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ONE MORE OPINION

I love classical music. Maybe, it’s because of nine years inside the musical school; but I’ve found this music the closest to my soul. Most people of my age would think I’m a bit mad to love Strauss, Mozart, Bach in place of psychedelic rock and angry, loud punk bands. My friend often says: “It’s much easier and fun to be with the crowd.” I would agree with her… But why must I be like somebody else and not somebody else be like me?

I find classical music relaxing. As many psychologists say: Bach helps to cope with nervousness; Vivaldi is excellent to make people feel calm and satisfied. Why do many people find it to be dull? Why dull? To talk about classical music as a whole there’s many modern remakes of classics. For example, I like the way Vanessa-Mae plays.

It’s not true that I hate all modern music. I have a few pop or rock songs that I like; but I think all this music can’t be called great.

Olga Doctorova

English” newspaper

Билет № 8

    1. Read the text and answer the questions.

THE LOST RUBY

There was once a king who was always sad. Nothing could please him. He always looked on the dark side of life.

The king had a large house with a wonderful garden. An old man looked after the garden. He was always singing as he worked.

One day the king was walking in his garden when he heard the old man’s song. He asked him, “Tell me, old man,” said the king, “Why are you always so cheerful?”

The old man said:”Sadness can never enter my heart. I have locked it out.”

“Your heart is not a house! No one can escape sadness.” said the king.

The old man just smiled. The king was angry. He decided to prove that he was right, and the old gardener was wrong.

The next day the king went down into the garden again. He took a large ruby from his pocket and gave it to the old gardener. “I want you to look after it for me,” he said. ”But if you lose the ruby, you’ll lose your life.”

The old man took the ruby home and hid it under his bed. That night the king, dressed as a beggar, went to the gardener’s house and stole the ruby. He took it and threw it into the river.

The next morning the king went down into his garden, called the old man over and said,”I want you to bring the ruby to the palace in two days time. And remember, if you lose it…” The old man got home and looked under his bed. When he saw that the ruby wasn’t there he knew he had only two days to live.

Answer the questions.

  1. What is this text about?

  2. What was the old man’s job?

  3. What did the king decide to do?

  4. Why did the king go to the gardener’s house?

  5. What happened the next morning?

    1. Read the text and prove that pets are wonderful companions. Say if pets abroad are being taken good care of. Speak about your pet and the way you take care of it.

An article in the New Scientist saysthat cats and dogs are wonderful companions. People ask questions and complain, but pets just listen and seem to understand. They never answer back. People with loving pets don’t get so much cold and headaches. Stroking a cat or walking a dog brings your blood pressure down and makes your heart beat more slowly.

The 747 British Airways flight took off from Houston to London at its usual time. However six hours later the captain had a problem. He could see that the temperature in the hold was too high. There was a five-year-old dog called Louise in there and her life was in danger. An emergency landing would cost ₤20,000 and delay the passengers for three hours. In the end the captain told the passengers about the problem and all of them agreed to save the dog’s life. The plane went back to the USA and landed in Boston, where the dog was put on another flight.

In 1993, the British spent ₤1.6 billion on looking after their pets. Over ₤100 million of this was on animal medicine. The most common injury – a broken leg – costs from ₤300 for a cat to ₤1,000 for a dog. One company in New Zealand now gives ‘pet leave’ – if workers’ pets are ill. They can stay at home to look after them.

Билет № 9

    1. Read the text and answer the questions.

When I (Waris) was a child I lived in Somalia. We moved around from place to place to find water for animals. I looked after them and was quite happy.

When I was thirteen an old man wanted to marry me. He offered my father five camels. Camels are important in the desert, so my father said ‘yes’. I said to my father, ’I’m not going to marry him. That man needs a nurse not a wife.’

That evening I decided to run away and go to my uncle and aunt to Mogadishu. I didn’t tell my father. When I told my mother, she said, ‘You’ll be OK. Do what you want and be happy.’ It took two weeks to walk to Mogadishu. I got a job as a builder. It was hard work, but I earned money and sent food to my mother.

Then I lived with an uncle in Saudi Arabia and worked as a nanny. When I worked there I met another uncle who lived in London. I went there and looked after his children. When I was nineteen, my uncle went back to Somalia but I stayed in London. I had no visa and I didn’t speak English. I worked as a cook and cleaner and learned English quickly.

Then I met a photographer who took photographs of me for the Pirelli calendar. My next job was in a James Bond film and after that I became famous.

In 1995 I went back to Somalia for the first time in fourteen years. It took a month to find my mother. My father has another wife. One day I’m going to build a house for my mother and buy my father some camels. I want to say I’m sorry.

Questions:

  1. What is this text about?

  2. What happened when Waris was thirteen?

  3. Why did she decide to run away?

  4. How long did it take her to walk to Mogadishu?

  5. When she became famous?

    1. Read the text and prove that smoking is unhealthy. What is the consequence of smoking? Speak on healthy life style.

Don’t smoke. It looks smart in old movies, and it seems that everybody does it. But that is just a clever form of advertising. Smoking is unhealthy. It causes a cough and pneumonia. Your reactions will be slow if you smoke. Smoking makes your teeth yellow and your skin grey. You will never look healthy if you smoke.

It is unpleasant and harmful to non-smokers, too, and a serious fire risk. It is offensive in public places like cafes and schools. Any form of addiction is unhealthy, whether it is tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sugary things, or money. It may be a sign of not growing up and not being able to cope.

