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*The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.New York: Facts on File, 1985. George Schoepflin. This is a general handbook but in­cludes bibliographies.

The American Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies. Columbus, Ohio: American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, 1957-present.

Junior Slavica: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography of Books in English on Russia and Eastern Europe.Littleton, Colo.: Li­braries Unlimited, 1968. Stephan M. Horak, ed.

*The Balkans Since 1453.New York: Rinehart, 1958. Leften S. Stavrianos. There is an extensive bibliography at the end of this work.

Bibliography of American Publications on East Central Europe 1945-1957. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1958. Robert F. Byrnes, ed.

Poland’s Past and Present: A Select Bibliography of Works in En­glish.Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1977. Norman Davies, ed.


The American Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies. Columbus, Ohio: American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, 1957-present.

*A Bibliography of Works in English on Early Russian History to 1800.New York: Barnes & Noble, 1969. Peter A. Crowther, comp.

*Books in English on the Soviet Union, 1917-1973: A Bibliogra­phy.New York: Garland, 1975. David L. Jones, comp.

*A Select Bibliography of Works in English on Russian History, 1801-1917. Oxford: Blackwell, 1962. David Shapiro, ed.

*McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961. Michael T. Florinsky, ed.

*A History of Soviet Russia.London: Macmillan, 1950-1960. Ed­ward H. Carr. See bibliography at end of work.

An Atlas of Russian History.New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1970. Allen F. Chew, ed.

The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History.Gulf Breeze, Fla.: Academic International Press, 1976-.

Russian Economic History.Detroit: Gale, 1977. Daniel R. Kazmer and Vera Kazmer, eds.


Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press, 1975- present. 8v.

Africa South of the Sahara: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.Williamsport, Pa.: Bro-Dart, 1971. Peter Duignan, ed.

Africa and the World: An Introduction to the History of Sub-Saha­ran Africa from Antiquity to 1840.San Francisco: Chandler, 1972. Peter Duignan and Lewis H. Gann, eds.

The African Experience.Evanston, 111.: Northwestern University Press, 1970. John N. Paden and Edward W. Soja, eds.

*An Atlas of African History.New York: Africana Publisher, 1978. J. D. Fage, ed.

Historical Dictionary of- . Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press,

1972-. This is a series of historical dictionaries including separate volumes for most African nations.

African Newspapers in Selected American Libraries.Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1965.

*A Select Bibliography on Traditional and Modern Africa. Syra­cuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1968. Peter Gutkind and John B. Webster, eds.

African Affairs for the General Reader: A Selected and Introduc­tory Bibliographic Guide.New York: Council of the African- American Institute, 1967. African Bibliographic Center.

Mahers of Modern Africa.London: Africa Journal Ltd., 1981.

South African History: A Bibliographic Guide with Special Refer­ence to Territorial Expansion and Colonization.New York: Garland Publishing, 1984. Naomi Musiker, ed.


*The Near and Middle East: An Introduction to History and Bibli­ography.Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association,

  1. Roderic H. Davison, ed.

33For the northern African states that border on the Mediterranean, see Near and

Middle Eastern History.

Concise Encyclopedia of the Middle East.Washington, D.C.: Pub­lic Affairs Press, 1973. Mehdi Heravi, ed.

*The Islamic Near East and North Africa: An Annotated Guide to Books in English for Non-Specialists. Littleton, Colo. : Librar­ies Unlimited, 1977. David W. Littlefield, ed.

Middle East and Islam: A Bibliographical Introduction.Geneva: Inter Documentation, 1979. Derek Hopwood and Diana Grimwood-Jones, eds.

Middle East and North Africa: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.Williamsport, Pa.: Bro-Dart, 1971. Harry N. How­ard, ed.

The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Historical, Political, Social and Mili­tary Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1976. Ron­ald M. Devore, ed.

*Concise Encyclopedia of Arabic Civilizations. New York: Praeger,

  1. 1966. Stephan and Nandy Ronart, eds.

Atlas of Islamic History.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1954. Harry W. Hazard, ed.

*Books on Asia from the Near East to the Far East: A Guide for General Readers.Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981. Eleazir Birnbaum, ed.


Cumulative Bibliography of Asian Studies, 1941-1965,1966-1970. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1972.

East Asia: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.Williams­port, Pa.: Bro-Dart, 1970. Donald G. Gillian et al., eds. This book is written for librarians but can be used by students as well.

*Books on Asia from the Near East to the Far East: A Guide for General Readers.Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971. Eleazir Birnbaum, ed.

Oriental and Asian Bibliography.Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1966. J. D. Pearson, ed.

*Asia: A Selected and Annotated Guide to Reference Works. Cam­bridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1971. G. Raymond Nunn, ed.

Bibliography of Asian Studies. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Association for Asian Studies, 1941—present.

Historical and Cultural Dictionary of. Metuchen, N.J.:

Scarecrow Press, 1972-present. This is a series of dictionaries including separate volumes for most Asian nations.

  1. Indian, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan History

Hndia: A Critical Bibliography.Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980. J. Michael Mahar, ed.

A Dictionary of Indian History.New York: Braziller, 1967. Sach- chidananda Bhattacharya.

*The History of India: Its Study and Interpretation.Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 1965. R. D. Crane.

Introduction to the Civilization of India: Handbook.Chicago: Uni­versity of Chicago Press, 1961.

*Cambridge History of India.New York: Macmillan, 1922-1953. See bibliography at end of volumes.

*An Historical Atlas of South Asia.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978. Joseph E. Schwartzberg, ed.

South Asia: An Introductory Bibliography.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. M. Patterson and R. B. Inden, eds.

  1. Southeast Asian History

*Southeast Asia: A Critical Bibliography.Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1969. Kennedy G. Tregonning, ed.

*Southeast Asian History: A Bibliographic Guide.New York: Praeger, 1962. Stephen Hay and Margaret Case, eds.

Southeast Asia: An Annotated Bibliography.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1968. Cecil C. Hobbs, ed.

Vietnam: A Comprehensive Bibliography.Metuchen, N.J.: Scare­crow Press, 1973. John H. M. Chen, ed.

Vietnam: A Guide to Reference Sources.Boston: G. K. Hall, 1977. Michael Cotter, ed.

