Попов Е.Б.Английский язык для студентов 3-го курса: Учебное пособие для студентов: шестой семестр. - Оренбург: ОИ МГЮА, 2009. - 82 с.
Учебное пособие предназначается для студентов третьего курса дневного и вечернего факультетов ОИ МГЮА. Цель пособия – последовательное освоение правовой лексики и лексики делового английского на основе образовательных текстов, адаптированных для студентов-юристов. Данное пособие состоит из языкового материала, изучаемого студентами в шестом семестре.
Попов Е.Б., 2009
ОИ МГЮА, 2009
UNIT 5. Legal Profession …………………………………
UNIT 6. Law Firm ………………………………………….
UNIT 7. Professional Ethics ……………………………
UNIT 8. Studying Law ……………..…………………….
UNIT 9. Job Seeking ……………………...……………..
Unit 5. Legal Profession
5.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
adviser-советник, консультант; референт (лицо, дающее советы и рекомендации по определенным вопросам, предлагающее варианты выбора в конкретной ситуации, предоставляющее запрашиваемую информацию)
attorney - адвокат; юрист; атторней, уполномоченный, доверенный; поверенный (в суде); прокурор (в системе судебной власти США)
bar association = the Bar - ассоциация адвокатов (имеющих право выступать в суде); в США - организация практикующих профессиональных юристов; такие организации существуют как на уровне штатов, где они принимают экзамены (bar examination) на право заниматься адвокатской практикой или отстраняют от нее (to disbar), так и на общенациональном уровне
barrister - барристер; адвокат, имеющий право выступать в высших судах (отличается тем, что не ведет дело с самого начала, а получает все материалы незадолго до суда); адвокат высшего ранга
brief - 1) краткое письменное изложение дела с привлечением фактов и документов, ссылок на законодательные акты и юридические прецеденты, с которыми сторона намерена выступать в суде; 2) записка по делу, представляемая солиситором барристеру 3) резюмировать, составлять краткое изложение 4) поручать (адвокату) ведение дела в суде; давать инструкции адвокату
College of Advocates = Bar = Chamber of Advocates = Facultiy of Advocates - коллегия адвокатов
conveyancer - нотариус по операциям с недвижимостью; юрист, ведущий дела по передаче имущества; адвокат, готовящий документы о передаче прав собственности
counsel - юрисконсульт; советник, поверенный; участвующий в деле адвокат; барристер
drafter - 1) составитель документа, 2) автор документа, законопроекта, законодательного акта
in-house counsel - штатный юрист, работник юридического отдела компании
Inns of Court - "Судебные инны" (четыре корпорации барристеров в Лондоне; существуют с 14 века; в школах при этих корпорациях готовят барристеров)
jurisdiction - юрисдикция; сфера полномочий; орган власти; территория в подведомственности органа власти; подведомственная область; подсудность; судебная практика
jurist - 1) юрист, учёный юрист; писатель по вопросам права; цивилист; законовед, правовед, 2) адвокат, судья, 3) студент юридического факультета 4) преподаватель права, юриспруденции
Law Society - Общество юристов (профессиональный союз солиситоров; имеет собственный клуб с библиотекой и справочным отделом в Лондоне; может привлекать своих членов к ответственности за нарушение профессиональной этики, исключать из числа солиситоров)
lawyer - юрист; адвокат; консультант по вопросам права, юрисконсульт, юрист-практик
legal executive - судебный исполнитель, должностное лицо суда
negotiator - 1) лицо, ведущее переговоры; сторона в переговорах; сторона в договоре; 2) посредник, уполномоченный
notary - 1) нотариус 2) нотариальные конторы
practice law - заниматься юридической практикой, быть юристом
solicitor - солиситор, адвокат (дающий советы клиенту, подготавливающий дела для барристера и выступающий только в судах низшей инстанции); поверенный; стряпчий
trial lawyer - адвокат, выступающий в суде первой инстанции; защитник в суде
1. Lawyer is a general term for a person who is qualified to advise people about the law, to prepare legal documents for them and/or to represent them in a court of law. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services.