Do you know that the 16th of November is the day when people all over the world quit smoking?

Do you know that every year 3 million people die of smoking?

Do you know that your life is 25% shorter if you smoke?

Do you know that only 13% of the population smoke in the USA, but in Russia – more than 76%? 400,000 people die in Russia every year as a result of smoking. Imagine that a whole town like Ufa disappears every year.

In Britain smoking is now forbidden in many public places: on the underground, on stations, in shops, in theatres and in cinemas.

Билет № 10

  1. Read the text and answer the questions.

Danina Petrovska was born in 1885 in Moscow. Her father was an officer in the Litovsky Regiment, and she had four brothers. They were tall and handsome and wore uniforms, and brought her sweets when they came home to visit. The youngest of them was twelve years older than she was. And when they were at home, they sang and played with her, and made lots of noise. She loved being with them when they ran with her, and let her pretend that they were horses. It was obvious to everyone, that her brothers adored her.

Danina remembered that her mother had a lovely face and gentle ways and she sang Danina to sleep at night, after telling her long, wonderful stories about when she was a little girl herself. She used to laugh a lot, and Danina loved her. She died when Danina was five, of typhoid. And after that, everything changed in Danina’s life.

Her father had absolutely no idea what to do about her. He and his sons were in the army, so he hired a woman to take care of her, a string of them, but after two years, he knew he simply couldn’t do it anymore. He had to find another solution for Danina. And he found a perfect one. He went to St.Petersburg to make the arrangements. He was vastly impressed when he spoke to Madame Markova. She was a remarkable woman, and the ballet school and company she ran would provide not only a home for Danina but a useful life, and a future she could rely on.

Questions:

  1. What is this text about?

  2. What did they do when the brothers were at home?

  3. What did Danina remember of her mother?

  4. Where did her father go to make the arrangements?

  5. Do you like the story? Why?

  1. Read the text and say if children started to read less and why. Are you keen on reading? Who are your favourite writers? Which of their books do you like best?

THE FASCINATION OF READING.

Crispin is 16. He likes sport and he’s good at school. He likes studying languages but… he’s never read a whole book.

Crispin is only one of the young people, who, according to surveys, have never managed to go through a book from beginning to end.

Crispin and his friends aren’t stupid or ignorant. They know how to read perfectly well and they’ve read a great number of short pieces: stories, fables, cartoons and teenage magazine articles… but the pleasure of reading has never motivated them to choose a book and to read the whole of it.

Crispin’s case worries a lot of adults: parents and teachers, children’s writers and editors. The number of young people who aren’t reading is increasing. Even though they’ve got interesting books at home suitable for their age group and school libraries full of possibilities.

Why do children today read so little? There are a lot of reasons. Some say television is to blame. For others it’s the fault of schools which don’t teach children to appreciate literature and its wonders. One children’s writer says:

“At the age of 7, I read a whole book alone for the first time. For me it was a great victory. I discovered that the words and signs on the pages became a real, exciting story in my head. For me it was as good as winning a hard basketball match.”

Perhaps Crispin and his friends read so little because they’ve never really tried hard to do it.

Билет № 11

  1. Read the text and answer the questions.

NEWSPAPERS IN BRITAIN

If you get on a bus or catch a train in Britain, especially during the morning and evening "rush hour", you'll see a lot of people reading newspapers. The press tells us about various political views, interest and levels of education. Papers are usually divided into "quality" papers which are serious with long, informative articles and "popular" which have smaller size. They are less serious and contain more human interest stories than news.More daily newspapers, national and regional are sold in Great Britain than in most other developed countries. There are about 135 daily papers and Sunday papers, 2000 weekly papers and about 100 papers produced by members of ethnic groups. A lot of people buy a morning paper, an evening paper and a couple of Sunday papers. On an average day two out of three people over the age of 15 read a national morning paper, about three out of four read a Sunday paper. So it's not surprising to learn that national newspapers have a circulation of 15.8 million copies on weekdays and 19 million on Sunday Newspapers are almost always financially independent of any political party. However during general election campaigns many papers recommend their readers to vote for a particular political party. Ownership of the national London and regional daily newspapers is concentrated in the hands of large press publishing groups.

Answer the questions.

  1. What does press tell us about?

  2. What kinds of papers do you know?

  3. What circulation do national newspapers have?

  4. Who is the owner of newspapers in Britain?

  5. Is information given by newspapers always reliable?

  1. Read the text and say why British schoolchildren hate eating fruit and vegetables. What food do they prefer? What are your eating habits?

WHY DON’T BRITISH SCHOOLCHILDREN WANT TO EAT FRUIT AND VEGETABLES?

There’s nothing wrong with having a can of Coke every now and then but four cans a day is asking for trouble. Did you know that a can of Coke contain about eight teaspoons of sugar and artificial sweeteners? As a result, many modern kids suffer from such illnesses as diabetes, cancer and teeth decay. And, of course, there are more and more children who are extremely overweight or even obese.

Unfortunately school dinners play an important role in this sad situation. Often school dinners offer overcooked vegetables as the ‘healthy’ option against more appealing pizza, chips and burgers. ’My school mostly sells chips with everything you can think of – pizza and chips, chips and cheese, chips and gravy… it does of course sell some healthy things but the thing is they look extremely boring!‘ says 13-year-old Anna Smith.