The Wars in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, 1945-1982: A Biblio­graphic Guide. Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1984. Richard Dean Burns and Milton Leitenberg, eds.

  1. Chinese History

*China: A Critical Bibliography.Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1962. Charles O. Hucker, ed.

Chinese History: A Bibliographical Review.Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 1958. Charles O. Hucker, ed.

Historical Atlas of China.Chicago: Aldine, 1966. Albert Herr­mann, ed.

China and America: A Bibliography of Interactions, Foreign and Domestic.Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1972. James M. McCutcheon, comp.

*Dictionary of Chinese History.London: Frank Cass, 1979.

Michael Dillon, ed.

Chinese History: A Bibliography.New York: Gordon Press, 1978. Leona Rasmussen Phillips, ed.

  1. Japanese and Korean History

*Japanese History: New Dimensions of Approach and Understand­ing.Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association,

  1. John W. Hall, ed.

A Guide to Reference and Research Materials on Korean History: An Annotated Bibliography.Honolulu: East-West Center,

  1. William E. Hentworth, ed.

Dictionary of Japanese History. New York: Walker, 1968. Joseph M. Goedertier.

*Japan and Korea: A Critical Bibliography.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982. Bernard Silberman, ed.


Handbook of Latin American Studies.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936-1947; and Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1948-present. Annual volume.

*Latin America: A Guide to the Historical Literature.Austin: Uni­versity of Texas Press, 1971. Charles C. Griffin, ed.

A Guide to Latin American Studies.Los Angeles: University of California, 1967. Martin H. Sable, ed.

Latin America and the Caribbean: A Bibliographic Guide to Works in English.Coral Gables: University of Miami Press,

  1. Stojan A. Bayitch, ed.

Who’s Who in Latin America.Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1951. Reprinted by Blaine Ethridge Books, Detroit, 1971. Ronald Hilton, ed.

A Bibliography of Latin American Bibliographies Published in Pe­riodicals.Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976. Arthur E. Gropp, ed. 2v.

The Complete Caribbeana, 1900-1975: A Bibliographical Guide to the Scholarly Literature.Millwood, N.Y.: KTO Press, 1978. Comitas Lambros, ed.

A Guide to the History of Brazil, 1500-1822: The Literature in English.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1980. Francis A. Du- tra, ed.

Index to Latin American Periodical Literature, 1929-1960.New York: G. K. Hall, 1962. Pan American Union. Updated through 1970 by G. K. Hall, 1980.

*Latin America, Spain and Portugal: A Selected and Annotated Bibliographical Guide to Books Published in the United States, 1954-1974.Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1977. A. C. Wilgus, ed. and comp.

Latin America: A Guide to Economic History, 1830-1930.Berke­ley: University of California Press, 1977. Stanley Stein and R. Cortes Conde, eds.

Encyclopedia of Latin America.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974. Helen Delpar, ed.

Historical Dictionary of . Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press.

This is a series of historical dictionaries including separate volumes for most Latin American nations.

Latin American Politics: A Historical Bibliography. Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1986.


Encyclopedia Canadiana.Toronto: Grolier, 1977.

Bibliographia Canadiana. Don Mills, Ont.: Longman Canada Lim­ited, 1973. Claude Thibault, comp.

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History and Literature.To­ronto: Oxford University Press, 1967, Supplement,1973. Norah Story, comp.

Canadian Reference Sources: A Select Guide.Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1973, Supplement,1975. Dorothy E. Ryder, ed.

*Canada Since 1867: A Bibliographical Guide.Toronto: Samuel Stevens, 1977. J. L. Granatstein and Paul Stevens, eds. Western Canada Since 1870: A Select Bibliography and Guide. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1978. Alan F. J. Artibise, ed.

Bibliography of Ontario History, 1867-1976: Cultural, Economic, Political and Social.Buffalo: University of Toronto Press,

  1. Olga B. Bishop, ed. 2v.

Economic History of Canada: A Guide for Information Sources.

Detroit: Gale, 1978. Trevor J. O. Dick, ed.

Canadian Political Parties, 1867-1968: A Historical Bibliography.

Toronto: Macmillan, 1977. Grace F. Heggie, ed.

Canadian Urban History: A Select Bibliography. Sudbury: Lau- rentian University Press, 1972. Gilbert A. Stelter, ed.

An Historical Atlas of Canada.Don Mills, Ont.: Nelson, 1975. Donald G. G. Kerr, ed.


In the case of United States history, the bibliographies have been broken down in terms of certain topics of special interest to students.

Many of this first group of bibliographies have separate chapters on specialized topics.

*Harvard Guide to American History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974. Oscar Handlin et al., eds. Chapters six through thirty contain detailed reading lists for many peri­ods and topics in United States history. Revised, 1979.

  • Writings on American History.Washington, D.C.: American His­

torical Association, 1956; and Millwood, N.Y.: KTO Press, 1976-. The original series of volumes covers (with two brief lapses) books and articles written between 1902 and 1961. The new series is now annual and covers only articles written since

  1. Coverage of books is continued in:

*Writings on American History, 1962-1973: A Subject Bibliogra­phy of Books and Monographs.White Plains, N.Y.: Kraus International Publications, 1985. James R. Masterson, com­piler, lOv.

  • America: History and Life.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1954-

present. Each volume now has three parts: (1) annotations of journal articles, (2) index to book reviews, and (3) a bibliogra­phy of books, articles, and dissertations.

*American Historical Association: A Guide to Historical Litera­ture.New York: Macmillan, 1961. See chapter on United States history.

A Bibliography of American Autobiographies. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961. Louis Kaplan et al., comps. An

important source if you are researching the life of a historical figure.

Dictionary of American History.New York: Scribners, 1942-1961. James T. Adams and Roy V. Coleman, eds. Revised, 1976.

*Concise Dictionary of American History.New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1983. David W. Voorhees, ed. This is an abridgement of the eight-volume Dictionary of American History.

Encyclopedia of American Political History: Studies of the Princi­pal Movements and Ideas.New York: Charles Srcribner’s Sons, 1984. Jack P. Greene, ed. 3v.

U.S.-iana, 1650-1950: A Selective Bibliography.New York: Bowker, 1978. Wright Howes, ed.

