Главная > Методические указания





А. А. Вербин

Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования



Кафедра иностранных языков





А. А. Вербин



Рекомендовано на

заседании кафедры

от 31.08.2007,

протокол № 1

Рецензент И. Ф. Григоренко

Цель данных методических указаний – на основе текстов по экономике, а также сопутствующих им упражнений изложить грамматику, предусмотренную программными требованиями курса английского языка для студентов факультета экономики и менеджмента очно-заочной формы обучения.

Оригинал подготовлен составителем и печатается в авторской редакции.

Подписано в печать Формат 60х84/16.

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Отпечатано в типографии СПГУТД

191028, Санкт-Петербург, Моховая, 26



(подготовлено Вербиным А.А.)

Цель рецензируемых методических указаний – на основе текстов по экономике, а также сопутствующих им упражнений изложить грамматику, предусмотренную программными требованиями курса английского языка для студентов факультета экономики и менеджмента очно-заочной формы обучения.

Методические указания состоят из десяти уроков с сопутствующими упражнениями, а также раздела «Дополнительные упражнения», цель которых дать дополнительный материал студентам для закрепления наиболее сложных разделов грамматики.

Методические указания основаны на хорошо подобранных текстах. Тексты взяты из современных монографий по экономике, изданных в последние два-три года в англоязычных странах. В методических указаниях имеется достаточный объем упражнений, ориентированных на развитие техники перевода и разговорных навыков.

Методические указания составлены в соответствии с программными требованиями курса английского языка для студентов факультета экономики и менеджмента очно-заочной формы обучения.



1. Make sentences in the Active Voice using these expressions.

  1. To leave home

  2. To take a taxi

  3. To see a new film

  4. To finish work

  5. To apply for a job

  6. To visit friends

  7. To buy a new car

  8. To repair the car

  9. To attend lectures

  10. To open the door

  11. To close the window

  12. To borrow books from the library

2. Open the brackets.

  1. John (to leave) for his office now.

  2. He (to arrive) at his office in 40 minutes.

  3. He (to work) as a department manager there.

  4. He (to get) there by 10 o’clock.

  5. At 11 o’clock he (to attend) a meeting.

  6. For two hours all of the managers (to discuss) the production plan of the company.

  7. In the middle of the discussion they usually (to have) a break.

  8. Two hours ago they still (to discuss) their problems.

  9. By 1 o’clock their meeting (to be) over.

  10. Then they (to go) to the dining-room to have lunch.

  11. During the lunch they certainly (to discuss) the foot-ball match the (to see) yesterday.

  12. Practically all of them (to be) foot-ball fans.

  13. They (to like) to discuss foot-ball matches.

  14. By 7 p.m. John (to come) home.

  15. He knows his wife (to wait) for him.

  16. At 7 p.m. John’s family (to have) supper.

  17. Tomorrow (to be) Saturday.

  18. This time tomorrow we will be going to the country.

  19. They (to come) back home Sunday evening.

  20. On Monday John (to go) to his office as usual.

3. Make sentences with these verbs and adverbials.

1. To study economics

2. To do exercises

3. To get ready for the exams

4. To attend lectures

5. To go to the library

6. To read a book

7. To take notes at the lectures

8. To have breakfast

9. To write a test

10. Not to go to the University

11. To study at the reading-room

12. Ta watch TV

13. To attend a lecture by Prof. Petrov

14. To translate a text

15. To say good-by to the teacher

16. To translate a text

17. To meet a friend

18. To go to the country

19. To write the test

20. To come home in time

  1. Now

  2. Yesterday

  3. For two hours last night

  4. Every day

  5. At 5.30 yesterday

  6. When we came

  7. Always

  8. Ay home

  9. Last Monday

  10. To day

  11. For two hours tomorrow

  12. Usually in the evening

  13. Now

  14. When I saw John

  15. Before he left

  16. The whole evening

  17. Two hours ago

  18. Often

  19. By the end of the break

  20. Usually

4. Translate the text.


Alexander is a student from St. Petersburg. He studies at the University of this city. He is a third-year student and his future specialty is economics. Alexander is going to London for a year on a student-exchange. That is he is going to study at London University for a year, and a student from London will come to St. Petersburg University.

