CHAIR: MARGARET STUBBS (CHATHAM COLLEGE)
COLLABORATION AND CREATIVITY IN PSYCHOLOGY EDUCATION: FROM CHAOS TO CLARITY Faculty members from Chatham University will prompt a discussion of imaginative yet practical techniques being used in their psychology program. Case examples will be presented to facilitate discussion in four areas: the creation of an accelerated program in which students earn an undergraduate (BA in psychology) and graduate degree (Masters in Counseling Psychology) in five years, the development of interdisciplinary programs and innovative teaching tools/assignments, and methods for assessing students’ progress.
5 Year Program
Mary Beth Mannarino (Chatham University)
Sheila Seelau (Chatham University)
Innovation Teaching Strategies
Deanna Hamilton (Chatham University)
Innovative Teaching Strategies
Mary Jo Loughran (Chatham University)
Stephanie Valutis (Chatham University)
Discussant(s): Margaret L Stubbs (Chatham University),
CHAIR: AMY TAYLOR (DUQUESNE UNIVERSITY)
AMY TAYLOR (DUQUESNE UNIVERSITY), HOLLY CHALK (MCDANIEL COLLEGE), ANDREW PECK, PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY), ALBERT BRAMANTE, (UNION COUNTY COLLEGE)
Introductory psychology courses can serve several purposes. They can be a gateway course to determine who should/should not begin a major and they can be a general survey course to either entice possible students or to provide general students an indication of what the science of psychology entails. The discussion can go either way - the question resides within the GER positioning of the intro course. If we really want it to remain as one possibility within the GER listings then should we cover the "entire" field of psychology? If we want it to be the course that provides "interested" students an overview of the science of psychology - do we want to make it the gateway course? Either of these questions do not necessarily need an exclusive decisional approach. We may use it as both and in fact entice others who may not have considered the field, prior to taking the introductory course. The question remains - what does your curriculum look for your introductory course to provide? A major? Or to introduce the science?
CHAIR: LISA WINBORN-KEMMER (WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY)
CLAIRE ST. PETER-PIPKIN (WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY)
Extinction is commonly used during the treatment of problem behavior. However, under particular conditions, responding can recur during extinction (termed resurgence). Although resurgence has received attention from basic researchers, it has been largely ignored in application, despite implications of resurged responding during the treatment of problem behavior. The current studies examine parameters of reinforcement schedules that influence resurgence. The implication of these results for research and practice will be discussed.
HARLEE J. PRATT, LESLIE EATON (SUNY COLLEGE AT CORTLAND), KIMBERLY A. MANCINA, EMILY SUMNER, JOSEPH R. FERRARI (DEPAUL UNIVERSITY)
Research claims that over 70% of college students engage in academic procrastination, delaying essential school-related activities. It is believed most students are heavily engaged in internet activities, such as gaming and social networking. The present study surveyed 215 male and female students enrolled in a public university on their life-style procrastination and internet usage tendencies. Participants reported arousal and avoidant procrastination, internet addiction, and internet activities. Results discuss reported differences between procrastinators and non-procrastinators students.
JENNIFER S. BORTON, JENNIFER SADOWSKY (HAMILTON COLLEGE)
Defensive self-esteem (the combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem) has been associated with a variety of ego-protective behaviors, including in-group bias and stereotyping. In the current study, we investigated whether defensive self-esteem would predict tendencies to experience and suppress intrusive thoughts. Defensive self-esteem was associated with experiencing intrusive thoughts and with the tendency to conceal thoughts from others, but not with suppression. Defensives may be unwilling to report hiding thoughts from themselves.
FAME N. FREZZELL, CARRIE R. ROSENGART, NICOLE E. BENDER, MOLLIE M. O'ROURKE, NICOLE R. VERNON, JESSICA D. PLASSIO (CALIFORNIA UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA)
The current study sought to correlate the amount of time spent on the popular social-networking site Facebook with scores on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. It was found that self-esteem was negatively correlated with the amount of time spent on Facebook (r=-2.57, p<.01). Therefore, those with lower self-esteem spent more time on Facebook. As in prior studies this suggests that those with lower self-esteem seek to increase self-esteem through positive presentations of themselves via social-networking sites.
