THE CCN SIXTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE
THE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN, GERMANY 23 - 24 MARCH 2009
PAPERS AND POSTERS
Open innovation methods to co-operate for CC? 6
Marlen Arnold 6
“Fish & Kids” – AN MSC project to bring sustainable seafood to schools and restaurants 6
Author: Marnie Bammert 6
Towards sustainable consumption: A framework for a houshold environmental management system. 10
Pedro Baptista and Nuno Videira 10
New alliances among food production and consumption. Which co-operation for which policies? Empirical support from a survey of 800 consumers. 16
Elena Battaglini 16
Gender empowerment in Nepal for sustainable development. Bhatt C.R., Joshi O., Koirala B., Pokhrel A., Ween B. and Dhakal HP. 24
How to achieve the environmental objectives in different cultures Joanna Boboryko, Marta Dawidziuk and Barbara Mazur 31
Is water always in balance? A work activity for the education of the sustainable consumption from creativity and body expression. (Poster) 40
Josep Bonil, Genina Calafell, Marta Fonolleda, Maia Querol, Salvador Viciana 40
The Green Economy Initiative: A new approach to financial and environmental challenges - why multifunctional development is the way forward and the link to sustainable consumption 47
Elisabeth Kjerstad Bøe 47
Life Values as the Basis for the Formation of a Citizen 47
Zoja Chehlova and Mikhail Chehlov 47
Integrating Education for Sustainable Development in pre service teacher education – opportunities and challenges Amanda Mc Cloat and Helen Maguire 52
Psychometric evaluation of child eating behaviour: a tool to improve education regarding children’s food consumption Luís Miguel Cunha, Ana Pinto de Moura and Ana Sofia Almeida 53
The integration of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) into second level initial teacher education (ITE) and continuing professional development (CPD) programmes: Challenges and Opportunities Mella Cusack 54
Education for Sustainable Development in Action: The use of visual media to promote transformative learning. Mella Cusack and Miriam O’Donoghue 54
The Financial Crisis and Consumer Citizenship 55
Arthur Lyon Dahl 55
Consumer Governance 61
CONSUMERS AND CONSUMERORGANIZATIONS IN ACTION 61
Peter Daub 61
Consumer Citizens as Leading Innovators – Enhancing Value Creation Potential through Consumer-Consumer-Interaction 65
Benjamin Diehl and Ulf Schrader 65
New Communication Technologies And The Co-operation Between Producers And Consumers 74
V. Dimitrova and T. Atanasova 74
Proposal for a european joint master in consumer affairs “EMICA” 81
Victor Dordio 81
An EPIC(A) adventure towards a consumer citizenship education: the birth of an Intensive Programme (Poster) 88
Alcina Dourado 88
Critical Thinking and Active Learning 89
Tove Brita Eriksen 89
CSR-Mainstreaming and its Influence to Consumer Citizenship 99
Vera Fricke and Ulf Schrader 99
Transdisciplinary Consumer Citizenship Education 108
Sue L.T. Mc Gregor 108
"Consumer Citizenship as an Element of the European Social and Economic Dialogue (the venues of R&D interdisciplinary clusters)" Kostadin Grozev 125
An Exploratory Framework for Consumer Citizenship Education in Japan’s Home Economics Curriculum 125
Rieko Hanashiro, Lakshmi Malroutu and Diane Masuo 125
Potential contribution from international educational programs to Environmental Awareness and Political Interaction Inger Haug 135
Consumptions and lifestyles in the press 136
Susana Henriques 136
Windows of opportunity for sustainable consumption: The de-routinization effect of life events Melanie Jaeger and Martina Schaefer 141
Making a difference in the learning process 142
Aloida Jurcenko, Inese Patapova, Zenija Truskovska and Velta Lubkina 142
Consumer Citizenship Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education in Latvia 152
Inese Jurgena and Zigurds Mikainis 152
Marketing Communication to and with Net Citizens: Targeting by Means of a Social Network Analysis Approach 161
Martin Klaus, Jörg Schwerdtfeger & Ralf Wagner 161
Education for sustainable development: The case of traditional life skills among the Nama people, Namibia. Jørgen Klein 176
Examining chosen attitudes of consumers during the 4th year of the decade for sustainable development in poland 177
Joanna Kostecka and Barbara Mazur 177
THE CONSUMER ABILITIES AND THE THEMES OF CONSUMER EDUCATION - 2009 178
Eija Kuoppa-aho, Malin Lindquist Skogar 178