Yesterday for long hours Alexander was collecting the documents necessary for the trip. By 4 p.m. he had collected all of them. Now all of them are ready, but there is a lot of work to do at home before his departure. Now he and his friend are selecting the books and dictionaries that will be of much help for him in London. And his mother is ironing his shirts at the kitchen.

Tomorrow morning he will be packing his luggage. His parents and friends will go to the airport to see him off. They will be leaving home at 9 o’clock as his plane will take off at 12 sharp. It will take them nearly one hour to get to the airport, and they must be at the airport two hours before the take-off. This time tomorrow Alexander will be flying over Europe on his way to London. By 16.00 tomorrow he will have arrived at Heathrow, the main London airport. Then he will take a bus in order to go to the central London. From there he will take another bus and will go to London University.

Alexander has never been to London, so he will make use of every opportunity to see the main sights of central London as soon as possible. Later on he will visit places a bit farther out – Hampstead, Hampton Court and Greenwich – on a day or half-day trips by bus and underground.

Alexander is eager to go to London because he wants to get acquainted with the way of life in advanced industrial countries. He knows that there are a lot of people in Russia who are sure that the economy there is in good shape and makes people there more and more prosperous. But recently he came across an article in the London paper The Guardian related to a poll of the state of mind of the Europeans about their economy. To the question: Do you believe that the world will become more or less prosperous? 49% of people in the Western Europe answered “Less” and 22% answered “More”, while in the Eastern Europe the answer was: 16% -- “Less” and 49% -- “More”. That is unlike those who live in the Eastern Europe the Westerners have rather skeptical view of the state of the economy of their countries.

5. Answer the questions

1. Where does Alexander study?

2. What does he study?

3. Why is he going to London?

4. What was he doing yesterday?

5. Has he collected all the necessary documents?

6. What will he be doing this time tomorrow?

7. By what time will he have arrived to London?

8. What will he do after his arrival?

9. What kind of the city transport will he take to go to central London?

10. Has he ever been to London?

11. Does he read British newspapers?

12. What story has he come across recently?

13. What is it about?

6. Look at this grammatical pattern and translate the expressions

Leisure time = свободного времени

Street traffic = уличное движение

Ozone hole = озоновая дыра

Ozone hole extension = расширение озоновой дыры

  1. brick wall

  2. wall bricks

  3. story title

  4. title story

  5. sugar cane

  6. cane sugar

  7. interest rate

  8. company management

  9. consumer goods

  10. consumer goods production

  11. consumer goods production growth

  12. consumer goods production growth rate



1. Examine carefully the way the sentences are transformed into the passive voice.

1. John attends the University classes daily.

2. The University classes are attended by John daily.

3. Now he is attending a lecture on history.

4. A lecture on history is being attended by him.

5. They constructed this plant last year.

6. This plant was constructed last year

7. She will invite him to her birthday party.

8. He will be invited to her birthday party.

9. John has taken his first exam.

10. The first exam has been taken by John successfully.

2. Now transform the following sentences into the passive voice.

  1. John didn’t attend the lectures yesterday.

  2. He has borrowed this book from the library.

  3. He will return it in a week.

  4. They are attending this lecture.

  5. They produce high-quality shoes.

  6. She usually buys expensive shoes.

  7. This shop sells mass-produced cheap footwear.

  8. He invented a new method of doing so.

  9. They will buy new equipment for their factory.

  10. They have already checked their translations.

  11. We cannot translate this letter because we have no dictionary.

  12. They must attend this meeting.

  13. She will manage our department.

  14. They will have appointed her by Monday.

3. Make sentences in the Passive Voice using these expressions.

  1. To open the door

  2. To close the window

  3. To visit friends

  4. To repair the flat

  5. To take a taxi

  6. To borrow books from the library

  7. To see a new film

  8. To buy a new car

  9. To repair the car

  10. To finish work

  11. To attend lectures

4. Translate the text.


Most people work to earn a living, and produce goods and services. Goods are either produced in the agricultural sector (like milk, vegetable, fruit) or manufactured at plants and factories (like pen, paper, and cars). Services are such things as education, medicine, and commerce. They are provided by people who are called employees. Some people provide goods, some provide services. Some other people provide both goods and services. For example, in the same garage a car can be bought or some service can be obtained in order to maintain this car or to repair it.