Recently Published Articles.Washington, D.C.: American Histori­cal Association, 1976-present.

History of the United States of America: A Guide to Information Sources.Detroit: Gale, 1977. Ernest Cassara, ed.

*Encyclopedia of American History.New York: Harper & Row,

  1. Richard B. Morris, ed.

The American Heritage Pictorial Atlas of United States History. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1966.

A Guide to the Study of the United States of America.Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1960. Supplement,1976. This work covers all fields of knowledge. It has several chapters on aspects of United States history.

For sources on the United States government, see “United States

Government Publications” on pages 129-130.

  1. Regional, State, County, and Local United States History

The sources listed here can be supplemented by the appropriate

sections of the Harvard Guide to American History, Writings on

American History,and America: History and Life.

A Classified Bibliography of the Periodical Literature of the Trans- Mississippi West, 1811-1967. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972. Oscar O. Winther, ed.

Directory of State and Local History Periodicals.Chicago: Ameri­can Library Association, 1977. Milton Crouch and Hans Raum, comps.

State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography to Censuses of Popula­

tion Taken after 1790 by States and Territories of the United States.New York: Burt Franklin, 1969. Henry J. Dubester, ed.

The Encyclopedia of Southern History.Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1979. David C. Roller, ed.

The Frontier and the American West.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Pub­lishing, 1976. Rodman W. Paul and Richard W. Etulain, comps.

The Old South.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Publishing, 1980. Fletcher M. Greene and J. Isaac Copeland, comps.

The New South.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Publishing, forthcoming. Paul M. Gaston, comp.

*Directory of Historical Societies and Agencies in the United States and Canada, 1982.Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1982. Tracy L. Craig, comp. This volume includes the addresses of state and local historical societies.

Localized History Series.New York: Teachers College Press, 1965-present. Clifford L. Lord, ed. A multivolume series; each volume contains a bibliography of works on a separate state, region, city, or ethnic group.

United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress: A Bibli­ography.Baltimore: Magna Carta, 1975. Marion J. Kamin- kow, ed.

Consolidated Bibliography of County Histories in Fifty States in 1961.Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1963. Clarence Peterson, ed.

  1. Specific Periods

The best bibliographies for the study of specific periods of

United States history are the Goldentree Series published by Har­lan Davidson, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois. The relevant items

in this series, in chronological order, are listed below.

The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century(1971). Alden T. Vaughan, comp.

The American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century, 1689-1763

  1. .Jack P. Greene, comp.

The American Revolution(1973). John Shy, comp.

Confederation, Constitution and Early National Period, 1781- 1815(1975). E. James Ferguson, comp.

The Era of Good Feeling and the Age of Jackson, 1816-1841 (1979). Edwin A. Miles and Robert Remini, comps.

Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War, 1841-1860

  1. . Don E. Fehrenbacher, comp.

The Nation in Crisis, 1861-1877(1969). David Donald, comp.

The Gilded Age, 1877-1896(1973). Vincent P. DeSantis, comp.

The Progressive Era and the Great War, 1896-1920(1978). Arthur S. Link and W. M. Leary, Jr., comps.

The New Era and the New Deal, 1920-1940(1981). Robert E. Burke and Richard Lowitt, comps.

The Second World War and the Atomic Age, 1940-1973(1975). E. David Cronon and Theodore B. Rosenof, comps.

  1. Diplomatic History

Guide to the Diplomatic History of the United States, 1775-1921. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1935. Sam­uel F. Bemis and Grace G. Griffin, eds. Reprinted, 1959.

*Foreign Affairs Bibliography: A Selected and Annotated List of Books on International Relations[1919-present], New York: Harper & Row, 1933, 1943, 1953; and R. R. Bowker, 1964. Vol. I covers 1919-1932; Vol. II, 1932-1942; Vol. Ill, 1942- 1952; Vol. IV, 1952-1962; Vol. V, 1962-1972; Vol. VI (forth­coming).

*Foreign Relations of the United States.Washington, D.C.: Gov­ernment Printing Office, 1861-present. United States De­partment of State. These volumes are issued annually and contain actual diplomatic correspondence. These are primary sources rather than bibliographies. They are listed because most libraries have them.

A Bibliography of United States-Latin American Relations Since 1810.Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1968. David F. Trask et al., eds. Supplement,1979.

American Diplomatic History Before 1900.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Publishing, 1978. Norman A. Graebner.

American Diplomatic History Since 1890.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Publishing, 1975. Wilton B. Fowler, comp.

Dictionary of American Diplomatic History.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980. John E. Findling, ed.

Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy: Studies of the Principal

Movements and Ideas.New York: Scribners, 1978. Alex De- Conde, ed. 3v.

United States Foreign Relations.Detroit: Gale Press, 1980. Elmer Plischke, ed.

*Guide to American Foreign Relations Since 1700.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1983. Richard Dean Burns, ed.

  1. Labor History

Labor History in the United States: A General Bibliography. Ur- bana: University of Illinois, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, 1962. Gene S. Stroud and Gilbert E. Donahue, eds.

  • American Working Class History: A Representative Bibliography.

New York: R. R. Bowker, 1983. Maurice Neufeld, Daniel J. Leab, and Dorothy Swanson.

Biographical Dictionary of American Labor,rev. ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1984. Gary Fink, ed.

Labor Unions.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977. Gary M. Fink, ed. Contains a brief history and bibliography for each major union.

American Labor History and Comparative Labor Movements.Tuc­son: University of Arizona Press, 1973. James C. McBrearty, comp.

Labor in America: A Historical Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1985.

  1. Business and Economic History

The Economic History of the United States Prior to 1860: An An­notated Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1976. Thomas Orsagh et al., eds.

*American Economic History Before 1860.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Publishing, 1969. George R. Taylor, comp.

  • American Economic History Since 1860.Northbrook, 111.: AHM

Publishing, 1971. Edward C. Kirkland, comp.

American Economic and Business History: A Guide to Information Sources.Detroit: Gale, 1971. Robert W. Lovett, ed. Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983. John Ingham, ed. 4v.

American Economic History: A Guide to Information Sources.De­troit: Gale, 1980. William K. Hutchinson, ed.

