of state bishops. In 1909 there were 74 ministers and over 300,000 adherents. Healing is one of the characteristic features of the church. In 1890 the name of the movement was changed from " The New Life Society " to " The Newology Church," in 1907 to " The Newlife Church." It is propagated by leaders who, like the founder, travel, hold' meetings, and heal the sick and afflicted.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Newiifeiat Magazine and the books of John Fair New, of New York.
NEWCOMB, HARVEY: Congregational author and clergyman; b. at Thetford, Vt., Sept. 2, 1803; d. at Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 30, 1863. From 1818 to 1826 he taught school in western New York; from 1826 to 1831 he was editor of several journals, of which the last was The Christian Herald, Pittsburg. From the latter yeas, until 1840, he wrote Sundayechool books, and from 1840 till his death he was Congregational minister in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania. He is said to have written 178 volumes, moat of them for children. He was also the author of Manners and Customs of the North American Indians (Pittsburg, 1835), and A Cyclopedia of Missions (New York, 1854).
NEWCOMB, WILLIAM: Archbishop of Armagh; b. at Abingdon (6 m. s. of Oxford), Berkshire, England, Aug. 10, 1729; d. at Dublin Jan. 11, 1800. He was graduated from Oxford University (Hertford College, M.A., 1753; D.D., 1765); took holy orders, and was appointed bishop of Dromore, Ireland, 1766; transferred to Ossory, 1775, to Waterford and Lismore, 1779, and to the archbishopric of Armagh, 1795. He was possessed of large wealth, which he used in the dignified improvement of cathedral and palace at Armagh. His leisure was spent in Biblical study, the results of which appear in his Harmony of the Gospels (in Greek; Dublin, 1778, based upon Le Clerc, new eds., with Eng. tranal. of text, London, 1802 and 1827); An Historical View of the English Biblical Translations; the Expediency of Revising, by Authority, ow present Translation, and the Means of Executing such a Revision, [with] a Lint of the various. Editions of the Bible and Parts thereof, in English, from the year 1526 to 1776 (Dublin, 1792). He published revised translations, with notes, of the twelve Minor Prophets (1785), Ezekiel (1788), and of the New Testament (2 vols., printed 1796, but not published until 1809; taken as the basis of the Unitarian Version, London, 1808); also, Observations on our Lord's Conduct as a Divine Instructor (2 parts, London, 1782, new ed., Oxford, 18b3); and occasional sermons and charges.
Biaiaooawra:: A. Chalmers, General Biographical Didian
ary, a:iii. 113‑114, London, 1815; DNB, xi. 32223.
NEWELL, HARRIET: American missionary; b. at Haverhill, Mass., Oct. 10, 1793; d. on the Isle de France (Mauritius) Nov. 30, 1812. She was a daughter of Moses Atwood and was married to Samuel Newell (q.v.) in 1812, and sailed with him for Calcutta the same year. Not being allowed to remain at Calcutta, they sailed for Mauritius. A daughter born on the journey died, sad was buried at sea. Rapid consumption soon set in, and car
RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA New York Sabbath Committee Newman, Albert Henry
ried the mother off likewise. Mrs. Newell's early death, at the age of nineteen, aroused wide sympathy, and did more, by the interest it stimulated, for missions than, perhaps, a long life would have accomplished.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Memoirs were published by her husband, S. Newell, New York, 1831; and by L. Woods, Boston, 1814.
NEWELL, SAMUEL: American missionary; b. at Durham, Me., July 25, 1785; d. at Bombay, India, Mar. 30, 1821. He graduated at Harvard in 1807, and went to Andover Seminary in 1809. He was one of the four students who presented the petition which contributed so much to the formation of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. In 1812 he married Harriet Atwood of Haverhill (see NEWELL, HAR=T); on Feb. 6 was ordained at Salem with Judson, Nott, Rice, and Gordon Hall, and on the 19th sailed with Judson for Calcutta. Not being permitted to disembark, he went to the Isle de France (Mauritius); and in Jan., 1814, he joined Hall and Nott at Bombay. He died of the cholera. He published The Conversion of the World, or the Claims of Six Hundred Millions (Andover, 1818), which aroused much interest; and Life and Writings of Mrs. Harriet Newell (New York, 1831).