In Britain, children can either choose to bring their own lunch or buy their lunch at school. Children from poor families can have free school dinners but many of them don’t take them for various reasons. Here are some of the common complaints: ’I hate my school dinners. The food is so disgusting.’

‘I never have school dinners because it’s the same food day in, day out.’ ‘Our dinners are always cold!’

Билет № 12

  1. Read the text and answer the questions.

Running a business can be stressful at any age, but when you're just 15 and have to juggle it with going to school and doing your homework, it's even more remarkable. And that's exactly what young entrepreneur, Luisa Bundy, designer of a range of soft toys called Little Bundles, has done. It all started when Luisa's mother bought her some modelling clay for her 12th birthday and she began experimenting with making small model figures based on her friends at school. The first batch went down a storm, and her friends encouraged her to make more. So she did, handing them out at Easter instead of eggs. As word spread around the school, Luisa introduced a form so she could take orders during the day and make the figures over the weekend. Her mother used to come to find piles of order forms spread out on the kitchen table. She thought Luisa was going to get into serious trouble for doing business in the playground. But teachers' names were on the order forms too.

Two years later, Luisa had made 13,000 Little Bundies. Prior to this, she had spent most weekends and holidays researching craft fairs across the south of England. At one fair she sold 250 figures in an hour at £2 a go. And she even researched the number of people that usually turned up to each fair, so she know exactly the number she needed to make for the customers there. When she noticed that the majority of customers were buying the toys as gifts she designed a range of gift cards to accompany them.

At this point, the volume of work was becoming overwhelming and she decided to seek advice from Sir Richard Branson, who had begun his Virgin empire as a teenager. On his advice she set up Bundy Creations Ltd, with her mother as director.

Last year they took on the cost of exhibiting at a craft fair in the north of England and it paid off. They were spotted by a major toy manufacturer, which quickly signed the figures to a three-year soft toy licensing deal. According to the manufacturer, they have already practically sold out.

Answer the questions.

  1. How old was Luisa when she first started making clay models?

  2. Did the first figures she made get a positive reaction at school?

  3. How did she know how many people would come to the gift fairs?

  4. Who did Luisa contact to ask for advice?

  5. Who discovered Luisa's model figures at a gift fair last year?

Билет № 13

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

STONE SOUP

One day an old man whose clothes were very old came to a woman’s house. He looked terrible. “Excuse me”, said the old man, “I’m thirsty and very hungry. Could you give me some food, please?” But the woman was very greedy.

“Go away”, she said, “I haven’t got any food”, “Oh”, said the old man. “That’s a pity. I’ve got a magic stone. I can make soup with it. But I need some water”. “Well, I’ve got a lot of water”, said the greedy woman. “A magic stone, oh?”

She brought a big pan of water. The old man put the stone into it. After a while he tasted the soup. “M-m-m-m. It’s very good,” he said, “it just needs some vegetables. It’s a pity you haven’t got any vegetables”.

“Oh, I can give you some vegetables”, said the woman. She ran away, and soon brought some potatoes, carrots and other vegetables. The old man put the vegetables into the pan. “Is it all right now?” asked the woman. “Yes, but it needs some meat”. “Oh, I have some”, said the woman and ran away. She came back with some meat, and the old man put it into the pan.

“Right”, said the man. “I can’t see the stone now. So the soup is ready. Bread is very good with stone soup. It’s a pity you haven’t got any bread”. “Oh, I’ve got some bread”, said the woman. She went away and soon came back with some bread in her hands. She put it on the table.

The woman tasted the soup. “M-m-m-m. This stone soup is very tasty, and you have made it with that magic stone”.

When they ate the soup, the old man said: “Here is the magic stone. You can keep it”.

“Oh, thank you”, said the woman. But remember”, said the old man, “for the best soup you need some meat, vegetables and some salt, too”.

Questions:

  1. How did the old man look like?

  2. Why did he ask for some food?

  3. What kind of soup did he make?

  4. Why did the old man decide to make a stone soup?

  5. How can you characterize the old man?

  1. Read the text and say if you accept Ramit’s life values. What are your life values?

LIFE AT THE TOP

Ramit is the son of an Indian mobile-phone millionaire. He’s extremely tall and still growing. He eats an enormous amount, and only buys designer clothes. Ramit is not a shy boy – he knows what he wants and he usually gets it. “My dad once said I couldn’t have a BMW motorcycle, but I usually try to ask him for things face to face and he gives them to me in the end.” Ramit doesn’t to worry how much he spends. “I don’t want to boast but I have money – it’s experience I’m looking for,” he says. He likes spend his time bungee-jumping in Australia and going to night clubs in London. He lives in Delhi where his life is just as exotic. He and his younger brother have their own apartment in the family mansion. He has an expensive stereo, an exercise area and the very latest computer. The phone rings constantly and he has several servants to take care of his every need.

Билет № 14

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

THE GIANT PANDA

An endangered species, the giant panda can only be found in the mountain bamboo forests of Western China. There are only about 1,000 wild giant pandas left in the world. Giant pandas are members of the bear family, and they are mammals. Even though giant pandas look just like bears, they certainly do not behave like bears. Unlike their meat-eating relatives, giant pandas are vegetarians for the most part of their time. Their favourite food is bamboo. Giant pandas must eat a lot of bamboo everyday to get enough nourishment. In fact, they spend at least 12 hours everyday eating about 33 pounds of bamboo. However, if they are extremely hungry and bamboo is nowhere to be found, giant pandas may eat grass, fruits, or sometimes, small animals like chicken.