  1. Black History

*A Laymans Guide to Negro History.New York: McGraw-Hill,

  1. Erwin A. Salk, ed.

*The Negro in America: A Bibliography.Cambridge, Mass.: Har­vard University Press, 1970. Elizabeth W. Miller, comp.

*A Bibliographic History of Blacks in America Since 1528.New York: McKay, 1971. Edgar A. Toppin, ed.

*Blacks in America: Bibliographical Essays.Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971. James M. McPherson et al.

Black History Viewpoints: A Selected Bibliographical Guide to Re­sources for Afro-American and African History.Westport, Conn.: African Bibliographic Center, 1969.

Black Studies: A Bibliography for the Use of Schools, Libraries and the General Reader.Brooklawn, N.J.: McKinley, 1973. Leonard B. Irwin, comp.

*The Black Family in the United States: A Selected Bibliography of Annotated Books, Articles, and Dissertations on Black Fami­lies in America.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978. Lenwood G. Davis, ed.

Encyclopedia of Black America.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. Augustus Low, ed.

Afro-American History: A Bibliography.Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio,

  1. Dwight L. Smith, ed.

The Black American Reference Book.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976. Mabel M. Smythe, ed.

Dictionary of American Negro Biography.New York: W. W. Nor­ton, 1982. Rayford W. Logan and Michael Winston, eds.

  1. Mexican-American History

Mexican-American History: A Critical Selective Bibliography. Santa Barbara, Cal.: Mexican-American Historical Society,


*The Mexican American: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1971. Luis G. Nog­ales, ed.

Bibliografia de Aztlan: An Annotated Chicano Bibliography.San Diego, Cal.: San Diego State College, 1971. Ernie Barrios, comp.

*A Bibliography for Chicano History.Westport, Conn.: Green­wood Press, 1984. Matt S. Meier and Feliciano Rivera, comps.

Reference Materials on Mexican Americans: An Annotated Bibliog­raphy.Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976. Richard P. Woods, ed.

*Bibliography of Mexican-American History.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984. Matt S. Meier, comp.

Dictionary of Mexican American History.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981. Matt Meier and Feliciano Rivera, eds.

  1. Puerto Rican History

*Puerto Ricans on the United States Mainland.Totowa, N.J.: Row- man and Littlefield, 1972. Francesco Cordasco, ed.

*The Puerto Ricans: An Annotated Bibliography.New York: Bowker, 1973. Paquita Viv6, ed.

*An Annotated, Selected Puerto Rican Bibliography.New York: Columbia University Press, 1972. Enrique R. Bravo, comp.

The Puerto Ricans 1493-1973: A Chronology and Fact Book. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1973. Francesco Cordasco, ed.

Puerto Ricans and Other Minority Groups in the Continental United States: An Annotated Bibliography.Detroit: Blaine Ethridge Books, 1979.

Historical Dictionary of Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands.Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1973. Kenneth Farr, comp.

  1. Womens History

The American Woman in Colonial and Revolutionary Times, 1565- 1800: A Syllabus with Bibliography.Westport, Conn.: Green­wood Press, 1975. Eugenie Leonard et al.

Womens Magazines, 1693-1968.London: Michael Joseph, 1970. Cynthia White, comp.

*Notable American Women, 1607—1950: A Biographical Diction­ary.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971. Ed­ward T. James, ed. 3v. Supplemented by Notable American Women: The Modern Period.1980. This volume includes women who died from 1951 through 1975.

The Female Experience in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America: A Guide to the History of American Women.New York: Garland Publishing, 1982. Jill Conway, ed.

The Female Experience in Twentieth-Century America: A Guide to the History of American Women.New York: Garland, 1986. Jill Conway, ed.

Women in American History: A Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1979. Cynthia E. Harrison, ed.

Research Guide in Women’s Studies.Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1974. Naomi B. Lynn, Ann B. Matasar, and Marie Rosenberg, eds.

  1. General Immigrant and Ethnic History

General immigrant and ethnic history bibliographies are the best

to use if you are researching the history of a minority group not

listed separately in this appendix or if you are unsure which group

you wish to study.

*Minority Studies: A Select Annotated Bibliography.Boston: G. K. Hall, 1975. Priscilla Oaks, ed.

*A Handbook of American Minorities.New York: New York Uni­versity Press, 1976. Wayne C. Miller.

A Comprehensive Bibliography for the Study of American Minori­ties.New York: New York University Press, 1976. Wayne C. Miller. 2v.

Brief Ethnic Bibliography: An Annotated Guide to the Ethnic Ex­perience in the United States.Cambridge, Eng.: Langdon As­sociates, 1976. Joseph J. Barton, comp.

Encyclopedic Dictionary of Ethnic Newspapers and Periodicals in the United States.Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1972. Lubomyr S. Wynar, ed.

*Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups.Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980. Stephen Thernstrom, ed.

Immigration and Ethnicity: A Guide to Information Sources.De­troit: Gale, 1977. John D. Buenker and Nicholas C. Burckel, eds.

  1. European Immigrant and Ethnic History

*European Immigration and Ethnicity in the United States and Canada: A Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio,

  1. David L. Brye, ed.

A Bibliographic Guide to Greeks in the United States, 1890-1968. New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1970. Michael N. Cutsumbis, ed.

German American History and Life: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1980. Michael Ke- reztesi and Gary Cocozzoli, eds.

Hungarians in the United States and Canada: A Bibliography. Minneapolis: Immigration History Research Center, 1977. Joseph Szeplaki, ed.

The British in America 1578-1970: A Chronology and Fact Book. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1972. Howard B. Furer, ed. Volume covers the English, Scotch, Welsh, and Scotch-Irish.

Thein America: A Chronology and Fact Book.Dobbs

Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1971-present. This is a series with sepa­rate volumes on the Germans, Scandinavians, Italians, Poles, Dutch, Jews, Hungarians, and others.

Italian Americans: A Guide to Information Sources.Detroit: Gale, 1978. Francesco Cordasco, ed.

  1. Asian Immigrant and Ethnic History

Asian Americans: An Annotated Bibliography for Public Libraries.

Chicago: Amerian Library Association, 1977.

Asians in America: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. University of California Press, 1983. Isao Fujimoto, ed.

