**Fourth Year **

**COMPUTER ENGINEERING**

**Pattern – C**

**SEMESTER I**

**THEORY**

**CS1014 :****ADVANCED COMPUTER GRAPHICS**

**Aim :**

This course will focus on essential rendering techniques in computer graphics as well as fundamental and classical topics in advanced computer graphics. The course will give an overview of current shape representations; their advantages and limitations will be discussed. Other than understanding computer generated graphics basics, this course explains in details the structure of OpenGL, common geometries used for scene rendering, and introduces a shading language for such purposes.

**Objectives:**

1. To learn about recent research advances in Computer Graphics, Computational Geometry, Interactive Techniques, and Visualization.

2. To gain first-hand experience with the challenges of efficient and accurate modeling, rendering, and simulation, and the necessary data structures and algorithms.

3. To explain the principles and techniques underlying 3d computer graphics.

4. To introduce a current 3D graphics API

5. To develop programming skills in 3D computer graphics.

6. To introduce advanced techniques for 3D rendering and modelling

7. Implement key components of the rendering pipeline, especially visibility, rasterization, viewing, and shading. Understand the issues involved in implementing other components.

**Unit 1 : ****Direct X (09 Hrs)**

Direct 3D architecture, primitives – point, line triangle, Overview of resources: Texture / vertex / buffers/ index buffers / Surface / depth buffers / stencil buffers / render targets / flichain states, state management and examples Vertex / index buffers, vertex processing, transforms / viewport / clipping Shaders : vertex / pixels/ geometry shaders Textures: Filtering, texture mapping/ texture blending, antialiasing

**Unit 2**.: **Open GL ****(06 Hrs)**

OpenGL over windows, OpenGL over Linux, OpenGL extensions, OpenGL programming language, SDK, shadowing Techniques, pBuffer rendering, Texture mapping.

**Unit 3:****Advanced Rendering Techniques:****(07 Hrs.)**

Photorealistic rendering: Global Illumination, Participating media rendering, Ray

Tracing, Monte Carlo algorithm, Photon mapping

**Unit 4: Texture Synthesis and Image Processing; **(**06 Hrs.)**

Environmental mapping, Texture synthesis, Anisotropic image smoothing

**Unit 5 : Volume Rendering **(**06 Hrs.)**

Volume graphics overview, Marching cubes, Direct volume rendering

**Unit 6 : Surfaces and Meshes **(**08 Hrs.)**

Subdivision, Distance fields and level sets, Physically-based Modeling, Stable fluid

Solver, Lattice Boltzmann method, Graphics Hardware, Cg programming, General-

Purpose computation.

**Outcomes:**

Upon completion of the course, students should be able to:

Understand the foundations of computer graphics: hardware systems, math basis, light and color.

Become acquainted with some advanced topics in computer graphics; these might include texturing, physically-based modeling, procedural modeling, curves and surfaces, global illumination, interaction, and visualization.

Understand and use a graphics package to achieve high quality computer graphics.

Understand the mathematics of popular geometries to rendering computer graphics.

**Text Books **

1. Rogers David F., "Procedural Elements for Computer Graphics", Tata McGraw

Hill, 2001, ISBN 0-07-047371-4

2. Mason__Woo Jackie____Neider Tom____Davis , OpenGL____ Architecture____Review____Board (Corporate Author), OpenGL Programming Guide: The Official Guide to Learning OpenGL, Version 1.1 (OTL) (Paperback)__

**Reference Books **

1. Frank Luna, “Introduction to 3D Game Programming with Direct X 9.0c: A Shader Approach” (Wordware Game and Graphics Library)

2. Harrington Steven, "Computer graphics: A Programming approach", Tata

McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-07-026753-7

3. M Paulin Baker, Donald Hearn, "Computer Graphics", PHI, 2001,

ISBN 81-203-09440-8

4. Tomas Moller and Eric Haines,” Real-Time Rendering “A K Peters Ltd, 2nd

edition, 2002

5. Alan H. Watt and Mark Watt, “Advanced Animation and Rendering

Techniques :Theory and Practice”,Addison-Wesley, 1992

6. Matt Pharr and Greg Humphreys, “Physically based rendering”, Morgan

Kaufmann, 2004

7. James D. Foley, Andries van Dam, Steven K. Feiner and John F. Hughes,

“Computer Graphics: Principles & Practices”, Addison

**CS1024****: Object Oriented Modeling and Design**

**Prerequisites : **

Software Engineering

Object Oriented Programming

**Aim :**

The major emphasis of this course is on using object-oriented modeling to define a system specification. A study of object-oriented techniques using Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the analysis and design of software systems will be performed.