Teaching Student teachers and high school students on Education for Consumer Citizenship in Greece 185
Konstantina Koutrouba, Helen Theodoropoulou and Konstadia Barda 185
One eco-action in a day 193
Leena K. Lahti 193
Fair Trade and donations: Two possibilities to contribute to poverty alleviation in daily purchase decisions - Do consumers care? Nina Langen, Carola Grebitus and Monika Hartmann 195
Using creative instruments for promoting sustainable citizenship 204
Satu Lähteenoja, Burcu Tunçer and Marja Salo 204
LOLA – One of the creative approaches to the consumer citizenship educaton 212
Iveta Lice and Vija Dislere 212
Beyond Words: Designing Rituals to Promote Sustainable Ways of Living Jan Lindenberg 223
Development the Feeling of Personal Identity as a Key Factor of Formation of the Citizen 224
Marina Marchenoka and Anna Tatarinceva 224
ACTIVE AND AWARE CONSUMERS ARE HEALTHIER CONSUMERS 233
Marino Melissano, CTRRC, Italy 233
Illegally Sweet 234
Andrea Mendoza 234
The UNEP Global Environmental Citizenship Project and the Participation of Latin American Consumer Organizations 240
Luis Flores Mimica 240
COMPANIES PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION OF THEIR EMPLOYEES 242
Viola Muster, Ulf Schrader 242
Understanding the role of Printed Media in the social amplification of food risk during the new millennium 248
Ana Pinto de Moura and Luís Miguel Cunha 248
Consumer Empowerment in the Digital Era 256
A case study of ICT-enabled processes in South Africa and Norway 256
Martin Nkosi Ndlela, 256
Ecological literacy level and meaning of sustainability among college students 263
Anupama Pasricha 263
The Eco GO Beyond Schools Sustainable Development Programme of MAS Holdings in Sri Lanka 275
Amanti Perera 275
"Enabling consumers to change the market: a practice of participation in the decision making process" 276
Emanuela Rinaldi 276
Creativity in Consumer Citizenship Education in the Blended Course of English for Specific Purposes at University 276
Diana Rumpite 276
Sustainable Berlin: The importance of infrastructural context for sustainable consumption 277
Martina Schäfer and Adina Herde 277
Me and the Other's project: Citizenship Education through playful 278
Ana Filipa Soledade and Susana Henriques 278
Consumer protection society in Syria: action, challenges and future directions. 283
Ghiath M Sumainah 283
Green consumption – a state responsibility? 283
Ingrid Sælensminde 283
Teaching Universities Students on Education for Consumer Citizenship 292
Helen Theodoropoulou and Despina Sdrali 292
Seize the opportunity: The importance of timing for breaking commuters’ car driving habits 298
John Thøgersen 298
Using fashion as a platform to engage & excite 7
Tone Skårdal Tobiassen 7
Understanding Teachers' Consumer and Environmental Behaviours Gregor Torkar 14
OECD Policy Guidance on Consumer Education 27
Yuko Ueno 27
Motivation for sustainable lifestyle or the importance of “how” Fani Uzunova 27
What kind of research is necessary for the development of consumer citizenship education and education for sustainable consumption? 28
Pia Valota 28
THE ARGENTINE NATIVE FOREST - A SOCIAL GOOD 30
Experience Training of Trainers for a sustainable forest development 30
Carmen Varese and Marta Pini 30
Effects of Personal Carbon Trading 31
Annika Varnäs, Björn Nykvist, 31
Experience of promoting consumer education in Estonia 38
Tiina Vänt and Jana Tamm 38
From Consumer to Stakeholder Citizenship: A Model towards ‘World Citizenship’ for Lesser Developed Countries 44
Müberra Yüksel and Sevgi Kalkan 44
Meanwhile a multiplicity of enterprises accepts the challenge of sustainability and integrates sustainable requirements in their daily activities. Open innovation methods such as stakeholder dialogues, (open) innovation workshops, ideas competition, web-communities and tool-kits can improve the co-operation between producers and consumers. All these methods are special practices, in which companies discuss particular and/or structural problems that (can) result from business activities or develop new products or services with the relevant consumers or stakeholders. In the context of sustainability open innovation methods have several goals:
mutually understanding of positions and interests
finding and discussing realisable solutions
legitimating of corporate responsibility
selection of reliable or sustainable decisions, BUT also
hold-up of decisions as well as generation of uncertainty.