China and America: A Bibliography of Interactions, Foreign and Domestic.Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1972. James M. McCutcheon, comp.

  1. American Indian History

Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico.New York: Row- man and Littlefield, 1979. Frederick W. Hodge et al. This is a reprint of a 1910 work.

Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian.Rye, N.Y.: Todd, 1978. Bernard Klein and Daniel Icolari, eds.

The American Indian 1492-1970: A Chronology and Fact Book.

Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1977. Henry C. Dennis, ed. *Indians of the United States and Canada: A Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1974. Dwight L. Smith, ed.

Native American Periodicals and Newspapers, 1828—1982: Bibliog­raphy, Publishing Record, and Holdings.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1984. Maureen Hardy, comp.

Ethnographic Bibliography of North America.New Haven, Conn.: HRAF Press, 1975. George P. Murdock and Timothy J. O’Leary, eds. 5v.

A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America.Algonac, Mich.: Reference Publishers, 1979.

Handbook of North American Indians.Washington, D.C.: Smith­sonian Institution, 1978-. William C. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Published yearly.

*A Bibliographical Guide to the History of Indian-White Relations in the United States.Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

  1. Francis P. Prucha, ed.

  1. Social, Cultural, and Religious History

Social History of the United States: A Guide to Information Sources.Detroit: Gale, 1979. D. Tingley, ed.

American Social History Before 1860.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Pub­lishing, 1970. Gerald N. Grob, comp.

American Social History Since 1860.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Pub­lishing, 1970. Robert H. Bremner, comp.

United States Cultural History: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale, 1980. Philip I. Mitterling.

A Critical Bibliography of Religion in America.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961. Nelson R. Burr, ed.

Religion in American Life.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Publishing,

  1. Nelson R. Burr, comp.

Historical Atlas of Religion in America.New York: Harper & Row,

  1. Edwin S. Gaustad.

A Dictionary of American Social Change.Malabar, Fla.: Kreiger Publishing Company, 1982. Louis Filler.

*Social Reform and Reaction in America: An Annotated Bibliogra­phy.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1984.

  1. Constitutional, Agricultural, and Military History

A Selected Bibliography of American Constitutional History.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1975. Stephen M. Millett.

American Constitutional Development.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Publishing, 1977. Alpheus T. Mason, comp.

Encyclopedia of American Agricultural History.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975. Edwin I. Schapsmeier and Frederick H. Schapsmeier.

Guide to the Sources of United States Military History.Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1975. Robin Higham. A supplement was published in 1981.

Civil War Books: A Critical Bibliography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968. Allan Nevins, ed.

Bibliographic Guide to the Two World Wars.New York: Bowker,

  1. Gywn M. Bayliss, ed.

  1. Miscellaneous Topics in United State History

Dickinsons American Historical Fiction.Metuchen, N.J.: Scare­crow Press, 1986. Virginia B. Gerhardstein.

How to Find Your Family Roots: The Comprehensive Guide to Tracing Your Ancestors Throughout the World.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.

The History of American Education.Northbrook, 111.: AHM Pub­lishing, 1976. Jurgen Herbst, comp.

Bibliography of North American Folklore and Folksong.New York: Dover Publications, 1961. Charles Haywood, ed.

Communism in the United States: A Bibliography.Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1969. Joel I. Seidman, ed. and comp.

Urban America: A Historical Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1983. Neil L. Shumsky and Timothy Crimmins, eds.

A Subject Bibliography of the History of American Higher Educa­tion.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1984. Mark Beach, comp.

Urban History.Detroit: Gale Press, 1981. John D. Buenker, ed.

United States Politics and Elections.Detroit: Gale Press, 1978. David J. Maurer, ed.

The American Presidency: A Historical Bibliography.Santa Bar­bara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1984.

Nuclear America: A Historical Bibliography.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1984.

  1. Sources for Historical Statistics


Historical Tables, 58 B.C.-A.D. 1978.New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1979. Sigfrid H. Steinberg.

Statistics Sources.Detroit: Gale, 1982. Paul Wasserman and Jac­queline Bernero.

The International Almanac of Electoral History.New York: Free Press, 1974. Thomas Mackie and Richard Rose.

Statistical Yearbooks: An Annotated Bibliography of the General Statistical Yearbooks of Major Political Subdivisions of the World.Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1953.

Demographic Yearbook.New York: United Nations Statistical Of­fice, 1949—present. Annual.

Population Index.Princeton, N.J.: Office of Population Research, 1935—present.

Statistical Yearbook.New York: United Nations Statistical Office, 1949-present.


*European Historical Statistics, 1750-1975.New York: Facts on File, 1980. B. R. Mitchell.

European Political Facts, 1918-1973.New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1978. Christopher Cook and John Paxton.

The Gallup International Public Opinion Polls.[France: 1939, 1944—1975] New York: Random House, 1976. George H. Gallup.


  • International Historical Statistics: Africa and Asia.New York: New York University Press, 1982. Brian R. Mitchell.

Statistical Abstract of Latin America.Los Angeles: U.C.L.A. Center of Latin American Studies, 1973-. James W. Wilkie, ed.

Bibliography of Selected Statistical Sources on the American Na­tions.Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Statistical Institute, 1947.


National Income, Expenditures and Output of the United King­dom, 1855-1965.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

  1. C. H. Feinstein.

Annual Abstract of Statistics.London: Central Statistical Office of Great Britain, 1915/1928-present.

British Labour Statistics: Historical Abstract, 1886-1968.London: Great Britain Department of Employment and Productivity, 1971.

*Abstract of British Historical Statistics.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. B. R. Mitchell.

The British Voter: An Atlas and Survey Since 1885.London: Bats- ford, 1981. M. Kinnear.

British Political Facts, 1900—1979.New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980. David Butler and Ann Sloman.

The Gallup International Public Opinion Polls.[Britain, 1937- 1975] New York: Random House, 1976. George H. Gallup.


*Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of the Census, 1976.

  • Statistical Abstract of the United States.Washington, D.C.: Gov­ernment Printing Office, 1878-present. Annual.

Bureau of the Census Catalog of Publications, 1790-1972. Wash­ington, D.C.: Bureau of the Census, 1974.

