Dr Joel Michell
In 2000, Dr Fiona Hibberd continued research on the relationship between, and implications of, positivist and social constructionist metatheories in psychology. She undertook a Special Studies Program from July 10, 2000 to January 12, 2001 as a Visiting Fellow at the University of Durham, UK; examined two British theories currently adjudged realist theories of psychological science and gave a Fellowship Lecture.
• Developmental Psychology Laboratory
Dr Pauline Howie proceeded with her research on aspectsmetacognitive and social influences on children’s event reports. Collaborative research began in early 2000 with Dr C. Roebers of the University of Wurzburg, Germany, on developmental aspects of the accuracy of confidence judgements in response to misleading questions. Research also proceeded in collaboration with Dr R. Markham on the development of new measures of vividness of imagery in three modalities appropriate for use with young children. An ARC funded investigation into the relationship between imagery vividness and source monitoring was conducted in 2000. Honours supervision projects supervised included evaluations of factors affecting the efficacy of narrative elaboration and drawing as techniques for maximising the accuracy of children’s event reports. Postgraduate supervision included research into the role of attributions in predicting the outcome of child abuse (Angela Dixon), and the efficacy of interventions designed to prevent postnatal depression in mothers and fathers (Stephen Matthey, associate supervisor with Dr David Kavanagh).
Dr Roslyn Markham completed research (in collaboration with Dr Pauline Howie) on the imagery vividness scales for children. Two experiments have been conducted in source monitoring in children in three different modalities as a function of imagery vividness in these modalities.
Dr David Livesey continued research into the development of kinaesthesis and motor coordination continued. Results from an ARC funded project examining the association between visual movement imagery and kinaesthetic acuity were analysed and the project written up for publication. Pilot work with children diagnosed with ADHD and/or DCD was conducted to identify techniques for differentiating the ADHD subtypes and their association with motor and executive function problems. This work has led to an application for NH&MRC funding for 2002 with a research team at Curtin University. Research into the development of response inhibition has continued with A. Carver. This has used the Stop-signal Task to examine response inhibition in children from 5-years of age.
• Social Psychology Laboratory
Dr Brian Crabbe continued previous research links established with National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS), Port Macquarie region. In 2000, a project "Community attitudes towards Dooragan National Park" extended research carried out in 1999 on visitors to the park. A telephone survey of residents of Laurieton and surrounding districts examined their attitudes towards, and use of, the Park. Issues specifically addressed included attitudes of the local community towards NPWS's development of the park as a resource of potential national importance, and the impact of that development on the local community.
Dr Alan Craddock continued his research on relationships between Psychology and Theology. Some of this material was delivered at the 21st Annual Lecture Series at Moore Theological College in August-September 1999. These lectures argued that Psychology and Theology are best regarded as complementary disciplines and described the application of this view to pastoral counselling and leadership in the church and family. Over 1500 members of the community attended the lecture series. The lecture series will be published by Hillfort Resources in January 2001 under the title Beyond Rivalry: Psychology and Theology as Complements. Dr Craddock is also continuing empirical work on associations between family structure variables and aspects of family functioning and individual adjustment, as well as exploring the characteristics of different types of premarital Australian couples.
Dr Michael Walker
Dr Clare Wilson started the year 2000 with the writing of a report for the Commission of Children and Young People (that formed part of a submission to the NSW Attorney General's Office) on the "doli incapax" legislation. This legislation outlines the age at which a child is considered to be criminally responsible. As there was a push to lower the age, the report dealt with the question "Is there any scientific or medical evidence to support the proposition that today's children are more able to distinguish right from wrong than their earlier counterparts". The short answer was "No"! Three empirical projects (conducted in conjunction with Fiona Chisholm, Amber French and Kay Pegg) further explored the issues surrounding children's criminal responsibility. These included how children understand criminal intentions, foreseeability (foreseeing the consequences of their actions) and plausibility of their actions.
Dr Clare Wilson also undertook a number of projects that examined ways to more effectively interview children. Two studies were funded by an ARC large grant and involved the interviewing of over 300 children, were conducted during the year. The first study (conducted in conjunction with Dr Martine Powell) used a series of scenarios to examine the effect of an authority figure's social position on children's legitimacy and obedience judgments. The second study examined if children's memories of a secret are stronger than normal memories and if an interviewer can mislead a child about a secret. Both studies are currently being written up for publication. Secrecy was the main focus of a project (conducted in conjunction with Johanna Meji) examining some of the moral catch-22 situations secret keeping can place the secret keeper in. This moral catch 22 was highlighted again in a large study examining how children understand and allocate blame.