ELIZABETH R. SHOBE, ALYCIA BLEVINS, CLAUDINE PIERRE-LOUIS, DANIELLE BROWN (RICHARD STOCKTON COLLEGE)
In the first of two studies, a direct relationship between need for closure (NFC) and self-esteem was observed. In the second, self-esteem was manipulated through positive and negative feedback on a bogus personality questionnaire. Self-esteem of high NFC individuals was relatively unaffected by the manipulation. Low NFC individuals were adversely affected by negative feedback. The findings suggest that higher NFC individuals are less susceptible to anomalous information about their self-concept than low NFC individuals.
ALEXANDRA E. MACDOUGALL, NATASHA A. MCGUINNESS, ARNO R. KOLZ (MANHATTAN COLLEGE)
People vary in how they approach decisions. This is known as decision making style. The present study explores the relationship between decision making style, the big five personality traits, and emotional intelligence (EQ). Results indicated that using a rational approach to decisions was related to conscientiousness and adaptability EQ. An intuitive style was related to extraversion and mood EQ. Avoiding decisions was related to intrapersonal EQ, adaptability EQ, conscientiousness, and emotional stability.
VICTORIA PAGANO, KEN DEBONO (UNION COLLEGE)
After being induced via film clips into either a happy or sad mood, high and low self-monitors completed a moral reasoning task, The Defining Issues Test. The results indicated that low self-monitors induced into a positive mood demonstrated more sophisticated and principled moral reasoning strategies than did low self-monitors induced into a negative mood. In contrast, the level of moral reasoning among high self-monitors did not differ significantly as a function of induced mood.
KEVIN J. MCKILLOP, EMILY ROWAN, BETH BECKER, CHRISSY DIELEUTERIO, AMY WINDSOR, SHELLEY HOLTMANN (WASHINGTON COLLEGE)
We studied the relationship between social anxiousness and preferred method of communication. Participants completed measures of social anxiousness, fear of negative evaluation and shyness, were assigned either an anxiety-provoking or neutral conversation topic, and were given a choice of engaging in conversation with another participant face-to-face or through instant messenger (IM). As expected, individuals who chose IM scored higher in interaction anxiety, shyness and fear of negative evaluation than those who chose to converse face-to-face.
MARGARET KING, MARYELLEN HAMILTON (SAINT PETER'S COLLEGE)
Experiments evaluated a new survey of a three-dimensional model of goal orientation; Mastery-Goal Orientation, Performance-Approach Orientation and Performance-Avoid Goal Orientation; specific to academic achievement. This new survey was created to allow a more detailed goal orientation measure for clearer identification of the influence goal orientation has on individual’s upward goal revision. Results showed the measure to have both validity and good reliability with excellent Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for each of the three orientation dimensions.
KENNETH G. DEBONO, CAROLINE MAJSAK (UNION COLLEGE)
We presented high and low self-monitors with a message from an attractive/less attractive source who was either smiling/not smiling. High self-monitors evaluated the message more favorably when the attractive source was smiling than when not, but their evaluations did not differ as a function of smiling when the source was less attractive. In contrast, low self-monitors were more persuaded when the source was smiling regardless of his or her attractiveness.
CIARáN E. GILMORE, CAROLYN WHITNEY, SARAH SCHWARZ (ST. MICHAEL'S COLLEGE)
The present study investigated whether (a) self-reported needs for being in the outdoors, and (b) self-reported time spent participating in outdoor activities would positively correlate with measures of satisfaction with life, subjective happiness, meaning in life, flow state, and mindfulness among college students. Need for outdoor activity was positively correlated with satisfaction with life and subjective happiness scores, however, reported time spent in outdoor activities was only positively correlated with greater mindfulness scores.