Techniques for designing both the structural and behavioral aspects of software systems are emphasized. This course will cover object-oriented approaches to system analysis, data modeling and design that combine both process and data views of systems.

**Objectives:**

To experience the insights necessary to obtain maximum benefit from object technology

To understand the need for, the place of, and aims of, requirements, analysis and design

To thoroughly understand the practices of analysis and design (OOA and OOD)

To understand the practical connections between the theory of object-oriented design and the object-oriented programming languages

To become familiar with the unified modelling language (UML 1.x or UML 2.0)

To understand the relative merits of the different UML diagrams, distinguishing those diagrams most likely always to be useful to typical projects from those diagrams more likely to be of interest to more specialized projects

Transforming analysis behavioral models into design sequence diagrams

**Unit 1 : ****Introduction to Object Orientation **** ( 6 Hrs ) **

**Elements of UML: **The importance of modeling, enabling concise communication, Building blocks: things, relationships and diagrams, Architectural views: use case, design, implementation, process and deployment, Levels of detail: visualization, specification and construction

**Object-oriented concepts: **Objects and classes, Links and relationships, Inheritance and polymorphism

**The Unified Process: **The object-oriented software life cycle, Use case-driven and architecture-centric features, Iterative and incremental development, performing requirements analysis

**Unit 2 : : UML 2.0**** ( 7 Hrs ) **

Programming In Small Versus Programming In Large, UML 2.0 History/ New Features MDA/ MOF/ XMI/ CORBA, Introduction to UML Metamodel, Extensibility Mechanisms and its usage, Introduction to OCL ,Behavioral Diagrams in UML ,Structural Diagrams in UML, Specification techniques of diagrams in UML

**Unit 3 : ****The Behavioral Model**** ( 7 Hrs ) **

**Use Cases: **Use Cases, Use Case Diagram Components, Use Case Diagram, Actor Generalization, Include and Extend, Template for Use Case Narrative, Using Use Cases **Domain Analysis: **Top View - The Domain Perspective, Data Dictionary: Finding the Objects, Responsibilities, Collaborators, and Attributes, CRC Cards, Class Models and Use Case Models, Judging the Domain Model

**Producing Requirements Models**

Capturing system behavior in use cases: Finding primary and secondary use cases

Include and Extend dependencies, Use case generalization relationships, Refining use cases: rapid prototypes

Creating the domain object model: Building a class description database, Finding analysis classes, Managing analysis complexity with packages and subsystems

**Unit 4 : Object Analysis ( 7 Hrs ) **

**Use case realization: **Sequence diagrams, object lifelines and message types, Modeling collections multiobjects, Refining sequence diagrams, Tying object and behavioral models with collaboration diagrams

**Implementing memory in objects using state machines: **States, events and actions

Nested machines and concurrency, Converting sequence diagrams into communicating state machines, Modifying the object model to facilitate states

**Analyzing object behavior: **Modeling methods with activity diagrams, Activity Diagrams: Decisions and Merges, Synchronization, Drilling Down, Iteration, Partitions, Parameters and Pins, Expansion Regions, Swimlanes, concurrency and synchronization

Other Behavioral Diagrams: Communication Diagram, Interaction Overview Diagrams

Timing Diagrams

**Unit 5 : Object Design ( 7 Hrs ) **

**Design of Objects: **Design and Factoring, Design of Software Objects, Features and Methods, Cohesion of Objects, Coupling between Objects Coupling and Visibility,

Inheritance

**Advanced Objects: **Constructors & Destructors, Instance Creation, Abstract Classes

Polymorphism, Multiple Inheritance and associated Problems, Interfaces, Interfaces with Ball and Socket Notation, Templates

**Establishing The Object Model: **Refining classes and associations, Analysis model vs. design model classes, Categorizing classes: entity, boundary and control , Modeling associations and collections, Preserving referential integrity , Achieving reusability

Isolating reusable base classes, Reuse through delegation, Identifying and using service packages, Improving reuse with design patterns