NEWFOUNDLAND: An island of North America; situated to the southeast of Labrador, between the Atlantic Ocean on the east and south and the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the west; forming a colony of Great Britain; area, 40,200 square miles; population, estimated (1905) at 225,533, exclusive of Labrador. The island was discovered by John Cabot in 1497; formally taken possession of by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583; settled, however, by the French, and ceded to the English in 1713. The population, concentrated in the southeastern part and mainly engaged in the fisheries, is ninetyeeven per cent native born, principally of English, Irish, and Scotch descent. In 1900 thirty‑four per cent of the people were Roman Catholics, thirtythree per cent belonged to the Church of England, and twenty‑seven per cent were Methodists. A Roman Catholic vicariate established in 1796, with seat at St. Johns, seems to have been discontinued in 1869. The interests of the Anglicans are cared for by a missionary bishop holding mission from the metropolitan see of Canterbury. The schools are wholly denominational; the school funds being proportioned according to the number of pupils of each denomination, and there are three superintendents of public instruction, one for each of the churches named. Education is not compulsory.
Brnuoansra:: J. Hatton and M. Harvey, Newfoundland,
its $iM. and Prospects. London, 1883; 11i. F. Howley,
Ecclesiastical Mist. of Newfoundland. Boston. 1888: J. Langtry, $ial. of the Church in Newfoundland, London, 1892; C. H. Mookridge, Biahopa of the Church of England in Newfoundland, ib. 1898; D. W. Prowae. A $iat. of Newfoundland, ib. 1900; F. E. Smith, The Story of Newfoundland, ib. 1901.
NEWMAN, ALBERT HENRY: Baptist; b. about 10 m. n.w. of Edgefield Court House, S. C., Aug. 25, 1852. He was educated at Mercer University, Macon, Ga. (A.B., 1871), Rochester Theo‑
Newman THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 1522
logical Seminary (from which he was graduated in 1875), and the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (1875‑76). He was acting professor of church history (1877,80) and Pettingill professor of church history (1880‑81) at Rochester Theological Seminary, and professor of church history in McMaster University, Toronto (1881‑1901). Since 1901 he has been professor of the same subject in the theological seminary attached to Baylor University, Waco, Tex., which, as the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, became independent in 1908, and removed to Fort Worth, Tex., in 1910. In 1906 he was professor of church history in the Divinity School of the University of Chicago for the summer term. In theology he is a moderate conservative. He has written The Baptist Churches in the United States (New York, 1894); A History of Anti‑Pedobaptism from the Rise of Pedobaptism to A.D. 1609 (Philadelphia, 1897); Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1900‑03); and A Century of Baptist Achievement (1901). He also prepared a new translation, with annotations and an introductory essay on Manicheanism, of the anti‑Manichean treatises of Augustine for the fourth volume of the Nicene and Post‑Nicene Fathers (New York, 1887), translated A. Immer's Hermeneutik des Neuen Testaments (Wittenberg, 1873) under the title Hermeneutics of the New Testament (Andover, 1877), and edited Memoir of Daniel A. McGregor (Toronto, 1891).
NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM: Layman, brother of Cardinal Newman; b. in London June 27, 1805; d. at Weston‑super‑Mare (8 m. s.w. of Bristol), England, Oct. 4, 1897. He attended a private school at Ealing; studied at Worcester College, Oxford (B.A., 1826); was fellow of Balliol, 1826‑30, but resigned because unable conscientiously to subscribe to the Thirty‑nine Articles, which was then requisite before obtaining the master's degree; he lived and traveled in the East, 1830‑33; became classical tutor at Bristol College, 1834; and professor of Latin in Manchester New College (now Manchester College, Oxford), Manchester, 1840; and was professor of Latin in University College, London, 1846‑69. Originally he was a man of religious tendencies, but gradually became a free‑thinker. He was a voluminous writer on linguistic, mathematical, historical, social, and political, as well as religious subjects. His most important theological works are History of the Hebrew Monarchy (London, 1847); Relation of Free Knowledge to Moral Sentiment (1847); The Soul, its Sorrows and Aspirations (1849, 9th ed., 1882); Phases of Faith; Passages from my own Creed (1850); Catholic Union: Essays towards a Church of the Future as the Organization of Philanthropy (1854); Defective Morality of the New Testament (Ramsgate, 1867); Thoughts on a Free and Comprehensive Christianity (1868); Thoughts on the Existence of Evil (1872); Theism, Doctrinal and Practical (London, 1858), reissued as Hebrew Theism: The Common Basis of Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedism (1874); The Two Theism (1874); Life After Death (1886); and Miscellanies, of which vol. ii. consists of Essays, Tracts, Moral and Religious (1887).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Letters and Correspondence of J. H. Newman, ed. Anne Mosley, 2 vols., London, 1891; In Memoriam, Emeritus Professor P. W. Newman, ib. 1897; I. (3. 6ievelung, Memoir and Letters of Francis y9. Newman, ib. 1909; DNB, Supplement iii. 221‑223.
NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY: English cardinal; b. in London Feb. 21, 1801; d. in Birmingham Aug. 11, 1890. He attended Trinity College, Oxford, 1816‑20 (B.A.), remaining there after obtaining his degree to do private tutoring, at the same time preparing himself to enter Oriel, the acknowledged center of Oxford intellectualism, and was elected fellow Apr. 12, 1822. He was ordained deacon June 13, 1824, and soon after became curate of St. Clement's Church, Oxford, preaching his first sermon at Warton, June 23, from P's. cxxiv. 23: " Man goeth to his work and to his labour until the evening "‑nineteen years later he preached his last sermon as an Anglican clergyman from the same text. In March, 1825, he was appointed vice‑principal of Alban Hall by Richard Whately, the principal (afterwards archbishop of Dublin), to whose influence Newman declared he owed more than to that of any other man during the formative period of his career. He became vicar of St. Mary's, the university church, in 1828, and in 1831‑32 he was one of the select university preachers, marking the close of his public activity at Oxford. In Dec., 1832, Newman and Richard Hurrell Froude visited southern Europe. While in Rome he collaborated with Fronde on the Lyra Apostolica. In June, 1833, while traveling in an orange‑boat from Palermo to Marseilles, the boat was becalmed for a whole week, during which time he wrote his most famous verses: " Lead, kindly light." On his arrival home in July of the same year Keble preached his assize sermon at St. Mary's on national apostasy, which Newman considered the start of the Oxford movement (see TRACTARIANIBM).
According to Dean Church " the Oxford movement was the direct result of the searchings of heart and the communings from 1826‑33 of Keble, Froude, and Newman. Keble gave the inspiration, Froude the impetus, and Newman did the work." The same author calls Newman's Ariana of the Fourth Century (1833) " a book, which for originality and subtlety of thought was something very unlike the usual theological writings of the day." With this publication Newman's fame as an author was assured. Toward the close of the year 1835 Dr. Pussy joined the Oxford movement, becoming (in the eyes of the world at large) its official head. In 1836 Renn Dickson Hampden became regius professor of divinity at Oxford against considerable opposition, which was aroused by the liberalism of his Bampton lectures. Newman took a leading part in the controversy by his Elucidations of Dr. Hampden's Theological Statements (Oxford, 1836), opening the eyes of many to the meaning of the movement and making friends day by day. There followed a series of works in defense of Anglo‑Catholicism, the first, Lectures on the Prophetical O,4rce of the Church, Viewed relatively to Romaniam and Popular Protestantism (1837), occupying him for three years. In 1838 he published Lectures on Juatiftcation and his tract on Antichrist. These publications were largely
158 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Newman
responsible for the formation of a school of opinion, which eventually came into collision with the nation and the nation's church. At about this time Newman became editor of the British Critic, which was used as the chief organ of Tractarianism, and at this time his influence was already wide. While the view of the Church of England set forth in his Prophetical Oftce of the Church (1837) is the recognized Anglican view, by 1839 he himself began to question its correctness, and his doubts were strengthened by Cardinal Wiseman's article on the "Anglican Claim " in the Dublin Review (1839).