A great advantage of open innovation methods is the possibility to enlarge the knowledge base and to open perspectives in ad-hoc or continuous communication with consumers and stakeholders. This can open up sustainability oriented corporate learning as well as consumer citizenship. However, these open innovation methods have a different dialogue orientation and a different level of participation and therefore diverse possibilities to support a sustainable development and a responsible consumption.
This study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of selected open innovation methods and methods in the field of sustainability and the necessary conditions for consumer citizenship on the basis of an empirical analysis of 13 German-based companies. The study analyses factors for the improving of co-operation, the occurrence of sustainable learning and the creativity regarding innovation.
Dr. Marlen Arnold, Technische Universität München
Professur für Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Brau- und Lebensmittelindustrie
lte Akademie 14, 85350 Freising
Tel. +49-(0)8161/ 71 4472
Fax. +49-(0)8161/ 71 3209
ice: 119 Altenburg Gardens London SW11 1JQ Registered Charity No. 1066806
Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)
Schwedter Straße 9a
Tel.: +49 30 8849 7008
About the MSC
The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent charity, set up in 1999 as part of the solution to worldwide overfishing. The MSC’s vision is of the world’s oceans teeming with life, and seafood supplies safeguarded for this and future generations. We aim to achieve this by using our eco-label and fishery certification programme to recognise and reward sustainable fishing practices, influencing the choices people make when buying seafood, and working with our partners to transform the seafood market to a sustainable basis – more information at .
According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), over ¼ of the world’s fish stocks are overfished and more than ½ are fished to their biological limit (FAO 2008). Seafood is important to millions of people around the globe and thus encouraging the next generation to eat sustainable fish and understand the importance of sustainable fishing is vital.
MSC’s “Fish & Kids” Project
In 2005, the MSC’s Fish & Kids project was initiated in the United Kingdom thanks to support from Defra’s Environmental Action Fund. It was designed to work with suppliers and school meal providers to encourage and promote sustainable seafood served in schools as well as to educate school children on marine issues.
On the one hand, MSC teamed up with a large foodservice distributor to encourage Local Education Authorities (LEAs) get involved in the Fish & Kids project. Foodservice distributors supply LEAs with meals and are thus key in approaching the school sector. The aim was to get as many schools as possible sign up for Fish & Kids and offer sustainably caught and MSC-labelled fish to their kids. In order to use the MSC label, school kitchens have to become certified to the MSC’s traceability standard so they can prove that fish with the MSC logo actually comes from a fishery that fulfils the MSC’s environmental standard.
On the other hand, MSC developed comprehensive education material to help teachers integrate basic knowledge about fish, overfishing, sustainable fishing practices and consumption in their lessons. The education pack was developed to match the national curriculum and can be built into various subjects such as English, History and Geography. Activity and discussion sheets help teachers design their lessons. Fish & Kids also features an interactive website holding additional teaching resources and fun games. The website was developed to complement the education pack and can be viewed at .
MSC supported participating schools in launching Fish & Kids through advice on how best to become certified, how to inform their staff and pupils about sustainable options on their menu, though a template press kit, a life-sized mascot called “Murdock, the fisherman’s cat” and a launch event for press, staff, pupils and parents.
Through the project, schools put their purchasing on a more sustainable basis and taught their children about the crisis in our oceans and the positive solution the MSC offers.
Capacity building in the UK foodservice sector and the supply chain
In order to be able to offer MSC-labelled seafood to their guests, restaurants themselves need to be able to buy fish from MSC-certified fisheries. In 2005, foodservice and catering businesses like restaurants, pubs and schools had the choice of only five MSC-certified products, all frozen, available from two foodservice suppliers. In 2008, this had increased to around 18 certified suppliers offering a diverse range of more than 140 MSC-labelled products. Many products have been developed especially for the schools market and include salmon fish fingers, plain fish and fish pie mix.
Participation of foodservice outlets, schools and restaurants
Most notably, success has been achieved in the cost sector, focusing on the primary education market through the Fish & Kids project. 18 school meal providers and their 2,600 schools are covered by the MSC’s Chain of Custody certification, which ensures traceability of certified seafood from boat to plate and allows schools to use the MSC logo to highlight sustainable lunch choices. At current projections 25% of UK schools will be involved by the end of 2009.
There has been some real progress in the commercial sector, with successful certification of a national chain of sandwich shops and several ‘high end’ restaurants. 133 ‘Pret a Manger’ sandwich shops sell an MSC-labelled sandwich, three hotels offer MSC-certified brasserie menus and seven independent restaurants promote MSC options.