2. A lawyer often has several functions: investigator, drafter, negotiator, advisor, and advocate. As a professional the lawyer is usually permitted to carry out the following responsibilities:
3. Oral argument in the courts. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court.
In some countries litigants have the option of arguing pro se, or on their own behalf. It is common for litigants to appear unrepresented before certain courts like small claims courts; indeed, many such courts do not allow lawyers to speak for their clients, in an effort to save money for all participants in a small case.
4. Research and drafting of court papers. Often, lawyers brief a court in writing on the issues in a case before the issues can be orally argued. They may have to perform extensive research into relevant facts and law while drafting legal papers and preparing for oral argument.
5. Legal advice is the application of abstract principles of law to the concrete facts of the client's case in order to advise the client about what they should do next. In many countries, only a properly licensed lawyer may provide legal advice to clients for good consideration. Therefore, even conveyancers and corporate in-house counsels must first get a license to practice, though they may actually spend very little of their careers in court. Failure to obey such a rule is the crime of unauthorized practice of law.
6. Negotiating and drafting contracts. In some countries, the negotiating and drafting of contracts is considered to be similar to the provision of legal advice, so that it is subject to the licensing requirement explained above. In other countries, notaries may negotiate or draft contracts.
7. Conveyancing is the drafting of the documents necessary for the transfer of real property, such as deeds and mortgages. In some countries, all real estate transactions must be carried out by a lawyer.
8. Carrying out the intent of the deceased. In many countries, only lawyers have the legal authority to do drafting of wills, trusts, and any other documents that ensure the efficient disposition of a person's property after death. In the United States, the estates of the deceased must be administered by a court through probate. American lawyers have a profitable monopoly on dispensing advice about probate law.
9. Prosecution and defense of criminal suspects. In many civil law countries, prosecutors are trained and employed as part of the judiciary; they are law-trained jurists, but may not necessarily be lawyers in the sense that the word is used in the common law world. In common law countries, prosecutors are usually lawyers holding regular licenses who simply happen to work for the government office that files criminal charges against suspects. Criminal defense lawyers specialize in the defense of those charged with any crimes.
10. Judicial functions. Members of judiciary as a rule are chosen among experienced lawyers. In the decision-making process, judges are expected to be independent and to act without any restriction, interference, improper influence, inducement, pressure or threats. Those who are entrusted to administer justice have unfettered freedom to decide cases impartially, in accordance with their conscience and their interpretation of the facts, and in pursuance of the prevailing rules of the law. Judges are not obliged to report on the merits of their cases to anyone outside the judiciary.
advance - успешно представлять, защищать
litigant - судящаяся сторона, сторона в гражданском процессе (относится как к истцам, так и ответчикам)
pro se - за себя
extensive research - обширные исследования, большая исследовательская работа
draft - составлять проект документа
oral argument - выступление в прениях сторон в суде
good consideration – соответствующее денежное вознаграждение
contemplate - предполагать, рассматривать, предусматривать
provision - обеспечение, предоставление
subject to – подвергаемый; подлежащий
conveyancing - составление актов передачи прав собственности на недвижимость
carry out the intent of the deceased - исполнять волю покойного, исполнить завещание
will - завещание
trust - доверенность; документ о передаче в доверительное управление
disposition - распоряжение, управление (имуществом)
probate - доказывание завещания; доказательство подлинности завещания; утверждение завещания
dispense - готовить и предоставлять
civil law country – страна с континентальной (цивильной) системой права
common law country - страна с системой, основанной на общем (англо-саксонском) праве; страна-незаконодатель
decision-making process - процедура принятия решения
interference – вмешательство, помеха
inducement – побуждение, поощрение
unfettered freedom - не ограниченная свобода
impartially – беспристрастно, справедливо
conscience – совесть, сознательность
in pursuance - во исполнение, согласно
on the merits - по существу
1. What functional roles are traditionally associated with lawyers?
2. Why are lawyers not allowed to speak for their clients in some small claims courts?
3. What does it mean "to brief a court in writing on the issues in a case"?
4. What is the difference between civil and common law countries in respect of criminal prosecutors?
5. What is a traditional province of trial lawyers?
6. How are the estates of the deceased administered in the United States?
5.5. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. It is the crime of unauthorized practice of law for conveyancers and corporate in-house counsels to practice even though they have got a license for it.