During the years in which the Tractarian movement held sway, Newman wrote twenty‑four tracts. Tract 90 he wrote in 1841, the outcome of which was that the movement came under the ban, and Newman's position was no longer tenable. In July of the same year he relinquished the editorship of the British Critic to his brother‑in‑law, Thomas Moziey. The next year he withdrew from Oxford and went to Littlemore, passing three years in seclusion; publishing in February, 1843, in the Conservative Journal a retraction of his strictures upon the Church of Rome, and in September of the same year resigning the living of St. Mary's. During the writing of his Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine (1845), his doubts respecting the Roman Catholic Church gradually vanished, and he was received into that church on Oct. 9, 1845. This event was of far‑reaching importance to the Church of England, and brought about the end of the Oxford movement. Newman left Oxford on Feb. 23, 1846, to go to Oscott, and in October of the same year he went to Rome, where he was ordained priest, and received the doctorate. At the close of the following year he returned to England, commissioned by Pius IX. to introduce the Oratory (see NERI, PHILIP, SAINT) into his mother country, which he established at Alcester Street, Birmingham; and later at Edgebaston. His Discourses to Mixed Congregation8 (1849) is a volume which reveals him at this time at the zenith of his attainments as a preacher. In this same year he assisted the Roman Catholic priests of Bilaton during an epidemic of cholera, himself taking the most dangerous posts. In 1851 he established the London Oratory, while in 1850 he had published his Lectures on Certain D6,cutties felt by Anglicans in Submitting to the Catholic Church. In October, 1850, the Roman hierarchy of England (also called the Papal Aggression) was restored, producing a violent anti‑Catholic agitation. Newman's next work was his Lectures on the Present Position of Catholics in England (1851). In one of these he so forcibly and in such plain language assailed the depraved nature of an apostate monk named Achilli, used in the anti‑Roman agitation, that charges for libel were preferred against him. He pleaded " not guilty," and his charges were in the main proved by witnesses brought for the purpose from Italy, but the jury, under the influence of the charge by the magistrate, brought in a verdict against Newman, and he was fined £100 by Judge Coleridge on Jan. 23, 1853. In 1854 he went to Dublin, as rector of the Catholic University. The only apparent literary result of this experience was
his Idea of a University (1873). In 1858 he re‑
turned to Birmingham, where he proposed, but failed to carry through, the establishment of a branch house of the Oratory at Oxford. In 1859 he established at Edgebaston the school for the sons of well‑to‑do Roman Catholics. In reply to an adverse criticism (in fact a perverted statement) made by Charles Kingsley in 1864 Newman issued his Apologia pro Vita Sua, a work which has been regarded a triumphant vindication of his integrity and honesty of purpose throughout his life. In 1874 he answered an article written by Gladstone for the Contemporary Review and also Gladstone's Vatican Decrees, by his Letter to the Duke of Norfolk, in which he criticized severely the extreme statements of some Roman Catholics in relation to the matter at issue. In 1877 Newman was elected honorary fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, and in February, 1878, visited Oxford for the first time in thirty‑two years. Soon after Leo XIII. became pope, several leading English Roman Catholic laymen represented to him the great work which Newman had accomplished in England, as a result of which Newman was called to the sacred college. This honor was appreciated the more in that it was unexpected and in that he was exempt from residence at the pontifical court. On May 12, 1879, he was formally created cardinal, with the title of St. George in Velabro. He paid one more visit to Trinity College, Oxford, and preached in St. Aloysius' Church. Thenceforth he made his residence at Edgebaston.