Giant pandas do not live in groups. They are loners! They only leave their territory from March to May to look for a mate. Female giant pandas usually give birth to twins. Baby giant pandas are very small, blind, pinkish, and weigh about 5 ounces at birth. Strangely, mother giant pandas tend to choose to raise just one baby and leave the other to die. Mother giant pandas feed their babies with milk. A baby giant panda opens its eyes at six to seven weeks. It starts to learn how to walk when it is about three or four months old. Mother giant pandas look after their babies for about 18 months. Once the young is strong enough, it bids farewell to its mother and moves out to live independently. (1201)

Questions:

  1. Where do pandas live?

  2. What class of animals do they belong to?

  3. What is the main difference between giant pandas and bears?

  4. Why do young giant pandas leave their mothers when they are about 18 months?

  5. Are there any other endangered species in the world? What are they?

  1. Read the text and say if English is a widely spread language. Why is it important to study English?

DIFFERENT ENGLISH

English is spoken as a first language by several countries including Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and the United States. While all of these countries share the same mother tongue, there are some differences in the way they speak and write.

The first difference is in the accent. Each country has its own accent. And within each country there are a variety of accents called regional accents.

Another difference is the spelling of some words, like ‘colour’ and ‘colour’, or ‘theater’ and ‘theatre’.

And a third difference is that some of the words are not the same at all. For example, Americans say restroom, Canadians say washroom, and the British say W.C. (water closet.) But all of these words have the same meaning (the room where the toilet is located.)

So which English is the best English to learn? Well, there is no best English. They are all equally good and correct. But two things may help you decide which one is best for you to study.

First of all, where do you live? If you are from South America, for example, you will probably have more exposure to North American English. If you live in Europe, most likely you will be more exposed to British English.

But no matter where you study English or whether it's British, American, Australian, or whatever, it's good to know a little about English in other countries.

Билет № 15

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

THANKSGIVING DAY

The story of America’s Thanksgiving begins with the Pilgrims. Early in the 17-th century, the Pilgrims left England in search of religious freedom. In 1608, they sailed to Holland. Then, in 1620, they crossed the Atlantic by ship called the Mayflower.

After sailing for many weeks, the Pilgrims landed at a place now called Massachusetts. They planted the seeds they had brought from England. But the seeds didn’t grow well, and there was so little food for the Pilgrims that many of them starved to death.

Luckily for the Pilgrims, some nearby Indians came to rescue. They taught the Pilgrims to grow native food such as corn. Without this help, the Pilgrims would not have survived.

After the first harvest, the governor of Plymouth Colony - William Bradford - suggested that the Pilgrims hold a feast of thanksgiving. And to their thanksgiving feast the Pilgrims invited the Indians. The Pilgrims were grateful to the Indians for helping the Colony survive. In addition, they hoped that the celebration would strengthen their friendship with the Indians.

Nobody knows the date of the first Thanksgiving feast. But we do know that the Pilgrims and Indians enjoyed a huge feast of deer, goose, duck, oyster, eel, bread, fruit, and corn meal pudding.

In 1789 George Washington declared that Thanksgiving would be a national celebration. It is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. (1163)

Questions:

  1. When did the Pilgrims cross the Atlantic Ocean?

  2. Who taught them to grow native food?

  3. How did the Pilgrims thank the Indians?

  4. Why did the Pilgrims leave England?

  5. What other American holidays do you know?

  1. Read the text and say if there are a lot of endangered animals. What can we do to save rare species? What environmental organizations and groups do you know? Would you like to become a member of such a group?

ENDANGERED ANIMALS

What do the following animals have in common: pandas, rhinoceros, loggerhead turtles, Californian condors, pink pigeons, small tooth sawfish, and Siberian sturgeons? They are all endangered animals! Animals become endangered for a variety of reasons. Sadly, humans are behind every one of them! Here are three reasons.

Hunting: for centuries, humans have hunted elephants for their impressive tusks, killed tigers for their beautiful furs, and scooped up sturgeons to make caviar. While we still have elephants, tigers, and sturgeons in the wild, we cannot say the same about many others that have simply disappeared!

Loss of habitats: humans and animals have always competed for land and other natural resources. We clear an area of a forest for farming. We cut down trees and build beautiful houses. At the same time that we are trying to make our life comfortable, we inadvertently destroy the habitats of wild animals.

Pollution: more than once we have seen on televisions that rescue workers are trying to save seabirds soaked in spilled oil. More than once we have heard about how carbon dioxide and other gases have raised the Earth temperature and caused global warming. Pollution has a long lasting, and usually irreversible, effect. If we choose to do nothing and continue to pollute our planet Earth, our next generations will have to bear the consequences of abnormal weather and polluted environment.

Билет 16

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

THE MUSICAL GLASS.

Mary Elizabeth loved music. She was happy when she heard lovely sounds. She waited to hear the birds sing outside her window in the spring. She listened for the cricket's song when she swept the hearth in her mother's kitchen. The horses passing her papa's store made a "clip clop" sound. That was a song to Mary Elizabeth. These songs made her heart fill with joy.