Moral reasoning formed the main focus in two research projects. The first (conducted by Ben Marx) examined the possible relationship between political orientation and level of moral reasoning. The second (conducted in conjunction with Emma Grant, Amy Lattin, Angie O'Neill and Mandy Silversides) examined the possible relationship between children's consumption of violent media (particularly violent TV and video games) and children's moral reasoning. Violence was the primary focus of attention in two pilot studies (conducted by John Clarke and Gerard Shaefer) that examined the backgrounds of violent sexual offenders presently incarcerated in NSW prisons and the usefulness of criminal profiling in detecting such individuals.
Dr James Dalziel's main topics of research interest during 2000 were traffic psychology, psychology and education and online education. Research in traffic psychology saw continued development of work in the areas of optimism bias, fatigue and driving. Research in psychology and education continued to focus on the first year experience of university students and the use of assessment in higher education. Online education included research on the development of online training resources in investor education for the Australian Stock Exchange, and further work on “WebMCQ”, the web-based assessment system developed in conjunction with Scott Gazzard.
• Individual Differences Laboratory
Dr Lazar Stankov has been involved in several diverse empirical projects. These include the following: a. Study of the role of complexity in intelligence; b. Study of the role of mental speed in intelligence; c. Study of the role of tactile and kinaesthetic processes in intelligence; d. Study of the role of olfactory processes in intelligence; e. Study of the role of personal tempo in intelligence; f. Study of the role of self-monitoring in intelligence and personality; g. Study of the role of self-confidence in intelligence and personality; h. Study of the role of social attitudes in intelligence and personality; i. Study of the role of lower-order sensory processes in intelligence and probabilistic decision making; j. Study of the role of intelligence debates in social arguments in our society; k. Study of the role of social attitudes in our current understandings of racial prejudicies; l. Study of the relationship between theories of intelligence and neuropsychological theories of brain function; m. Study of the role of stereoscopic processes and binaural hearing in intelligence.
Each project has many facets and fits within the overall approach to the study of individual differences.
Dr Richard Robert's researchin 2000 included:
Investigating Cognitive Bias in Pathological Gamblers using a Visual Probe Detection Task. Researchers: Fadi Anjoul, Richard D. Roberts, & Manya Scheftsik. Cognitive models postulate that biases in information processing play an essential role in the maintenance of psychological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional biases in two groups for gambling related stimuli. These groups included a clinical sample of gamblers, who predominantly gambled on electronic gaming-machines (pokies), and control participants. The information-processing paradigm employed was the visual probe detection task. Results suggest that the sample of 32 gamblers (relative to controls) tended towards faster detection of target probes that appeared in the same spatial location as gaming-machine related stimulus words. No difference in probe detection latency was observed between groups in response to words denoting (gambling on) horse racing. This finding is interpreted as supporting the notion that the maintenance of pathological gambling is associated with heterogeneous biases in information processing.
Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities: What the Nose Knows.Researchers: Vanessa Danthiir, Richard Roberts, Gerry Pallier, & Lazar Stankov. For any taxonomic model of cognitive abilities to be complete, lower-order sensory processes must be incorporated within its scope. The current study, which was sponsored in part by a DRG, sought to address the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence, as this sensory modality appears to have remained uninvestigated within differential psychology. However, evidence from experimental cognitive psychology suggests that olfactory memory is distinct from memory in other sensory modalities. Thus, this issue was also explored from an individual differences perspective. Participants (N=107) were tested on a battery of 12 psychometric tests, four putative cognitive olfactory tasks, and one olfactory discrimination measure. The resultant dataset was subject to exploratory factor analysis. Results indicate the possible existence of a narrow olfactory memory ability (OM), structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related to simple olfactory sensitivity. The implication of this finding to models of human cognitive abilities is discussed.