American Statistics Index . . .: A Complete Guide and Index to the Statistical Publications of the United States Government.Wash­ington, D.C.: Congressional Information Service, 1973—.

Federal Population Censuses 1790-1890: A Catalogue of Microfilm Copies of the Schedules.Washington, D.C.: National Ar­chives Trust Fund Board, 1979. Catalogs of the 1900 and 1910 censuses were published in 1978 and 1982.

The Gallup Poll.New York: Random House and Scholarly Re­sources, 1935-present. George H. Gallup.

  • Historical Statistics of Canada.Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1983. M. C. Urquhart.

  1. Guides to Data Sets, Microfilms, Microforms, Movies, Recordings, and Oral History

Historical Abstracts. Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1955-present. This is a computer-retrievable data base that corresponds to the printed source of the same name.

America: History and Life.Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1954- present. This is a computer-retrievable data base that corre­sponds to the printed source of the same name.

American Historical Association Guide to Photocopied Historical Materials in the United States and Canada.Ithaca, N.Y.: Cor­nell University Press, 1961. Richard W. Hale, ed.

Catalogue of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washing­ton, D.C.: N.A.R.S., 1974-present.

List of National Archives Microfilm Publications, 1947-1974. Wash­ington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1974. Supplemented by:

Supplementary List of National Archives Publications, 1974-1982.

Washington, D.C.: N.A.R.S., 1982.

Subject Guide to Microforms in Print.Washington, D.C.: Micro­card Editions, 1962-present. Albert J. Diaz, ed.

Microforms in Print.Meckler Pub. Co., 1978-. Annual.

Library of Congress Catalogue: Motion Pictures and Filmstrips.

Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1953-1972.

Library of Congress Catalogue: Music and Phonorecords. Wash­ington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1953-present. Annual.

The Oral History Collection of Columbia University.New York: Columbia University Oral History Research Office, 1979. Elizabeth Mason and Louis M. Starr.

Oral History in the United States: A Directory.New York: Oral History Association, 1971. Gary L. Shumway, comp. Locates and describes oral history collections.

Picture Sources.New York: Special Libraries Association, 1983.

Ernest H. Robl, ed.

Microform Research Collections. Meckler Pub. Co., 1984, 2nd ed. Suzanne Cates Dodson, ed.

  1. Guides to Dissertations, Archives, and Manuscripts

Dissertation Abstracts: Abstracts of Dissertations and Monographs in Microfilm.Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms,


A Guide to Archives and Manuscripts in the United States.New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1965. Philip C. Hamer, ed.

The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections.Ann Arbor, Mich.: J. W. Edwards, 1962. Library of Congress Catalogue.appendix Useful Information for the Historian

State Historical Societies

If your topic concerns the history of a particular state, one of the best sources of information is the state historical societies. These groups maintain archives, do research, publish journals, and do other tasks concerning the histories of their states. They can also help you locate information on county and local history. By writing to or visiting these societies you can find out if books or archives on state or local history are located near enough to your school to be useful as part of your research. Access to archival materials can make history research very exciting. Most towns, especially if they are county seats (the towns in which county governments are lo­cated) keep local and county records, many of which may be avail­able to the public. If your school or home is located in a large city, there will likely be one or more private or city historical societies.

If you desire information on state or local history and you areaware of no source close by, contact the appropriate state historical society. The following addresses are taken from the twelfth edition of Directory of Historical Societies and Agencies in the United States and Canada.

Alabama Department of Archives and History, 624 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, 36130.

Alabama Historical Association, 3121 Carlisle Road, Birmingham, 35213.

Alaska Historical Commission, 3221 Providence Avenue, Anchor­age, 99504.

Arizona Historical Society, 949 East 2nd Street, Tucson, 85719.

Arizona State Department of Libraries, Archives, and Public Rec­ords, Third Floor, State Capitol, Phoenix, 85007.

Arkansas Historical Association, History Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 72701.

Arkansas Historical Commission, One Capitol Mall, Little Rock, 72201.

California Historical Society, 2090 Jackson Street, San Francisco, 94109.

California State Archives, 1020 “O” Street, Sacramento, 95814.

Colorado Division of State Archives and Public Records, 1313 Sherman Street, Denver, 80203.

State Historical Society of Colorado, 1300 Broadway, Denver, 80203.

Connecticut Historical Commission, 59 S. Prospect Street, Hart­ford, 06106.

Connecticut Historical Society, One Elizabeth Street, Hartford, 06106.

Delaware Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs, Hall of Rec­ords, Dover, 19901.

Historical Society of Delaware, 505 Market Street, Wilmington, 19801.

Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records Management, R. A. Gray Building, Pensacola and Bronough Streets, Tallahas­see, 32301.

Florida Historical Society, University of South Florida Library, Tampa, 33620.

Georgia Department of Archives and History, 330 Capitol Avenue

S.E., Atlanta, 30334.

Georgia Historical Society, 501 Whitaker Street, Savannah, 31401.

Hawaiian Historical Society, 560 Kawaiahao Street, Honolulu, 96813.

Hawaii State Archives, Lolani Palace Grounds, Honolulu, 96813.

Idaho State Historical Society, 610 N. Julia Davis Drive, Boise, 83702.

Illinois State Archives, Archives Building, Springfield, 62756.

Illinois State Historical Society, Old State Capitol Building, Springfield, 62706.

Indiana Historical Bureau, 140 N. Senate Avenue, Indianapolis, 46204.

Indiana Historical Society, 315 W. Ohio Street, Indianapolis, 46202.

Iowa Division of History Museum and Archives, East 12th Street and Grand Avenue, Des Moines, 50319.

State Historical Society of Iowa, 402 Iowa Avenue, Iowa City, 52240.

Kansas State Historical Society, Memorial Building, 120 West 10th Street, Topeka, 66612.

Kentucky Historical Society, 300 W. Broadway, Frankfort, 40601.

Louisiana State Museum, 751 Chartres Street, New Orleans, 70116.

Maine Historical Society, 485 Congress Street, Portland, 04101.

Maine State Archives, State Capitol—Station 84, Augusta, 04333.

Maryland Historical Society, 201 West Monument Street at Park Avenue, Baltimore, 21201.