Mary Elizabeth had only one wish. She wanted to make music on her own. She couldn't sing very well. Her brother, Matthew, had said, "You sound like the cat when Nana stepped on its tail." She loved music so much. Why couldn't she make music on her own?

Mary Elizabeth knew where to go when she was sad. Her Uncle Ben Franklin could always make her smile. Best of all, Uncle Ben loved music just like Mary Elizabeth. One morning, Mary Elizabeth stood outside Uncle Ben's workshop. She could hear him humming to himself. She knew something fun was going to happen. She opened the door and saw Uncle Ben at his work table. Oh, no! What had happened? Broken glasses were everywhere. There were big glasses, little glasses, and middle sized glasses spread out on his table. Wait a minute. Only the stems that held the glasses up were broken off. What was Uncle Ben doing? Uncle Ben saw the puzzled look on Mary Elizabeth's face. "Come, little songbird," he said. "I will show you how we can make beautiful music. We will use what is broken. We can turn it into something good."

Questions:

  1. What sounds did Mary Elizabeth enjoy?

  2. What was her only wish?

  3. Who made her smile and laugh when she was upset?

  4. What did Mary hear while she was standing outside her uncle’s workshop?

  5. Why was Mary puzzled when she opened the door and look at his table?

  1. Read the text and say why people use the Internet to shop. What do you need to do the shopping on line? Why do people have to be careful making a purchase via the Internet? Can you go window-shopping on the Internet? What are the pros and cons of using the Internet?

SHOPPING ON THE INTERNET

Shopping on the Internet, or shopping on-line is becoming more and more popular. More and more people are using the internet to buy things. Why do people use the Internet to shop? Some people say it is more convenient. They don't have to leave their homes to order something, and they can shop for anything they want at any time, day or night. Other people say they can find things for sale that they can't find in the stores near their homes. Still other people say they can find better prices on the Internet.

If you want to buy something on the Internet, you need a credit card. You have to type your credit card number and information on the website and send it to the store over the Internet. You have to be sure that the store will not use your information in the wrong way. You don't want someone to get your credit card number and charge something to your account. Of course, you always have to be careful with your credit card number, because people sometimes steal credit card numbers from stores and restaurants too.

For people who are too nervous to shop on-line, the Internet is a good place to go window-shopping. Window-shopping is when you go to a store and look at the things for sale, but don't plan to buy anything. Window-shopping is easy on the Internet. You can see what kinds of products are available and how much they cost. You can visit stores with branches near you, or you can visit stores that are only on the Internet.

Билет № 17

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

THE FIRST WOMAN IN BUSINESS

At the start of the twentieth century the idea of women in business seemed crazy. In those days men held all the positions of power and made all the decisions about money. They believed that a woman` s place was at home, looking after her children, cooking for her family and managing the house. If a woman needed to work she could perhaps find a job in a shop or in a factory, but she had no chance of working as a businesswoman or a banker, or a lawyer.

Women` s fashions in the USA and Europe at that time supported their position in society. Fashionable women wore long dresses that almost touched the ground. This made it difficult for them to drive a car, ride a horse or even walk quickly.

But many women were not happy with their position in society, and they didn’t like the clothes they had to wear. One of those people was a French woman called Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel. When she went into business in 1910, she planned to change clothes that women wore. But over the next sixty years she did much more than that, as she became the richest and the most successful businesswoman.

Coco Chanel had no experience of business when she opened her first hat shop in Paris in 1910. She was only twenty-seven years old and she came from an ordinary family. Many of Coco’s customers in her first shop were her young women friends. They loved the simple but beautiful hats and dresses that Coco made for them, and soon her shop started to do well. (1181)

Questions.

  1. What were a woman’s opportunities in business?

  2. What did fashionable women use to wear?

  3. Why didn’t` all women like the style of clothes which were in fashion at that time?

  4. How did Coco Chanel start her business?

  5. Why did Coco Chanel become famous all over the world?

  1. Read the text and tell a few words about Edinburgh. Speak about your native city (town, village).

EDINBURGH

Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland. It is the second-largest city in the nation with the population of 448,624. It is located in the east of the country, just seventy kilometres apart from Glasgow, the first largest city of Scotland. Though the two cities are equally famous, Edinburgh has long established itself as the more popular tourist destination and there are many reasons for this.

The city of Edinburgh is divided into two areas, the Old Town (its historical centre) and the New Town (the city’s main shopping and commercial area). The Old Town includes picturesque streets, monuments and many wonderful cathedrals and churches. The most famous landmark of Edinburgh is Edinburgh Castle. The castle is open to the public and includes a number of museums too.

The New Town was first developed in the late 1700s. In its centre is Georges Street, and the city’s two main shopping areas Princes Street and Queens Street. The city contains many museum, public parks, markets, cafes, bars restaurants and has something really special to offer all its visitors.

Every year Edinburgh hosts a number of major festivals, none more famous than the Edinburgh International Festival, which takes place from August to early September. The festival attracts performers and audiences from all over the world and offers a mixture of theatre, films, music and comedy amongst other things.

Билет № 18

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

A TEENAGGE BUSINESSMAN

When most 14-year-old boys are playing football or computer games after school, James Kenyon from Manchester is running his own successful business. “I’ve heard of a company in Scotland selling homemade bath products and thought it was a good idea.