Emotional 'Intelligence', Cognitive Abilities, and Personality. Researchers: Alicia Garcia & Richard D. Roberts. Emotional intelligence has been conceptualised both as an independent ability that is related to traditional cognitive abilities, and as a dispositional construct linked to personality. However, while there has been much theoretical speculation in the literature surrounding the concept of emotional intelligence, there remains a dearth of empirical studies into its structure and psychological correlates. The present study redresses this shortcoming. Uruguayan participants (N = 102) were tested on Spanish translations of a battery of measures from the domains of emotional intelligence, cognitive abilities, and personality. Results of exploratory factor analysis demonstrate that self-report measures of emotional intelligence share too much conceptual overlap with extant personality constructs. In addition, this analysis questions existing models that claim consensual-scored emotional intelligence is comprised of four facets. Instead, it would appear that this form of emotional intelligence comprises two moderately correlated factors: Emotion Perception and Emotional Understanding-Management. Emotion Perception is moderately related to personality (i.e., Conscientiousness), crystallized and fluid intelligence, and chronotype. Emotional Understanding-Management is moderately associated with personality (i.e., Agreeableness), and both crystallized and fluid intelligence. It would appear emotional intelligence might be better conceptualized as a form of competence that shares some links with traditional cognitive abilities and personality.
Tendency Towards Additivity in Multiple Choice Test Items. Researchers: Sabina Kleitman, Lazar Stankov and Richard Roberts. The Bayesian normative model of probability prescribes a number of laws that purportedly underlie human decision-making processes. When applied to multiple-choice questions, it is often assumed that a single alternative choice is a member of a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Consequently, the model expects that people behave in an ‘additive’ way when assessing the probability of the alternatives provided. In previous research, participants were asked to follow this principle. This study investigates this issue in greater detail, giving people freedom to use their own judgment, rather than imposing rules of probability. The participants were 118 psychology students. A large proportion of the participants (55%) tended to violate the ‘additivity’ principle. In particular, there appeared to be a consistent tendency towards under- or over-additivity. The manner in which participants violated the ‘additivity’ principle was predictive of cognitive bias on a General Knowledge test (r = -0.32, p < 0.001). The results of this empirical study suggest that there might be consistent individual differences in application of the normative model during decision-making processes, and that these differences might be predictive of some observed cognitive biases.
Can Emotional Intelligence be Measured Reliably: An Application of MORA Scaling. Researchers: Carolyn MacCann Richard D. Roberts. The Method of Reciprocal Averages (MORA) scaling procedure was applied to the Faces and Designs tests from the MSCEIT battery (N=105). The MORA has previously been shown to raise the reliability of dichotomously scored tests, and it was hypothesized that the increase would also occur for consensually scored tests -- a finding advantageous for the measurement of emotional intelligence. The MORA was also applied to three other consensually scored tests not measuring emotional intelligence. Results indicate that the MORA scaling did increase reliability, as well as convergent and divergent validity. MORA scaling also appears to decrease the dependence of item means and item standard deviations that occurs in consensual scoring. However, the procedure may increase the negative skew in the distributions of scores, stretching the "tail" of low scores to lower values.
Investigating the correlates of time management using the Abbreviated Time Management Index (ATMI). Researchers: Heidi Krause & Richard Roberts. Despite widespread exposure in the popular literature and the emergence of an extensive range of training programs, the construct of time management remains poorly understood from an empirical standpoint. Of note is the absence of a comprehensive scale to assess time management behaviours and attitudes, and the clarification of the factorial structure and conceptual nature of the construct, particularly its relationship to personality dimensions. Recently, a series of studies (N=432) were conducted by several members of IDCAU to redress this imbalance. A new self-report instrument, the Australian Time Organisation and Management Scale (ATOMS), possessing sound psychometric properties and assessing six factors of time management (Purpose, Time Facilitation, Mechanics of Time Management, Temporal Perspective/Change Management, Spontaneity, and Effective Organisation) was developed using rational and factor analytic approaches. In addition, significant relationships with the Big-Five factors of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism, as well as low correlations with cognitive ability measures, were established. The current study (N=194) was a replication and extension of the previous findings using an Abbreviated Time Management Index (ATMI). The outcome provided further construct validation for the scale and confirmed the strong association between time management and Conscientiousness.