The work people do in exchange for payment is called economic activity. The economic system of a town, of a city, of a country, of the world is made up of all economic activities together of these respective communities. Countries differ in their economic activities. The work people undertake either provides them with what they need or provide the money with which they can buy essential commodities. Of course, most people hope to earn enough money to buy commodities and services, which are non-essential, but which provide some particular personal satisfaction, like books, visits to the cinema, trips, etc.

There are two extreme forms of economic arrangements of the economic activity: privately owned economy and State-owned one. The former is often called as ‘free market economy’; the latter is associated with the term ‘command economy’. This type of economy dominated in the former socialist countries. If complete freedom of economic activity is allowed this can create difficulties, because the freedoms of various individuals or individual companies often conflict. Laws have been created to regulate economic activity, and they are concerned with working conditions, worker’s health, wages, pensions, and location of places of work.

Even in the most dedicated free enterprise systems, such as the USA, a need for some degree of State control of the economy has been felt. Some developing countries are interested in control and log-term planning. Such countries as India have a number of plans to guide the economy. They are enacted by the government. Such systems where both private and public sectors coexist are often called as countries with mixed economy.

6. Answer the questions.

  1. Where are goods produced?

  2. What goods are produced in the agricultural sector?

  3. In what economic units are services provided?

  4. What kind of economy is considered as free market economy?

  5. What kind of economy was dominant in the former socialist countries?

  6. Is complete economic freedom possible?

  7. Why is it impossible?

  8. For what purpose was economic planning introduced?

  9. What is an economy with both private and public sector called?

  10. What is money used for?

7. Examine carefully the following sentences.

  1. The lecture is being listened to attentively.

  2. The problem has been dealt with successfully.

  3. The doctor was sent for one hour ago.

  4. The coats are taken off at the cloakroom.

  5. She is being waited for.

  6. The film is spoken about.

  7. Our participation in this year footwear show was agreed upon.

  8. His account of this year footwear show was being listened to with great interest.

  9. The solution of the problem has been arrived at.

  10. This machine is not made use of at our factory due to its slow speed.

  11. These ideas will certainly be frowned upon by our managers.

  12. We are being aimed at by our competitors.

  13. My friend cannot be relied upon.

  14. John can be counted upon.

  15. The business should be dealt with cautiously.

  16. Their complaint must be taken note of.

  17. Only two methods can be resorted to in order to solve the problem.

  18. This means that our principles are adhered to.

  19. The matter won’t be attended to because of lack of money.

  20. My warning hasn’t been acted upon.



1. Study carefully the following.


  1. The field of application of this machine must be increased.

  2. We have to introduce this machine into our factory.

  3. This method of teaching is to be applied here.

  4. This machine should be imparted new capabilities.

1. Сфера применения этой машины должна быть расширена.

2. Мы должны внедрить эту машину на нашей фабрике.

  1. Этот метод обучения должен быть применен здесь.

  2. Этой машине нужно придать новые «способности».


1. He can complete this work alone.

  1. The machine will be able to perform all these operations.

  2. He succeeded in repairing this robot.

  3. They managed to test all of the systems of this robot.

  4. They were unable to remove the defect.

  5. They failed to use all the capabilities of this robot.

1. Он может завершить эту работу один.

  1. Машина сможет выполнять все эти операции.

  2. Он смог отремонтировать этот робот.

  3. Они смогли испытать все системы робота.

  4. Они не смогли устранить дефект.

  5. Они не смогли использовать все возможности робота.


1. You may introduce your innovation in our company.

  1. He was allowed to introduce the innovation

  1. Вы можете внедрить ваше усовершенствование в нашей компании

  2. Ему разрешили внедрить это усовершенствование.

4. Translate the following sentences.

1. We have to use the latest innovations.

  1. They succeeded in substantially changing the design of our product.

  2. Our attempts failed to prevent damaging the equipment.

  3. They were unable to meet the safety requirements.

  4. This method is to be replaced by a new one.

  5. This is to be done without disturbing the work of the rest of the employees.

  6. Will you be able to buy new equipment?

  7. The operator was unable to check the pressure control device.

  8. There have to be more options for our shareholders.

  9. Will you be able to get there on time?

  10. I am sure you won’t fail to attend our next lecture.

  11. You will have to be dressed formally.

  12. I was unable to come. I had to get ready for my lessons.

  13. He was allowed to stay out till 10 o’clock.

  14. Did I have to come at 10 o’clock?

5. Translate the text


Production is the means whereby resources are organized to produce the goods and services which people require for the satisfaction of their wants. In today’s world an increasing number of people are employed in the service industries such as banking, leisure, finance and administration, rather than in the manufacturing sector. In order to achieve production, inputs of factors of production are to be used. The latter are divided into land, labour and capital.

