textarchive.ru

Главная > Документ


United States of America

Insular Areas

Energy Assessment Report:

An Update of the 1982 Territorial Energy Assessment


United States of America

Insular Areas

Energy Assessment Report:

An Update of the 1982 Territorial Energy Assessment


P

repared for:

US. Department of Interior

Washington, D.C. 20585

Prepared by:

Pacific Power Association

Suva, Fiji

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.Executive Summary i

1.1.PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT i

1.2.ISLAND AREAS COVERED IN REPORT i

1.3.ENGAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AND UTILITIES i

1.4.DRIVING FORCES ii

MMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS iv

1.5.1.Recommendations for Collective Action and Coordination among the Insular Areas iv

1.5.2.Recommendations Common Across all Insular Areas in Supply Side Management v

1.5.3.Recommendations for Individual Areas in Supply Side Management vi

mmary of Recommendations for Demand Side Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy viii

2. Overview United States of America Insular Area Energy Assessment 1

2.1.Objective of this Report 1

3.Guam 8

3.1.Executive Summary 8

3.2.General 13

3.2.1.Location, Population and Geography 13

3.2.2.Island Geography 14

3.2.3.Island Geology 15

3.2.4.Climate and Environmental Hazards 15

3.2.5.Energy Sources 17

3.2.6.Energy Uses 17

3.3.HISTORY, POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT STATUS 18

3.3.1.Early Island History 18

3.3.2.Recent Island History 18

3.3.3.United States Involvement 18

3.3.4.Present Political Status 19

3.4.POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT & WAGES 20

3.4.1.Present Demographics 20

3.4.2.Employment and Job Market 21

3.4.3.Gross Domestic Product 23

3.4.4.Personal Wages & Income 23

3.4.5.General Business & Commercial Income 25

3.5. ISLAND ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 26

3.5.1.General Status of the Economy 26

3.5.2.Major Employment Sectors 27

3.5.3.Water and Wastewater Systems 27

3.5.4.Electric System 27

3.5.5.Transportation 31

3.5.6.Marine 31

3.5.7.Port and Port Industries 31

3.5.8.Airports 32

munication Systems 33

3.5.10.Tourism Industry 33

3.5.11.Major Industry 33

3.5.12.Military 33

3.5.13.Other Special Economic Elements 33

3.5.14.Manufacturing, Craft, Trade 33

3.5.15.Agriculture 34

3.5.16.Aquaculture, Fisheries, Refineries 34

3.6.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND PROJECTS 34

3.6.1.Existing Capital Improvement Projects 34

pact Capital Commitments 35

3.6.3.General Status of Economic Development Planning 35

3.6.4.Economic Development Approach and Special Issues 35

3.6.5.Focus Areas 36

3.6.6.Energy Considerations 36

3.6.7.Economy Diversification 36

3.7.STATUS OF ENERGY SYSTEMS 36

3.7.1.Major Energy Uses 36

3.7.2.Electric Power System 37

3.7.3.Generation Facilities 37

3.7.4.Fuels 39

3.8.Electric Production and Use 39

3.8.1.Existing Renewable & Alternative Power Production 39

3.8.2.Existing Conservation and Demand Side Programs 40

3.9.Regulatory, Environmental Issues 40

3.10.Transportation 40

3.10.1.Fuel Use 40

3.10.2.Fuel Types and Costs 41

3.10.3.Reducing Transportation Energy Use 42

mercial & Industrial 42

3.11.1.Tourism 42

3.11.2.Manufacturing 43

3.11.3.Military 43

3.11.4.Fisheries 43

3.12.Alternative Energy Opportunities 43

3.12.1.Alternative fuels: 43

pply Side Management 45

3.14.Demand Side Efficiency Improvement and Energy Conservation 45

3.14.1.Electrical Metering/Tariffs 46

3.14.2.Household Energy Efficiency Measures 46

3.14.3.Government and Commercial Sector Buildings 47

3.14.4.Building Energy Efficiency Standards 48

3.14.5.Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards 48

3.14.6.Energy Audits, Performance Contracts 48

3.14.7.Transportation Sector 49

3.15.Renewable Energy 50

3.15.1.Solar 50

3.15.2.Wind 54

3.15.3.Hydro 55

3.15.4.Ocean thermal 55

3.15.5.Tidal 56

3.15.6.Biogas 56

