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Support Material

GCE Psychology

OCR Advanced GCE in Psychology: H668

Unit: G543

This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR Advanced GCE specification in Psychology for teaching from September 2008.

Contents

Contents 2

Introduction 4

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 6

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 7

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 9

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 12

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 13

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 15

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 17

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 18

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 20

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 21

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 22

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 24

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 27

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 28

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 31

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 32

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 36

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 40

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 42

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 47

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 49

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 50

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 53

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 55

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 57

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 58

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 59

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 60

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 63

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 64

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 65

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 68

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 70

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 73

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 74

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 75

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 75

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 77

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 77

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 79

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 79

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 81

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology 81

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 83

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 83

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 85

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology 85

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 87

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 87

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 89

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 89

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 91

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 91

Sample GCE Lesson Plan: 93

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education 93

Other forms of Support 95

Introduction

Background

A new structure of assessment for A Level has been introduced, for first teaching from September 2008. Some of the changes include:

  • The introduction of stretch and challenge (including the new A* grade at A2) – to ensure that every young person has the opportunity to reach their full potential

  • The reduction or removal of coursework components for many qualifications – to lessen the volume of marking for teachers

  • A reduction in the number of units for many qualifications – to lessen the amount of assessment for learners

  • Amendments to the content of specifications – to ensure that content is up-to-date and relevant.

OCR has produced an overview document, which summarises the changes to Psychology. This can be found at .uk, along with the new specification.

In order to help you plan effectively for the implementation of the new specification we have produced this Scheme of Work and sample Lesson Plans for Psychology. These Support Materials are designed for guidance only and play a secondary role to the Specification.

Our Ethos

All our Support Materials were produced ‘by teachers for teachers’ in order to capture real life current teaching practices and they are based around OCR’s revised specifications. The aim is for the support materials to inspire teachers and facilitate different ideas and teaching practices.

In some cases, where the Support Materials have been produced by an active teacher, the centre logo can be seen in the top right hand corner

Each Scheme of Work and set of sample Lesson Plans is provided in:

  • PDF format – for immediate use

  • Word format – so that you can use it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to suit your teaching style and students’ needs.

The Scheme of Work and sample Lesson Plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the teaching hours are suggestions only. Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching.

The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and skills need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material booklet should be read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is sought then that clarification should be found in the Specification itself.

A Guided Tour through the Scheme of Work

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Turning to Crime

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Upbringing

Allow 3-4 hours teaching this. This will depend on whether teachers prefer to do a big evaluation at the end or as they go

  • Teacher describes studies to students

  • Disrupted families – (e.g. Farrington’s study)

  • Learning from others – (e.g. Peers – Differential association hypothesis, Sutherland 1939)

  • Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods e.g. any of the SCoPic (‘social contexts of pathways into crime’) studies looking at pathways into crime in UK or US. Peterborough study most relevant)

  • Homework: Research into case studies of famous criminals e.g. Jack the Ripper, Thompson and Venables, Shipman, Jeffrey Dahmer and write a short report focusing on reasons offered for their turning to crime

  • Evaluatethe studies into family background, peers and adoption. This could be done in three groups (depending on size). Students provide strengths and weaknesses of each of the studies

  • PowerPoint slide for main points of each study

  • Textbooks: ‘Psychology in Practice; Julie Harrower (OCR)

  • ‘Angles on Criminal Psychology’ Matt Jarvis, Dave Putwain, Diana Dwyer (Nelson Thornes)

  • Criminology: Theory, Research and Policy By Gennaro F. Vito, Jeffrey R. Maahs, Dr Ronald M Holmes.

  • Key words for evaluation provided on handout or whiteboard (e.g. Individual differences, perspectives, reductionism, methodology, nature vs. nurture debate)

  • Textbooks as above

  • The SCoPic and Peterborough study are available at:

  • http://www.scopic.ac.uk/studies.htm

  • Links made to AS research issues

  • Visit to local SureStart may be possible

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Turning to Crime

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Students could be asked to research early intervention programmes e.g. Surestart – (most associated with lowered delinquency compared with controls) and suggest ways to apply the research in real life. Students prepare leaflets for a ‘Parenting Class’

Cognition

  • Begin by asking students to bring in newspaper articles of recent crime. Students asked to identify the costs versus the rewards to the criminal (keep short).Teacher gives a short description ofCriminal thinkingpatterns (e.g. YochelsonandSamenow).Using textbook or internet site students highlight the main thinking patterns discovered by this research

  • Peer mark each others work

  • Teacher describes Moral development and crime (e.g. Kohlberg)

  • Students carry out mini experiment using Kohlberg’s ‘Heinz’s dilemma activity’ or Piaget’s ‘broken plates dilemma’ – variety of ages as participants

  • Teacher describes Rational choice theory (e.g. Cornish and Clarke)

  • Extra supply of newspapers

  • PowerPoint slides or textbooks:

  • Psychology and Crime by Dave Putwain and Aidan Sammons (Routledge)

  • Jarvis, Putwain and Dwyer

  • Vito, Maahs and Holmes

  • PowerPoint of main points of theory

  • Textbooks as above

  • Make sure crime stories not going to upset any student

  • A detailed description of Yochelson and Samenow’s research is available at :

  • http://www.criminology.fsu.
    edu/crimtheory/samenow.htm

  • Remind students of ethical guidelines before carrying out experiment.

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Turning to Crime

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Students design own investigation into how willing P’s are to violate moral guidelines

  • Teacher describes Social cognition (e.g. Attribution of blame Gudjohnsson)

  • Q & A session to evaluate learning

  • Divide class into groups: brainstorm evaluation points for the theories of cognition. (Either give groups a theory or an issue to apply to all theories)

  • Extension Task: application to real life. Students prepare a session for cognitive therapy to change thinking patterns (using hypothetical vignette of a criminal career). Present main points to rest of class

  • Key strengths and weaknesses recorded on whiteboard e.g. Kohlberg’s hypothetical morals – not crime, self-report methods

  • Textbooks as above

  • A hypothetical vignette

  • Presentation facilities i.e. OHP, printing and/or projector

  • Textbooks as above

  • Link back to AS research issues

Biology

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Divide into groups: students complete a puzzle of the brain; putting together outer cortex lobes and separate limbic

    system. Students then add labels

  • Explore research into brain dysfunction (e.g. Raine’s work on the cortex 2002b and much other work)

  • Brain puzzle (photocopy from textbook cut into main lobes) – can be laminated

    (Graham Hill has useful picture

    of brain localisation)

  • Labels for main brain areas

  • Textbook for students to research answers e.g. (Hill)

  • Psychopaths video available from:

  • .au/
    programsales/s1378891.htm

  • Teacher describes Raine’s work

  • Homework: Independent research into other work into brain dysfunction and write a short comparison to Raine’s work

  • Explore research intogenes and serotonin (e.g. Brunner 1991)

  • Gender (e.g. Evolutionary explanation of why males commit more crime e.g. (Daly andWilson 1988)

  • Students can work through worksheet with information and questions

  • PowerPoint slides with main studies or textbooks e.g. Vito, Maahs and Holmes

  • Students colour code the results of Raines study onto picture of brain (e.g. Red for areas over-active)

  • Video ‘Psychopaths’ if available

  • PowerPoint slides for main studies or textbooks:

  • Putwain and Sammons

  • Vito, Maahs and Holmes

  • Worksheet available from:

  • .uk

Consolidation of topic

  • Evaluation and application of theories and studies

  • Students apply each issue to theory or study and then justify their answer

  • Include a debate on ethical implications and/or scientific nature of biological studies. Suggest ways biological research can be applied to everyday life. In pairs; one offers suggestion, other offers criticisms

  • Main strengths and weaknesses highlighted on whiteboard

  • Textbooks as above

  • Mixed ability pairs for evaluation help students understanding and ability to explain – differentiation