**Unit 6 : Interfaces and Application of UML ( 5 Hrs ) **

**Packages and interfaces: **Distinguishing between classes/interfaces, Exposing class and package interfaces, Subscribing to interfaces

**Component and deployment diagrams:** Describing dependencies, Deploying components across threads, processes and processors

**UML 2.0 in Application Engineering: **Application of UML in Embedded System, Application of UML in Web Engineering, Forward Engineering and Reverse Engineering Concepts

**Outcomes:**

Upon successfully completing this course the student will:

Understand different perspectives about the systems development process

Understand the role and importance of requirements analysis and specification

Understand the basic principles of object-orientation

Acquire a working knowledge of system modeling techniques

Become aware of the emerging ideas relevant to object-oriented systems development.

Create commonly expected "deliverables" of systems design including models of

structure, behavior and dynamics

**Text Books**

Jim Arlow, Ila Neustadt, “UML 2 and Unified Process: Practical Object Oriented Analysis and Design. ”, 2

^{nd}Edition, Addison- Wesley, ISBN – 0321321278.Tom Pender, “UML Bible”, John Wiley & sons, ISBN – 0764526049.

**Reference Books **

Grady Booch, James Rambaugh, Ivar Jacobson, “Unified Modeling Language Users Guide”, 2

^{nd}Edition, Addison- Wesley, ISBN – 0321267974.Martin Flower, “UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to The Standard Object Modeling Language ”, 3

^{rd}Edition, Addison- Wesley, ISBN – 0321193687.Hans-Erik Eriksson, Magnus Penker, Brian Lyons, David Fado, “UML 2 Tool Kit”, John Wiley & sons, ISBN – 0471463612.

**CS1194****: ****Design and Analysis of Algorithms**

**Prerequisites**: Data Structures and Algorithms.

**Aim:**

This course introduces basic algorithmic techniques, time requirements of an algorithm and mathematical techniques used in analysis of algorithms. The emphasis will be learning analysis of algorithms for a wide variety of foundational problems occurring in computer science applications with discussions on complexity and NP-completeness.

**Objectives:**

Fundamental understanding of the mathematics used to analyze, evaluate, and design algorithms

Develop the ability to assess the advantages and disadvantages of different types of algorithms.

Understand methods for designing time and space efficient algorithms.

Increased ability to design and implement efficient solutions to problems.

**Unit 1 : Introduction ( 6 Hrs ) **

‘O’,’Ω’ and ‘Ө’ asymptotic notations, Average, Best and Worst case analysis of algorithms for Time and Space complexity, Amortized Analysis, Solving Recurrence Equations, Proof Techniques: by Contradiction, by Mathematical Induction

**Priority Queues** : Heaps & Heap sort.

**Unit 2 :**** Divide And Conquer And Greedy Strategy**** ( 9 Hrs ) **

Divide and Conquer: General Strategy, Exponentiation. Binary Search, Quick Sort and Merge Sort. Greedy Method ,General Strategy, Knapsack problem, Job sequencing with Deadlines, Optimal merge patterns, Minimal Spanning Trees and Dijkstra’s algorithm

**Unit 3 : Dynamic Programming ( 7 Hrs ) **

General Strategy, Multistage graphs, OBST, 0/1 Knapsack, Traveling Salesperson Problem, Flow Shop Scheduling.

**Unit 4 : Backtracking & Branch And Bound ( 7 Hrs ) **

**Backtracking:** General Strategy, 8 Queen’s problem, Graph Coloring, Hamiltonian Cycles, 0/1 Knapsack.

**Branch and Bound: **General Strategy, 0/1 Knapsack, Traveling Salesperson Problem

**Unit 5 : Parallel Algorithms ( 7 Hrs ) **

Computational Model, Basic Techniques and Algorithms (Complete Binary Tree, Pointer Doubling, Prefix Computation), Selection, Merging, Sorting Networks, Parallel Sorting, Graph Problems (Alternate Algorithm for Transitive Closure, All pairs shortest path)

**Unit 6 : NP-Hard And NP-Complete Problems ( 6 Hrs ) **

**NP-Hard And NP-Complete Problems:**

Algorithms, Complexity-intractability, Non-Deterministic Polynomial time (NP) Decision problems, Cooks Theorem.

