyny is the structural segregation of men into a near-total institution, where they are removed from the narratives of women and openly gay men. I then show how desegregating sport can lead once homophobic and misogynistic men to reformulate many of their attitudes toward women and gay men. This research has serious implications for the structure upon which American athletics operate, and it suggests that the hegemonic perspective of sheltering women from the violence of masculinity through gender segregation might instead promote such hostility. It also has relevant and contemporaneous policy implications as the Bush administration is currently looking to seek ways in which to allow for gender segregation in physical education courses.

Ketra L. Armstrong, California State University, Long Beach

Blacks' Sport Fanship: Illuminations of the Afrocentricity of Sport Consumption

Social identity theory asserts that affiliation or membership in a social group has a pervasive influence on self and the sociocognitive process in which identity is internalized and operationalized (Hogg, Terry, & White, 1995). Sport consumption influences consumers’ social identity such that they often make concerted efforts to cultivate psychosocial attachments to sport teams and other sport spectators. Consequently, sport consumption communicates social meaning and is often the site of struggle over social distinction (Corrigal, 1997). Duncan (1983) commented on the need for scholars to study the symbolic dimensions of sport consumption to understand the power of spectator sports. However, since the majority of research on sport consumption has not emanated from African-centered paradigms, a void exists regarding the cultural and psychosocial dynamics of Blacks' sport fanship. Nonetheless (notwithstanding the dearth of research on this topic) many Blacks are active and (apparently) socially conspicuous sport fans. Moreover, the nuances of their active sport consumption offer insight into the symbolic role the consumption of racially/ethnically infused sport plays in the sociocognitive processes that undergird their identity creation and/or affirmation. This presentation will discuss Blacks’ sport fanship and will illuminate the Afrocentricity of sport consumption.

Matthew Atencio, University of Wollongong

‘Crunk’, ‘Crackin’, and ‘Crossovers’: An Analysis of Young People’s Engagements with Urban Physical Activity Spaces.

In the context of several adjacent urban neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon (US), my paper will describe how physical activity spaces and their inhabitants exclude, separate, and contain young people in ways related to their ethnicity, gender, choice of physical activity, and perceived capabilities. I am particularly interested in examining how these hierarchies simultaneously (re)produce notions of what are ‘acceptable’ and ‘inappropriate’ behaviours for physically active young people. This paper will draw upon collected qualitative descriptions of young people’s engagements with urban spaces while participating in various forms of basketball, skateboarding, scootering, running, dance, and soccer. These descriptions were often transformed into geographic maps which illustrated the physical movements and experiences of young people in their urban environments. My analysis will also be informed by emerging critical leisure geography approaches which draw upon postmodern, poststructural, subaltern, and feminist theories. Specifically, I would like to explore how geographic metaphors such as ethnic space, marginality, territoriality, hybridity, habitat, and diaspora (Gruenewald, 2003, p. 631) can yield new insights into socio-spatial physical activity relationships and enhance our ‘geographic imagination’ (Aitchison, 1999, p.1). It is my contention that these emerging conceptions of spaces and identities more adequately describe the ways young people challenge, rework, and transgress rigid and totalising ‘boundaries’ (metaphorical and material) of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. This paper concludes that young people are able to create new spaces, identities, and knowledges by being physically active in their local urban spaces (including homes, parks, streets, buildings, sidewalks, stairways, gyms, and schools). I would also suggest that categorizing these activity spaces as ‘formal’ or ‘informal’ is inadequate. These urban physical activity spaces are often inter-related and can exclude and constrain young people in similar as well as diverse ways.

Michael Atkinson, McMaster University and Kevin Young, University of Calgary

Mediated 'Sports Crime': Professional Ice Hockey as a Discursive Battleground

Recent cases of on-ice hockey violence in Canada have challenged professional leagues in North America to reconsider their policies on unwanted aggression and physicality in the sport. But, perhaps more significantly, the National Hockey League’s and affiliated American Hockey League’s institutional ownership over the policing of player violence in ice hockey has been fractured by the Canadian legal system’s intervention into the sport over the past several years. Flamboyantly violent on-ice incidents involving Marty McSorley (NHL), Todd Bertuzzi (NHL) and Alexandre Perezhogin (AHL) all, for example, resulted in arrests and Crown prosecution. In this paper, data gathered from select Canadian and American newspapers on the ‘pre-arrest’ media coverage of the McSorley, Bertuzzi, and Perezhogin ‘incidents’ are compared in order to explore how league, player, audience and legal discourses about ‘criminality’ in the sport of ice hockey are promulgated on a broad social scale. By employing an integrated victimological and figurational theoretical position, we unpack how ‘preferred’ social definitions of violence in the sport tactically disavow any notion of problematic ‘criminal’ violence in the game or the need for ‘outside’ intervention by legal, academic, or political agents.

Alan Aycock, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

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