  • Encourage independent revision and point out revision materials

  • A good revision site is available at:

  • http://www.hsfg.gloucs.sch.uk/Intranets/
    Psychology/A2%20Revision%20-%20Criminal.ppt

  • Homework: students mind map the topic, Upbringing, cognition and biology

  • Explore previous exam questions on this topic - self mark or mark another student’s answers using the mark scheme - hand in for formal teacher assessment

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Making a case

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Interviewing witnesses

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Explore the research, and available resources used by police for recognising and re-creating faces by E fit (e.g. Bruce 1988)

  • Role play of a crime (ask other students before the lesson or use a video) – students then asked to draw faces of the criminal. Could be done as pair work with half class witnessing the crime and half interviewing the witnesses

  • Explore the factors influencing accurateidentification (e.g. the ‘weapon focus’ effect e.g. Loftus)

  • Replicate Loftus’s 1974 experiment with 3 groups given different information

  • Activity sheet - case study of EWT

  • Carry out mini experiment using video of crime with weapons/without and compare students’ identifications of key players

  • Teacher describes the key points of the cognitive interview (e.g. Geiselman 1985/6)

  • Cut up pictures of parts of faces

  • Pencils and paper

  • E fit - Electronic software demo available to download at :

  • http://www.efit.co.uk/main.html

  • PowerPoint slides highlighting main points of Bruce’s work

  • Textbooks : Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • Julie Harrower (OCR)

  • Putwain and Sammons

  • PowerPoint slides of Loftus’s work

  • Textbooks : as above

  • Activity sheet available from:

  • .uk

  • Video of crime

  • Video of interviews (e.g. Cracker, Frost etc)

  • PowerPoint slides of Geiselman’s work

  • Video of crimewatch reconstruction

  • Link back to AS Core study by Loftus and Palmer

  • Link to cognitive psychology in AS

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Making a case

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Using a tape of a reconstruction from crimewatch and question using standard and cognitive interview techniques

  • In pairs or small groups students evaluate the work described. Encourage students to use Psychologists such as Peters to back up their arguments

  • Each group present their ideas to the class

  • Stretch and Challenge out of class: Students read real life study by Yuille & Cutshall – does not support Loftus. They could also be asked to research the use of cognitive interviewing in real life. This could be written up and formally assessed

  • Key evaluation points put on whiteboard

  • Textbooks as above

  • Students could be encouraged to speak to police

Interviewing suspects

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Explore issues surrounding detecting lies (e.g. Vrij 2000)

  • Students can practice NLP eye accessing techniques

  • Students play a ‘call my bluff’ game where teams all say theirs is the correct answer for the meaning of unfamiliar words. Students have to spot the truth and the lies

  • PowerPoint slides of work of Vrij and others

  • Handout about Vrij’s 7 rules of a good liar

  • Textbooks: Harrower and Jarvis

  • Putwain, Dwyer

  • “Detecting Lies and Deceit: The Psychology of Lying and Implications for Professional Practice” by Aldert Vrij (John Wiley and Sons Ltd)

  • Information about eye accessing cues:

  • http://www.smartdriving.co.uk/Misc_pages/Eye_accessing.htm

  • Information on lie detectors:

  • http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/315/315lect09b.htm

  • Instructions for game can be found at:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/H3g2/brunel/A455320

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Making a case

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Investigate interrogation techniques (e.g. Inbau)

  • Link to the introduction of PACE and the use of taped interviews

  • Teacher describes research into falseconfessions (e.g. Gudjohnsson 1992)

  • Evaluateresearch into interviewing suspects by writing an investigative newspaper report. Encourage students to use evidence to back up their arguments

  • Stretch and challenge outside of class: Independent research into how suspects are interviewed in real life.Students could

    write a guide for new police

    officers to follow

  • PowerPoint slides of work of Inbau and others

  • Textbooks: Harrower

  • Putwain and Sammons

  • PowerPoint slides of work of Gudjohnsson and others

  • Internet

  • Textbooks as above

  • Link to AS core study Rosenhan

  • Expert from local police could be invited in to talk to students if possible.The Police community liaison officer will do this but will need priming first

Creating a profile

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Describe top down typology e.g. Hazelwood

  • Describe bottom up approaches such as circle theory or geographical profiling e.g. Canter

  • PowerPoint slides of work of Hazelwood, Canter and others.

  • Textbooks: Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • Putwain and Sammons

  • If available: David Canter’s Television programme "Mapping Murder" Documentary Series, Channel 5 first shown on 18th October 2002

  • Further reading available at:

  • http://www.all-about/criminal-profiling.html

  • Further reading – Paul Britton’s work is interesting and his books ‘Jigsaw Man’ and ‘Picking Up The Pieces’ are very readable.They do however contain very explicit sexual perversions and should be given a health warning and no student should be expected to read them

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Making a case

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Independently read the case study e.g. John Duffy

  • Students are then asked to work in pairs. One student recounts part of the study from memory and other makes an evaluation point

  • Students given a case study of a crime (real, such as Jill Dando, or made up). Using the questions in textbook they provide a profile of the criminal. Profiles then compared

  • Evaluate work in profiling. In groups students given the names of critics such as Campbell, O’Keefe and Alison, Pinizzotto and Finkel or Copson and Holloway

  • Students mind map the topic; interviewing witnesses, interviewing suspects, creating profiles

  • Practice past exam questions – peer marked or formal marking

  • Textbooks: Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • Putwain and Sammons

  • Key evaluation points highlighted on white board

  • Textbook: Harrower; pages 60-64

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Reaching a verdict

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Persuading a jury

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Investigate the effect of order of testimony (e.g. Pennington and Hastie)

  • Split students into groups and give different versions of same story (alter order of testimony). Ask groups to decide on which is truthful and to say why

  • Teacher describes research into persuasion (e.g. use of expert witnesses Daniel A. Krauss and Bruce D. Sales 2001)

  • Teacher describes the effect of evidence being ruled inadmissible (e.g. Broeder 1959)

  • Evaluate and apply theories of persuading a jury

  • Jigsaw technique group work: Groups evaluate each study and meet in expert groups before consolidating information with original group

  • Individual work to suggest a list of instructions for jurors to prevent the influence of persuasive tactics

  • PowerPoint slides of Pennington and Hastie and other studies.

  • Textbooks: ; Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

    Julie Harrower And

    Putwain

    Sammons

  • PowerPoint slides of Krauss and Sales

  • PowerPoint slides of Broeder’s work

  • Internet

  • Textbooks as above

  • Further reading at:

  • /search/label/Forensic This site contains a number of relevant pieces of research including one about the confidence shown by the witness

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Reaching a verdict

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Witness appeal

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Attractiveness of the defendant (e.g. Castellow 1990)

  • Students decide on guilty/not guilty verdict based on pictures of defendants

  • Students read Downs and Lyons (similar findings)

  • Teacher describes research into witness confidence (e.g. Penrod and Cutler 1987)

  • Effect of shields and videotape on children giving evidence (Ross et al 1994)

  • Stretch and challenge outside the classroom: Students read about child witnesses’ studies e.g. Rudy & Goodman, Bidrose and Goodman

  • Individually write an evaluation of research in witness appeal – particularly issues over gender, race, individual differences

  • Students asked to apply what they have found by making a code of practice

  • PowerPoint of Castellow and DeSantis and Kayson,1997

  • Textbooks:

    Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

    and Putwain and Sammons

  • Handout list of crimes and photographs of possible suspects

  • PowerPoint of Penrod and Cutler’s work

  • Textbooks; Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

    and Putwain and Sammons

  • PowerPoint of Ross et al

  • Textbook: Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • /wgbh/pages/frontline/
    shows/fuster/etc/interviewing.html
    A good site discussing controversial interviewing techniques – with clips of child interview