As raw material increases as fisheries important for the foodservice industry in the UK begin to achieve MSC certification, it will become even easier for foodservice suppliers to provide the relevant products. There has been a change in attitude of the fishing industry in the UK towards the MSC. Voluntary certification to the MSC standard is seen less as a threat, and more as an opportunity nowadays.
Awareness and buying behaviour of Local Education Authority (LEA) buyers
For the purposes of this project, LEA buyers have been classified as the key audience. The buyers make the decisions about what items are listed on the menus and thus they hold the key to millions of fish meals every year. The evidence presented here highlights that the MSC and the Fish & Kids project has offered buyers a real opportunity. They are increasingly aware of and buying certified sustainable seafood. Highlights from a telephone survey of LEA buyers, carried out in 2006 and 2008, are listed below:
Unprompted recall of MSC as an organisation supporting socially or environmentally sound food rose from 0% in 2006 to 13% in 2008.
In 2006, 12% of the sample could correctly identify the logo as belonging to MSC. In 2008 this has doubled to 25%, significantly higher than the general population.
In 2006, 15% of sample had bought MSC products for the schools they supply with meals and in 2008, this had increased enormously to 36%.
MSC logo-ed products now have a secure long term place on menus in the sector, and the continuing support of foodservice distributors will continue to expand penetration and distribution.
Engagement of schools, children and families
Over 800,000 children in the UK are being offered MSC labelled seafood at school and see the MSC logo on their menus. More than 2,300,000 school menu leaflets have been circulated to families featuring the MSC logo to show best practice in seafood sourcing. Seeing the logo in this way informs families of MSC and may, at the same time, increase the sustainability of fish buying when doing the family shopping.
An online survey was undertaken for the MSC by YouGov in March 2006 to measure the prompted awareness of the MSC logo. This was repeated in March 2007 and 2008 to track the year on year change.
The sample was representative of all Great Britain adults, and there were 2423 responses in 2006, 2352 in 2007 and 2187 in 2008.
The MSC logo was compared against three other food certification marks. Results are shown above. Encouragingly, MSC logo awareness has increased by 50% and in 2008, 9% of the sample recognized the logo from 6% in 2006. Amongst the other logos there has been no consistent positive trend, so although MSC logo recognition levels are still low in comparison, this change is encouraging. It should also be noted that nearly 40% of respondents recognised none of these 4 logos (similar each year).
In terms of the demographic analysis, the key points to note from 2008 survey are:
MSC awareness slightly higher among women than men (9% vs 8%).
Variance by age group has increased in the 2008 survey, showing 55+ age group soaring to 10% recognition
Awareness in London is 15%, highest of all areas, with rest of the south a high 10%. These categories may have been positively affected by Fish & Kids activity, since the project developed quicker in the south of the country.
The Fish & Kids project has proven that big steps can be made in a relatively short time scale and that there are lots of opportunities to influence behaviour of the industry and the UK public.
With the help of the PostkodStiftelsen (the Swedish Postcode Lottery Foundation), the project will now be rolled out in Sweden. As well as working with local education authorities and foodservice providers to introduce MSC-certified seafood to school lunches and put the logo on school menus, Fish & Kids’ education resources will be adapted to suit Swedish schools. Other countries have indicated their interest in this project and MSC is currently scoping opportunities for a wider adoption of Fish & Kids.
Pedro Baptista1, Nuno Videira2
2 ECOMAN - Ecological Economics and Environmental Management Group, CENSE – Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
Tel.: +351 2948300
The encouragement of proactive behavior from consumers is vital to promote a sound implementation of sustainable production and consumption policies. To address this challenge, this paper explores an innovative framework supporting the conceptualization of a tool to evaluate and continuously improve the environmental performance of households - the Household Environmental Management System (HEMaS).
One of the distinguishing features of the analysis is the consideration of rebounding effects, which was facilitated by the use of indicators of environmental impacts per euro of products. Unlike conventional simulators of environmental impacts of private consumption, the proposed framework considers all consumption and not only priority categories. In this way, the rebound effect is considered, which promotes the environmental optimization of the application of disposable income, as opposed to a simple “reduction of consumption” policy. HEMaS receives input data on expenditures and household activities, and then generates an environmental profile and personalized measures for improving household environmental performance. The paper concludes with a discussion on the potential advantages and limitations of the tool in supporting sustainable consumption policies and voluntary adoption of performance improvement measures by responsible consumers.