Human circadian type: Psychological and physiological investigations. Researchers: Richard Roberts, Samara McPhedran, Gerry Pallier, Rod Hughes (Harvard Medical School), Sidney Irvine (University of Plymouth), Patrick Kyllonen (ETS), Moshe Zeidner (University of Haifa).The term 'circadian' denotes the near 24 hour physiologic rhythm that has been observed under free-running conditions, at every system level in nearly all living things, under near constant environmental conditions. Within individual differences approaches to this phenomenon, there is a stated assumption that there exists definite types corresponding to diurnal preference. However, attempts to measure circadian type (or chronotype) have met with mixed results. The Lark-Owl Chronotype Indicator (LOCI) was developed to redress this shortcoming. The LOCI is a brief self-report measure of circadian type yielding three sub-scale scores: Morningness, Eveningness, and Sleep Propensity. It has two parallel forms: LOCI (Alpha) and LOCI (Beta). Five studies (N > 2000) have now been conducted and analyzed, each suggesting that the three sub-scales composing the LOCI have excellent psychometric properties. A sixth study (N = 500) demonstrates the validity of the LOCI. Correlations between peer-report and self-report LOCI scores are particularly high for all scales (average r = 0.51). A technical report, detailing these preliminary findings, is available on the WWW at the following address:
Inside the framework provided by the LOCI, additional data has now been collected which examines relationships of each the three sub-scales with measures of cognitive ability, personality, time management, mood states, sleep quality, quality of life and so forth. Among interesting preliminary findings (N > 4000), are positive correlations between Morningness and Conscientious and between Morningness and dimensions of time management. In addition, it has been found that Evening types tend to be more open to experience, more intelligent, and more extraverted. Unfortunately, these individuals also tend to be fairly disorganized, careless, impulsive, inefficient, and undependable!
The impressive psychometric qualities of the LOCI has opened up a number of cross-cultural studies, with data currently being collected in Uruguay (with a Spanish version), the UK, South Africa, Israel, and Serbia. Other researchers in other countries (e.g., Germany, The Netherlands) have also inquired about procuring the protocol, with further international collaborations thus likely in 2000.
These behavioral indices have been complemented with an impressive array of physiological data, with data currently being collected by Dr. Hughes in the USA. He is giving the LOCI to all participants coming into his laboratory. Dr. Hughes is also collecting phase (melatonin and core body temperature) on all participants. Importantly, on some of these participants he is also (using complex methodologies) able to collect the period of their endogenous circadian clock (or tau).
The Processing Speed-Accuracy Test (PAST) Battery: Factor Structure and Behavioral Correlates. Researchers: Richard Roberts, Lazar Stankov, and Gerry Pallier. A paper-and-pencil battery of 25 elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs) was developed and then administered to 349 participants. Cognitive constructs assessed by these tasks include choice reaction time, attention switching, movement time, identification time, odd-man-out performance, and stimulus-response compatibility. Participants also completed measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, technical knowledge, and short-term memory. Analyses indicate the ECTs have a complex, hierarchical structure. One lower-order factor (Attention Switching) has particularly high correlation with measures of fluid intelligence (i.e., r in excess of 0.5). Overall, differential magnitudes of correlation with identified ability constructs across each speed factor reinforces the view that the factor structure of speed is as elaborate as that found for accuracy based (i.e., level) measures.
Stimulus-Response Compatibility Effects, Mental Speed, and Human Cognitive Abilities. Researchers: Richard D. Roberts, Lazar Stankov, & Brett Myors (Macquarie University). Recently, Roberts and Stankov (1999, Learning and Individual Differences, 11, 1-120) have argued that the experimental paradigms employed in individual differences research are more psychologically complex than exponents of the cognitive correlates approach (and general intelligence) have assumed. In particular, within processing speed accounts of intelligence, stimulus response compatibility (SRC) effects have largely been ignored. In this research, sponsored, in part, by a Small ARC Grant to the first author, participants (N=106) were administered a series of reaction time tasks. SRC was systematically manipulated in these tasks by having participants make incompatible responses (e.g., a joystick response in the opposite direction to a stimulus-light). These participants also completed diverse cognitive speed measures (the odd-man-out paradigm, a computerized trail-making test, and a traditional Hick paradigm) and tests of cognitive abilities. In line with Roberts and Stankov (1999), relationships between the various cognitive speed measures indicate that the structure of mental speed is indeed complex. Equally important, correlations between processing speed and measures of fluid intelligence were found to increase from moderate (i.e., r = -0.30) to substantial (r = -0.60) when participants were required to make particularly incompatible responses.