NINA ZHIVUN (COLLEGE OF SAINT ROSE)
The study examined the relationship between subjective well-being and morality. Fifty college students completed self-report measures of subjective well-being, morality, and empathy. The findings showed strong positive relationships among happiness, morality, and empathy. Additional results suggest that the relationship between subjective well-being and morality is mediated by empathy. This suggests that happier people are more moral individuals because of their increased empathy for others.
TORU SATO, DANIEL THOMAS DOYLE, MEGAN HURLEY, SARAH LOWRY (SHIPPENSBURG UNIVERSITY)
According to Beck (1987), autonomous individuals are excessively invested in personal abilities while sociotropic individuals are overly dependent on others. This study examined how sociotropic and autonomous individuals display the false uniqueness bias. Participants (N=151) completed a personality test and a survey regarding their personal abilities. Results suggested that compared to low autonomy individuals, highly autonomous individuals display a false uniqueness bias. There were no such differences between individuals with high and low sociotropy.
ANNA M. DICE, ANDREI R. SANDU, GERAMI LANOIS, BARBARA A. SHAFFER (ST. FRANCIS UNIVERSITY)
Previous research suggests that individuals with high self esteem are better equipped to manage anxiety and threat (Greenberg et al. 2004). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between self esteem and dangerous world beliefs. Participants completed the Rosenberg (1965) Self Esteem Scale and Altemeyer’s (1988) Belief in a Dangerous World Scale. Results indicated the there was no relationship between self esteem and beliefs that the world is an unsafe place.
SALLY D. FARLEY (UNIVERSITY OF BALTIMORE), NATASHA LUCIOTTI (ALBRIGHT COLLEGE), REBECCA NUSBAUM (UNIVERSITY OF BALTIMORE)
In the present study, we examined nonverbal reactions of conversational interruption as a test of the interpersonal complementarity hypothesis. Participants (N = 160) were paired with a confederate and randomly assigned to interruption or control condition. Results indicated that participants interrupted confederates significantly more in the interruption condition than the control condition. We believe that the negative valence of the interruptions was more salient and consequently influenced participants more than the power implications of the interruptions.
ELIZABETH CLARK, MEGAN FORD (ALBRIGHT COLLEGE)
The impact of stimulus attributes on persuasion when faced with a moral dilemma was investigated. Participants viewed a commercial and answered questions regarding the salesperson’s appearance and whether his appearance had an impact on whether the participant would purchase the product despite a moral dilemma. There were four commercials used. Results showed a significant main effect for the dress condition.
MARIANNE K. RILEY, ALEXANDRA CHONG, CHRISTOPHER NAJ, JUSTIN BUCKINGHAM (TOWSON UNIVERSITY), ETHAN ZELL (OHIO UNIVERSITY),
We tested the effect of receiving high or low scores that were above or below average on interest in social comparison. Participants took a test on spatial ability and received false feedback. Results showed a significant effect of average score. Participants who scored above average were less interested in social comparison than participants who did not receive the average.
ANN MCKIM, JO ELLYN PEDERSON, BRITTANY PARKER, KELLY HUGGER, TOVA NARROW, EMILY RAMSAY, ATHEN CRAIG, HEATHER KANTROWITZ, ALEXANDRA LEE, DANIEL STERDT, GIOVANNA THOMAS, KATE YOUNG (GOUCHER COLLEGE)
The emerging field of Positive Psychology grounded this study’s investigation of the effect of feng shui and scent (bergamot) on mood scores. Ninety-three participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Results showed reported mood scores from highest to lowest were feng shui with scent, feng shui without scent, non-feng shui with scent, and non-feng shui without scent. Significant results demonstrated the power of feng shui and scent to enhance mood.