**NP-Complete problems**- Statisfiability problem, vertex cover problem.

**NP-Hard problems**-graph, scheduling, code generation problems, Simplified NP Hard Problems

**Outcomes:**

On successful completion of this course, the student will be able to

analyze the average- and worst-case performance of algorithms,

use the various strategies effectively,

apply the concept of NP-completeness and be familiar with approximation algorithms

implement the families of algorithms in the appropriate high-level language.

**Text Books **

Horowitz, Sahani, “Fundamentals of computer Algorithms”, Galgotia. 2

^{nd}Edition, 1998.Bressard, Bratley “Fundamentals of Algorithmics.” ,PHI, 2

^{nd}Edition,1996.

**Reference Books **

Thomas H Cormen and Charles E.L Leiserson, “Introduction to Algorithm” ,PHI 2

^{nd}edition, 2001.A. V. Aho and J.D. Ullman, “Design and Analysis of Algorithms”, Addison Wesley. 2

^{nd}edition.

**Fourth Year **

**COMPUTER ENGINEERING**

**SEMESTER I**

**LABORATORY**

**CS1014 ****: ****ADVANCED COMPUTER GRAPHICS **

**Aim :**

This course will focus on essential rendering techniques in computer graphics as well as fundamental and classical topics in advanced computer graphics. The course will give an overview of current shape representations; their advantages and limitations will be discussed. Other than understanding computer generated graphics basics, this course explains in details the structure of OpenGL, common geometries used for scene rendering, and introduces a shading language for such purposes.

**Objectives:**

To learn about recent research advances in Computer Graphics, Computational Geometry, Interactive Techniques, and Visualization.

To gain first-hand experience with the challenges of efficient and accurate modeling, rendering, and simulation, and the necessary data structures and algorithms.

To explain the principles and techniques underlying 3d computer graphics.

To introduce a current 3D graphics API

To develop programming skills in 3D computer graphics.

To introduce advanced techniques for 3D rendering and modelling

Implement key components of the rendering pipeline, especially visibility, rasterization, viewing, and shading. Understand the issues involved in implementing other components.

Understand the foundations of computer graphics: hardware systems, math basis, light and color.

Become acquainted with some advanced topics in computer graphics; these might include texturing, physically-based modeling, procedural modeling, curves and surfaces, global illumination, interaction, and visualization.

**List of Practicals**

Develop following small app(s):

Draw a cube/cuboids/pyramid or any other simple 3D object.

Rotate/Translate the object (by changing the transformation Matrices)

2. Use the DXSDK texture tool to convert image files to .dds textures of different

formats.

3. Design a small game. The game must include at least multiple models (like cars,

etc), preferably should make use of textures and lighting, and it must be playable

using Keyboard/mouse.

**Outcomes:**

Upon completion of the course, students should be able to:

Understand the foundations of computer graphics: hardware systems, math basis, light and color.

Become acquainted with some advanced topics in computer graphics; these might include texturing, physically-based modeling, procedural modeling, curves and surfaces, global illumination, interaction, and visualization.

Understand and use a graphics package to achieve high quality computer graphics.

4. Understand the mathematics of popular geometries to rendering computer graphics

**Text Books **

Rogers David F., "Procedural Elements for Computer Graphics", Tata McGraw

Hill, 2001, ISBN 0-07-047371-4

Mason

__Woo (Author), Jackie____Neider (Author), Tom____Davis (Author), OpenGL__

Architecture__Review____Board (Corporate Author), OpenGL Programming Guide: __

The Official Guide to Learning OpenGL, Version 1.1 (OTL) (Paperback)

**Reference Books **

Frank Luna, “Introduction to 3D Game Programming with Direct X 9.0c: A Shader Approach (Wordware Game and Graphics Library)”

Harrington Steven, "Computer graphics: A Programming approach", Tata McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-07-026753-7

M Paulin Baker, Donald Hearn, "Computer Graphics", PHI, 2001,ISBN 81-203-09440-8

Tomas Moller and Eric Haines,” Real-Time Rendering “A K Peters Ltd, 2nd edition, 2002

Alan H. Watt and Mark Watt, “Advanced Animation and Rendering Techniques :

*Theory and Practice”,**Addison-Wesley, 1992*Matt Pharr and Greg Humphreys, “Physically based rendering”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2004