Emotional Intelligence: An Individual Differences Perspective. Researchers: Richard Roberts, Moshe Zeidner (University of Haifa), & Gerry Matthews (University of Cincinnatti). Following a review of contemporary approaches to the assessment of emotional intelligence (EI), it would appear that self-report measures represent little more than personality, while performance-based measures do hold some promise. Nevertheless, empirical information on the latter type of measure is sparse. To redress this imbalance, a multivariate investigation, examining the psychometric properties and psychological correlates of perhaps the most promising performance-based measure of EI -- the Multi-Factor Emotional Intelligence Scales (MEIS) -- was conducted. Participants (N=704) completed the MEIS, the Trait-Self-Description Inventory (TSDI, a measure of the Big-Five Personality Factors), and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB, a measure of intelligence, widely used in the selection context). Results were equivocal. While the MEIS showed convergent validity by correlating moderately with the ASVAB and divergent validity by correlating only slightly with the TSDI, different scoring protocols currently comprising the MEIS (i.e., expert, consensus, and target) yielded contradictory (indeed opposing) findings. In addition, the reliabilities of MEIS sub-scales were often poor, with factor analyses turning up still further problems in the hypothesized hierarchical structure of the test. Based on these findings and other logical and empirical criteria, it is suggested that an emotions-more, intelligence-less approach to the study of individual differences in emotionality is warranted.
Stimulus-Response Compatibility and Cognitive Complexity: Elucidating our Understanding of Fluid Intelligence. Researchers: Joel Werner & Richard Roberts. Speed of processing and intelligence appear fundamentally related. Recent evidence suggests, however, that in addition to processing speed other important cognitive mechanisms may be derived from experimental paradigms. Of these, manipulations of stimulus-response compatibility (henceforth SRC) appear particularly promising. With close conceptual links to the concept of automaticity, SRC is conceptualized as referring to the fact that different S-R pairings take differential amounts of time to form and process. Many elementary cognitive tasks are based on stimulus-response codes, and as such are susceptible to the effects of SRC. Given this and the intrinsic relationship with automatic processing, it was hypothesized that SRC may be an important cognitive mechanism underlying intelligence. Participants (N = 125) performed ten computerized and four paper-and-pencil tasks that were employed as measures of compatible and incompatible responding. Three psychometric tests were administered as measures of fluid intelligence. A clear SRC effect was observed. Compatible tasks were performed faster and more accurately than their incompatible counterparts. Furthermore, incompatible response conditions displayed higher correlation with measures of fluid intelligence (r=0.356) than did compatible conditions (r=0.308). This result supports the notion that SRC may be an important cognitive mechanism mediating relationships between processing speed and fluid intelligence.
The following table shows the published research output of the Department for the years 1994-2000
Edited Books & Monographs
Refereed Journal Articles
Beumont PJV, Ben-Tovim D & Touyz SW. (2000) Eating Disorders. In S Bloch & B Singh (Eds.). Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry. Melbourne University Press; 217-230.
Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS. (2000). Otolith function tests. In SJ Herdman (Ed.). Vestibular Rehabilitation. FA Davis, Philadelphia; 195-214.
Curthoys IS, Halmagyi GM. (2000). Clinical changes in vestibular function with time after unilateral vestibular loss. In SJ Herdman (ed.). Vestibular Rehabilitation. FA Davis, Philadelphia; 172-194.
Hesketh, B. (2000). Prevention and development in the workplace. In SD Brown & RW Lent (Eds.). Handbook of Counseling Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, New York; 471-498.
Hunt, C. (2000). The unmet need for treatment in panic disorder and social phobia. In G Andrews & S Henderson. (Eds.) Unmet need in Psychiatry. Problems, resources, responses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 277 - 289.
Job RFS & Dalziel JR. (2000). Defining fatigue as a condition of the organism, and distinguishing it from habituation, adaptation and boredom. In PA Desmond & PA Hancock (Eds.). Stress, Workload, and fatigue. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, New Jersey; 466-478.
Leichtman MD, Morse MB, Dixon A, & Speigel R. (2000). Source-monitoring and suggestibility: An individual differences approach. In K Roberts & M Blades (Eds.). Children's Source Monitoring. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 257-287.
McGregor IS & Schmidt WC. (2000). Models of the brain in psychology. In E Gordon (Ed.). Integrative Neuroscience: bringing together biological, psychological and clinical models of the human brain. Harwood Academic, Australia; 195-210.