Massachusetts Historical Commission, 294 Washington Street, Boston, 02108.

Massachusetts Historical Society, 1154 Boylston Street, Boston, 02215.

Michigan History Division, Michigan Department of State, 208 North Capitol, Lansing, 48901.

Historical Society of Michigan, 2117 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Ar­bor, 48104.

Minnesota Historical Society, 690 Cedar Street, St. Paul, 55101.

Mississippi Department of Archives and History, 100 S. State Street, Jackson, 39201.

Mississippi Historical Society, 100 S. State Street, Jackson, 39201.

Missouri Historical Society, Jefferson Memorial Building, St. Louis, 63112.

Montana Historical Society, 225 North Roberts Street, Helena, 59601.

Nebraska State Historical Society, 1500 R. Street, Lincoln, 68508.

Nevada Historical Society, 1650 N. Virginia Street, Reno, 89503.

New Hampshire Historical Society, 30 Park Street, Concord, 03301.

New Jersey Bureau of Archives and History, New Jersey State Library, 185 W. State Street, Trenton, 08625.

New Jersey Historical Commission, 113 W. State Street, Trenton, 08625.

Museum of New Mexico, Historical Bureau, Palace of Governors, North, Santa Fe, 87501.

State Records Center and Archives, 404 Montezuma, Santa Fe, 87503.

New York State Archives, Cultural Education Center, Empire State Plaza, Albany, 12230.

Division of History and Anthropology, New York State Museum, 3099 Cultural Center, Empire State Plaza, Albany, 12230.

North Carolina Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, 27611.

State Historical Society of North Dakota, North Dakota Heritage Center, Bismarck, 58505.

Ohio Historical Society, Ohio Historical Center, Columbus, 43211.

Oklahoma Historical Society, 2100 North Lincoln Blvd., Oklahoma City, 73105.

Oregon Historical Society, 1230 S. W. Park Avenue, Portland, 97205.

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 3rd and North Streets, Harrisburg, 17120.

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1300 Locust Street, Phila­delphia, 19107.

Rhode Island Historical Society, 52 Power Street, Providence, 02906.

South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1430 Senate Street, Columbia, 29211.

South Dakota State Archives, Office of Cultural Preservation, State Library, Pierre, 57501.

South Dakota State Historical Society, Soldiers and Sailors Memo­rial Building, Pierre, 57501.

Tennessee Historical Commission, 403 Seventh Avenue, North Nashville, 37219.

Texas Historical Commission, 1511 Colorado, Austin, 78701.

Texas State Historical Association, SRH 2-306 University Station, Austin, 78712.

Utah State Historical Society, 307 West 2nd Street, Salt Lake City, 84102.

Vermont Historical Society, Pavilion Building, Montepelier, 05602. Virginia Historical Landmarks Commission, Morsons Row, 221 Governor Street, Richmond, 23219.

Virginia Historical Society, 428 North Boulevard, Richmond, 23221.

Washington State Historical Society, 315 North Stadium Way, Ta­coma, 98403.

West Virginia Department of Culture and History: Archives and History Division, Science and Cultural Center, Charleston, 25305.

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State Street, Madison, 53706.

Wyoming State Archives, Museums and History Department, Bar­rett Building, Cheyenne, 82002.

Research and Study Guides in History

If you wish to consult a history study guide written for more advanced students, here is a list of some publications.

Wood Gray, Historians Handbook: A Key to the Study and Writ­ing of History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1964.

Norman Cantor and Richard Schneider, How to Study History.

New York: T. Y. Crowell, 1967.

Roberts Daniels, Studying History: How and Why.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972.

Robert Shafer, A Guide to Historical Method.Homewood, 111.: Dorsey, 1980.

Grammar and Style Manuals

If you know that your background in grammar and composition is weak, or if you need more specific information concerning report writing, here are a few manuals that should help.

Sheridan Baker, The Complete Stylist and Handbook.New York: Harper & Row, 1984.

Jacques Barzun and Henry Graff, The Modern Researcher.New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.

University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style.Chi­cago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Kate L. Turabian, Student’s Guide for Writing College Papers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Call Numbers: The Library of Congress System

The identification system of the Library of Congress divides the major subject classifications by letter. The following are the Li­brary of Congress subject categories and their respective letter designations.

A General works B Philosophy, psychology, religion C Auxiliary sciences of history D General and Old World history E American (Western Hemisphere) history F American history (continued)

G Geography, anthropology, customs, sports H Social sciences, economics, socialism J Political science, international law K Law L Education M Music N Fine arts P Language, literature Q Science R Medicine S Agriculture T Technology U Military science V Naval science Z Bibliography, library science

Each letter group is broken down further by the addition of a second letter and then by numbers. Here are some of the break­downs of the categories D, E, and F, which deal with history.

D General history

DA Great Britain

20-690 England 700-745 Wales 750—890 Scotland 900—995 Ireland DB Austria-Hungary

DC France

DD Germany

DE Classical antiquity

DF Greece

DG Italy

DH-DJ Netherlands

DH 1—207 Belgium and Holland

DH 401-811 Belgium

DH 901—925 Luxemburg (grand duchy)

DJ Holland DK Russia

1-272 Russia (general)

401-441 Poland 445-465 Finland 750—891 Russia in Asia DL Scandinavia

1-85 Scandinavia (general)

101-291 Denmark 301-398 Iceland 401-596 Norway 601—991 Sweden DP Spain and Portugal

  1. 402 Spain 501—900 Portugal DQ Switzerland

DR Turkey and the Balkan States

DS Asia

DT Africa

DU Australia and Oceania

DX Gypsies

E America (General) and United States (General)

  1. 143 America (general)

31-45 North America (general)

51-99 Indians of North America 101-135 Discovery of America 151—810 United States 151-185 General history and description 185 Negroes in the United States 186-199 Colonial period 201-298 Revolution 351-364 War of 1812 401-415 War with Mexico 441-453 Slavery 458-655 Civil War 482-489 Confederate States 714-735 War with Spain

F United States (local) and America except the United States 1—970 United States (local)

1001-1140 British North America, Canada,

Newfoundland 1201-1392 Mexico 1401-1419 Latin America (general)

1421-1577 Central America 1601—2151 West Indies 2201-2239 South America (general)

2251—2299 Colombia

2301-2349 Venezuela

2351-2471 Guiana: British, Dutch, French

2501-2659 Brazil

2661-269,9 Paraguay

2701-2799 Uruguay

2801-3021 Argentine Republic

3051-3285 Chile

3301-3359 Bolivia

3401-3619 Peru

3701-3799 Ecuador

Thus a volume whose call number begins DK 408 deals with Polish history, and one which begins E 451 is about the history of slavery in the United States.