MARJORIE E. ORTEGA, LEONOR LEGA, ASHLEY COSTANZO, KATHERINE SURA (SAINT PETER'S COLLEGE), MONICA O' KELLY (MONASH UNIVERSITY), MARIA TERESA PAREDES (PONITIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA)
The O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale was used to measure women irrational beliefs about traditional feminine gender schema from an REBT perspective (Ellis, 1956). The scale’s original version and its back-translated (Brislin, 1976) version were given to 120 females living in the USA and in Colombia. The results indicated significant cross-cultural differences between Colombian daughters in the USA and Colombian mothers in Colombia, and Non-Hispanic USA mothers and daughters.
DEVIN L. WALLACE, ALEXANDRA CHONG, REKHA TIWARI (TOWSON UNIVERSITY)
The current study tested a model where the Protestant work ethic, humanitarianism, and conservatism predicted beliefs about the stability of the social system. Results showed a positive relationship between humanitarianism and the belief that the social system is malleable. In addition, the Protestant work ethic and conservatism were positively related to the belief that the system is fixed. These results are discussed in terms of group status, political candidate endorsement, and intergroup relations.
NANCY DORR, AMANDA GANNON, KELLEY GARDNER, CARA PICCARRETO (THE COLLEGE OF SAINT ROSE)
Examined the effect of petting a friendly, unfamiliar dog on blood pressure, state anxiety, and distraction. Twenty-nine college students watched negative, emotionally arousing pictures while petting a live dog and while petting a stuffed dog. Blood pressure, state anxiety, and distraction were measured. Participants reported less state anxiety when petting the live dog as compared to the stuffed dog, but blood pressure showed no difference between conditions. Implications for the distraction hypothesis are discussed.
IVO I. GYUROVSKI (HAMPDEN-SYDNEY COLLEGE)
Researchers have consistently found relationship between authoritarianism and religiousness (Randall & Leak 1990). It is proposed that Need for Cognitive Closure mediates this relationship. 50 participants were administered the Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale, the Need for Closure Scale, and 2 measures of faith development. The results demonstrated a positive correlation between need for closure and authoritarianism and a negative correlation between authoritarianism and mature faith development. NFC did not mediate the relationship between religiousness and authoritarianism.
ERIN J. REIFSTECK, RAYMOND GEORGE, ERIC SEPICH, BARBARA A. SHAFFER (SAINT FRANCIS UNIVERSITY)
This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and attachment to God. Participants (56 females and 37 males) completed the Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem Scale and the Attachment to God Inventory (Beck & McDonald, 2005). Results indicated that there was no relationship between self-esteem and avoidant attachment. However, self-esteem was found to be negatively associated with anxious attachment. In other words, participants with low self-esteem reported a more anxious attachment to God than those with higher self-esteem.
LINH LUU, JOSEPH A. WISTER (CHATHAM UNIVERSITY)
This study examined the relationship between family conflict and school performance with depressive symptoms in female American and Vietnamese students. American and Vietnamese students completed two measures of family conflict, one designed for Asian Americans and one for Westerners. Significant correlations were found between depressive symptoms and family conflict, but only on the measure specific to the culture of the student. A negative correlation between GPA and depressive symptoms was found only for Vietnamese students.
LAUREN E. STRUSIAK (HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY)
Studies have suggested that aspects of family interaction influence the cognitive functioning of children. This may stem from a child’s initial reliance on caregivers for social and intellectual stimulation. In this study, the involvement of the mother and the gender of a student were manipulated. It tested how that child will be perceived by college students as being successful in their future. Studies found that parental judgments of son’s intelligence were more favorable than daughters.
EMILY C. SUMNER, JOSEPH R. FERRARI (DEPAUL UNIVERSITY)
Many men and women frequently purposively delay the start and/or completion of tasks – a process known as chronic procrastination. In the present survey study, 80 adults completed self-report measures of procrastination and savoring positive life episodes. Participants reported their rates of procrastination and their tendency to savor past, present, or anticipated positive life events. Results discuss the similarities and differences in rates and types of savored moments by procrastinators and non-procrastinators.