Allworth E.A & Hesketh B. (2000). Job requirements biodata in a customer service environment. International Journal of Selection and Assessment; 137-147.
Almeida de Neto A , Benrimoj SI, Kavanagh D & Boakes RA. (2000). A pharmacy based protocol and training program for non-prescription analgesics. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 17, 183-192.
Almeida de Neto A, Benrimoj SI, Kavanagh D & Boakes RA. (2000). A novel educational training program for community pharmacists. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 64, 302-307
Ash RA, Carr L, Hesketh B, Pearlman K, Battista M, Eyde LD, Kehoe J, Prien EP & Sanchez JI. (2000). The practice of competency modeling. Personnel Psychology, 53, 703-740.
Betts GA, Barone M, Karlberg M, MacDougall H, Curthoys IS. (2000). Neck muscle vibration alters visually-perceived roll after unilateral vestibular loss. Neuroreport, 21; 11(12): 2659-62.
Boakes RA, Boot B, Clarke JV & Carver A. (2000). Comparing albino and hooded Wistar rats of both sexes on a range of behavioral and learning tasks. Psychobiology; 28, 339-359.
Boot B, McGregor IS & Hall W. (2000). MDMA (“Ecstasy”) neurotoxicity justifies greater public health warnings. Lancet; 355, 1818-1820.
Broe GA, Grayson DA, Creasey HM, Waite LM, Casey BJ, Bennett HP, Brooks WS & Halliday GM. (2000). Effect of anti-inflammatory medication on neuropathological findings in Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of Neurology; 57, 831-836
Brown K, Gordon E, Williams L, Bahramali H, Harris A, Gray J, Meares R. (2000). Misattribution of sensory input reflected in dysfunctional targetnontarget ERPs in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine; 30(6), 1443-1449.
Cartwright AD, Cremer PD, Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS. (2000). Isolated directional preponderance (DP) on bithermal caloric testing: II. A neural network model. American Journal of Otology; 21, 568-572.
Cremer PD, Migliaccio AA, Pohl DV, Curthoys IS, Davies L, Yavor RA, Halmagyi GM. (2000). Posterior semicircular canal nystagmus is conjugate and its axis is parallel to that of the canal. Neurology; 23; 54(10): 2016-20.
Curthoys IS. (2000). Vestibular compensation and substitution. Current Opinion Neurology; 13(1): 27-30.
Cuthbert PC, Gilchrist DP, Hicks SL, MacDougall HG, Curthoys IS. (2000). Electrophysiological evidence for vestibular activation of the guinea pig hippocampus. Neuroreport; 15; 11(7): 1443-7.
Dalziel JR & Job RFS. (2000). Precursors to fatigue crashes and the problem of the “fallen asleep at the wheel” defence in legal contexts. RoadWise; 1, 3-5.
Dent OF, Grayson DA, Waite LM, Cullen JS, Creasey H & Broe GA. (2000) Alcohol consumption in a community sample of older people. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 24, 323-326.
Dent OF, Grayson DA, Waite LM, Cullen JS, Creasey H, Bennett HP, Casey BJ & Broe GA. (2000). A Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and functional disability in a community sample of older people. British Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health; 19, 185-189.
Dowsett S & Livesey DJ. (2000). The development of inhibitory control in pre-school children: Effects of 'executive skills' training. Developmental Psychobiology, 36, 2, 161-174.
Erickson DB & Erickson P. (2000). Psychological factors and sex differences in acceptance of monovision. Perceptual and Motor Skills; 91, 1113-1119.
Faunce GJ & Job RFS. (2000). The Stroop colour naming task and addictive behaviour: Some recommendations. Addiction, 95(9), 1438-1439.
Gilchrist DP, Curthoys IS, Burgess AM, Cartwright AD, Jinnouchi K, MacDougall HG, Halmagyi GM. (2000). Semicircular canal occlusion causes permanent VOR changes. Neuroreport, 11, 2527-31.
Grayson DA, Mackinnon A, Jorm AF, Creasey H & Broe GA. (2000). Item Bias in the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: Effects of physical disorders and disability in an elderly community sample. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 55, 273-282.
Green MJ, Williams LM & Hemsley DR (2000). Cognitive theories of delusion formation: The contribution of visual scanpath research. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 5, 62-74.