Call Numbers: The Dewey Decimal System The Dewey system is a decimal system. There are ten main subject headings, each containing 100 different numbers:

000—099 General works 100-199 Philosophy 200-299 Religion 300—399 Social sciences 400-499 Language 500-599 Pure science 600-699 Technology 700-799 The arts 800—899 Literature 900-999 History

Each of the main subject divisions is itself divided into ten sections of ten units each. The divisions of history are:

900-909 General history

910-919 Geography, travel, description

920-929 Biography

930-939 Ancient history

940-949 European history

950-959 Asian history

960-969 African history

970-979 North American history

980-989 South American history

990-999 Other regions of the world

Each of these divisions is further divided into ten parts. The divi­sions of 970 to 979 (North American history), for example, are as follows:

  1. General North American history

  2. Canadian history

  3. Mexican and Caribbean history

  4. General United States history

  5. Northeastern states, U.S.

  6. Southeastern states, U.S.

  7. South-central states, U.S.

  8. North-central states, U.S.

  9. Western states, U.S.

Far-western states, U.S. and AlaskaThus a volume whose call number begins with 934 deals with ancient history, and one that begins with 978 is concerned with the history of one or more of the western states of the United States.

Common Abbreviations Used in Footnotes, Bibliographies, Catalogs, and Reference Books






article (plural, arts.)




book (plural, bks.)






circa,about, approximately. Used with approxi­

mate dates, e.g., “ca. 1804.”


confer,compare. Used only when the writer

wishes the reader to compare two or more works.

ch. or chap.

chapter (plural, chaps.)


column (plural, cols.)


compiler (plural, comps.)






edition, editor (plural eds.)


exempli gratia,for example



et al.

et alia,and others

et seq.

et sequens,and the following




figure (plural, figs.)


ibidem,in the same place


idem,the same (person)


id est,that is


illustrated, illustration


below (referring to a later point in the work)

1. or 11.


loc. cit.

loco citato,in the place cited (referring to the same passage cited in an immediately previ­ous footnote)


manuscript (plural, MSS)

n. note, footnote (plural, nn.)

n.d. no date (of publication is given)

no. number (plural, nos.)

n.p. no place (of publication) or no publisher (is

given) n.s. new series

o.p. out of print

op. cit. opere citato, in the work cited

o.s. old series

p. page (plural, pp.)

par. paragraph (plural, pars.)

passim here and there (throughout the work cited)

pseud. pseudonym

pt. part (plural, pts.)

q.v. quod vide, which see

rev. revised

sc. scene

sic so, thus (Enclosed in brackets to indicate an

error or unusual statement in a quotation.) supp. supplement (plural, supps.)

supra above (referring to an earlier point in the work)

trans. translator

viz. videlicet, namely

v. or vol. volume (plural, vols.) vs. versus, against

Creation, 219; Jones, Fifteen Weeks, 139-42.

1. Be familiar with the subject under discussion.

  1. If a point is made that disagrees with your understanding, or if something in the lecture or discussion is confusing, formulate a clear question or statement in your mind.

  2. If you don’t get a chance to be recognized in class, bring up your question with the teacher when the session is over.

  3. Teachers are not impressed with students who like to hear themselves talk or who ask thoughtless questions, but if you are interested in the subject and have thought about what you want to say, never hesitate to speak up.

1. Adequate knowledge of the subject. The poor answer fails to indicate adequate knowledge in several ways. It is too brief, omit­ting many important facts. It describes the political programs of the two contending parties in the most vague terms. It refers to

II. Science Versus the Church

The new scientific and the old theological views of the universe seemed mutually exclusive. Christianity, through Scripture and other revelation, had an elaborate understanding of the divine origin of the world and of human beings

V. The Evolution of Scientific Thought! Skepticism Perhaps the end (or rather dead end) of the empirical school of thought is to be found in the theories of David Hume. This Scottish skeptic "mounted an attack on both theology and science.

He rejected the deist compromise with its acknowledgment of God as the originator of the universe. There was no way of knowing, Hume maintained, that the universe is a machine or that it had to have been created. These are only inferences derived from the regularity of its operation. But what evidence do we have of its

1. Author’s name in full, followed by a comma.

1DSB, March 16, 1947, 484. See also Acheson, Present at the

2Acheson, Present at the Creation, 221.

1Business History Review, vol. 53, no. 1, Spring, 1979, pp. 144-145. Reprinted by permission of the Harvard Business School.

3If you have been fortunate enough to find an annotated subject bibliography prior to your search of the card catalog, you already know the contents of some of the books listed there.

4If you are taking notes on a journal or newspaper article, you will need to record such information as date, volume number, page, and column number.

5Check to see if your instructor prefers a different form. Some do not require publication information in footnotes. Others permit the use of the social science system of notation, which is different from the one described here.

6For a common list of abbreviations used in footnotes, see Appendix B.

7Some instructors prefer second references to include a shortened title as well as the author’s last name and the page number.

8 Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Atlases, Yearbooks, Etc.

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, yearbooks, and so on, are general reference works. They can help you to define and correctly spell important terms, gather general information on a particular

9Websters Guide to American History.Springfield, Mass.: G. and C. Merriam, 1971.

*Concise Dictionary of American History.New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1983. David William Voorhees, ed. This is an abridgement of the eight-volume Dictionary of American History.

Dictionary of American History.New York: Scribners, 1942- 1961. James T. Adams and Roy V. Coleman, eds. (Revised edition, 1976.) This is the most extensive dictionary of American history.

The Almanac of American History.New York: Putnam Publishing Group, 1984. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed.

10If the title of a bibliography indicates that it is annotated, this means that it not only lists books on a particular topic but also provides a brief description of their contents.

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