James D. Foley, Andries van Dam, Steven K. Feiner and John F. Hughes, “ComputerGraphics: Principles & Practices”, Addison Wesley, 2nd edition in C, 1995

**CS1024 ****: Object Oriented Modeling and Design**

**Prerequisites : **

Software Engineering

Object Oriented Programming

**Objectives:**

To experience the insights necessary to obtain maximum benefit from object technology

To understand the need for, the place of, and aims of, requirements, analysis and design

To thoroughly understand the practices of analysis and design (OOA and OOD)

To understand the practical connections between the theory of object-oriented design and the object-oriented programming languages

To become familiar with the unified modelling language (UML 1.x or UML 2.0)

To understand the relative merits of the different UML diagrams, distinguishing those diagrams most likely always to be useful to typical projects from those diagrams more likely to be of interest to more specialized projects

Transforming analysis behavioral models into design sequence diagrams

**List of Practicals**

To narrate Requirement Definition Document for the target system with following

three areas:

Problem Identification

Problem Definition

Problem Statement

To narrate System Requirements Specification Document for target system with

reference to the IEEE 610.12.1990 std guidelines.

To decompose and organize the problem domain area into broad subject areas and

identify the boundaries of problem/system. Specify the behavior of the target system

and map requirements to Use cases. The System Context Diagram depicts the

overall System behavioral trace and Requirement Capture diagram depicts the

hierarchical Use case Organization. The Use Case diagram should encompass

Actors (External Users)

Transactions (Use Cases)

Event responses related to transactions with external agents.

Detection of System boundaries indicating scope of system.

To depict the dynamic behavior of the target system using sequence diagram. The

Sequence diagram should be based on the Scenarios generated by the inter-object

communication. The model should depict:

Discrete, distinguishable entities (class).

Events (Individual stimulus from one object to another).

Conditional events and relationship representation.

To depict the state transition with the life history of objects of a given class model.

The model should depict:

Possible ways the object can respond to events from other objects.

Determine of start, end, and transition states.

To depict the dynamic behavior using detailed Activity diagram.

To prepare Class Collaboration-Responsibility (CRC) cards for the Conceptual

classes traced from System analysis phase.

To develop logical static structure of target system with Class diagram. The model

should depict

Relationship between classes: inheritance, Assertion, Aggregation, Instantiation

Identification of objects and their purpose.

Roles / responsibilities entities that determine system behavior.

To represent physical module that provides occurrence of classes or other logical

elements identified during analysis and design of system using Component

diagram. The model should depict allocation of classes to modules.

To represent deployment view of the system through Architecture Diagram.

To narrate the Program Design Language Constructs for the target system and

implement the system according to specification.

**Outcomes:**

Upon successfully completing this course the student will:

Understand different perspectives about the systems development process

Understand the role and importance of requirements analysis and specification

Understand the basic principles of object-orientation

Acquire a working knowledge of system modeling techniques

Become aware of the emerging ideas relevant to object-oriented systems development.

Create commonly expected "deliverables" of systems design including models of structure, behavior and dynamics

**Text Books**

Jim Arlow, Ila Neustadt, “UML 2 and Unified Process: Practical Object Oriented Analysis and Design. ”, 2

^{nd}Edition, Addison- Wesley, ISBN – 0321321278.Tom Pender, “UML Bible”, John Wiley & sons, ISBN – 0764526049.

**Reference Books **

Grady Booch, James Rambaugh, Ivar Jacobson, “Unified Modeling Language Users Guide”, 2

^{nd}Edition, Addison- Wesley, ISBN – 0321267974.Martin Flower, “UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to The Standard Object Modeling Language ”, 3

^{rd}Edition, Addison- Wesley, ISBN – 0321193687.Hans-Erik Eriksson, Magnus Penker, Brian Lyons, David Fado, “UML 2 Tool Kit”, John Wiley & sons, ISBN – 0471463612.

**CS6194****: ****Design And Analysis of Algorithms**

**Objectives:**

Fundamental understanding of the mathematics used to analyze, evaluate, and design algorithms

Develop the ability to assess the advantages and disadvantages of different types of algorithms.

Understand methods for designing time and space efficient algorithms.

Increased ability to design and implement efficient solutions to problems.

**List of Practicals**

Recursive and iterative( non recursive) algorithm for specific problem and there complexity measures(comparison expected).