Today’s society is facing a major challenge on its quest for sustainability and we are living in a moment of social, economic and ecological unrest. In many parts of the world the welfare is not increasing, the gap between rich and poor is rising, the markets are facing great instability, and natural resources are being over-exploited (Sanne, 2007).
According to Sanne (2007), the efforts put on environmental policies have only brought marginal ecological improvements in contrast with what is said by the political discourse, given the fact that the persisting political-economic paradigm is still one of unfettered economic growth. Within this context, there is a particular need to rethink strategies to address the growing levels of production and consumption (TNO et al., 2008).
In spite of economic growth our quality of life has not improved (Sanne, 2007), so it is crucial to redefine progress working more closely with consumers. The encouragement of proactive behavior from consumers is vital to promote a sound implementation of sustainable production and consumption policies. According to the Eurobarometer (DGE, 2008) the main challenge at the consumer level is to translate the Europeans’ green attitudes into environmentally friendly behaviour and concrete actions. This paper will address this issue by presenting a tool (Baptista, 2008) – HEMaS, Household Environmental Management System, to assist households in improving their environmental performance with respect to consumption practices, based on an innovative analytical framework which accounts for rebound effects1.
Section 2 of this paper briefly presents the rebound effect and develops the analytical framework that supports the conceptualization of HEMaS (Section 3). On Section 4 we discuss the potential advantages and limitations in implementing HEMaS.
2. FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS
The rebound effect is a major concern of environmental policy and for the pursuit of sustainability. The rebound happens every time environmental gains from increasing efficiency are offset by the consequential rise on demand for goods and services. Thus, technological progress is not sufficient for promoting sustainable development (Sanne, 2000; Binswanger, 2001), since the prevalent economic paradigm will tend to the limits of exploration of Earth’s resources.
Hence it is fundamental that environmental policies combine technological progress with sustainable lifestyles and quality of life improvement (Herring & Roy, 2007). The rebound effects are significant and should be considered on the designing of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) policies (Sanne, 2000). Within this context, focusing on the role of consumers is expected to leverage the effectiveness of policies, avoiding rebound effects (EEA, 2008). This background suggests the need for a new and more holistic (TNO et al., 2008) framework for sustainability analysis of SCP policies.
In line with these arguments, Sanne (2000) presented a roadmap with some options to avoid the rebound effect, which may be translated in the following consumer-oriented guidelines:
Reduction of working hours to limit production and to improve the quality of life;
Reduction of the environmental impacts per euro (EI/€) of products through increased efficiency, administrative and economic means;
Redirection of consumption from environmental harmful products to more friendly ones.
The redirection of consumption will be the basic idea supporting the concept of the tool presented in the next section. The analytical framework will harness the power of the consumer as an influential player in the market. Hence, this approach does not focus on objectives of “consumption reduction”. When households are encouraged to buy fewer products, the money saved will be eventually spent in “future consumption”. Even when the money is placed on banks or stocks it is translated in further investment and productivity (Wapner & Willoughby, 2005). So, in order to deal with the substitution and income effects (rebounds) it should be considered the budget constraints of consumers (Binswanger, 2001).
The actual net environmental gains of SCP policies and measures are dependent of the types of products that are replaced (e.g. substitution of travels by train with car due to its efficiency improvements), by products that are purchased with the financial savings, and the readjustment of the whole economy. To this extent, the consumers’ financial resources should shift from the consumption of certain products to others with less EI/€. This approach is potentially valuable at a micro level but to define concrete actions at a macro level it requires a better comprehension of the environmental impacts (EI) of various activities and their price and income elasticities (Sanne, 2000).
3. HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Similarly to environmental management systems’ standards, which are designed for organizations (e.g. ISO 14001 and the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme), HEMaS aims, in this case, to evaluate and continuously improve environmental performance of households. Furthermore, HEMaS is different from conventional ecological and carbon footprints simulators as it considers all consumed goods and services and not only the commonly agreed priority categories. This approach has two advantages:
It manages better the redirection of consumption to minimize the EI from the application of household’s disposable income. What matters is the difference of EI between the products substituted, either by reducing or promoting consumption;
It has potential to serve as a platform for the operationalization of sustainability strategies (e.g. linked with markets of environmental compensation, management of data and of information on organizations’ environmental accounting).