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Reaching a verdict

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Reaching a verdict

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Teacher explains research into stages and influences on decision making (e.g. Hastie 1983);

  • Video of “12 Angry Men” plus worksheet. Only an excerpt should be used due to time shortage and schools have to have a licence to show a whole film

  • Teacher explains research into Majority influence (e.g. Asch 1953)

  • Replicate Asch’s study

  • Teacher explains research into Minority influence (e.g. Moscovici 1976, 1980, 1985)

  • Students write an evaluation of both majority and minority influence and

    the use of shadow and mock

    juries

  • Applications to real life- role play a courtroom drama – include suspect, witnesses, lawyers and judge. Jury then make decisions

  • Homework: Students mind map the topic: Persuading a jury, witness appeal, reaching a verdict

  • Video “12 Angry Men”

  • Worksheet to go with video - pre-prepared one available at:

  • /uimages//44.pdf

  • Textbooks: Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

    and Putwain and Sammons

  • PowerPoint of studies into majority and minority influence

  • Textbook: Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • Example cases available at:

  • /uimages//24.pdf

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

After a guilty verdict

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Imprisonment

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Teacher describes planned behaviours once freed from jail (e.g. factors affecting recidivism; e.g. Gillis et. al)

  • Students write a guide for people leaving prison to include plans for finding accommodation, jobs etc. Include

    details of local support

    facilities

  • Ask students to devise a list of risks associated with prison e.g. what is it about prison life that may lead to depression?

  • Teacher describes the risks associated with depression/suicide (e.g. Dooley 1990)

  • Teacher describes the prison situation and roles (e.g. Haney and Zimbardo 1998.25 years since the Stanford Prison Experiment)

  • Evaluate the research – each student asked to identify a single evaluation point or work in small groups and identify a few points

  • Students could write a report entitled ‘Does prison work’. Include evidence for imprisonment and against

  • PowerPoint slides of research.

  • Textbooks; Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

    Julie Harrower

  • Internet

  • Local facilities

  • PowerPoint slides of research

  • Textbooks Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • Highlight the main evaluation issues on the whiteboard

  • Students visit website of Grendon Underwood (therapeutic prison)

  • Small groups may be allowed a prison visit. Alternatively a prison guard may be invited to college to discuss life in prison and how they plan for their release

  • Zimbardo’s website describes his original study including slides and provides a link to Haney and Zimbardo, 1998. 25 years since the Stanford Prison Experiment

  • /zimbardo.html

Alternatives to imprisonment

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Asking students to suggest their own ideas for alternatives to imprisonment. They should justify their ideas and ask other students to evaluate it

  • Teacher describes the use of Probation, (e.g. Prison Reform reports, Smith Institute report 2007); and Restorative justice. (Cambridge University 2007)

  • Group work: Read the report and highlight the main findings. Present these to the class

  • Individually write an evaluation of the methodology used

  • ‘Looking Deathworthy’, Eberhart et al U.S. Death Penalty

  • Independently read the research report and highlight the methodology, findings and provide an evaluation of the method

  • Mini experiment using images of stereotypical/non-stereotypical black faces

  • Smith Institute report

  • Textbooks: Criminology: Theory, Research and Policy By Gennaro F. Vito, Jeffrey R. Maahs, Dr Ronald M Holmes

  • Eberhart’s report

  • Images of black faces

  • Full report available at :

  • .uk/pdfs/RJ_full_report.pdf

  • Full report available at:

  • /pdf/

    ps/deadworthy.pdf

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

After a guilty verdict

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Class debate: Two groups: For the death penalty and against. Allow 10 minutes to prepare an argument. Other side asks questions. Silent vote at the end

Treatment programmes

Allow 3-4 hours for this

  • Exploring the effectiveness of Cognitiveskills programmes (e.g. Friendship et al 2002)

  • In groups of four students can be given the research and asked to sum up the method, results, conclusion and an evaluation. Present each back to class in order to students to consolidate

  • Teacher describes the use of Anger management (e.g. Ireland) programs and Drug rehabilitation programs

  • Teacher gives a short overview of using ear acupuncture with a drug rehabilitation program. (e.g. Wheatley (2005) FOCUS program with ear acupuncture

  • Students carry out independent research into the effectiveness of these programs

  • Friendship et al’s report

  • Textbook: Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • PowerPoint slides of basic components of programs

  • Textbook: Jarvis, Putwain, Dwyer

  • Experts may be able to visit college to discuss how they run these types of programs

  • http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r161.pdf Students can visit this web site and click on prison service news (magazine) then search for “Needles help beat drug addiction”. This gives a good overview of Wheatley’s work

  • http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/

  • Three groups (or 6 depending on size). Each group devise a treatment program – cognitive, anger management or drug rehabilitation. They should include details of what their program will cover

  • Further information is available from:

  • /evidence.php

Consolidate the unit

  • Students mind map each topic

  • Teams devise 5 questions about the

    topic. Questions then passed to next

    team to answer (1 or 2 minutes each), then passed on again etc until end. Each team then tell the answers and marks are given (prize for winners)

  • Walkabout/Talkabout – 4 areas listed on A3 paper around the room. In groups students have roles (scribe, checker etc). 2 mins on each area – adding what they recall and checking others’ work

  • Jigsaw puzzle where students match names to ideas

  • Practice exam questions – peer marked and formal marking

  • Encourage independent revision and cover revision techniques

  • Stop watch

  • Prizes

  • A3 Paper and different coloured pens for each group.

  • Jigsaw pieces – names and theories

  • Exemplar exam questions from OCR

  • Finished work can be displayed around classroom

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

9 hours

Topic

Healthy Living

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Introduction to Health Psychology

  • Health Survey on student beliefs and attitudes to health. Analyse results for homework and retain to use throughout Healthy Living

  • Students to produce Healthy Living Booklet

  • Self-report - notes from AS year

  • ‘Research Methods for OCR Psychology’ by Black and Flanagan, 2005 Nelson Thornes

  • Healthy Living Booklet for each student in 3 sections: Theories of Health Beliefs, Methods of Health Promotion, and Features of Adherence to medical regimes and supporting evidence, to include blank grids for description of each sub-section, with columns for each of the theories, studies, the concepts involved and their evaluation issues

  • Students need to build on existing knowledge of developing self-report measures

  • More able students can lead on identifying evaluation issues of Healthy Living Booklet

Theories of Health

Beliefs –

HBM

Locus of Control

Self Efficacy

  • Students research and present one of three Theories – HBM, self-efficacy, Locus of Control

  • Complete template, during presentations on theories, on description and evaluation points

  • Following presentations identify the comparisons and contrasts

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard

  • Blank template to include columns for:

  • description and evaluation of the 3 Theories of Health Beliefs

  • comparisons and Contrasts of the 3 theories

  • More able students could research Theory of Reasoned Action, Planned Behaviour

  • PowerPoint

  • Internet research

  • More able students to lead on comparing and contrasting the 3 theories

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

9 hours

Topic

Healthy Living

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Methods of Health promotion and supporting evidence –

Fear Arousal

  • Discussion on advertisements that use fear to change behaviour e.g. anti-smoking posters and TV ads

  • Complete Healthy Living Booklet on Janis and Feshbeck 1953

  • Produce a poster on promoting health using minimal fear appeal

  • ’Psychology and Health’ by Harari and Legge, 2001, Heinemann Themes in Psychology

  • Doctors’ surgeries/school or college Student Services for leaflets using fear

  • Find out what campaigns will be done at school/college e.g. sexual health

  • Use a health leaflet to explain Yale Model of Communication. Analyse leaflet

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/ for health campaigns using fear – audio and video clips

Legislation

Media Campaign

  • Students to research articles on legislation to examine effects on behaviour and link findings to evidence e.g.Maryland 1999. Link to success of media campaigns e.g. Cowpe 1989