2. In all countries negotiating and drafting of contracts is subject to the licensing requirement.
3. Conveyancing is a synonym to probating.
4. One of the maxims of legal procedure is that litigants may never argue pro se.
5.6. MATCH the verbs used in the previous text with their definitions:
to advance, to advise, to carry something out, to charge with, to draft, to involve, to negotiate, to obey, to practice law, to solve, to specialize
to accuse somebody formally of a crime so that there can be a trial in court; to accuse somebody publicly of doing something wrong or bad;
to become an expert in a particular area of study or business; to spend more time on one area of work than on others;
to do something that you have said you will do or have been asked to do; to do and complete a task;
to do what you are told or expected to do;
to find a way of dealing with a problem or difficult situation; to find the correct answer or explanation for something;
to help something to succeed; to suggest an idea, a theory, or a plan for other people to discuss;
to make somebody take part in something; to be an important or necessary part or result of something;
to tell somebody what you think they should do in a particular situation; to give somebody help and information on a subject that you know a lot about;
to try to reach an agreement by formal discussion; to arrange or agree something by formal discussion;
to work as a lawyer;
to write the first (preliminary) version of something such as a letter, speech or document.
5.7. MATCH the following nouns with their definitions:
advisor, advocate, client, conveyancer, drafter, investigator, judge, lawsuit, license, litigant, mortgage, negotiator, suspect, transaction, will
claim or complaint against somebody that a person or an organization can make in court;
lawyer who is an expert in the branch of law concerned with moving property from one owner to another;
legal agreement by which a bank or similar organization lends you money to buy a house, etc., and you pay the money back over a particular number of years; the sum of money that you borrow;
legal document that says what is to happen to somebody’s money and property after they die;
official permission to do, own, or use something;
person in a court who has the authority to decide how criminals should be punished or to make legal decisions;
person who examines a situation such as an accident or a crime to find out the truth;
person who gives advice, especially somebody who knows a lot about a particular subject;
person who is involved in formal political, legal or financial discussions, especially because it is their job;
person who is making or defending a claim in court;
person who is supposed to have committed a crime or done something wrong;
person who supports or speaks in favour of somebody or of a public plan or action; a person who defends somebody in court;
person who uses the services or advice of a professional person or organization;
person who writes official or legal documents;
piece of business that is done between people, especially an act of buying or selling; the process of doing something.
Professional Associations and Regulation
1. In some countries, either the judiciary or the Ministry of Justice directly supervises the admission, licensing, and regulation of lawyers. Other countries, by statute, tradition, or court order, have granted such powers to a professional association which all lawyers must belong to.
2. In the U.S., such associations are known as bar associations regulated at state level (and not at federal level). Membership in the State Bar is compulsory in order for a lawyer to be able to practise and appear in the courts of the state in which he/she has been admitted. On a national level, the profession is represented by the American Bar Association (ABA). The ABA's most important activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, and the formulation of model ethical codes related to the legal profession. The ABA has about 410,000 members. Its national headquarters are in Chicago, Illinois.
3. In the British Commonwealth of Nations similar organizations are known as Inns of Court, Bar Councils or Law Societies. For instance, the Inns of Court in London are the professional associations to one of which every barrister in England and Wales (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. They have supervisory and disciplinary functions over their members. The Inns also provide libraries, dining facilities and professional accommodation.
4. In civil law countries, comparable organizations are known as Orders of Advocates, Chambers of Advocates, Colleges of Advocates, Faculties of Advocates, or similar names. Generally, a nonmember caught practicing law may be liable for the crime of unauthorized practice of law.