Land is regarded as a ‘gift of nature’. It includes any valuable mineral deposits. It is also the basic space requirements within which factories may be sited, foodstuffs can be grown, or services can be provided.

Labour constitutes an essential element in all forms of production. It represents all forms human effort, manual and mental, skilled or unskilled which people must deploy.

Capital, in economic terms, may be defined as goods which can be used to produce other goods. Property such as factory buildings, machinery and raw materials are all forms of capital which are used in the process of production.

Production activities must be remunerated or paid. The main forms of payment to employees are wages and salary. Wages are usually paid as a certain sum of money per hour to manual workers, while a salary is a fixed sum, which may be paid monthly to non-manual staff.

As for wages they are usually paid on a basic time rate, often agreed by negotiations between trade unions and management. Pay is expressed as an hourly rate. In addition, there may be supplements, such as overtime payments, danger money or dirty money for work in exceptional circumstances.

A salary is usually expressed as a fixed annual sum, and it is not usual to supplement it, although certain additional benefits may be provided. These are called ‘fringe benefits’ or ‘perks’. They are normally benefits of goods or services such as a company car, membership of a private health scheme, or a company’s own pension fund. In order to attract right people to a job a firm may offer help removal expenses or to provide a low-interest mortgage for house purchase. Recently profit sharing has become popular in recruiting and keeping staff.

The CEOs, chief executive officers, are paid very high salaries. Their annual income, that is, salaries and perks can amount to numerous millions of dollars. We are informed by the Journal of Institutional Investor, an American publication of June 30, 2006, that J. Simon, the top-manager of the Renaissance Technology collected $1.5 billions in 2005, while his colleague from B.P.Capital Management Т.Pickens made $1.4 billion. It should be emphasized that these huge incomes produced public outcry among the shareholders of the respective companies. A number of Congressmen even introduced a bill against this kind of abuse.

6. Answer the questions

1. What is the difference between wages and salaries?

2. What is paid to manual workers?

3. Who earns salaries?

4. What is the way salary is defined?

5. What is the synonym for payment?

6. What is meant under the term ‘fringe benefits’?

7. Is ‘fringe benefits’ the same as ‘perks’?

8. What sums of money are collected by the top-managers of big companies?

9. Are they justified?

10. What was the reaction of the shareholders?

7. Transform these sentences into the passive voice.

  1. You ought to work hard if you want to be successful.

  2. We cannot examine these accounts so quickly.

  3. We must finish our work as soon as possible.

  4. She can return this document tomorrow.

  5. Before going to the cinema we must prepare home tasks.

  6. You should use modern technique to produce high quality goods.

  7. To produce expensive shoes one should use raw materials of better quality.

  8. In order to be competitive we have to buy new equipment.

  9. They must translate this text without dictionary.

  10. He can deliver this lecture in English.

  11. You can buy these goods in any shop.

  12. You should do your work carefully.

  13. One must observe traffic rules.

  14. You ought to obey the manager.

15.You must use a good dictionary if you want to translate this text successfully.




As soon as - как только

When - когда

While - в то время как

Before -до того как

Until - перед тем как

After - после того как

Although - хотя

Because - так как, потому что

If - если

Unless - если … не

Whether (… or not) – ли … (или нет)

1. Translate the following.

  1. As soon as he comes he will help me.

  2. When she is ready she will tell us.

  3. You will be given this task when the manager comes back.

  4. As soon as the plan is discussed carefully it will be approved.

  5. After the lecture is over the lecturer will answer all our questions.

  6. Before he was appointed director of our company he had been employed by General Motors.

  7. Before they came here they had attended a lecture on physics.

  8. After he had attended the lecture he made an account of it to the rest our department.

  9. Although he had a lot of work he agreed to help me.

  10. While he was crossing the street a policeman stopped him.

  11. I haven’t realized what he was capable of.

  12. This is what we can call a good plan.

  13. What worries me is that John is ill.

  14. What our competitors are after is not clear.

  15. What good that does us I don’t know.

2. Translate the text.

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