  • Complete Evidence Grids in Healthy Living Booklets

  • Healthy Living Booklets

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/

  • ‘Psychology A2 for OCR’ by Gadson, Harari, Legge and Sherry, Heinemann 2005

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard as above

  • More able students to lead on evaluation issues in Healthy Living Booklet

  • Newspaper websites on legislative campaigns

  • News clips on legislative campaigns

Features of Adherence to medical regimes and supporting evidence –

Reasons for Non-Adherence: Cognitive Rational Non-Adherence

  • Brainstorm reasons for non-adherence from Health Survey – students hold up their answers written on mini-whiteboards or laminated paper

  • Link to evidence e.g. Bulpitt 1988– evaluate using Healthy Living Booklet grid

  • Mini-whiteboards or laminated A4 paper/dry wipe markers

  • Student Health Survey – reasons for non-adherence given by students

  • Evidence Grid – from Healthy Living Booklet

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard see above

  • Link to cognitive approach

  • More able students to lead on Evidence Grids

Measures of non-adherence-

Physiological

  • Small group work to design and develop a measure of adherence using their Health Survey information relating to the 6 methods of Cluss and Epstein 1985. Link to physiological evidence - Lustman 2000

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard

  • Student Health Survey

  • Evidence Grid

  • ‘Psychology A2 for OCR’ as above

  • Ethics

  • Link to physiological approach

Improving - Behavioural

  • Students to develop behavioural ways of improving adherence that a theory of health beliefs and method of health promotion would suggest as being likely to work

  • Small group work producing a storyboard on how the Watt’s Funhalerworks – Watt 2003

  • Introduce essay writing skills in pairs using highlighters to identify skills used in paragraphs from model essay

  • For homework to write full essay for later peer marking

  • Pictures of Watts’ ‘Funhaler’ as example

  • Video on internet of funhaler

  • Storyboard – set of 6 blank boxes drawn on A4 paper to be filled in with stick figures and speech/thought bubbles describing the process of how the ‘Funhaler’ works as if it were scenes from a film

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard as above, for Diabetes and Compliance

  • Model essay for Healthy Living

  • Use writing frames

  • Exam questions

  • Evidence Grids and Theory Templates

  • Essay mark schemes

  • Link to behavioural approach:

  • .au for Funhaler clip

  • for Watt’s study including pictures

  • Students to devise a storyboard for an advert to improve adherence of another health problem e.g. improving compliance in people with diabetes

  • Work with the school/college on any appropriate campaigns

  • More able students to lead in peer marking

Summarise Healthy Living

  • Small group work to work on different aspects of a health campaign and develop a campaign for Healthy Living display using Theories, Methods of Promoting and taking into account features of adherence

  • Display board in school/college

  • Students could make an ad. using a camcorder or use photos

  • Storyboard/Posters/articles

  • Work with the School/College on any appropriate campaigns

  • Could be added to School/College intranet

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

8 hours

Topic

Stress

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Causes of stress and supporting evidence-

  • Small groups to identify 10 things that uplift them and 10 things that hassle them – then compare and come up with the most common

  • Compare to Kanner’s Hassles and Uplifts

  • Stress Booklet for each student in 3 sections: Causes of stress, Methods of Measurement, Techniques for Managing, to include blank grids for description of each sub-section, with columns for each of the theories, studies, the concepts involved and their evaluation issues

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard, 2001, Hodder and Stoughton

Hassles and Life Events

  • Compare and contrast SSRS and Kanner - Kanner et al. 1981

  • Complete Evidence Grid in Stress Booklet

  • Small group work on developing a Young Person’s Life Events Scale by adapting

    the SSRS

  • Stress Booklet Evidence grid

  • ‘Psychology and Health’ by Harari and Legge, 2001, Heinemann Themes in Psychology

  • ‘Health Psychology’ by Jane Ogden, 4th edition, McGraw Hill Education, OU Press

  • More able students to lead comparisons and contrasts and identify issues with evidence

  • Also to lead on completing evidence grid

Work

  • Get students to identify factors in school or college work stress using a blank template with the 5 sources of stress at work by Cooper et al’s 1988 model

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard as above

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

8 hours

Topic

Stress

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Link to - Johansson 1978 - intrinsic job factors

  • Analyse study in detail using evidence grid in Stress Booklet

  • ‘Study Guide for OCR Psychology’ by Lintern, Stapleton and Williams, 2006 Hodder Arnold

  • Stress Booklet

  • More able students could analyse Wager et al. 2003 and lead the analysis of the study for the evidence grids in the Stress Booklet

Lack of control

  • Students to devise role plays of Geer and Meisel 1973 study

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ as above

  • Revisit Locus of Control

  • More able students could role play Lundberg 1976 and Langer and Rodin 1976

Methods of Measuring stress and supporting evidence-

Physiological measures

  • Explanation of physiology of stress

  • Stress Booklet Evidence Grid

  • Geer and Meisel 1973 study

  • An Introduction to Health Psychology by Baum, Gatchel and Krantz, 3rd ed. 1997 McGraw-Hill Education

  • Stress Booklet

  • Patkai 1971 and Lundberg 1976 could also be evaluated

Self report

  • Holmes and Rahe 1967 – scale development and evidence on its effectiveness

  • Students to develop a student scale using similar method

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard as above

Combined approach

  • Johansson 1978students to evaluate 3 studies of Stress Measurement by presenting on posters

  • Evaluation Issues compared and contrasted for the 3 studies involved in Measuring Stress

  • Stress Booklet evidence grid

  • Test on measurement used in all stress studies

  • Homework to find one other study and

    add it to the test grid

  • Blank grid with description and advantages and disadvantages to be completed on Measurement used in all studies mentioned

  • PowerPoint could be used instead of posters

  • More able students could lead the comparing and contrasting of evaluation of 3 studies

  • More able students could find one other study for any of the three methods

Techniques for Managing stress and supporting evidence –

Cognitive

  • Explain SIT Meichenbaum 1975

  • Groups to use the 3 phases of SIT and give examples of how stress would be alleviated through:

  • Posters and/or

  • Role Play and/or

  • Sock Puppet Theatre

  • ‘Health Psychology Biopsychosocial interactions’ by Sarafino, 2005 5th ed. John Wiley and Sons

  • Students to put socks on their hands and use a desk top as a ‘stage’ and act out a situation of using SIT to alleviate stress

  • Could use Publisher for Posters

Behavioural

  • Students to explore Biofeedback and link to Operant Conditioning

  • Draw up a list of advantages and disadvantages of using equipment - related to evidence by Budzynski et al 1970

  • Complete Stress Booklet Evidence Grids

  • ‘Health Psychology Biopsychosocial interactions’ by Sarafino as above

  • Stress Booklet

  • Revisit AS studies on the advantages and disadvantages of using equipment

Social

  • Students to list types of social support that can be accessed and explore possible explanations

  • Waxler-Morrison et al 1991- draw up evaluation points for Stress Booklet

  • ‘Psychology and Health’ by Harari and Legge as above

  • ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard as above

  • More able students can lead on identifying evaluation points

Summary of Stress

  • Working in pairs on an identified evaluation point per essay – essay writing on all areas of stress

  • To cover issues effectiveness/validity/problems

  • Going through and altering points to make clearer and correct

  • Could do this on a computer

  • More able students to attempt later less obvious issues in an essay with less able students identifying the more obvious issues

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

8 hours

Topic

Dysfunctional Behaviour

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Introduction to dysfunctional behaviour

  • Exercise to include cultural, historical, age group, developmental norms – situations where behaviour would be/have been acceptable and unacceptable – students to include own cultural norms

  • Discussion on what is and what is not dysfunctional behaviour

  • Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklet

  • List of behaviours, blank category headings for acceptable/unacceptable and room for students to add in their own

  • Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklet for each student in 3 sections: Diagnosis, Explanations, and Treatments – with grids for entering each sub-section e.g. Categorising would have a table with 4 cells – 2 columns headed ‘Description’ and ‘Evaluation Issues’ and 2 rows headed DSM and ICD

  • Good opportunity to bring in students’ different cultural experiences

Diagnosis of dysfunctional behaviour

Categorising

Definitions

  • Sorting task of category headings and specific examples for ICD with 11 categories to be matched with specific examples of disorders and the same for DSMwith 17 categories

  • Students to identify similarities and differences between ICD and DSM

  • Identify 3 goals of categorisation

  • Students to give their own definitions of dysfunctional behaviour and then compare with Rosenhan and Seligman 1989 – definitions

  • Students to complete their grids from their Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklets

  • Matching Task – type up and laminate the categories with specific examples for each group on different coloured paper and then cut them up

  • ‘Psychology a New Introduction’ by Gross, McIlveen and Shackleton-Jones 2001 Hodder Arnold 2nd edition

  • http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

  • ‘Abnormal Psychology’ by Rosenhan and Seligman, 1989, 2nd edition, New York: Norton

  • More able students to lead on completion of Booklet grids for evaluation issues

Biases in diagnosis

  • Discussion on biases in diagnosis

  • Explore gender bias – Ford and Wediger 1989– andcomplete Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklet

  • Opportunity to revisit Rosenhan study from AS on diagnosis of schizophrenia

  • (Special Issue) in ‘Applying Psychology to Health’ by Banyard, 2001 Hodder and Stoughton

  • More able students to also explore ethnic bias

Explanations of dysfunctional behaviour-

Biological

Behavioural

Cognitive

  • Research activity – in groups students to get information from a book and/or an internet source and research either the Biological, or the Behavioural or the Cognitive approach to Dysfunctional Behaviour

  • Present their work for at least 8 minutes using images on their chosen explanation

  • Students to assess each others’ presentations using Key Skills Level 3 Communication Presentation Assessment Criteria

  • Explanations of Gottesman and Shields 1991 and Ost 1992 for the Genetic Explanation

  • Little Albert 1920 and Lewinsohn 1970 for the Behavioural Explanation

  • Beck and Di Nardo 1988 and Seligman 1979 for the Cognitive Explanation

  • ‘Approaches to Psychology’ by Glassman and Hadad 2006 4th edition, OU Press

  • http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

  • ‘Psychology a New Introduction’ by Gross, McIlveen and Shackleton-Jones 2001 2nd edition Hodder Arnold

  • .uk/Data/publications/teacher_support_and_coursework_guidance/Key_Skills36177.pdf for assessment of presentations

  • Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklets

  • Plan with college/school

  • Could use the internet to search for explanations

  • Could use PowerPoint for presentations

  • Research activity – groups to include a mix of more able and less able students

  • Students to complete their Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklet evidence grids on the explanations of that they have not covered themselves

Treatments of dysfunctional behaviour-

Biological

Behavioural

Cognitive

  • Explanations of treatments for Biological, Behavioural and Cognitive

  • Go through Karp and Frank 1995 SSRI’s

  • Wolpe and McGrath 1990

  • Beck and Dobson 1989

  • Students to role play an example of one of the treatments as a health worker and patient/client

  • Teach Mind Mapping Techniques and then get students to draw a Mind Map of all three treatments

  • Complete blank grids for evaluation points in Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklets

  • .uk/resources/revision/ANY_revision_mindmaps.pdf

  • Dysfunctional Behaviour Booklets

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

8 hours

Topic

Dysfunctional Behaviour

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Summary of Dysfunctional Behaviour

  • Summary of Dysfunctional Behaviour through a student-generated quiz. Each team has to develop 4 questions from each sub-section – 2 easier and 2 harder questions

  • Essay homework on the diagnosis, explanations and treatments of dysfunctional behaviour

  • More able students paired with less able to develop the harder questions

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

8 hours

Topic

Disorders

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Introduction to Disorders

  • Class discussion on what students already know of these disorders

  • Students to start a scrapbook on Disorders

  • Students to make up a blank grid for Anxiety, Affective and Psychotic disorders and search for definitions and fill in the blanks and stick in their scrapbooks

  • Sugar paper to be made into A3 sized scrapbooks

  • Blank sheet with rows for a definition of each disorder

  • Could provide students with books in class or get them to use the internet to research definitions of different disorders

  • Students can choose music, write diaries and stick in pictures from magazines or the internet throughout this scrapbook exercise as well as pasting in information grids and other written work

  • The internet could be used for their research

Characteristics of disorders-

An Anxiety disorder

  • An Anxiety Disorder - Quiz on definitions of phobias – get each student to pick some phobias listed and other to guess what they are

  • Students to identify characteristics from clips of people with phobias either from film/audio clips or written transcripts of interviews

  • Link to the characteristics of the disorder as set out in DSM/ICD

  • /list-of-phobia-definitions.html or ‘Psychology a New Introduction’ by Gross, McIlveen and Shackleton-Jones 2001 2nd edition Hodder Arnold

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/

  • http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/ for characteristics

  • To make grids – A4 sheet with rows for characteristics for an anxiety disorder, a psychotic disorder and an affective disorder

  • Film is for over 18’s so be careful what clip is shown

  • Students to complete their blank grids for the Characteristics of an anxiety disorder e.g. phobiafor scrapbook

  • Film clip from ‘As Good as it Gets’

A Psychotic disorder

  • Multiple choice quiz on facts and myths about schizophrenia

  • Identify characteristics from clips or written transcripts of interviews with people with schizophrenia

  • Link to the characteristics of the disorder as set out in DSM/ICD

  • Students to complete their grid of the characteristics of psychotic disorder e.g. schizophreniafor scrapbook

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/

  • Grids – as above

  • ‘Psychology a New Introduction’ by Gross, McIlveen and Shackleton-Jones as above

    http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk

  • Film ‘A Beautiful Mind’

  • Internet for clips of interviews with people diagnosed with schizophrenia

  • Film is for over 18’s so be careful what clip is shown

An Affective disorder

  • Research a famous person with an affective disorder

  • Identify characteristics from clips of people talking about their affective disorder or read written transcripts of interviews of people with bipolar disorder

  • Complete their Characteristics’ Grid with the final disorder – making affective disorder links with ICD/DSM

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/

  • e.g. Stephen Fry, Winston Churchill

  • ‘Psychology a New Introduction’ as above

  • Internet clips of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder

  • Students could search the internet for information on famous people with disorders

Explanations of one disorder (either affective OR anxiety OR psychotic)-

Biological

  • Biological explanation of a psychotic disorder using Gottesman and Shields 1972 and Oruc 1998 for an affective disorder

  • Students to choose one of these disorders

  • Internet for short animations of biochemical explanations

  • /nav/animation/68/main.html#10

  • ‘Psychology a new introduction’ as above

  • Students if studying biology or interested in medicine – do research and present biochemical explanation to include the dopamine hypothesis/diathesis stress model

Complete an Explanations’ Grid for their scrapbook for the Biological Explanation of any one of the disorders

  • Students to choose to research the biological explanation for anxiety disorder

Behavioural

  • Behavioural explanationof an anxiety disorder using Watsonand Raynerand of an affective disorder using Lewisohn 1979

  • Students to plan a study to make someone aversive to chocolate using the study of Little Albert

  • Students to add examples from a made up case study of how Lewinsohn’s model works in practice using blank flow charts of his model of depression

  • Complete the blank Explanations Grid, or make notes for the Behavioural Explanation of any one of the disorders

  • ‘Psychology a new introduction’ as above

  • http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/emotion.htm

  • Make up Case Studies to give to each group or use the Case Studies for famous people