A full list of his books, tracts, and other writings is given in DNB, xl. 349‑350. An edition of his works is in 36 vols., London, 1868,81.
BIHmoaRAPHY: As sources use: His own Apologia pro vita sua, ut sup.; and Letters and Correspondence of J. H. Newman, ed. Anne Mosley, 2 vole., London, 1891. Very useful is the literature on TRACTARIANIBM, particularly R. W. Church's Oxford Movement. London, 1891. Biographies have been written by: R. H. Hutton, London, 1894; H. J. Jennings, ib., 1882; W. Lockhart, ib., 1891; W. J. H. Meynell, New York, 1891; E. A. Abbott, The Anglican Career of Cardinal Newman, 2 vols., London, 1892 (consult also his Philomythus, ib. 1891); W. Sanday, Enplands Debt to Newman, London, 1892; A. B. Donaldson, in Five Great Oxford Leaders, New York, 19W; A. R. Waller and (3. H. S. Barrow, Boston, 1902; A. Whyte, New York, 1902; W. Barry. New York, 1904; E. Cachod, Newman. Essai de biographic pwcholopique, Paris, 1905; J. A. Hutton, PilCrima in the Region of Faith, Cincinnati, 1908; W. J. Williams, Newman, Pascal, Loisy and the Catholic Church, London, 1906; W. P. Ward, Ten Personsat Studies, New York, 1908; A. Cecil, Six Oxford Thinkers, London, 1909. Consult also, H. P. Liddon, Life of E. B. Pusey, 3 vols., London, 1895; the Trial of O. G. Achilli vs. J. H. Newman, London. 1852; C. Sarolea, Cardinal Newman and His Influence on Re• lipious Life and Thought, New York, 1908.
NEWMAN, JOHN PHILIP: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. in New York Sept. 1, 1826; d. at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., July 5, 1899. He graduated from Cazenovia Seminary, 1848; studied theology, and entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1849; he filled appointments in the Oneida, Troy, and New York conferences, 1848‑64, with an interval of a year's travel (1860‑61) in the orient; he organized a Methodist Episcopal church in New Orleans, 1864; while there he established three annual conferences, two colleges, and a religious paper; he organized and became pastor
Newman THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 154
of the Metropolitan Methodist Episcopal Church,
Washington, 1869; he was chaplain of the United
States Senate, 1869‑74; inspector of United States
consulates in Asia 1874‑76; again pastor of the
Metropolitan Church, Washington, 1876‑79; of the
Central Church, New York, 1879‑82; of the Madi
son Avenue Church, New York, 1882‑84; and a
third time pastor of the Metropolitan Church,
Washington, 1885‑88; and in 1888 was elected
bishop. He won high repute as a pulpit orator
and lecturer. He was three times elected to the
general conference of his denomination; and in 1881
went to England as delegate to the Method5st ecu
menical council. He wrote: From Dan to Beer
sheba, or the Land of Promise as it now Appears
(New York, 1864); The Thrones and Palaces o,/
Babylon and Nineveh, from the Persian Gulf to the
Mediterranean . . (1876); Christianity Trium
phant; its Defensive and Aggressive Victories (1883);
Supremacy of Law (1890); and Conversations with
Christ (1900). He was also editor of the New Or
leans Christian Advocate, 1866‑69.
NEWSOM, GEORGE ERNEST: Church of Eng
land; b. at Blundellsands (5 m. n. of Liverpool),
Lancashire, May 24, 1871. He was educated at
Merton College, Oxford (B.A., 1894), and was or
dered deacon in 1895 and ordained priest in 1896.
After being curate of Cannock from 1895 to 1897,
he was vice‑principal of King's College, London,
from 1897 to 1903. Since 1903 he has been pro
fessor of pastoral theology in the same institution.
He has also been warden of King's College Hostel
and reader in the Temple Church since 1902, and
examining chaplain to the bishop of Lichfield since
NEWTIAN CHURCH. See NEw, JoEw FAIR.