3.15.7.Biomass combustion and gasification 57

3.15.8.Biofuel 57

3.15.9.Geothermal 57

3.15.10.Wave 57

4. U.S. Virgin Islands 59

4.1.Executive Summary 59

4.2.GENERAL 65

4.2.1.Location, Population and Geography 66

4.2.2.Geography 66

4.2.3.Island Geology 67

4.2.4.Climate and Environmental Hazards 67

4.2.5.Energy Sources 68

4.2.6.Energy Uses 68

4.3.HISTORY, POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT STATUS 69

4.3.1.Early Island History 69

4.3.2.Recent Island History 69

4.3.3.Political Development 70

4.3.4.Present Political Status 70

4.3.5.United States Involvement 70

4.3.6.U.S. Special Island Programs 70

4.4.POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT & WAGES 71

4.4.1.Present Demographics 71

4.4.2.Employment and Job Market 71

4.4.3.Gross Domestic Product 71

4.4.4.Personal Wages & Income 71

4.4.5.General Business & Commercial Income 71

4.4.6.Special Employment or Employers 71

4.5.ISLAND ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 71

4.5.1.General Status of the Economy 71

4.5.2.Major Employment Sectors 72

4.5.3.Electric System 72

4.5.4.Water and Wastewater Systems 73

4.5.5.Transportation 74

4.5.6.Port and Port Industries 74

4.5.7.Airports and Aviation Industries 75

munication System 75

4.5.9.Tourism Industry 75

4.5.10.Major Industry 76

4.5.11.Military 76

4.5.12.Other Special Economic Elements 76

4.5.13.Manufacturing, Craft, Trade 77

4.5.14.Agriculture 77

4.5.15.Aquaculture, Fisheries 77

4.6.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND PROJECTS 77

4.6.1.General Status of Economic Development Planning 77

4.6.2.Economic Development Approach and Special Issues 77

4.6.3.Focus Areas 77

4.6.4.Energy Considerations 78

4.6.5.Economy Diversification 78

4.6.6.Import-Export and Balance of Payments 78

4.7.STATUS OF ENERGY SYSTEMS 78

4.7.1.Major Energy Uses 78

4.7.2.Electric Power System 78

4.7.3.Generation Facilities 83

4.7.4.Fuels 85

4.8.Electric Production and Use 87

4.8.1.Existing Renewable & Alternative Power Production 87

4.9.REGULATORY, ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 87

4.10.TRANSPORTATION 88

4.10.1.Fuel Use 88

4.10.2.Fuel Types and Costs 88

4.10.3.Reducing Transportation Energy Use 88

MERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL 88

4.11.1.Tourism 88

4.11.2.Manufacturing 88

4.11.3.Military 88

4.11.4.Fisheries 88

4.12.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES 89

4.12.1.Cogeneration 89

4.12.2.Alternative Fuel Systems 90

PPLY SIDE MANAGEMENT 91

4.14.DEMAND SIDE EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION 92

4.14.1.Electrical Metering/Tariff 92

4.14.2.Household Energy Efficiency Measures 92

4.14.3.Government and Commercial Sector Buildings 93

4.14.4.Building Energy Eficiency Standards 93

4.14.5.Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards 94

4.14.6.Energy Audits Perfomance Contracts 94

4.14.7.Transportation Sector 95

4.15.RENEWABLE ENERGY 96

4.15.1.Solar 97

4.15.2.Wind Energy 101

4.15.3.Hydro Power 102

4.15.4.Biogas 102

4.15.5.Biomass, Combustion and Gasification 103

4.15.6.Biofuels 103

4.15.7.Ocean Energy 104

4.15.8.Geothermal 104

4.15.9.Tidal 104

4.15.10.Wave 104

5.American Samoa 106

5.1.Executive Summary 106

5.2.GENERAL 113

5.2.1.Location, Population, and Geography 113

5.2.2.Island Geography 114

5.2.3.Island Geology 114

5.2.4.Climate and Environmental Hazards 115

5.2.5.Energy Sources 115

5.2.6.Energy Uses 116

5.3.HISTORY, POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT STATUS 116

5.3.1.Early Island History 116

5.3.2.Recent Island History 117

5.3.3.United States Involvement 117

5.3.4.Political Development 118

5.3.5.Present Political Status 118

5.4.POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT & WAGES 118

5.4.1.Present Demographics 119

5.4.2.Special Employment or Major Employers 120

5.4.3.Employment and Job Market 120

5.4.4.Personal Wages & Income 121

5.4.5.General Business & Commercial Income 122