  • See ‘Psychology a New Introduction’ as above for flow charts of Lewinsohn’s model of depression

Cognitive

  • Cognitive explanationof an anxiety disorder using DiNardo 1998and an affective disorder using Seligman 1979

  • Students to be given a Case Study (the same ones as used for Lewinsohn) and identify how Learned Helplessness occurs in practice in this case example

  • ‘Psychology a New Introduction’ as above

  • Students could research the cognitive explanation for a psychotic disorder

  • Complete their Explanations Grid for the Cognitive Explanation of any one of the disorders

  • Students to choose a disorder and research the explanations using biological, behavioural and cognitive explanations

  • Write a report with each explanation for scrap-book using mindmaps

  • All students share pages with others doing the same disorder

  • Essay plan comparing and contrasting approaches for their chosen disorder

  • Write out the essay

Treatments for one disorder-

(EITHER affective OR anxiety OR psychotic)

  • Students to choose a disorder ready to apply the three treatments

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

8 hours

Topic

Disorders

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Behavioural

  • Explanation of desensitisation

  • Teach Progressive Relaxation Technique

  • Write out a programme session by session for a phobic patient as if the student is a psychologist and relate to UCS, UCR, CS, CR

  • Identify advantages and disadvantages of behavioural treatment

  • Go through Wolfe, Paul and Lentz 1977for psychotic disorder, and McGrath 1990for anxiety disorder

  • Complete their Treatments Grid for the Behavioural treatment of an anxiety disorder or a psychotic disorder with evaluation issues of the studies

  • ‘Psychology a new introduction’ as above

  • http://www.leeds.ac.uk/lsmp’healthadvice/Relaxation/Relax.html

  • /pmr.htm

  • Students to choose to research the behavioural treatment of an affective disorder

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

  • Explanation of CBTusing the studies by Ellis, Comer 1998 for affective, Ost andWestling 1995 for anxiety, Senskly 2000 for psychotic - role plays of a patient and therapist using RET

  • Identify advantages and disadvantages of CBT

  • Complete the Treatments grid for the research evidence with evaluation issues

  • ‘Psychology a new introduction’ by Gross , McIlveen and Shackleton-Jones as above

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Health and Clinical Psychology

Suggested teaching time

8 hours

Topic

Disorders

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Biological

  • Students to identify disadvantages and advantages of use of drugs to treat affective and psychotic disorders

  • Explore the studies on drugs and biochemical treatments by Karp and Frank 1995for affective disorder and Comer 1998for psychotic disorder

  • Compare and contrast the three types of treatment

  • Complete their Treatments Grid for the biological treatment of a psychotic disorder or an affective disorder or an anxiety disorder with evaluation issues of the studies and add to their scrapbook

  • Treatments of their chosen disorder to be compared and contrasted and written up in report form and added to their scrapbook

  • rgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter2/sec1.html

  • ‘Psychology a new introduction’ by Gross , McIlveen and Shackleton-Jones as above

  • There is an opportunity here for more able students to research evidence on biochemical treatment used for anxiety disorder

  • There could be a possibility for a display for an Open Day at the school/college to advertise the Psychology Department

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Teaching and Learning

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Theories of knowledge acquisition

stage theories (e.g. Piaget or Bruner)

  • Students can be given information and asked to categorise information - Explain the concept ofschemas. Compare individual schemas – highlight and discuss constructivism

  • Teacher describes stage theories (e.g. Piaget or Bruner) highlighting the development of schemas at each stage

  • Students fill in handout with suggested teaching ideas for each of Piaget’s stages, e.g. short description of each stage in left hand column and student makes suggestions in right hand column

  • Variety of words/info for categorizing e.g. animals

  • PowerPoint of Piaget and Bruner’s ideas

  • Handout of Piaget’s stages

  • Textbooks

  • Legge & Harari and Stapleton, M “OCR Psychology in Practice: Education” and Snowman and Biehler)

Social construction theories (Zone of Proximal development, Vygotsky)

  • Begin lesson with a deep, degree level discussion of cognitive ideas. Wait for students to complain it’s too difficult to grasp! Then teach very easy topic from AS

  • Teacher describes social construction theories. (Zone of proximal development, Vygotsky)

  • For Homework: Students write a comparison – highlight similarities and differences between Piaget, Bruner

    and Vygotsky

  • PowerPoint of Vygotsky

  • Textbooks as above

Behaviourist models linking stimulus and response (Watson, Skinner)

  • Playing pigeon: One student leaves the room, and the class decide what response to encourage – class then

    use praise to encourage this

    behaviour

  • Use rewards throughout the lesson

  • Teacher describes behaviourist models linking stimulus and response (Watson, Skinner)

  • Students can fill in gapped handout (reinforcement etc) to explain a case study of someone’s behaviour program

  • For homework: Students write a description of the theories studied so far. Use a practice question marked against mark scheme

  • Gold stars or tokens

  • PowerPoint of behaviourist theories

  • Textbooks as above

  • Case study on handout

  • If time allows, show examples of ‘House of Tiny Tearaways’/ ‘Super Nanny’ on TV and ask students to identify the processes being demonstrated

  • It may be possible to visit a behaviourist school such as Wells Park School, Essex to find out more about the use of ‘token economies’

  • It may also be possible to carry out observations of certain teachers in own school

  • An extension task:Positive Reinforcement: A self-instructional exercise available at:

  • http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/prtut/reinpair.htm

Evaluation of theories-

1-3 hours depending on chosen evaluation method

  • Students use their knowledge of methodology to present an evaluation of the methods used by Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky, Watson and Skinner

  • Split class into two groups - debate between Cognitivists and Behaviourists

  • For homework: Students answer a sample question from exam board that includes evaluation

  • Computers/projectors or OHP’s

  • Research textbooks e.g. AS Psychology book

  • This is probably best as small groups activity (mixed abilities)

Personal Approaches to Learning

Allow 3-4 hours for this section. Some may prefer to evaluate along the way in which case 4 hours here. Some may prefer to teach all three bullets then do a big evaluation. In which case 3 hours here

  • Variations on learning strategies (e.g. Curry’s onion model)

  • Students complete a learning style questionnaire e.g. VARK

  • Split group into L.S preference: Students present their understanding of Curry’s model in a variety of ways e.g.

  • V = PowerPoint/Pictures

  • A = Talk/discussion

  • R = Prepare a handout

  • K = Role play the various layers

  • For Homework: Make posters to persuade AS students to find out their style and how to make use of it. i.e. year 13 encourage year 12

  • Teacher explains differences in cognitive styles (e.g. Riding and Raynor, 1999)

  • E.G Holist-analytical, Verbaliser-imager

  • Textbooks as above and/or Stapleton, M “OCR Psychology in Practice: Education”

  • On-line version of V.A.R.K or paper version. On-line version available at:

  • /english/page.asp?p=questionnaire

  • Computers

  • A3 paper

  • PowerPoint of cognitive styles

  • Textbooks as above

  • Video of multiple intelligences

  • Textbook: Snowman and Biehler

  • Online IQ test or paper version

  • Variety of items for creativity uses test, paper and paints, puzzles etc (e.g. cork in bottle)

  • PowerPoint showing behaviourist use of objectives and Ausubel’s advance organizers

  • Textbook: Harari and Legge

  • IQ tests :

  • Ethical issues: Students should only be given partial tests by teacher unless they hold a qualification from BPS to assess. Students may need to do IQ tests in own time with careful proviso about interpretation

  • Advance Organisers can be used throughout the course from now on – very useful to refer back to during revision

  • A link can also be made here to developing schemas with one lesson building on the knowledge of the last, through the assessment objectives

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Teaching and Learning

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Group work: Each group can be given a particular topic to teach e.g. teach primary school children ‘punctuation’ or ‘gravity’ etc. Each group devises ways of teaching the same topic to various cognitive styles

  • Theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner)

  • Students complete a partial IQ test, creative uses test and a variety of others such as painting picture of ‘creativity’, figure out a puzzle

  • Students then write an evaluation of each test and present to the group.