NEWTON, BENJAMIN WILLS: Plymouth
Brother; b. at Plymouth 1805; d. at Tunbridge
Wells 1898. He was educated at the Plymouth
Grammar School, and at Exeter College, Oxford
(B.A., 1828), where he read privately with Francis
William Newman (q.v.), through whom he became
acquainted with John Nelson Darby (q.v.), whom
he induced to visit Plymouth. In the " Assembly "
of the Plymouth Brethren (q.v.), he labored for
seventeen years as a teacher, and contributed to
The Christian Witness many papers of value. Until
1845 Newton held sway in the Plymouth
" gathering," as it was called, but early displayed
divergence from Darby's teaching on ministry,
justification, the " secret rapture of the saints," etc.
Their different attitude on ministry and church gov
ernment led to a rupture between them in 1845, when
Darby started another " meeting " in Plymouth.
Newton continued in the original company until
1847. But in the mean time notes of a lecture by
Newton on Christ's status as an Israelite, which he
seemed to treat in such a way as to impair the
Lord's personal sinless relations to God, coming into
Darby's hands, were used by his old associate effect
ively against him, so that his remaining supporters
were gradually detached from him as heterodox,
with the exception of S. P. Tregelles, who was re
lated to him by marriage. Newton left Plymouth
finally at the end of 1847 for residence in London and elsewhere. Thenceforth he ministered and worked in isolation, remaining a layman to the end of his life.
Of his works, which are numerous and well written, the chief are:
Thoughts on the Apocalypse (London, 1844, lest ed. 1904); Remarks on the Sufferings of the Lord Jesus (1847, in explanation of his views criticised by Darby); Ancient Truths Respelling the Deity and True Humanity of the Lord Jesus (1857, new ell., 1893); Aids to Prophetic Enquiry (1848; 1881); Prospects of the Ten Kingdoms of the Roman Empire (1849; new ell., 1873); Prophetic System of Elliott and Cumming Considered (1850); Doctrines of Popery Considered (1851; new ell., 1883); Occasional Papers on Scriptural Subjects (1851, 1856); Thoughts on Leviticua (1852); Europe and the East (1855; new ell., 1878); First and Second Chapters of the Epistle to the Romans Considered (1856; new ell., 1897); The Antichrist Future (1859; new ell., 1900); Gospel Truths (1861); Remarks on Mosaic Cosmogony (1864); Judgment of the Court of Arches in Case of Routand Williams (1866); Prophecy of the Lord Jesus as Contained in Matt. =iv., xav. (1879); Old Testament Saints not Excluded from the Church in Glory (1887); Babylon, its future History and Doom (1890). E. E. WHITFIELD.
BrHLIoaaAPBT: W. B. Neatby, History of the Plymouth
Brethren. London. 1902.
NEWTON, JOHN: Church of England; joint author with Cowper of the Olney Hymns; b. in London July 24, 1725; d. there Dec. 21, 1807. He was the son of a shipmaster in the Mediterranean service, with whom he sailed until 1742. In 1743 he was impressed into the English naval service, was made midshipman, deserted, was recaptured and reduced to the ranks, exchanged to a ship in the African station, became servant to a slave‑trader, and was rescued in 1748, being converted on the way home in a storm at sea. He continued to follow the sea till 1754, meanwhile studying Latin and the Bible. He was surveyor of tides at Liverpool, 1755‑0, where he heard Whitefield and Wesley, and studied Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac. In 1763 he was brought to the notice of Lord Dartmouth by Thomas Haweis, through whose influence he was made deacon and priest, 1764, and given the curacy of Olney. In 1767 Cowper settled there, and the result of their very close intimacy was the Olney Hymns (London, 1779 and often), which greatly influenced English hymnology. In 1780 he accepted the offer of the benefice of St. Mary Woolnoth with St. Mary Woolchurch, London, where he officiated till his death. Hardly less famous than the Hymns was his Authentic Narrative of Some . . . Particulars in the Life of John Newton (London, 1764, 9th. ell., 1799; an account of his early life). He wrote also, Sermons Preached in . . . Olney (1767); Omicron: Twenty‑six Letters on Religious Subjects (1774; subsequent editions, in which the number of the letters became forty‑one); Cardiphonia; or, the Utterance of the Heart in the Course of a real Correspondence (2 vols., 1781); Letters to a Wife (2 vols., 1793), and other works. A collected edition of his works was issued by his executors (6 vols., London, 1808; new ell., 12 vols., 1821). He was a strong support of the Evangelicals in the Church of England, and was a friend of the dissenting clergy as well as of the ministry of his own church. One of the questions much debated is whether the influence of the sternly Calvinistic Newton on Cowper
166 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Newman
was good. It is possible that this Calvinistic
trend gave Cowper's works a gloomy cast; on the
other hand, it may have been the tonic which he
BIHUOanAPBY: In an edition of Newton's Works, Edin
burgh, 1827, is a life by R. Cecil; The Authentic Narra
tive, ut sup., is of course a first‑hand source, while the
Letters and Cardiphomia contain much that is biograph
ical. Consult Letters and Conversational Remarks, ed.