My dad said I could do that, so I decided to take a chance,” James explains. That was two and a half years ago.

James started selling bath products to his friends and neighbours, but soon he began working for two local shopkeepers. Since he started his own soap company, selling homemade soap, bath salt and other bath products, James has earned over & 4,500.

James is proud of his success in business but he thinks there are more important things in his life. “I’ve learnt lots and I’m really enjoying it, but my school work always comes first.

James` s parents are proud of their son, they think that he plans everything really well – he does homework and he can focus on the business in his spare time. James says his parents have been a big support.

In 2006 James became a finalist in the Enterprising Young Brit Award. James is just one of an extraordinary group of enterprising young British businessmen who have innovative ideas and enthusiasm for business. Age and experience is certainly no obstacle to their success; their ambition and energy inspires them to create their money-making ideas.

Questions.

  1. What business does James Kenyon run?

  2. How did he start his business?

  3. Why do his parents support him?

  4. What do you think helps him to be a successful businessman?

  5. Do you think it` s good or bad for teenagers to run their own business?

  1. Read the text and say a few words about George Washington .Do you know any other US presidents? What were they famous for? Who is the president of the United States at the present time?

PRESIDENTS

George Washington was born February 22, 1732. He was the first president of the United States, elected by people in 1789. People call him the Father of their nation. He was one of the people who fought in the Revolutionary War and later helped write the United States Constitution. There is a famous story about George Washington when he was a young boy. It says that he chopped down his father's cherry tree with an axe. When his father asked, "Who did this?" young George replied "I cannot tell a lie. I did it." Many children have heard this story and are encouraged to tell the truth.

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809. He became president in 1860. His presidency was difficult. The states in the north and the south were divided because of slavery. White people in the south owned black people. The north did not like it. A civil war began between the two sides. In the end, the northern states won and President Lincoln helped to free the slaves. He gave a very famous speech about how everybody had the right to be free and how all people were equal.

Both George Washington and Abraham Lincoln were very famous presidents in the United States. Today you can see their faces on American money. George Washington is on the one dollar bill and Abraham Lincoln in on the five dollar bill. Many schools and some cities are named after each president. And the State of Washington and Washington D.C. were both named after President Washington.

Билет № 19

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

IT’S ONLY ME

After her husband had gone to work, Mrs Richards sent her children to school and went upstairs to her bedroom. She was too excited to do any housework that morning, because in the evening she would be going to a fancy dress party with her husband. She intended to dress up as a ghost and she had made her costume the night before. Now she was impatient to try it on. Though the costume consisted only of a sheet, it was very effective. Mrs Richards put it on, looked in the mirror, smiled and went downstairs. She wanted to find out whether it would be comfortable to wear.

Just as Mrs Richards was entering the dining-room, there was a knock on the front door. She knew that it must be the baker. She had told him to come straight in if ever she failed to open the door and to leave the bread on the kitchen table. Not wanting to frighten the poor man, Mrs Richards quickly hid in the small store-room under the stairs. She heard the front door open and heavy footsteps in the hall. Suddenly the door of the store-room was opened and a man entered. Mrs Richards realized that it must be the man from the Electricity Board who had come to read the meter. She tried to explain the situation, saying 'It's only me', but it was too late. The man let out a cry and jumped back several paces. When Mrs Richards walked towards him, he ran away, slamming the door behind him. (1110)

Questions:

  1. Why was Mrs Richards excited?

  2. Why did she go downstairs in her costume?

  3. Where did she hide when she heard a knock on the door?

  4. What was the man’s reaction when he saw Mrs. Richards in the storehouse?

  5. What holiday were Mr. and Mrs. Richards going to celebrate? Why do you think so?

  1. Read the text and say a few words about transport in London. What transport do you prefer to use? Why?

BLACK TAXIS, RED BUSES

London has five airports in or near the city. The most important airport is Heathrow; it is situated twenty four kilometres from the city centre. The city has eight big train stations, too. You can catch a train from London to Paris or Brussels now. Many people live outside London and come into the city for work every day. Children know about King’s Cross station because it is the train station in Harry Porter books.

In the UK people drive their own cars, that`s why the traffic is heavy on the roads. Drivers in the UK drive on the left side of the road! As there are a lot of cars in London, journey can take a very long time at the wrong time of day. But the city is famous for its black taxis and red buses. You can see some of London`s red buses today, and there are other buses, too. London’s taxi drivers have to remember 25000 streets in London. Before they can start driving people, they study maps and drive round the city for about two years; have to answer difficult questions about the best ways across London.

You can move across London by the Underground. Londoners also call these underground trains ‘the Tube’. The London Underground is the oldest in the world. People first used it in 1863. Now it is about 410 kilometres long. There are three hundred stations, and some of them are nearly sixty metres under the streets.

You can, of course, walk around London! No cars or buses can go across London newest bridge.

Билет № 20

  1. Read the text and answer the questions

THE RICH FAMILY IN CHURCH

I'll never forget Easter of 1946. I was 14, my little sister Ocy was 12, and my elder sister Darlene was 16. We lived at home with our mother; our dad had died five years before, leaving Mom with three school kids to raise and no money.

A month before Easter the pastor of our church asked everyone to save money and help a poor family.

When we got home, we talked about what we could do. We decided to buy 50 pounds of potatoes and live on them for a month. When we thought that if we kept our electric lights turned out as much as possible and didn't listen to the radio, we'd save money on that month's electric bill. Darlene got as many house and yard cleaning jobs as possible, and both of us babysat for everyone we could.