Quick Sort/ Merge Sort implementations using divide and conquer approach. Time complexity measure is to be obtained.

Minimal spanning Trees/ Job scheduling as an example of Greedy approach

Finding shortest path for multistage graph problem. (single source shortest path and all pairs shortest path.)

OBST/Flow Shop Scheduling as an example of dynamic programming.

0/1 knapsack's problem using Dynamic Programming, Backtracking and Branch & Bound Strategies.

8-Queen problem/ Graph coloring problem : general backtracking method and recursive back tracking method and their comparison for space and time complexity.

A complete LC branch and bound algorithm for job sequencing with dead lines problem. Use fixed tuple size formulation.

Algorithm implementation for `Traveling salesman' problem using -

Dynamic programming approach.

Branch & Bound approach.

Simulation/ Implementation of any Parallel Algorithms.

**Outcomes:**

On successful completion of this course, the student will be able to

analyze the average- and worst-case performance of algorithms,

use dynamic programming and the greedy paradigm effectively,

apply the concept of NP-completeness and be familiar with approximation algorithms

implement the families of algorithms in the appropriate high-level language.

**Text Books **

Horowitz/Sahani, “Fundamentals of computer Algorithms”, Galgotia.

Bressard, “Fundamental of Algorithm.” ,PHI

**Reference Books **

Thomas H Cormen and Charles E.L Leiserson, “Introduction to Algorithm” ,PHI

V. Aho and J.D. Ullman, “Design and Analysis of Algorithms”, Addison Wesley

**Fourth Year **

**COMPUTER ENGINEERING**

**SEMESTER II**

**ELECTIVE 2**

**THEORY**

**CS1314 : ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS****.**

**Prerequisites: **

Computer Fundamentals and knowledge of ‘C’ language

**Aim:**

This course introduces basic algorithmic techniques, time requirements of an algorithm and mathematical techniques used in analysis of algorithms. The emphasis will be learning analysis of algorithms for a wide variety of foundational problems occurring in computer science applications with discussions on complexity and NP-completeness.

**Objectives:**

Fundamental understanding of the mathematics used to analyze, evaluate, and design algorithms

Develop the ability to assess the advantages and disadvantages of different types of algorithms.

Understand methods for designing time and space efficient algorithms.

Increased ability to design and implement efficient solutions to problems.

### Fourth year computer engineering pattern - b semester i

*Документ***Fourth****Year****COMPUTER****ENGINEERING****Pattern**- B**SEMESTER**I THEORY CS1014 : ADVANCED**COMPUTER**GRAPHICS Aim : This course will ... Wesley. 2nd edition.**Fourth****Year****COMPUTER****ENGINEERING****SEMESTER**I LABORATORY CS1014 : ADVANCED**COMPUTER**GRAPHICS Aim : This ...### (computer engineering) iii semester 3cp1 mathematics-iii 3l + 1t mm 100 ex hr 3

*Документ*... on it. III BE (**Computer****Engineering**) V**Semester**5CP1 SOFTWARE**ENGINEERING**–II 3L MM : 100 ... below normal priority. Continue running**your**job after logging out. Write ... processing,**pattern**matching 2. Rule Based System, syntax of rules,**forward**and backward ...### Engineering Syllabus Fourth Year Pattern A Table of Contents

*Документ*...**Engineering**1 B.E. Chemical**Engineering**1 Syllabus:**Fourth****Year**,**Pattern**A 1 Syllabus:**Fourth****Year**,**Pattern**A 1 Table of Contents 1 Table of Contents 1**Semester**I 12**Semester**...### Engineering Syllabus Fourth Year Pattern D Table of Contents

*Документ*... B.E. Chemical**Engineering**1 B.E. Chemical**Engineering**1 Syllabus:**Fourth****Year**,**Pattern**D 1 Syllabus:**Fourth****Year**,**Pattern**D 1 Table of Contents 1 Table of Contents 1**Semester**I 9**Semester**...### Computer engineering technology

*Документ*... at the beginning of the**semester**. 1 2 3 4 2. I ... Third-Generation**Computers**(1963-1975):**Fourth**-Generation**Computers**(1975- ... environment. Include:**your**specific**computer****engineering**technological change; ... ). Ask students what**pattern**they can see forming ...