J. Campbell, London, 1808; DNB, xl. 395‑398; S. W.
Duffield, English Hymns, pp. 248‑255, New York, 1886;
Julian, Hymnology, pp. 803804; and the literature under
COWPER, wILLJAM, particularly the editions by Wright
of the Correspondence.
NEWTON, RICHARD: Protestant Episcopalian;
b. in Liverpool, England, July 25, 1813; d. in
Philadelphia May 25, 1887. He accompanied his
parents to America in 1823, and received his early
training in Philadelphia and in Wilmington, Del .;
he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, 1836, and from the General Theologi
cal Seminary, New York, 1839; was ordained, and
became rector of the Church of the Holy Trinity,
West Chester, Pa., 1839; was rector of St. Paul's
Church, Philadelphia, 1840‑62; of the Church of the
Epiphany, Philadelphia, 1862,81; and from 1882 of
the Church of the Covenant in the same city. He
was remarkably successful in his sermons for chil
dren and young people, which have been most
He was the author of: The Wonder Case (6 volt., Bible
Wonders; Nature's Wonders; Leaves from the Tres of Life;
Rills from the Fountain of Life; Jewish Tabernacle; and
Giants and Wonderful Things, New York, 1856‑74); The
Jewel Case (6 vole., Best Things; Ring's Highway; Safe
Compass; Bible Blessings: Great Pilot: Bible Jewels: 1859
1868); Illustrated Rambles in Bible Lands (Philadelphia,
1875); Rays from the Sun of Righteousness (New York,
1876); Life of Jesus Christ; for the Young (in 40 parts,
Philadelphia, 1877); The Ring in his Beauty (New York,
1878); Pebbles from the Brook: Sermons to Children (1879);
Pearls from the East: Stories and Incidents from Babble His
tory (Philadelphia, 1881); Covenant Names and Privileges
(New York, 1882); Bible Promises: Sermons to Children
(1884); Bible Portrait Gallery (Philadelphia, 1885); Heroes
of the Reformation (1885); Bible Warnings: Sermons to
Children (New York, 1886); Bible Animals and the Les
sons Taught by them (1888); Heath in the Wilderness: Ser
mons to the People; to which is added the Story of his Life
and Ministry by W. W. N. (1888); Heroes of the Early
Church (Philadelphia, 1888); Pive Minute Talks for Young
People: or, the Way to Success (1891).