5. Thus some countries admit and regulate lawyers at the national level, so that a lawyer, once licensed, can argue cases in any court in the land. Others, especially those with federal governments, tend to regulate lawyers at the state or provincial level.
admission - приём в члены, доступ, допуск
court order - предписание суда, судебное поручение
grant – предоставлять, разрешить
State Bar - адвокатура штата, адвокатская ассоциация штата
setting of academic standards – установление и регулирование учебных стандартов
model – примерный, типовой
formerly – прежде, ранее
accommodation – размещение, помещение
comparable – аналогичный, сопоставимый
nonmember - не являющийся членом организации, не входящий в организацию; лицо, не являющееся членом какого-либо объединения
1. What bodies may be empowered to supervise the admission, licensing, and regulation of lawyers?
2. What is the difference between these supervisory bodies in federal and unitary countries?
3. What are the consequences of practicing law in common law countries without being a member of a professional association of lawyers?
The Legal Profession in England
1. England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers.
2. In the English legal system solicitors have traditionally dealt with any legal matter apart fromconducting proceedings in courts, except minor criminal cases tried in Magistrates' Courts and small value civil cases tried in county courts, which are almost always handled by solicitors.
3. There are over 90 000 solicitors nowadays. Most of them are employed in private practice, either alone or in a partnership firm. Others are employed in the public service, industry, and commerce.
4. Practicing solicitors are consulted by, and receive instructions from clients on a wide variety of matters both civil and criminal, such as making of wills; buying, selling and mortgaging land; family matters; the formation of companies; drawing up of documents; conveyancing; and the criminal offences of all kinds. In cases of unusual difficulty or where a trial is to take place in the superior courts, the solicitor takes his instructions from the client, prepares a brief and approaches a barrister to give an «opinion» or represent the client at the trial.
5. The relationship between a solicitor and his client is based on professional confidence, and a solicitor cannot be compelled to disclose in court communications made in a professional relationship. Nor is a solicitor liable for defamation in respect of statements made in court during the course of a trial. A solicitor is, however, liable to be sued for damages for negligence in the conduct of his profession: e.g. where he has carelessly lost documents entrusted to him.
6. Solicitors in England and Wales are regulated by the Solicitors Regulation Authority, an independently administered branch of the Law Society of England and Wales. Moreover, solicitors must pay the Law Society a practicing fee each year in order to keep practicing. If they do not do this they are 'non-practicing' and may not give legal advice to the public (although they can start practicing again at will, unlike those who have been struck off the roll).
7. The profession of barrister in England and Wales is a separate profession from that of solicitor. It is however possible to hold the qualification of both barrister and solicitor at the same time; it is not necessary to be disbarred in order to qualify as a solicitor.
8. The practical difference between the two professions is twofold:
Barristers have a more specialised knowledge of case-law and precedent. It is relatively common for a barrister to only receive a "brief" from an instructing solicitor to represent a client at trial a day or two before the hearing.
A barrister has rights of audience in the higher courts. In this regard, the profession of barrister corresponds to that part of the role of legal professionals found in the civil law countries relating to appearing in trials or pleading cases before the courts.
9. A barrister must be a member of one of the Inns of Court, which traditionally educated and regulated barristers. There are four Inns of Court: The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn, The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, and The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple. All are situated in central London, near the Royal Courts of Justice.
10. In December 2004 there were just over 11,500 barristers in independent practice, of whom about ten percent are Queen's Counseland the remainder are junior barristers. Many barristers (about 2,800) are employed in companies as ‘in-house’ counsel, or by local or national government or in academic institutions.
apart from - кроме, не считая
conduct proceedings – участвовать в судебных разбирательствах
handle – решать, регулировать, разбирать, заниматься
partnership firm - товарищество, партнёрство
drawing up - составление
confidence – доверие; уверенность, конфиденциальность
communication - информация
practicing fee - членский взнос занимающихся практикой
strike off the roll - лишать адвоката права практики
disbar - лишать звания адвоката, лишать права адвокатской практики
right of audience - право выступать в суде
correspond - соответствовать; согласовываться, соотноситься
plead a case - представлять (чьи-либо) интересы по делу
Gray's Inn - Греевская школа (последний из четырёх по времени создания "Судебный инн"; по имени первого владельца здания школы)
Lincoln's Inn - "Инн Линкольна" (готовит барристеров Канцлерского отделения Высокого суда правосудия; по имени первого владельца здания инна Томаса де Линкольна)
Middle Temple - "Средний темпл" (один из четырёх "Судебных иннов", действующих в Лондоне)
Inner Temple - "Иннер темпл", "Внутренний темпл" (самый старый и известный из четырёх "Судебных иннов")
Queen's (King's) Counsel - королевский адвокат (высшее адвокатское звание; присваивается королевской грамотой)