Every day we counted the money to see how much we had saved. At night we'd sit in the dark and talk about how the poor family was going to enjoy having the money the church would give them.

The day before Easter, Ocy and I walked to the grocery store and the manager gave us three $20 bills and one $10 bill for all our change. We had never had so much money before.

We could hardly wait to get to church. When the pastor was taking money, Mom gave him a $10 bill, and each of us, kids, $20.

As we walked home after church, we sang all the way. Later that afternoon the minister drove up in his car. Mom went to the door and then came back with an envelope in her hand. She opened the envelope and out fell a bunch of money. There were three $20 bills, one $10 and seventeen $1 bills. (1219)

Questions:

  1. Why did the pastor ask the people in church to save money?

    1. How did the narrator’s family try to save some money?

    2. Why could they hardly wait for Easter Holiday?

    3. What happened later that afternoon?

    4. Did the family expect anybody to bring them the money? Why?

  1. Read the text and say if football is the most popular game in England. Are you fond of playing football? What other team games do you know? Are they popular in England or in Russia? What sport do you do?

FOOTBALL IN ENGLAND

Football is the most popular game in England – you understand it if you come to one of the important matches. Rich and poor, young and old, one can see them all there, shouting and cheering for one side or the other. Football matches are also watched by millions of people on TV.

One of the most surprising things about football in England to a stranger is the greatest knowledge of the game. Even the smallest boy can tell you the names of players in most of the important teams; he has photographs of them and knows the results of large number of matches. He will tell you, who he expects will win such and such a match, and his opinion is usually as good as of men three or four times older.

Most schools in England take football seriously – much more seriously than nearly all European schools. In England, it is believed that education is not only a matter of filling a boy’s mind with facts in the classroom: education also means character training; and one of the best ways of training character is by means of games, especially team games, where the boy has to learn to work with others for his team, instead of working selfishly for himself alone.

The school therefore arranges games and matches for its pupils. Football is a good team game, it is good exercise for the body, it needs skill and a quick brain, it is popular and it is cheap: as a result, it is a schools` favourite game.

Дополнительные тексты для чтения

THE SPIDER

Have you ever seen a small animal with four pairs of legs, a body that is divided into two parts?

This is a spider. Spiders live all over the world. They do not live only in the coldest places. You may find them on land: on grass, bushes, trees, and on pools, rivers, seas. There are 15,000 different kinds of spiders. The smallest spider is less than 1 mm in body length, and the biggest one can have body length up to 90 mm.

The spider spins its web to catch insects for food. It spins its web all its life. The process of spinning a web is very long. People say that the spider is very persistent in its work. If you destroy its web, a spider will begin to spin a new web.

There is a story about a spider and a Scottish hero Robert Bruce (1274-1329). Robert Bruce was at the head of the Scottish army in the fight for the independence of Scotland against the English kings, Edward the First and Edward the Second. .

Once Robert Bruce was watching a spider spinning the web. Robert Bruce destroyed the web, and the spider began to spin a new web. Several times Robert Bruce destroyed the web, and each time the spider began its work from the beginning.

Watching the persistent work of the spider, Bruce decided to be as persistent as the spider and continue the fight for the independence of Scotland. And he defeated the English.

It was many years ago, but Scottish people still remember their great victory, and their great leader Robert Bruce.

Questions:

  1. Where do spiders live?

  2. What does the spider do all its life? Why?

  3. What happens if you destroy its web?

  4. What nationality was Robert Bruce and who did he fight against?

  5. Why did Robert Bruce decide to continue the fight? Who won?

MANUSCRIPTSby Jack London

When Martin Eden returned to San Francisco, he began to write. He sent his works to newspapers and magazines, but the editors sent his manuscripts back. Martine continued to write and study at the same time. Martine slept five hours: only a man in very good health could work for nineteen hours a day.

The weeks passed. All Martin’s money was spent and publishers continued to send his manuscripts back. Martin sold his coat, then his watch.

One morning the postman brought him a short thin envelope. There was no manuscript in that envelope, therefore, Martin thought they had taken the story. It was The Ring of the Bells. In the letter the editor of a San Francisco magazine said that the story was good. They would pay the author five dollars for it. And he would receive the check when the story was published.

Martin thought that five dollars for five thousand words was very little. After a few weeks the story was published, but the check didn’t` arrive. Martin had waited for about a month before he decided to go and get the five dollars from the editor.

He entered the office and said that he wanted to see Mr Ford – the editor. “I`m Martin Eden,” Martin began the conversation. He wanted to ask for his five dollars, but it was his first editor and he didn’t` t want to make a bad impression on him. To his surprise Mr Ford quickly stood up with the words “You don` t say so!” and the next moment, with both hands was shaking Martin` s hand.

Questions:

  1. Where did Martin Eden write his first stories?

  2. What happened to most of his early works?

  3. What was in the letter the postman brought him one morning?

  4. How much money did Mr. Ford, his editor, was going to pay him? Was it a large sum of money for Martin’s story?

  5. Why did Martin Eden come to Mr. Ford’s office? How was he accepted by the editor?

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

About one hundred years ago many educated people learned and spoke French when they met people from other countries. Today most people speak English when they meet foreigners. It has become the new international language. There are more people who speak English as a second language than people who speak English as a first language. Why is this?