It was defined as the main objective for HEMaS to environmentally optimize the application of household’s disposable income on the consumption of various products. In this perspective the use of indicators of EI/€ of product proved to be fundamental. Such indicators are already used to translate the intensity of resource use. However, little has been explored as a means to overcome the problems posed by the rebound effects.
HEMaS is a systemic tool which uses data on consumption patterns and on certain household activities as an input, generating environmental performance information and concrete proposals for action as outputs. It monitors household consumption patterns, behaviour and respective EI. After this procedure a consumer profile is analyzed to produce an action plan to be reported. This cyclic operation of HEMaS provides all elements necessary for the continuous environmental improvement. The timescale of this cyclical process is flexible (e.g. monthly, quarterly) depending on the specific objectives of the initiative. HEMaS is composed of five steps: 1) characterization of a household expenditure patterns; 2) characterization of consumer activities; 3) evaluation of the associated EI; 4) assessment of the measures’ significance; 5) communication of an action plan.
The structure and detail of the characterization of a household expenditure patterns (step1) must be in accordance with the study provider of EI/€ data. The use of reference classifications like COICOP (Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose) minimizes errors from allocation of data. Additionally, the number of classes of products considered depends also on the initiative’s objectives. The characterization of the expenditure patterns may be obtained through questionnaires (online or personal), or through methods of automatic monitoring. If only questionnaires are used the number of categories that may be monitored is more limited. Therefore, the automatic monitoring option is more promising although it requires a major infrastructure. Nevertheless both options can be complementary allowing the gradual expansion of the infrastructure for automatic monitoring. For example, at an inception stage of HEMaS implementation, some data on household expenses may be obtained through a dedicated credit card, or through customers’ accounts of various retailers.
The second step of HEMaS has two purposes: a) to consider the variability of the EI of products according to the household practices (e.g. sending or not a product for recycling); b) to provide a more functional perspective of consumption by distributing key products (e.g. water, energy) through household activities (e.g. washing, watching TV). This last feature allows for a better analysis of a household profile, subsequently generating more targeted measures for improving environmental performance. The characterization of household activities (step 2) can be developed through complementary methods: audits, questionnaires, and instant monitoring. The audits are more suitable to make the inventory of household infrastructures (e.g. characteristics of appliances, existence of tap aerators). Nevertheless, the characterization of the “actual” household activities has to be based on questionnaires and instant monitoring. In order to ease this process, the use of mobile phones (see project mobGAS2) to register instantly the activities can be an option.
After the household profile has been drawn (i.e. expenditure patterns and characterization of activities) it is possible to estimate the associated EI. This third step of HEMaS is an algorithmic procedure where expenditure patterns are multiplied by EI/€ indicators. As a result, it is presented the EI of each category of consumption products, and also it is allocated EI of key products (e.g. water, energy) to the respective activities where the consumption takes place. The EI/€ of products can be extracted from studies such as EIPRO (Tukker et al., 2006; see more on Tukker & Jansen, 2006). EIPRO is the most detailed study of this sort for the scope of EU-25, providing EI/€ (abiotic depletion, acidification, ecotoxicity, global warming, eutrophication, human toxicity, ozone layer depletion, and photochemical oxidation) for 282 categories of products.
On the fourth step of HEMaS the environmental profile and the characteristics of the household are analyzed in order to generate personalized measures. The measures consist of promoting green behaviour (e.g. recycling), consumption of low EI/€ products, and/or reducing the consumption of high EI/€ products3. The determination of the significance of measures is based on the criteria of bringing more environmental gains with less consumer resistance. Such approach has the advantage to improve the acceptability of measures and also to establish consumption thresholds (e.g. at a certain stage, a household cannot improve anymore its profile on food consumption despite it still has significant EI). To identify the areas with more potential to act, an analytic procedure may be carried out through which a household environmental profile is compared with reference values or benchmarks. These may be modeled for different types of consumer lifestyles or derived from the profiles of similar households with better environmental performances. Adopting the latter alternative confers an empirical apprenticeship nature to HEMaS. As more and more consumers use this tool, the system will be able to compute the more adequate measures based on the historic analysis of similar households. This approach may be deployed through DataMining techniques.
A cycle of HEMaS ends with the communication of an action plan (step 5) including the personalized measures for a given household. This presents customized and clear guidelines for consumers to take action. This step is particularly important since consumers tend not to respond promptly to environmental policy signals (Spaargaren, 2004; Hunter et al., 2006).