5.5.ISLAND ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 122

5.5.1.General Status of the Economy 122

5.5.2.Major Employment Sectors 123

5.5.3.Water and Wastewater Systems 123

5.5.4.Electrical System 124

5.5.5.Transportation System 125

5.5.6.Marine 126

5.5.7.Port and Port Industries 126

5.5.8.Airports 126

munication System 127

5.5.10.Tourism Industry 127

5.5.11.Major Industry 127

5.5.12.Military 128

5.5.13.Other Special Economic Elements 129

5.5.14.Manufacturing, Craft, Trade 129

5.5.15.Agriculture 129

5.5.16.Aquaculture, Fisheries, Refineries 129

5.6.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND PROJECTS 130

5.6.1.General Status of Economic Development Planning 131

5.6.2.Economic Development Approach and Special Issues 131

5.6.3.Focus Areas 131

5.6.4.Energy Considerations 132

5.6.5.Import-Export and Balance of Payments 132

5.7.Status of Energy Systems 132

5.7.1.Major Energy Uses 132

5.7.2.Electric Power System 132

5.7.3.Generation Facilities 133

5.7.4.Fuels 134

5.8.Electric Production and Use 134

5.8.1.Existing Renewable & Alternative Power Production 134

5.9.Regulatory, Environmental Issues 135

5.10.Transportation 135

5.10.1.Fuel Types and Costs 135

5.10.2.Reducing Transportation Energy Use 135

mercial & Industrial 135

5.11.1.Tourism 135

5.11.2.Manufacturing 136

5.11.3.Military 136

5.11.4.Fisheries 137

5.12.Alternative Energy Opportunities 137

5.12.1.Cogeneration 137

5.12.2.Alternative Fuel Systems 138

pply Side Efficiency 138

5.14.Demand Side Efficiency 139

5.14.1.Electrical Metering/Tariff 139

5.14.2.Household Energy Efficiency Measure 139

dustrial Sector 141

5.14.4.Government and Commercial Sector 141

5.14.5.Transportation Sector 142

5.14.6.Building Energy and Efficiency Standards 143

5.14.7.Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards 143

5.14.8.Energy Audits, Performance Contracts 143

5.15.Renewable Energy 144

5.15.1.Solar 144

5.15.2.Wind Energy 146

5.15.3.Hydro Power 148

5.15.4.Biogas 149

5.15.5.Biomass 149

5.15.6.Biofuels 149

5.15.7.Ocean Energy 149

5.15.8.Geothermal 149

5.15.9.Tidal 150

5.15.10.Wave 150

monwealth of Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI) 151

6.1.Executive Summary 151

6.2.General 156

6.2.1.Location, Population and Geography 156

6.2.2.Island Characteristics 156

6.2.3.Island Geography 157

6.2.4.Climate and Environmental Hazards 157

6.2.5.Climate and Environmental Hazards 157

6.2.6.Energy Sources 157

6.2.7.Energy Uses 159

6.3.HISTORY, POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT STATUS 160

6.3.1.Early Island History 160

6.3.2.Recent Island History 161

6.3.3.United States Involvement 162

6.3.4.Present Political Status 162

6.4.POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT & WAGES 162

6.4.1.Present Demographics 162

6.4.2.Employment and Job Market 163

6.4.3.Gross Domestic Product 163

6.4.4.Personal Wages & Income 164

6.4.5.General Business & Commercial Income 165

6.5.ISLAND ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 166

6.5.1.General Status of the Economy 166

6.5.2.Major Employment Sectors 167

6.5.3.Water and Wastewater Systems 168

6.5.4.Electric System 168

6.5.5.Transportation 171

6.5.6.Marine 171

6.5.7.Port and Port Industries 171

6.5.8. Airports 172

munication Systems 172

6.5.10.Tourism Industry 173

6.5.11.Major Industry 173

6.5.12.Military 173

6.5.13.Other Special Economic Elements 173

6.5.14.Manufacturing, Craft, Trade 173

6.5.15.Agriculture 173

6.5.16.Aquaculture, Fisheries, Refineries 173

6.6.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND PROJECTS 174

6.6.1.Existing Capital Improvement Projects 174

6.6.2.General Status of Economic Development Planning 174

6.6.3.Economic Development Approach and Special Issues 174

6.6.4.Focus Areas 175

6.6.5.Energy Considerations 177

6.6.6.Economy Diversification 177

6.6.7.Import-Export and Balance of Payments 177

6.7.STATUS OF ENERGY SYSTEMS 178

6.7.1.Major Energy Uses 178