CAITLIN M. GARVEY, SUSAN DAVIS (UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON)
Research has indicated that overconfidence is endemic for society, and hinted that it is systemic for the individual. However, most research is laboratory-based with contrived tasks, thus having reduced external applications. The present research examined students in conditioning courses for a suspected mismatch between confidence and goal achievement and found little. However, there were equal amounts of under-confidence and calibration between confidence and goal achievement. Task relevance and repeated feedback appear to drive these results.
LISA K. ARCHIBALD (ALBRIGHT COLLEGE)
The present study examined factors related to altruistic behavior in college students. Participants were either tested alone or in the presence of other individuals. All completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory. Participants were requested to help score past participants’ response sheets. Altruistic behavior was defined to be the amount of inventories completed. Self-esteem had no relationship with altruistic behavior, but the more people in the room significantly increased the amount of helping behavior participants displayed.
CRISTINA LOS, JOEY WALTER, PATRICK DONEGAN, DEANNA ANDERSON, GRETCHEN S. LOVAS (SUSQUEHANNA UNIVERSITY)
Students (N=154) from a small liberal arts university completed a survey measuring pet relationships, attachment styles, and personality type. We hypothesized that relationships would exist among personality, adult attachment style, pet interaction style, and certain aspects of pet ownership. Significant results were found between type of pet owned and certain personality characteristics, as well as type of pet owned and pet relationship style. Implications for further study are discussed.
CAROLYN KISLING, JACQUELINE HEALEY, LAUREN SIMPSON, SUSSIE ESHUN (EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY)
The current study investigated relationships between job satisfaction, health, general stress, and work-related stress among a sample of university employees. Fifty-eight participants responded to mail-in questionnaires. Job satisfaction was negatively influenced by poor health and high levels of general stress and job-stress. Job-stress was the most significant predictor of job satisfaction (r² = .53, p<.000). Implications are discussed.
DAN J. DEPAULO (RUTGERS UNIVERSITY)
Proper emotion regulation is vital to forming a healthy caregiver-infant attachment bond during childhood and in effectively dealing with stress during adulthood(Cassidy, 1994). Insecure attachment is associated with deficiencies in regulating emotion and may precipitate somatization. The current study demonstrates that attachment style and alexithyma are important factors that contribute to the development of somatization. In addition, gender was shown to be a significant moderator of this relationship.
BRUCE G. KLONSKY, MICHAEL J. POLITO, STEPHANIE L. ABDO (STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT FREDONIA)
This study investigated how shyness impacts (a) how far away a student sits from a stranger, and (b) their memory of the person and interaction environment. Participants met either a moderately attractive male or female confederate in a waiting room. After a 3-minute interaction, participants (40 males, 63 females)completed questionnaires. Shyness and social anxiety scores were positively correlated with the distance variable (.05 level). Hypotheses related to shyness and memory received much less support.
ROBIN M. VALERI (ST. BONAVENTURE UNIVERSITY), MEAGAN SAILE (UNIV OF ROCHESTER), KATHERINE CULLINANE, MICHAEL POST (ST. BONAVENTURE UNIVERSITY)
Using Milgram’s lost letter technique, the interaction between modeled helping, letter writer’s perceived need for help, and valence of letter recipient (positive vs. negative) was examined. Letters were lost in Cincinnati, Ohio, Rochester, NY, and Silver Spring, MD. Overall, valence of recipient and modeled helping significantly impacted number of letters mailed. Unexpected “help” was received in Rochester and Silver Spring. Result for Cincinnati revealed a significant impact of modeled helping on number of letters mailed.
CAPELLA E. MEURER, ERICA BUET, ERIN BIRLEY, NIKKI VANDYKE, ERICA WEBER, KEVIN MCKILLOP (WASHINGTON COLLEGE)
The current study examined the relationship between social anxiety and modes of communication by asking people to complete the Leary Social Anxiety Scale and to rate their likelihood of using e-mail, text messaging, the telephone, or face-to-face interaction in a range of situations. The experiment found positive correlations between interaction anxiety and e-mail usage and audience anxiety and text-message usage, demonstrating that social anxiety affects which mode of communication people use.