remainder - остальное, остальные
1. What legal matters do solicitors deal with?
2. What is the basis of relationship between a solicitor and his client?
3. Under what circumstances may a client sue his solicitor?
4. What legal profession does the Law Society of England and Wales regulate?
5. What happens if a solicitor doesn't pay the Law Society a practicing fee?
6. Is it possible for a person to be a solicitor and a barrister at the same time?
7. How do barristers differ from solicitors in practicing law?
8. What institution must a barrister belong to?
9. How many Inns of Courts are there in England and Wales?
10. Where are all these Inns of Court situated?
11. Do all barristers hold a rank of Queen's Counsel?
5.14. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. No solicitor is allowed to argue a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law.
2. In difficult or complicated cases a barrister prepares a brief and approaches a solicitor to represent the client at the trial.
3. Solicitors are liable for defamation in respect of statements made in court and for negligence in the conduct of their profession.
4. As a rule a barrister should receive a "brief" from an instructing solicitor a month or two before the hearing.
5. All Inns of Court are dispersed all over the country for administrative purposes.
6. Solicitors and barristers can't be employed in companies as ‘in-house’ counsels.
The US Attorney
1. In order to practice law in the USA, one must first be "admitted to the bar" in an individual state. This entails passing the state bar exam. The bar exam covers the law particular to that state and is approximately 6 hours in length. Thus attorneys in America are licensed to practice only in their home states. If they wish to practice in another state, they must fulfill that state's requirements - such as taking test on the specific features of that state's law (a part of the bar examination) before they can practice. Fortunately, there are some states that have reciprocity agreements when two or more states honor each other's rights or privileges, such as practicing law.
2. Generally, state bar examiners require evidence of three qualities in exam candidates: sufficient general education at the undergraduate level; sufficient US legal education; and sufficient knowledge of local bar requirements. Each state bar administration sets its own criteria for permission to sit the state bar exam.
3. In addition to the state bar exam, almost all states also require the Multistate Bar Exam (MBE). The MBE covers general legal knowledge in areas such as contracts, torts, constitutional law, criminal law, evidence and real property. It is a 6-hour, multiple-choice exam made up of 200 questions.
4. A typical second day of testing includes series of timed essay exams on a variety of subjects. This portion may be comprised of two other multistate exams: the Multistate Essay Exam (MEE) and the Multistate Performance Test (MPT).
5. Part of the licensing process involves the assessment by bar examiners of an applicant’s character and fitness to engage in the practice of law. Currently, most states also require law students to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE). The MPRE tests knowledge of the American Bar Association codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. The MPRE is a 2-hour, multiple-choice exam.
6. Upon admission to practice, an attorney is licensed to serve as both advocate and legal counselor. There is no division of the profession between barristers and solicitors, as in England.
7. At the same time on the federal level there exists the American Bar Association (ABA), which was founded in August 21, 1878 as a voluntary national organization of the legal profession. The activities of the association include maintenance of high ethical standards for the profession. The most current version of these standards, the Model Rules of Professional Conduct, was adopted in 2000.
8. The American Bar Association also accredits law schools under the authority of state high courts and the United States Department of Education, and according to standards developed by the association. Policies of the association are determined by a house of delegates representing the legal profession and administered by a board of governors. The ABA holds an annual meeting, which is the largest annual gathering of lawyers in the world, and is attended by approximately 12,500 international lawyers.
cover - включать, содержать, охватывать
in length - продолжительностью
reciprocity agreement - соглашение, основанное на взаимности
honor - уважать, соблюдать
examiner - экзаменатор, эксперт
undergraduate level - уровень начальной стадии высшего образования
sit an exam - сдавать экзамен
multistate – общий для определенного количества штатов
multiple-choice exam – экзамен, представляющий возможность выбора из предоставленных ответов
essay exam - сочинение-рассуждение
performance test - функциональный тест
professional responsibility - профессиональная ответственность
code - кодекс; система правил (поведения, чести, морали и т. д.)
judicial conduct - беспристрастное поведение, поведение юриста
current - современный, популярный, широко распространенный
accredit - признать высшее учебное заведение правомочным выдавать дипломы и присваивать учёные степени
house of delegates - палата депутатов
board of governors - совет управляющих
1. What must a person do if he wishes to practice law in the USA?
2. How may reciprocity agreements between states be connected with legal profession?
3. What qualities of candidates are evaluated by state bar examiners?
4. How many days does testing usually last? How many exams do applicants have to pass?
5. What areas of law does the MBE cover?
6. What should you learn in order to pass the MPRE?
7. What activities does the ABA carry out?
8. How are the policies of the ABA determined and administered?
5.18. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. In order to practice law in the United States, one must be admitted to the ABA.
2. The criteria for permission to sit the state bar exam are the same all over the USA.
3. The state bar exam in most states is also known as the Multistate Bar Exam.
4. America has the same division of the profession between barristers and solicitors, as in England.
5. All members of the state bars are automatically admitted to the American Bar Association.
5.19. MATCH the verbs used in previous texts with their definitions:
to administer, to admit, to argue, to compel, to disclose, to educate, to practice, to qualify, to regulate, to represent, to require, to sue
to allow somebody to become a member of a club, a school, or an organization;
to be a member of a group of people and act or speak on their behalf at an event, a meeting, etc.; to make a formal statement to somebody in authority to make your opinions known or to protest;
to control something by means of rules;
to force somebody to do something; to cause a particular reaction; to make something necessary;
to give reasons why you think that something is right / wrong, true / not true, etc., especially to persuade people that you are right;
to give somebody information about something, especially something that was previously secret;
to make a claim against somebody in court about something that they have said or done to harm you; to formally ask for something, especially in court;
to manage and organize the affairs of a company, an organization, a country, etc.; to make sure that something is done fairly and in the correct way;
to demand that sb should do, have or be sth, especially because it is their duty or responsibility; to make somebody do or have something, especially because it is necessary according to a particular law or set of rules;
to reach the standard of ability or knowledge needed to do a particular job, for example by completing a course of study or passing exams;
to teach somebody over a period of time at a school, university, etc.;
to work as a doctor, lawyer, etc.; to do an activity or train regularly so that you can improve your skill.
5.20. MATCH the following nouns with their definitions:
association, attorney, barrister, candidate, damage, essay, examiner, maintenance, multiple-choice, professional, qualification, quality, solicitor, standard, trial
act of keeping something in good condition by checking or repairing it regularly; the act of making a state or situation continue;
American lawyer, especially one who can act for somebody in court; a person who is given the power to act on behalf of another in business or legal matters;
exam that you have passed or a course of study that you have successfully completed; the fact of passing an exam, completing a course of training or reaching the standard necessary to do a job or take part in a competition;
formal examination of evidence in court by a judge and often a jury, to decide if somebody accused of a crime is guilty or not;
lawyer who has the right to represent people in the higher courts;
lawyer who prepares legal documents, for example for the sale of land or buildings, advises people on legal matters, and can speak for them in some courts of law;
level of quality, especially one that people think is acceptable; a level of behaviour that somebody considers to be morally acceptable;
official group of people who have joined together for a particular purpose;
person who does a job that needs special training and a high level of education; a person who has a lot of skill and experience;
person who has the official duty to check that things are being done correctly and according to the rules of an organization; a person who officially examines something;
person who is applying for a job; a person taking an exam;
physical harm caused to something which makes it less attractive, useful or valuable; an amount of money that a court decides should be paid to somebody by the person, company, etc. that has caused them harm or injury;
several possible answers from which you must choose the correct one;
short piece of writing by a student as part of a course of study;
standard of something when it is compared to other things like it; how good or bad something is; a thing that is part of a person’s character, especially something good; a feature of something, especially one that makes it different from something else.
5.21. EXERCISE. Look at this list of legal occupations. All of these people work in law. We call all of the people who work in these jobs, 'the legal profession'. Match the jobs with one of the descriptions.