6.7.2.Electric Power System 178

6.7.3.Generation Facilities 178

6.7.4.Fuels 178

6.8.Regulatory, Environmental Issues 179

6.9.Transportation 180

6.9.1.Fuel Types and Costs 180

6.9.2.Reducing Transportation Energy Use 181

mercial & Industrial - Trends 181

6.10.1.Tourism 181

6.10.2.Manufacturing 181

6.10.3.Military 181

6.10.4.Fisheries 182

6.11.Alternative Energy Opportunities 182

6.11.1.Alternative fuels 182

PPLY SIDE EFFICIENCY 183

6.13.DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT 184

6.13.1.Electrical Metering/Tariffs 185

6.13.2.Household Energy Efficiency Measures 185

6.13.3.Government and Commercial Sector Buildings 186

6.13.4.Building Energy Efficiency Standards 187

6.13.5.Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards 187

6.13.6.Energy Audits, Performance Contracts 188

6.13.7.Transportation Sector 188

6.14.Renewable Energy 189

6.14.1.Solar 189

6.14.2.Wind 192

6.14.3.Hydro 193

6.14.4.Biogas 193

6.14.5.Biomass combustion and gasification 195

6.14.6.Biofuel 196

6.14.7.Ocean thermal 196

6.14.8.Geothermal 196

6.14.9.Tidal 196

6.14.10.Wave 196

7.Federated States of Micronesia - Overview 197

7.1.Executive Summary 197

7.2.General 208

7.2.1.Location, Population and Geography 208

7.2.2.Island Geography 209

7.2.3.Island Geology 209

7.2.4.Climate and Environmental Hazards 210

7.2.5.Energy Sources 210

7.2.6.Energy Uses 210

7.3.HISTORY, POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT STATUS 211

7.3.1.Early Island History 211

7.3.2.Recent Island History 211

7.3.3.Political Development 212

7.3.4.Present Political Status 212

7.3.5.United States Involvement 212

7.3.6.U.S. Special Island Programs 214

7.4.POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT & WAGES 214

7.4.1.Present Demographics 214

7.4.2.Major Employment Sectors 215

7.4.3.Special Employment or Employers 215

7.4.4.Employment and Job Market 215

7.4.5.General Business & Commercial Income 216

7.5.ISLAND ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 218

7.5.1.General Status of the Economy 218

7.5.2.Port and Port Industries 220

7.5.3.Aviation and Aviation Industries 220

7.5.4.Tourism Industry 220

7.5.5.Major Industry 221

7.5.6.Military 221

7.5.7.Manufacturing, Craft, Trade 221

7.5.8.Agriculture 222

7.5.9.Aquaculture, Fisheries 222

7.5.10.Other Special Economic Elements 222

7.5.11.Electrical System 222

7.5.12.Water and Wastewater Systems 222

7.5.13.Waste Management Systems 223

7.5.14.Transportation System 223

munication System 223

7.6.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND PROJECTS 223

7.6.1.General Status of Economic Development Planning 223

7.6.2.Economic Development Approach and Special Issues 224

7.6.3.Focus Areas 224

7.6.4.Energy Considerations 224

7.6.5.Economic Diversification 224

7.6.6.Import-Export and Balance of Payments 224

8.Federated states of micronesia – Kosrae 225

8.1.General 225

8.1.1.Location and Population 225

8.1.2.Island Geography 225

8.1.3.Island Geology 225

8.1.4.Climate and Environmental Hazards 227

8.1.5.Energy Sources 227

8.1.6.Energy Uses 228

8.2.HISTORY, POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT STATUS 228

8.2.1.Early Island History 228

8.2.2.Recent Island History 228

8.2.3.Political Development 229

8.2.4.Present Political Status 229

8.2.5.United States Involvement 230

8.2.6.U.S. Special Island Programs 230

8.3.POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT & WAGES 231

8.3.1.Present Demographics 231

8.3.2.Employment and Job Market 231

8.3.3.Gross Domestic Product 232

8.3.4.Personal Wages & Income 232

8.3.5.Special Employment or Employers 232

8.3.6.General Business & Commercial Income 232

8.4.ISLAND ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 233

8.4.1.General Status of the Economy 233

8.4.2.Major Employment Sectors 233

8.4.3.Electrical System 233

8.4.4.Water and Wastewater Systems 233

8.4.5.Transportation System 234

8.4.6.Port and Port Industries 234

8.4.7.Airport and Aviation Industries 235

munication System 235

8.4.9.Tourism Industry 235

8.4.10.Major Industry 236

8.4.11.Military 236

8.4.12.Other Special Economic Elements 237

8.4.13.Manufacturing, Craft, Trade 237

8.4.14.Agriculture 237

8.4.15.Aquaculture, Fisheries 237

8.4.16.Waste Management Systems 238

8.5.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND PROJECTS 238

8.5.1.General Status of Economic Development Planning 238

8.5.2.Economic Development Approach and Special Issues 239

8.5.3.Focus Areas 239

8.5.4.Energy Considerations 239

8.5.5.Economy Diversification 239

8.5.6.Import-Export and Balance of Payments 239

8.6.Status of Energy Systems 240

8.6.1.Major Energy Uses 240

8.6.2.Electric Power System 240

8.6.3.Generation Facilities 241

8.6.4.Fuels 241

8.7.Electric Production and Use 242

8.7.1.Existing Renewable & Alternative Power Production 242

8.7.2.Existing Conservation and Demand Side Programs 242

8.8.Regulatory, Environmental Issues 242

8.9.Transportation 243

8.9.1.Fuel Use 243

8.9.2.Fuel Types and Costs 243

8.9.3.Reducing Transportation Energy Use 243

mercial & Industrial 243

8.10.1.Tourism 243

8.10.2.Manufacturing 243

8.10.3.Military 243

8.10.4.Fisheries 244

8.11.Alternative Energy Opportunities 244

8.11.1.Cogeneration 244

8.11.2.Alternative Fuel Systems 244

pply Side Efficiencies 245

8.13.Demand Side Efficiencies 245

8.13.1.Electrical Metering/Tariffs 245

8.13.2.Household Energy Efficiency Measures 246

8.13.3.Government and Commercial Sector 246

8.13.4.Transportation Sector 247

8.13.5.Building Energy and Efficiency Standards 247

8.13.6.Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards 248

8.13.7.Energy Audits, Performance Contracts 248

8.14.RENEWABLE ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES 248

8.14.1.Solar 248

8.14.2.Wind Energy 250

8.14.3.Hydro Power 250

8.14.4.Biogas 251

8.14.5.Biomass combustion and gasification 251

8.14.6.Biofuels 251

8.14.7.Ocean Thermal 252

8.14.8.Geothermal 252

8.14.9.Tidal 252

8.14.10.Wave 252



Скачать документ

Похожие документы:

  1. The ‘new anti-semitism’ and the battle for campus introduction divestment – a petition

    Документ
    ... an objective assessmentofthe policies Israel pursues in the occupied Palestinian territories ... theUnitedStates donated c. $460 million herein for the resettlement of Jewish refugees in Israel706. Thereport ... Congress oftheUnitedStatesofAmerica ( ...
  2. BEYOND EARTH THE FUTURE OF HUMANS IN SPACE Bob Krone Ph D Editor Foreword by Edgar Mitchell Sc D Captain USN (Ret) Apollo 14 Lunar Module Pilot Langdon Morris and Kenneth Cox Ph D Associate Editors An Aerospace Technology Working

    Документ
    ... strategy oftheUnitedStatesofAmerica. Retrieved ... the "Final Reportofthe Commission on the Future oftheUnitedStates Aerospace Industry" (Walker, 2004); the ... the world's energy needs. For anupdated version ofthe global energy story, see /energy ...
  3. The omega file [greys nazis underground bases and the new world order] by branton [attention all abductees please download and study this document and

    Документ
    ... the whole territory 'NEUSCHWABENLAND' heading from southwest over the 'RITSCHER HOCHLAND' and the eastern areas ... all ofthe governments of every nation, including an 'apparent' Constitutional Republic like theUnitedStatesofAmerica. The following ...
  4. The omega files

    Документ
    ... the whole territory 'NEUSCHWABENLAND' heading from southwest over the 'RITSCHER HOCHLAND' and the eastern areas ... all ofthe governments of every nation, including an 'apparent' Constitutional Republic like theUnitedStatesofAmerica. 5. David ...
  5. D49 synthesis report

    Документ
    ... in the operation ofan installation, updatingof a ... assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste. Final project report ... The 2003 Revision. . UnitedStates Environmental Agency. 1996. RCRA Public Participation Manual. University of ...

Другие похожие документы..