  • Could ask for a critique of how far it is possible to incorporate into educational system as S and C

  • Begin by using ‘Advance Organisers’ for the topic and highlight the objectives for the lesson

  • Teacher describes behaviourist use of objectives and monitoring of tasks (e.g. Ausubel’s advanced organisers)

  • PowerPoint of Bruner’s main ideas and social constructionist

  • Textbook: Harari and Legge

  • If possible ask a Primary school teacher to come to class to talk about spiral curriculum. If numbers allow it may be possible to visit to local primary school to observe examples of co-operative learning

  • Again, link to the development of schemas

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Teaching and Learning

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • In groups, students plan a lesson for different topics chosen by teacher. Then introduce the lesson to the class, taking no longer than 3 or 4 minutes. Feedback should include asking other groups if they understand exactly what the lesson presented will include

  • For Homework: Students write a short description of behaviourist use of objectives and the use of advance organizers

  • Teacher describes cognitive approaches of discovery learning (e.g. Bruner’s spiral Curriculum)

  • Teacher describes social constructionist ‘co-operative learning’ (Vygotsky)

  • Group work to prepare and present their understanding of Vygotsky’s ideas

  • Discussion on usefulness and efficacy of co-operative learning

  • For Homework: Students write an evaluation of the use of the spiral curriculum and co-operative learning. This could part of a sample exam question

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Teaching and Learning

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Consolidate the topic

  • Exam questions – peer marking and formal marking

  • Mind map the whole topic. This should be done individually with teaching giving a guide as to how to do this. E.g. Sections could include descriptions, evaluation points and applications

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Student participation

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Theories of motivation:

Motivation as an intrinsic or extrinsic process

Allow 3-4 hours for this section as before depending on preference for evaluation

  • Begin by asking students to observe other lessons (preferably in primary/secondary schools). Ideally this should be via a video e.g. ‘That’ll teach ‘em’. If real teachers are observed it should be with their expressed permission

  • Feedback findings; focus on how teachers motivate students

  • Ask students what motivates them

  • Discuss theories of motivation such as; motivation as an intrinsic or extrinsicprocess (e.g. Claxton); the psychodynamic (drive) theories (e.g. Freud’s personality theory and defence mechanisms) and the humanistic (needs) theories (e.g. Maslow)

  • For homework: Answer short questions on Claxton, Freud and Maslow. Questions should differentiate

  • PowerPoint of theories

  • Textbooks: As above

  • Short questions could be devised by teacher or exemplar questions from OCR if available

  • It is a good idea to build up links with local primary and secondary schools

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Student participation

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Cognitive (attribution) theories (e.g. Weiner’s Attribution theory)

  • Teacher describes cognitive (attribution) theories (e.g. Weiner’s Attribution theory)

  • Activity to identify various attributions e.g. internal/external, global/specific, controllable etc in a case study (student puts reason into correct attribution (e.g. I did not revise = internal, specific, controllable)

  • Students plan a lesson to include motivation at the beginning of lesson (link to Kolb’s learning cycle)

  • PowerPoint of theory

  • Case study – e.g. student has failed exam and gives possible reasons. Table included with attributions

  • Template for lesson plan

  • Visit to humanistic school – Summerhill may be possible but the school website is excellent and a safer bet

Evaluation of theories of motivation

  • Students work in groups and provide an evaluation of one of the above theories. These should be short and to the point. Other students may ask questions at the end of each presentation. Students should include hand-outs of their evaluation so that each group has information on all theories

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Student participation

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Encouraging educational engagement

Allow 3-4 hours for this section as before depending on preference for evaluation

  • Small groups: Give each group a common play activity in pre-school/reception class e.g. playdough, small world toys

  • Each group must decide what child may learn from the play e.g. S.P.I.E.L or P.I.E.S

  • Teacher describes the need for play in developing self directed activities and future academic and social success (Weikart, 1993 and High/Scope)

  • Students write a short description and evaluation of highscope and the need for play. This could be a sample exam question

  • Students could write a leaflet for parents/teachers explaining the importance of play and include a critique of

    the research

  • Teachers explain the emotional nature of learning (Goleman, emotional intelligence)

  • Students suggest teaching strategies for improving EQ of pupils

  • Homework: Students describe research into emotional intelligence plus evaluation

  • Playdough, puzzles, lego, small world toys –cars, animals, etc, paints

  • PowerPoint – the need for play

  • PowerPoint of characteristics of EQ and its relevance

  • Textbook: Snowman and Beihler

  • (Video of multiple intelligences if possible)

  • A downloadable PowerPoint presentation on the Perry study is available at:

  • /file/Research/PerryProject/PerryApril_20052.pps

  • Further reading:

  • /ei/

  • Students research ability groupings and decide on advantages and disadvantages. Split into two groups and debate for and against

  • Teacher explains the implications of ability grouping (e.g. Sukhnandan and Lee, 1998)

  • Final feedback includes splitting into two groups again and students deciding if they have changed their minds on the advantages and disadvantages in light of research described

  • Internet/Textbooks

  • PowerPoint

  • Textbooks or handout

  • Further reading:

  • http://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/aries-data/streaming-setting-and-grouping-by-ability.cfm

Consolidation of topic

  • Students are given short summary of topic; play, emotional intelligence and ability grouping, and suggest evaluation points for each area

  • Students answer sample exam questions and either self mark or peer mark

  • Short summaries

  • Exemplar exam questions

Student beliefs and expectations

Allow 2-3 hours for this

  • Teacher describes the research in social roles and academic success (Riley, 1995)

  • Students have a go at an unsolvable puzzle–debate the effect

  • Teacher explains background and stages of learned helplessness (e.g. Seligman 1975)

  • PowerPoint

  • Textbooks as above

  • An unsolvable puzzle (or at least very difficult!) – E.g. suduko

  • Example puzzles available from:

  • http://www.paulspages.co.uk/sudoku/index.htm

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Student participation

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Teacher gives a short introduction to the importance of developing a positive self-esteem (link to the humanist theories of Maslow and Rogers)

  • Students work in groups to come up with suggestions for teachers to improve self-esteem of pupils

  • Students answer short questions on social roles, learned helplessness and self-esteem, include evaluation of studies

  • PowerPoint

  • Textbooks as above

  • Questions

Consolidation of topic

  • Exam questions – peer marked and formal marking

  • Mind map the whole topic. This should follow the same format as previous mind map; perhaps a template could be given by the teacher to start students off

  • Exemplar exam questions

  • Mind map template

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

The social world of teaching and learning

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Personal and social development

Allow 3-4 hours for this section as before depending on preference for evaluation

  • Students can be given a short description of developmental stages and asked to put them in age order

  • Teacher explains developmental stages such as industry/inferiority (e.g. Erikson’s 8 stage theory)

  • Group work – present an evaluation of theory

  • Packs of 8 cards showing Erikson’s stages.

  • Textbook: Snowman, J & Biehler, R “Psychology Applied to Teaching” Houghton Mifflin Company

  • PowerPoint or handout of Erikson’s stages

  • Computers/Paper/Whiteboard

  • Humanist applications of acceptance and approval to learning (e.g. Rogers, 1977)

  • Whole group discussion using acceptance etc where students decide how they want to learn this topic [teach in a humanistic way]

  • Students write a short evaluation of humanistic applications

  • Textbook or PowerPoint of main points of Rogers

  • Harari and Legge

  • Visit to humanistic school – Summerhill may be possible but the school website is excellent and a safer bet

  • Mini experiment using Kohlberg’s dilemma

  • Class discussion

  • Individual research into moral development and the implications for social rules (e.g. Kohlberg)

  • Copies of moral dilemma

  • Textbooks as above

  • Internet

  • A3 paper and/or computers

  • Provides lesson plan for moral dilemma discussion that could be provided as an exemplar

  • http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd
    //practices/practice3lind.html

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

The social world of teaching and learning

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Using knowledge from Kohlberg’s theory students create a poster – social rules and why we have them

Student-student social interactions

Allow 3-4 hours for this section as before depending on preference for evaluation

  • Teacher explains the importance related to empathy and moral development (e.g. Gilligan 1982).