NEWTON, RICHARD HEBER: Protestant Epis
copalian, son of the preceding; b. at Philadelphia
Oct. 31, 1840. He entered the University of Penn
sylvania in 1857 but left at the close of his sopho
more year; then entered the Protestant Episcopal
Divinity School, Philadelphia, from which he was
graduated in 1863. He was ordered deacon in 1862
and was assistant at St. Paul's, Philadelphia (1862
1863) and the Church of the Epiphany, Philadel
phia (18634), and in charge of Trinity Church,
Sharon Springs, N. Y. (1864‑66), until his ordina
tion to the priesthood in 1866. He was then rector
of St. Paul's, Philadelphia (1866‑69), and of All
Souls', New York City (1869‑1902). He belongs
to the Broad‑church party. His larger works are:
The Children's Church (New York, 1870); The
Morals of Taste (1873); Studies of Jesus (1880);
Womanhood (1880); Eight and Wrong Uses of the
Bible (1883); The Book of the Beginnings (1884);
Philistinism (1885); Social Studies (1886); Church and Creed (1891); Christian Science (1898); and Par8ifad (1904).
NEWTON, WILLIAM WILBERFORCE: Protestant Episcopalian, brother of the preceding; b. at Philadelphia, Nov. 4, 1843. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1865) and the Protestant Episcopal Divinity School, Philadelphia (1868). He was assistant at the Church of the Epiphany, Philadelphia (1868‑70), rector of St. Paul's, Brookline, Mass. (1870‑75), Trinity, Newark, N. J. (1875‑77), St. Paul's, Boston, Mass. (1877‑81), and St. Stephen's, Pittsfield, Mass. (1881‑1900), chaplain of the English Church at Dinan, Brittany (1903‑04), and rector of the Church of the Ascension, Wakefield, R. I. (1905‑06). He was editor of The American Church Sunday School Magazine (1885‑1906). In theology he is a Broad Churchman. Among his publications special mention may be made of his Gate of the Temple: or, Prayers for Children (New York, 1875); six volumes of sermons for children (1877‑90); Essays of To‑day (Boston, 1879); The Voice of St. John (poems; New York, 1880) ; Priest and Man: or, Abelard and Heloisa (novel; Boston, 1883); Summer Sermons from a Berkshire Pulpit (Pittsfield, Mass., 1885); The Life of Dr. Muhlenberg (New York, 1890): A Run through Russia (Hartford, 1894); and Philip Mac Gregor (novel; 1895).
NIBHAZ: The name of one of the two deities
or idols mentioned in II Kings xvii. 31 as set up by
the Avvites (A. V. Avites), one of the foreign peo
plea settled by Sargon in the territory of the northern
kingdom after the deportation of the Israelites.
The reading is questionable, both the Hebrew and
the Greek giving variants. Some Hebrew manu
scripts read Nibhan (cf. the same reading in San
hedrin 63b), while those which have the ordinary
reading point the word differently. Greek texts indi
cate a goddess, and have the forms Eblazer, Eblai
eaer. Abaazer. No deity corresponding to any of these
forms is known even in the cuneiform records, the
nearest suggestion that comes is from the Mandean,
in which there is mention of a demon Nebaz. The
passage in Sanhedrin (ut sup.) connects the word
with nbh, " to bark," and supposes the idol to have
had the form of a dog. But nothing is known of a
dog‑shaped idol in the region except the dog‑headed
Anubis of Egypt, and that seems out of the question
here. The reading Nibhan seems to have arisen
from a mistake in reading the last letter of the origi
nal text. Nor is any light shed on the subject by
considering the people who set up the idol. Pos
sibly the implied `Avvah of II Kings xvii. 31 is the
same as the ` Ivvah of II Kings xviii. 34, xix.13; Isa.
xxxvii. 13. But even then nothing is known of
such a place as a Syrian or Babylonian region or
city, and consequently there is no knowledge of
its deities. GEo. W. GILMoRE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Selden, De dis Syria, London, 1617, Eng. transl., The Fabulous Gods Denounced in the Bible, Philadelphia, 1881; C. Iken, Dissertatio de Nibchaz idelo Avmorum, Bremen, 1726; F. Munter, Die Religion der Babylonier, pp. 108‑110, Copenhagen, 1827; P. Scholz, G6itzendienst and Zauberwesen bei den alten Hebrdern, pp. 399 aqq., Regensburg, 1877; Schrader, RAT, p. 484; EB, iii. 3405‑3406; and the oonmentariea on the passage.