PADMINI BANERJEE, MYNA GERMAN (DELAWARE STATE UNIVERSITY)
Fernando Ortiz (1995) wrote that transculturation “better expresses” the process of transition from one culture to another than acculturation which refers to “acquiring” another culture. This paper addresses the primary role of communication technologies - internet, e-mail and mobile phones and the mediating one of social networks - in determining transculturation outcomes (integration, acculturation, marginalization, separation) for transnational migrants.
RACHEL PERNICI, BETHANY SAULINE, NATALIE HOMA, NICOLE GINGERY, MARISSA JORDAN, ROBERT CLICHE (BALDWIN-WALLACE COLLEGE)
The aim of this study was to obtain significant information about the progression of coping styles, from least healthy to most healthy, throughout the participants’ college years. The hypothesis that this study proposed was that as a student progresses through college they will acquire healthier and more productive coping styles. By examining the four main coping styles we were hoping to obtain useful that might be useful in developing pre-college workshops about healthy coping.
LAUREN K. STOKES (EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY)
The focus of the study is to examine the relations among college age students’ theory of intelligence, global and academic self esteem, and epistemological beliefs. Numerous relationships were uncovered, including the expected relationship of global and academic self-esteem along with the relationship of one’s implicit theory of intelligence with global self esteem and epistemological beliefs. A thorough evaluation of each of these relationships will be discussed.
KATHERINE W. MARSLAND, DEANNA DESTEFANO, ASHLEY DWYER, JUDY HAYWARD, YASEMIN KAVAK, DREW KELLY, LINDSEY MEYER, KELLY SCHNEIDER (SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY)
This study examined individual differences in vulnerability to the undermining effect of task-contingent rewards. Eighty-eight undergraduates completed a self-report of intrinsic motivation followed by a lab visit one week later during which they were randomly assigned to either Expected or Unexpected reward conditions. Results supported the hypothesis that participants who scored high on self-reported extrinsic motivation would be more vulnerable to the undermining effect than would participants who scored low on extrinsic motivation.
NICOLE J. ROBERTS, SHERRI PATAKI (WESTMINSTER COLLEGE), SAFIA FATHELBAB AMIN (SOUTH VALLEY UNIVERSITY, EGYPT)
English and Arabic self-reporting surveys were used to measure attachment styles and gender role adherence among families in Egypt and the United States. 60 college students in the United States (30 males & 30 females) and 42 college students in Egypt (21 males & 21 females) participated. Gender role adherence was reported in both countries. Secure attachment was reported by 50+% of US males, US females, and Egyptian males, opposed to 10% of Egyptian females.
NICHOLAS BOCCIA, NANCY DORR (COLLEGE OF SAINT ROSE)
Examined predictors of work-related stress and general stress in order to compare the significant predictors of each. Sixty-seven college students completed self-report measures of work ethic, Big Five personality, self-efficacy and stress. Results suggest that those with high and low hard work ethic experience more work stress than those with a moderate amount of work ethic. Additional results suggest that agreeableness and openness predict job-related stress, whereas neuroticism and self-efficacy predict general stress.
MICHELLE L. ADAMSKY (CALIFORNIA UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA)
Many people have self-diagnosed that they have “phone anxiety” because they do not like talking on the phone. The purpose of this study was to measure the variables associated with various levels of phone anxiety. It was found that individuals who made fewer phone calls suffered greater phone anxiety, and individuals who had more general anxiety were more likely to have phone anxiety. Also, males were more likely to suffer from phone anxiety than females.
Westmoreland West & Central
CHAIR: BARBARA MALT (LEHIGH UNIVERSITY)
CHARLES PERFETTI (UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH)
This address reviews some of the advances made in research on how skilled reading works and how children learn to read. These advances include better understanding of the demands of writing systems, the measurement of on-line reading processes, and the nature of reading disabilities, among others. Neuroscience methods have converged with behavioral research to suggest a detailed picture of reading processes from visual input to comprehension, including the brain correlates of reading problems and learning to read.