There are many reasons why English has become so popular. One of them is that English has become the language of business. Another important reason is that popular American culture (like movies, music, and McDonald's) has quickly spread throughout the world. It has brought its language with it.

Is it good that English has spread to all parts of the world so quickly? I don't know. It's important to have a language that the people of the earth have in common. Our world has become very global and we need to communicate with one another. On the other hand, English is a fairly complicated language to learn and it brings its culture with it. Do we really need that?

Scientists have already tried to create an artificial language that isn't too difficult and doesn't include any one group's culture. It is called Esperanto. But it hasn't become popular. But maybe the popularity of English won't last that long either. Who knows? There are more people in the world who speak Chinese than any other language. Maybe someday Chinese will be the new international language.

Questions:

  1. What language do people learn and speak about one hundred years ago?

  2. Why has the English language become so popular?

  3. Why is it important to learn and speak English?

  4. What do you know about Esperanto? Who was it created by?

  5. Do you think Chinese will be the new international language in the future? Explain you point of view.

FLIGHT

Inventions That Changed the World

For many centuries people watched birds and dreamed that they could fly. We cannot fly like birds: we don`t have enough strength in our arms to move wings up and down. We also really need the power of an engine to drive up forward. Many people died learning these lessons, before controlled flight became possible.

The first flying machine which could carry a human being was built in Spain in 875. Reports tell us that the inventor flew some distance, but the landing was hard: the man hurt his back badly and was never able to fly again.

It was possible that the news of his flight reached England, carried there by men returning from war in the Middle East. Whether this is true or not, in 1010 a man called Oliver jumped off a church roof in Mulmesbury. This time we know the distance of his flight - 125 steps.

In the last years of the 15th century, the Italian Leonardo da Vinci studied the flight of birds and made a number of drawings of flying machines. His early machines tried to copy the movement of birds` wings, which he didn’t fully understand. But less than 10 years before his death in 1519, he drew a machine with wings that didn’t move. One of the machines was built and it did fly.

In 1536 in France, Denis Bolor returned to the idea of moving wings. He tried to fly using wings that were moved up and down. The idea didn’t` t work and he fell to his death.

Questions:

  1. What did people dream about for many centuries?

  2. Why can’t we fly?

  3. Where and when was the first flying machine built?

  4. Where did Oliver jump off?

  5. What did Leonardo da Vinci study and make?

DAILY BREAD

O`Henry

Miss Martha was 40 years old but she was not married. She had her own shop where she sold bread, both fresh and stale which was cheaper.

There was a customer who called at her shop two or three times a week. The man was not young but he was very pleasant. He wore cheap clothes but they always looked nice on him. He always bought stale bread and never fresh. Miss Martha decided that he was very poor.

She often thought of him and was always sorry that she couldn’t invite him to have dinner with her. She wanted to talk to him, to know more about him. She liked the man and began wearing her best dress. She wanted to help the poor man but didn’t know how to do it.

Once when her customer called on her to buy stale bread, Miss Martha had an idea and a good one, as she thought, to help him. She put some butter in the stale bread.

The next day two men came into the shop. One of them was her customer and the other – a young man. The customer was very angry and couldn’t speak to her. So the young man told Miss Martha everything. “We work together in the same office”, he said. “We use stale bread to take away to pencil lines from our plans. We have worked at a plan of a new district for six months. We finished it this morning and began taking away pencil lines from it with your bread. You see, as there was butter in the bread the plan is good for nothing, and we can’t show this plan to anybody now.”

When the men left, Miss Martha went to her room, took off her best dress and put on her old one. (1201)

Questions:

  1. What did Martha sell in her shop?

  2. Who came to her shop two or three times a week?

  3. Why did Martha decide to help the man? What did she do?

  4. Why were the man and his friend angry?

  5. How do you think Martha felt when the men left the shop?

HOGMANAY

Encyclopaedia Britannica

Many national and local celebrations took place in Scotland in the past and some survive to this day. They start on January 1st and finish on the major celebration on the Scottish calendar – Hogmanay, New Year's Eve, on December 31st. Hogmanay, the celebration of bringing in the New Year is a more important festival in Scotland than Christmas.

The origin of the word ‘Hogmanay’ is lost in the past. Historians believe that the Scots inherited the celebration from the Vikings who, coming from even further north than they themselves, paid even more attention to the passing of the shortest day.

The Scots have a long rich heritage associated with this event. There are traditions such as cleaning the house (known as "redding") on December 31st (including taking out the ashes from the fire in the days when coal fires were common); visiting friends and relatives immediately after New Year's Eve, in the early hours of the morning of January 1st. First footing after the bells have rung in the New Year is still common - the "first foot" in the house after midnight should be male, dark, and handsome and should carry symbolic coal, shortbread, salt, black bun (a spiced cake) and, of course, whisky.

And Scotland is the only part of the UK that has a statutory holiday on January 2nd as well as January 1st - so they can recover from the excesses of December 31st! (1136)

Questions:

  1. What is the major celebration on the Scottish calendar?

  2. What is the origin of “Hogmanay”?

  3. How do the Scots celebrate this holiday?

  4. Why don’t they work or study on January 1st and January 2nd?

  5. Which celebration is more important in other parts of the UK: the New Year or Christmas?



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