  • Students write a short evaluation of research presented

  • In groups students role play different strategies for dealing with bullying

  • Students can make a board game for young children to help them make choices when faced with bullying

  • Teacher explains Anti-bullying strategies (e.g. Tatum and Herbert 1992)

  • Homework: Individual research – students write an evaluation of a few strategies – do they work and why/why not?

  • PowerPoint

  • Textbook: Snowman and Biehler

  • Boards/paper, pens etc (plasticine for dice)

  • PowerPoint or handout of Tatum and Herbert’s ideas (“A positive Approach” brochure should be available from L.E.A)

  • Internet and Textbooks as above

  • Further reading:

  • http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html

  • Gives an overview of Piaget, Kohlberg and Gilligan

Student-teacher social interactions

Allow 3-4 hours for this section as before depending on preference for evaluation

  • Teacher gives a short summary of research into comparison of Teacher/ student communications between what is sent and what is received (e.g. Flander’s interaction analysis)

  • Students compare various interactions (role play or video) and use Flander’s categories to analyse the communication

  • Whole group or small group discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of interaction analysis

  • In groups (could use jigsaw method) students research Transmission of teacher expectations of students (e.g. Brophy and Good, 1974); Pygmalion Effect and self-fulfilling prophecy

  • Groups present findings and evaluation of methods to other groups

  • Teacher gives a summary of types and demands of questions used by teachers for primary and secondary pupils

  • (Galton, 1999)

  • Students watch video and interpret in light of theory e. g identify question types, the effect of such questions etc

  • Students write a guide for NQT’s about using questioning effectively, teacher expectations and teacher/student interactions

  • PowerPoint or handout of Flander’s ideas

  • Snowman and Biehler covers the observation categories

  • Video of teacher-student

  • Handout of categories to fill in

  • Internet

  • Textbook: Snowman and Biehler

  • Projector/board and/or paper and pens

  • PowerPoint

  • Video of classroom interactions

  • Gapped handout to identify questions

  • Computers/ Paper

  • Sample videos of interactions and explanations

  • http://www.nova.edu/hpdtesting/ctl/fia.html

  • Categories explained:

  • http://www.hebes.mdx.ac.uk/teaching/Research/PEPBL/methpap6.pdf

  • Further reading: D. Brophy and T. Good. Teacher-Student Relationships: Causes and Consequences. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1974

  • Encourage students to visit schools and observe teachers’ questioning of pupils.

  • 'Teachers TV' is a very good source of videos e.g.

  • /video/566

  • Teaching DVDs available from:

  • /dvdseries/items.asp

  • Students write a guide for NQT’s about using questioning effectively, teacher expectations and teacher/student interactions

Consolidation of topic

  • Students practice exam questions

  • Peer marking using mark scheme

  • Formal marking by teacher

  • Mind map the topic

  • Reproduce mind map from memory

  • Past exam questions

  • A3 paper

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Enabling learning: dealing with diversity

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Dealing with additional needs

Allow 3-4 hours for this section

  • Students asked to visit website or given a handout on Bloom’s taxonomy. In groups they then come up with questions from each section

  • Teacher describes the effectiveness of individual support (e.g. Bloom, 1984); highlight the two sigma problem, i.e. that students provided with individual support often perform 2sd or 2 sigmas above ordinary group instruction

  • Group work:- suggest ways of offering individual support in mainstream schools

  • PowerPoint

  • Textbooks as above

  • Students can research at:

  • http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edpsybook/Edpsy2//edpsy2_strategies.htm

  • Consideration of the implications of ability grouping (including provision for gifted students),most evidence (Sukhnandan and Lee, 1998) seems to suggest little outcome gain from grouping by ability

  • Individual research into literature available and write an evaluation of various strategies

  • PowerPoint or textbook

  • Internet and textbook (Snowman and Biehler)

  • Suggested sites for further information

  • National Foundation for Educational Research

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Enabling learning: dealing with diversity

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Teacher describes the provision of remedial support such as reading recovery and various forms of differentiation

  • Students prepare a lesson with differentiation tasks on a topic set by teacher

  • Homework: Students answer questions on additional needs

  • PowerPoint

  • Template for lesson plan

  • Exemplar exam questions

  • Students should be encouraged to spend time volunteering in local schools to offer extra support such as reading to pupils

Enabling minority ethnic groups

Allow 2-3 hours for this section

  • Students given statistics and then discuss differences at each key stage (jigsaw group work)

  • Teacher describes research showing little evidence for ethnic differences in early years (e.g. Davies and Bremmer)

  • Statistics available (DFES or The Times)

  • PowerPoint or handout

  • Strategies that could be used to overcome language effects and prejudice

  • Inter-group tasks (Aronson et al, 1978); e.g. JIGSAW method – use this method to research a different area such as history, how to do it, effectiveness of method etc

  • Teacher describes research into role models (Klein, 1996) and positive support (Mac an Ghaill, 1988)

  • /overview.htm

  • Internet and textbooks

  • PowerPoint or handouts

  • Complete paper available:

  • KLEIN, R. (1996). ‘A steering hand away from trouble’, Times Educ. Suppl., 4150, 12 January, 5

  • Students write an evaluation of research

Enabling genders

Allow 2-3 hours for this section

  • Students visit DFES web-site (or Times newspaper etc) and find the statistics for previous year GCSE and A level results by gender)

  • Students identify the differences in educational achievement that relate to gender (e.g. Arnold et al 1996)

  • Internet (or handouts if necessary)

  • Teacher explains research into biological differences in brain structure (e.g. Bee 1992)

  • Students write an evaluation of biological research (could be given a list of key terms such as objective/replicable/validity etc)

  • Include a debate on nature/nurture – focus on the implications of both

  • PowerPoint of main points

  • Textbooks as above

  • List of key terms

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Enabling learning: dealing with diversity

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

  • Strategies for enabling the learning of boys and girls (similar to those for ethnic groups and additional needs but could include ‘boy friendly’ books and competition)

  • Students plan an activity to test a particular topic/subject that differentiates between boys and girls [girls can plan a boy’s activity and vice-versa]

  • Students write a newspaper article for ‘The Times’ to include data on gender and ethnicity, possible reasons for differences and suggested strategies

  • A3 paper or computers for planned activity

  • Computers for typing up the newspaper article

Consolidation of topic

1-3 hours available depending on how evaluation has been done

  • In groups students make a crossword puzzle using the new terminology they have learnt

  • Practice exam questions – peer mark and formal marking

  • Mind map the whole topic as before using template

  • Past exam questions

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Psychology of Education

Suggested teaching time

10-12 hours

Topic

Enabling learning: dealing with diversity

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Consolidation of unit

  • Walkabout/Talkabout: 3 A3 sheets around the room. Groups allowed 2 minutes to write what they know and then move on. (6 or 9 sheets if large class). Each student has a role; writer, checker, timekeeper etc

  • Teams devise 5 questions about the topic. Questions then passed to next team to answer (1 or 2 minutes each), then passed on again etc until end. Each team then tell the answers and marks are given (prize for winners)

  • Practice exam questions – peer marked and formal marking

  • Encourage independent revision and cover revision techniques

  • A3 paper

  • Past exam questions

Sample GCE Lesson Plan:

GCE Psychology: H668. G543 Forensic Psychology



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