CHAIR: KATHERINE MARSLAND
KATHERINE MARSLAND AND ALVIN WANG
Psi Chi held its second biannual National Leadership Conference in January 2009. In this session, participants at that conference will bring back ideas to improve chapter leadership and maintain vitality. Presenters will summarize what was learned from the conference in a workshop format, including information leading by example, ethical and social responsibility, leaders as mentors, dealing with difficult situations, and diversity. This session should be useful for Psi Chi chapter officers and faculty advisors.
CHAIR: JOHN R. JACOBS (SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY)
9:30am - 9:45am
JOHN R. JACOBS (SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY), DEBBIE DIITCHOFF
Whether or not depression increases risk of cancer onset remains controversial with researchers being almost evenly divided between the polar positions. A secondary analysis of all the prospective studies revealed that only studies using an interview or a previously published questionnaires found the depressed to develop cancer more often than the non-depressed group. The question emerges is whether the association between depression and cancer is not significant or weaken by inadequate measures.
9:50am - 10:05am
SANGMOON KIM (SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY), SUNGKUN CHO, (UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII AT MANOA), RANDALL JORGENSEN, STEPHANIE CUEVAS, AMY FISH, (SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY)
Guilt is often used as a generic term for both guilt and shame. Due to the lack of differentiation between two emotions, the role of shame in depression was not well recognized even though guilt was recognized as a meaningful construct in depression very early. However, shame, but not guilt, was positively correlated with depressive symptoms in this study. Negative and positive affect were investigated as possible mediators of the association between shame and depression.
10:10am - 10:25am
GRACE CASKIE, MARYANN SUTTON (LEHIGH UNIVERSITY), JENNIFER MARGRETT (IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY)
Cross-sectional studies find that chronic pain from arthritis is associated with increased depressive symptoms in older adults. The current longitudinal study examined changes in depression over time, comparing older adults with arthritis to older adults without arthritis. Results showed significant change in depressive symptoms over time for both groups. Although the rates of change over the seven-year period were similar, older adults with arthritis consistently reported more depressive symptoms at each of the four timepoints.
CHAIR: PATRICIA S. GRIGSON (PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY)
For decades, the study of substance abuse and addiction has been based in the study of reward and reward substrates. While fruitful, it has become increasingly clear that addiction involves not only reward, but aversion as well. Indeed, it may be that the one goes hand-in-hand with the other and that the two work in concert in the development of addiction. In this symposium, Eliot Gardner (NIDA) will provide an introductory overview of addiction and the brain reward system, including data indicating how opponent processes might contribute to substance abuse and addiction. Susana Pecina (University of Michigan-Dearborn) will discuss the role of dopamine and opiates in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in response to stimuli that are naturally rewarding and aversive. Elena Chartoff (Harvard Medical School-McLean Hospital) will address the role of kappa receptors in the aversive affective state that accompanies addiction. Regina Carelli (University of North Carolina) will demonstrate that single cells in the nucleus accumbens track a shift in affect from reward to aversion following presentation of a drug-associated cue and that greater shifts in affect (behaviorally and neurally) predict greater drug-taking behavior. Taken together, these data will begin to elucidate how learning allows reward and aversion to contribute to the transition from use to abuse and addiction.
Patricia Sue Grigson (Penn State College of edicine, Hershey)
Addiction and the brain reward system
Eliot Gardner (NIDA Biomedical Research Center, Baltimore)
Opioid versus dopamine mediation of incentive salience mechanims in nucleus accumbens shell and core
Susana Pecina (University of Michigan-Dearborn)
Role of kappa opioid receptors in hedonic state: Implications for addiction
Elena Chartoff, (Harvard Medical School-McLean Hospital)
Neurophysiological correlates of drug induced devaluation of natural rewards
Regina Carelli (University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill)